Preview (11 of 35 pages)

Preview Extract

CHAPTER 12: Sexual Development Throughout Life
1. When social scientists study ________, their goal is to examine the changes that unfold in
all of us, under normal circumstances, in a somewhat predictable way.
e. human development
f. cognitive orientation
g. gender
h. self-concept
Answer: A
Rationale:
The study of human development examines the changes that unfold in all of us in a somewhat
predictable way.
2. ________ believed that nearly all human development is sexually motivated.
a. Alfred Kinsey
b. Sigmund Freud
c. Masters & Johnson
d. Erik Erikson
Answer: B
Rationale:
Freud believed nearly all human development is sexually motivated.
3. According to Freud, a major developmental milestone in children’s lives is the realization
of which sex they are. This process is called ________.
e. sexualization
f. gender selection
g. gender identification
h. sex role development
Answer: C
Rationale:
Freud believed gender identification was a major developmental milestone in children.
4. The ________ refers to Freud’s theory in which all boys, at about 3 years old, develop
unconscious sexual desires for their mothers.
e. complex id
f. Electra complex

g. castration complex
h. Oedipus complex
Answer: D
Rationale:
Freud’s theory involving little boys’ unconscious sexual desire for their mothers is known as
the Oedipus complex.
e. The ________ refers to Freud’s theory of female gender identification.
a. complex id
b. Electra complex
c. castration complex
d. Oedipus complex
Answer: B
Rationale:
Freud’s theory of female gender identification is known as the Electra complex.
f. Sexual behaviors observed in children, such as masturbation or explorations of each other’s
sexual bodies should be ________.
a. an indication of how the children will express their adult sexuality
b. considered cause for concern
c. considered normal signs of children’s curiosity about the body
d. modified so as not to encourage premature sexual behavior
Answer: C
Rationale:
Children have normal curiosity about the body that is seen in such behaviors as masturbation
or explorations of each other’s sexual bodies.
g. Sexual behaviors in children have been shown to ________ as age increases.
a. increase
b. decrease
c. remain the same
d. disappear
Answer: B
Rationale:

Sexual behavior actually decreases in children as they age.
h. Sexual behavior and responses begin ________.
a. soon after birth
b. at age 3
c. at 5 years of age
d. in puberty
Answer: A
Rationale:
Children are born sexual. Sexual behaviors begin soon after birth.
9. Like so many children, by age ________ Suzie understands that genital self-stimulation is
pleasurable and by this age she is capable of experiencing orgasm through masturbation.
a. 3-4
b. 5-6
c. 7-9
d. 12
Answer: A
Rationale:
Children are capable of experiencing orgasm through masturbation at age 3-4.
10. Beginning at about 3 and continuing until about 7, children do all of the following except
________.
e. become very interested in seeing other children naked
f. might engage in sexual games such as playing “doctor”
g. often make efforts to see parents and other adults naked
h. have their first major “crush”
Answer: D
Rationale:
Typical behaviors of 3-7 year olds include becoming interested in seeing other children as
well as adults naked, and engaging in sexual games such as playing doctor.
11. Barbara has attended a workshop for parents on understanding childhood sexuality. The
guidelines for parents approaching most sexual behaviors in children include all of the
following except ________.
e. think about it

f. stay calm
g. interrupt it
h. read about it
Answer: C
Rationale:
Before approaching their child about s sexual behavior, parents should think about it, stay
calm, and read about it
12. Normal childhood sexual behaviors and problematic sexual behavior can be distinguished
by all of the following except ________.
a. the context of other problems going on
b. playing doctor
c. looking at the pervasiveness
d. considering the intensity of the activity
Answer: B
Rationale:
To distinguish normal versus problematic childhood sexual behavior, consider the context,
look at the pervasiveness, and consider the intensity of the activity.
13. Virtually everyone, including most older children, agree that ________ should be the
main source of sexual information for children.
e. parents
f. television
g. school
h. books
Answer: A
Rationale:
Most agree that parents should be the main source of sexual information for children.
14. Parents’ avoidance of responsibility for sex education has lead to all of the following
except ________.
e. an increase in young people’s beliefs in sexual myths
f. poor sexual decision-making
g. reduced knowledge among children and teens
h. less sexual activity

Answer: D
Rationale:
An increase in children’s beliefs in sexual myths, poor sexual decision-making, and reduced
sexual knowledge have all been linked to parents’ avoidance of sexually educating their
children.
15. In a study of teens asking where they received information about various sexual topics,
________ was the most common source.
e. school
f. professionals
g. media
h. parents
Answer: A
Rationale:
School is the most common source for teens’ information about sexual topics.
16. Why the gap between what parents feel they should do and what they actually do when it
comes to talking to their children about sex?
e. Many parents want to wait until the child is old enough to understand terminology.
f. Few parents have time to sit down with their children due to busy schedules.
g. Many parents feel unsure that they possess adequate and correct knowledge.
h. Few parents think it is important to talk to their children.
Answer: C
Rationale:
When it comes to talking with their children, many parents feel unsure that they possess
adequate and correct knowledge.
17. ________, usually defined as the period of life between 10 and 19 years old, is a selfidentity seeking time of life.
e. Puberty
f. Adolescence
g. Phallic stage
h. Genital stage
Answer: B
Rationale:

Adolescence is a self-identity seeking time of life.
18. When puberty begins much earlier, it is called ________.
e. premenstrual syndrome
f. preovulatory syndrome
g. preexpressive puberty
h. precocious puberty
Answer: D
Rationale:
Precocious puberty refers to puberty that begins at a much earlier age.
19. The onset of puberty is stimulated when the pituitary gland in the brain releases a
hormone called ________.
a. gonadatropin
b. testosterone
c. estrogen
d. HCG
Answer: A
Rationale:
Gonadatropin is released by the pituitary gland at the onset of puberty.
20. In boys, testosterone stimulates growth of each of the following except ________.
a. testicles
b. seminal vesicles
c. prostate gland
d. breast tissue
Answer: D
Rationale:
Testosterone is responsible for stimulating growth of testicles, seminal vesicles, and the
prostate gland.
21. Before puberty ________.
a. boys and girls cannot have orgasms
b. boys do not ejaculate and girls do not menstruate
c. boys do not get erections and girls do not have vaginal lubrication

d. boys and girls cannot experience sexual pleasure
Answer: B
Rationale:
Before puberty, boys do not ejaculate and girls do not menstruate.
22. A girl’s first menstrual period is called ________.
a. primary menstruation
b. a period
c. menarche
d. puberty
Answer: C
Rationale:
A girl’s first menstrual period is called menarche.
23. The physical changes in girls and boys during puberty are called ________.
e. gender roles
f. sexual features
g. primary sex characteristics
h. secondary sex characteristics
Answer: D
Rationale:
Secondary sex characteristics are the physical changes experienced during puberty.
24. Adolescence is perceived by most societies as one of the most important stages of life:
________.
e. when one becomes capable of reproduction
f. the passage from childhood to adulthood
g. when one enters early adulthood
h. when one develops all their primary sex characteristics
Answer: B
Rationale:
Adolescence is the passage from childhood to adulthood.
25. The most accurate predictor of first sexual intercourse is ________.
57. involvement in a romantic relationship during the previous 18 months

58. how much the teen’s parents work outside the home
59. the age of onset of puberty
60. if a girl is put on birth control pills to control menstruation
Answer: A
Rationale:
The most accurate predictor of first intercourse is involvement in a romantic relationship
during the previous 18 months.
26. If Dave and Deanna represent typical U.S. teens, their average age of first intercourse is
somewhere between ________ years old.
e. 12-14
f. 14-16
g. 15-17
h. 17-18
Answer: C
Rationale:
The average age of first intercourse for US teens is 15-17 years old.
27. The CDC reports that ________ of both boys and girls aged 15-19 have engaged in oral
sex at least once.
e. only 10%
f. about 25%
g. approximately 33%
h. over 50%
Answer: D
Rationale:
Over 50% of 15-19-year-olds have engaged in oral sex at least once.
28. The rise in oral sex among teens appears to be related to all of the following except an
________.
e. increased awareness of the risks of STIs
f. increased awareness of HIV and AIDS
g. increased awareness of unwanted pregnancy
h. increase in television viewing
Answer: D

Rationale:
The rise of oral sex is related to an increased awareness of the risks of STIs, including AIDS,
and an increased awareness of unwanted pregnancy.
29. Due to widespread casual attitudes among teens about ________, public health officials
are calling for renewed efforts to educate teens about the dangers.
52. anal sex
53. oral sex
54. homosexual sex
55. heterosexual sex
Answer: B
Rationale:
Public health officials are calling for renewed efforts to educate teens about the dangers of
oral sex.
30. Between 1991 and 2009, the overall teen birthrate in the U.S. ________.
61. increased significantly
62. remained the same
63. increased the first 10 years and then decreased
64. decreased significantly
Answer: D
Rationale:
The teen birthrate decreased significantly from 1991 to 2009.
31. The decline in teen births in the U.S. has been attributed to all of the following except
________.
1. development of more effective hormonal contraceptive methods
2. increased use of condoms
3. increased rate of abortion
4. increase in number of teens postponing sexual intercourse
Answer: C
Rationale:
The decrease in teen births is attributed to development of more effective hormonal
contraceptive methods, increased condom use, and increased numbers of teens postponing
sex.

32. What we know to be true about emergency contraception is that it ________.
a. causes a miscarriage
b. is more than 80% effective if used correctly
c. can be taken within 2 weeks of unprotected sex
d. all the above
Answer: B
Rationale:
Emergency contraception is 80% effective in preventing pregnancy is used correctly.
33. ________ for adolescents leads to better decision-making, delay of first sexual activity,
more conscientious contraceptive use, and decreases in unhealthy and risky sexual behavior.
1. Abstinence-only programs
2. Comprehensive sex education
3. Laws against premarital sex
4. Parental disapproval of premarital sex
Answer: B
Rationale:
Comprehensive sexuality education leads to better decision-making, delay of first sexual
activity, more conscientious contraceptive use, and decreases in unhealthy and risky sexual
behavior.
34. If Frank and his friends are like most sexually active teens, 1 out of ________ did not use
a condom during their most recent intercourse.
77. 2
78. 3
79. 5
80. 10
Answer: C
Rationale:
One on five sexually active teens did not use condoms the last time they had sex.
35. Mike is taking a health class his senior year. He is surprised to learn that, compared to
teens, condom usage rates actually ________ in the older 18-24 age group.
1. remain the same
2. increase

3. drop significantly
4. double
Answer: C
Rationale:
Condom use decreases from high school to college.
36. Mike is taking a health class his senior year. Mike found out that ________ of 14-17year-olds reported not using a condom during their last 10 instances of intercourse.
a. 9%
b. 14%
c. 31%
d. 69%
Answer: C
Rationale:
About a third of teens report not using a condom during the last 10 instances of intercourse.
37. If Justin’s high school was really interested in implementing strategies for reducing the
spread of STIs among teens, they would do all of the following except ________.
a. establish sex and STI education programs in schools
b. teach abstinence-only in schools
c. train parents about how to talk with their children about STIs
d. continue with efforts to make condoms readily available
Answer: B
Rationale:
Reducing STI rates involves things like establishing education programs in schools, training
parents about how to talk to their children, and making condoms more readily available.
38. As a college student, Angela knows that ________ is an integral part of the social culture
and is associated with sexual activities.
a. alcohol
b. studying
c. dating
d. class
Answer: A
Rationale:

Alcohol is part of the social culture of college.
39. As a professor of human sexuality, Dr. Hock knows that the National Survey of Sexual
Health and Behaviors found that ________ of college women between 20 and 24 had
engaged in vaginal intercourse in the past year.
a. 50%
b. 65%
c. 80%
d. 100%
Answer: C
Rationale:
The National Survey of Sexual Health and Behaviors found that 80% of college women
engaged in vaginal intercourse in the past year.
40. If your college or university is like most, all of the following would be true when it comes
to the sexual behavior of students except that ________.
a. the majority use some form of birth control
b. the most common method of birth control is the pill
c. most college students are not using condoms
d. the most common method of birth control is condoms
Answer: D
Rationale:
In terms of college student sexual behavior, the majority use some form of birth control, the
most common method is the pill, and most college students are not using condoms.
41. When examining the sexual behavior of college men and women, it has been found that
________ of college students have had six or more sexual partners.
a. 25%
b. 40%
c. 60%
d. 85%
Answer: A
Rationale:
Twenty-five percent of college students have had 6 or more sexual partners.
42.Statistics show that among college students, the most common STIs are all of the
following except ________.

a. chlamydia
b. herpes
c. HPV (genital warts)
d. syphilis
Answer: D
Rationale:
The most common STIs among college-aged students are chlamydia, herpes, and HPV.
43. Positive factors influencing a college student’s decision about STI testing include all of
the following except the ________.
a. desire to avoid infecting partners
b. relief gained from a negative test
c. knowledge that treatments are available if a test is positive.
d. knowledge that their parents want them to know their status
Answer: D
Rationale:
Positive reasons for why college student’s decide to be tested for STs include the desire to
avoid infecting partners, the relief gained from a negative test, and the knowledge that
treatments are available if a test is positive.
44. Negative factors identified as influencing a college student’s decision about STI testing
include all of the following except ________.
a. cost
b. the social stigma associated with having an STI
c. denial
d. fear of a positive test
Answer: A
Rationale:
Negative factors influencing why college students decide not to be tested for STIs include the
social stigma if they have an STI, denial, and fear of a positive test.
45. The number of college students who seek STI testing is ________ the number who are at
risk.
a. far higher than
b. twice as high as

c. far lower than
d. similar to
Answer: C
Rationale:
The number of college students seeking STI testing is far lower than the number who are at
risk.
46. Denise knows that alcohol plays a crucial role in some of the biggest problems with sex
among college students, including all of the following except ________.
a. STI infections
b. unprotected sex
c. nonconsensual sexual activities
d. the decision to get tested
Answer: D
Rationale:
Alcohol plays a crucial role in STI infections, unprotected sex, and nonconsensual sexual
activities.
47. Adult sexuality is characterized by ________.
a. less sexual experimentation
b. typically focusing on lasting relationships
c. having children
d. all the above
Answer: D
Rationale:
Adult sexual activity is characterized by less sexual experimentation, typically focusing on
lasting relationships, and having children.
48. Adults see their relationships as all of the following except ________.
a. characterized as stability, mutual support, and mutual trust
b. more enjoyable
c. burdened with fewer problems than during adolescence
d. high risk for infections
Answer: D
Rationale:

Adults tend to see their relationship characterized by stability, mutual support, and mutual
trust, as well as more enjoyable and burdened with fewer problems.
49. In 2008, ________ million couples were living together.
a. 8
b. 22
c. 50
d. 95
Answer: C
Rationale:
In 2008, 50 million couples were living together.
50. Approximately ________ of all U.S. children will live in a cohabitating household at
some point in their lives.
a. 10%
b. 25%
c. 40%
d. 65%
Answer: C
Rationale:
Nearly 40% of all US children will live in a cohabitating household at some point.
51. According to the text, a major challenge in researching the difference between couples
that cohabitate and those who marry is ________.
a. self-selection bias
b. anonymity
c. finding people to interview
d. human subjects review boards
Answer: A
Rationale:
The difficulty in researching the differences between couples that cohabitate and those who
marry is self-selection bias.
52. The average age of marriage in the U.S. has ________ from 1980 to 2010.
a. remained about the same
b. increased dramatically

c. decreased
d. dropped sharply
Answer: B
Rationale:
The average age of marriage in the U.S. has increased dramatically from 1980 to the present.
53. Couples’ tending to wait longer before marrying has been explained by all of the
following except ________.
a. greater interest among women in establishing a career before marrying
b. greater social acceptance for staying single and cohabitation
c. poor success rate of marriage
d. the greater cost of buying a home
Answer: D
Rationale:
Couples are waiting longer to marry because of greater interest among women in establishing
a career before marriage, greater social acceptance for staying single and cohabitation, and
the poor success rate of marriage.
54. Married couples who report greater sexual satisfaction with their partner report ________
of happiness with the marriage.
a. lower levels
b. the same levels
c. higher levels
d. no relationship
Answer: C
Rationale:
Greater sexual satisfaction in marriage is linked to higher levels of happiness.
55. The most common sexual problems for adults include all of the following except
________.
a. infidelity
b. painful sex
c. lack of sexual arousal
d. problems achieving erection
Answer: A

Rationale:
The most common sexual problems are painful sex, lack of arousal, and problems achieving
orgasm.
56. Frank and Felicity, a typical married couple, have found that their frequency of sexual
intercourse has ________ with age.
a. remained the same
b. gradually decreased
c. gradually increased
d. dropped suddenly
Answer: B
Rationale:
Frequency of sexual intercourse in marriage gradually decreases with age.
57. Research has found that women and men who are more sexually responsive in old age
were those who ________.
a. exercised regularly
b. maintained a pattern of regular sexual activity
c. had better nutrition
d. had greater exposure to sexually explicit material
Answer: B
Rationale:
Sexually responsive people in old age were those who maintained a pattern of regular sexual
activity.
58. Like most older people his age, Brian has found that the most common reason he stopped
having sex is ________.
a. he can’t find a partner who is his type
b. decrease in sexual desire with increasing age
c. he buys into cultural expectations that it is inappropriate
d. decrease in hormones
Answer: C
Rationale:
The most common reason older people give for stopping sex is that they buy into cultural
expectations that it is inappropriate.

59. Katie has gone through menopause, which has resulted in drops in estrogen and
progesterone, causing all of the following changes except ________.
a. thinning of the vaginal walls
b. reduced elasticity of the vagina
c. decreased lubrication
d. increased lubrication
Answer: D
Rationale:
Menopause is associated with thinning of the vagina walls, reduced elasticity of the vagina,
and decreased lubrication.
60. Like other older men, Eric has found that the time to erection increases and he
experiences ________.
a. a sharp drop in hormones
b. male menopause
c. a longer refractory period
d. greater pain with intercourse
Answer: C
Rationale:
Older men find the time to erection increases and there is a longer refractory period.
61. As an older dater, the main problem Bruce (now 80) faces is ________.
a. lack of stimulation
b. society’s discomfort with romance and sexuality among elderly.
c. potential heart problems
d. a sharp decrease in hormones
Answer: B
Rationale:
Society’s discomfort with romance and sexuality among elderly is a problem for older daters.
TRUE-FALSE
1. According to Freud, the development of our personality occurs in a series of psychosexual
stages during the first 12 years or so of life.
Answer: True
Rationale:

Sigmund Freud proposed a psychoanalytic theory of personality development, which includes
the notion of psychosexual stages. According to Freud, individuals pass through these stages
in early childhood, where their libido (sexual energy) is focused on different erogenous zones
of the body. The resolution of conflicts in each stage shapes personality development, making
this statement true according to Freudian theory.
2. According to Freud’s theory, boys identify with their mothers due to “castration anxiety,”
while girls identify with their fathers due to “penis envy.”
Answer: False
Rationale:
In Freud's theory, boys experience the Oedipus complex, where they desire their mothers and
view their fathers as rivals. Girls experience the Electra complex, desiring their fathers and
viewing their mothers as rivals.
3. Research supports Freud’s belief that children have sexual desires for their parents on or
about age 3.
Answer: False
Rationale:
There's no empirical evidence supporting Freud's belief that children have sexual desires for
their parents at around age 3. Freud's theories have been largely criticized and lack empirical
support.
4. Early childhood sexual experimentation is predictive of sexual attitudes and behaviors later
in life.
Answer: False
Rationale:
There's limited evidence suggesting that early childhood sexual experimentation predicts
sexual attitudes and behaviors later in life. Many factors influence later sexual behaviors, and
early sexual exploration alone is not a strong predictor.
5. Twelve-year-olds tend to engage in fewer sexual behaviors than two- and three-year-olds.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Twelve-year-olds tend to have better self-regulation and understanding of social norms
compared to two- and three-year-olds, which may result in fewer overt sexual behaviors.
6. Both male and female infants are capable of sexual arousal in response to stimulation soon
after birth.
Answer: True
Rationale:

Both male and female infants can experience physiological responses, such as genital arousal,
in response to stimulation soon after birth. However, it's important to note that this is a
reflexive response and not indicative of sexual desire as understood in older children or
adults.
7. As a mother, Kathy should be concerned about her 4-year-old daughter’s masturbation
because it has been linked to sexual problems in later life.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Childhood masturbation is a common and normal behavior. There's no evidence suggesting
that it leads to sexual problems in later life. Parents should handle such behaviors calmly and
provide appropriate guidance without shaming the child.
8. No evidence exists that early normal sex play produces negative consequences on later
sexual development.
Answer: True
Rationale:
There's no conclusive evidence to suggest that early normal sexual play has negative
consequences on later sexual development. Healthy sexual exploration is a normal part of
childhood development.
9. According to the text, when thinking about childhood sexual behavior, “normalcy” boils
down to a matter of degree and the context of the behavior.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Evaluating childhood sexual behavior requires consideration of factors such as the child's
age, the nature of the behavior, and the cultural context. What may be considered normal in
one context may be concerning in another.
10. When it comes to parents talking to their children about sex, most parents think they are
providing the information their children need, but the children disagree.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Research suggests that there's often a disconnect between what parents believe they are
conveying to their children about sex and what children perceive they are receiving. Children
may find their parents' communication lacking or insufficient for their needs.
11. If parents educate themselves about sexuality, they will be prepared to discuss sex with
their children at all stages of development.
Answer: True
Rationale:

Educating oneself about sexuality equips parents with knowledge and communication skills
necessary to discuss sex with their children effectively at various stages of development.
Open and informed communication can help promote healthy attitudes and behaviors
regarding sexuality.
12. Small amounts of female hormones are present in boys and small amounts of male
hormones are secreted in girls.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Both boys and girls produce small amounts of hormones associated with the opposite sex. For
example, boys produce small amounts of estrogen, while girls produce small amounts of
testosterone. These hormones play various roles in the body beyond strictly defining
biological sex.
13. During puberty, boys become fertile and able to create a pregnancy.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Puberty marks the onset of sexual maturity, during which boys develop the ability to produce
sperm and become fertile. This enables them to contribute to pregnancy through sexual
intercourse.
14. During her first year of having her menstrual period, Emily had irregular periods, in terms
of frequency and amount of fluid. These are a sign that something is wrong and she should
seek medical attention.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Irregular periods are common during the first few years after menarche (the first menstrual
period) as a girl's body adjusts to hormonal changes. It's normal for menstrual cycles to be
irregular initially, and they often regulate over time without medical intervention. However, if
irregularities persist or are accompanied by other symptoms, medical attention may be
warranted.
15. As puberty and adolescence occur, nature and nurture team up to facilitate adolescents’
romantic and sexual feelings.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Puberty and adolescence involve a complex interplay between biological changes (nature)
and socio-cultural influences (nurture), which contribute to the development of romantic and
sexual feelings in adolescents. Hormonal changes interact with social norms, peer influences,
and cultural attitudes to shape adolescents' experiences of romantic and sexual attraction.
16. Adolescence is the stage in life when most people become sexually active.

Answer: True
Rationale:
Adolescence is commonly the stage when individuals begin to explore and engage in sexual
activity. While not everyone becomes sexually active during adolescence, it is a period
marked by increasing curiosity, experimentation, and peer pressure related to sexuality.
17. Tammi is more likely than Tommy to say the primary reason for having sexual intercourse
for the first time was feelings of affection.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Research suggests that girls are more likely than boys to cite emotional reasons, such as
feelings of affection or love, as the primary motivation for first-time sexual intercourse. Boys,
on the other hand, are more likely to cite physical reasons or peer pressure.
18. If Brittany is like most teens, she became sexually active prior to graduating from high
school.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Statistics indicate that a significant proportion of teenagers become sexually active before
graduating from high school. While not all teenagers engage in sexual activity, it is common
for many to do so during their high school years.
19. According to the research, half of all 9th graders have had sexual intercourse.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Research findings vary, but typically, a minority of 9th graders report having engaged in
sexual intercourse. While rates of sexual activity among teenagers have been decreasing in
recent years, it is not accurate to say that half of all 9th graders have had sexual intercourse.
20. Relationship violence is the number one cause of injury to women between the ages of 15
to 44.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Relationship violence, including intimate partner violence, is a significant public health
concern and a leading cause of injury to women in many countries. It can result in physical
injuries, emotional trauma, and long-term health consequences for victims.
21. Many teens think oral sex is the same thing as sex.
Answer: False
Rationale:

While some teens may consider oral sex as a form of sexual activity, not all teens equate it
with penetrative vaginal or anal intercourse. Views on what constitutes "sex" can vary among
individuals and may be influenced by cultural, religious, and personal beliefs.
22. Many teens believe they are safe from STI infection if they refrain from vaginal or anal
sex, and limit their activities to oral sex.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Research suggests that some teens may underestimate the risks of STI transmission through
oral sex and believe they are safe if they avoid vaginal or anal intercourse. However, STIs
can still be transmitted through oral-genital contact, albeit with different risks compared to
penetrative sex.
23. The decline in teen births is directly related to the increase in abortion rates by teens.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The decline in teen births is attributed to various factors, including increased access to
contraception, improved sex education, delayed initiation of sexual activity, and changes in
societal norms regarding teen pregnancy. Abortion rates among teens have also declined but
are not the primary driver of the decline in teen births.
24. New developments in contraceptive technology (e.g., injectables, hormone implants) have
helped reduce the rate of adolescent pregnancy.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Advances in contraceptive technology, such as long-acting reversible contraceptives
(LARCs) like injectables and hormone implants, have contributed to reducing the rate of
adolescent pregnancy by providing more effective and convenient contraceptive options for
teens.
25. Teaching teens about sexuality and contraceptives leads young people toward sexual
experimentation.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Comprehensive sex education, which includes information about sexuality and
contraceptives, aims to empower teens to make informed decisions about their sexual health
and behaviors. Research indicates that providing such education does not increase sexual
activity but may delay initiation and promote safer practices among sexually active teens.
26. Karen is a teen who struggles with depression. Research would suggest that she is more
likely to experience an unintended pregnancy.
Answer: True

Rationale:
Research suggests that teens with mental health issues, such as depression, may be at
increased risk of engaging in risky sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and multiple
partners, which can elevate the risk of unintended pregnancy and STI transmission.
27. A large majority of college students use some form of contraception; most commonly oral
contraception.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Studies show that a majority of sexually active college students use contraception to prevent
pregnancy and STIs. Among the various contraceptive methods, oral contraception (birth
control pills) is commonly used, but other methods such as condoms and long-acting
contraceptives are also popular choices.
28. Two of the most important reasons STIs like chlamydia, herpes, and HPV spread so easily
among the college population are that the infections are often asymptomatic and many
students resist being tested.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Asymptomatic infections and reluctance to seek testing contribute to the spread of STIs
among college students. Many STIs, including chlamydia, herpes, and HPV, can be
asymptomatic, leading individuals to unknowingly transmit the infection to their partners.
Additionally, stigma, fear, and lack of awareness may deter students from getting tested.
29. If things are similar at Public University to other college campuses, we know that the
number of students who seek STI testing is far lower than the number who are at risk and
should seek testing.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Despite the high risk of STI transmission among college students, research suggests that a
significant proportion of sexually active students do not seek STI testing regularly. Barriers to
testing, including lack of awareness, stigma, and accessibility issues, contribute to low testing
rates among this population.
30. Alcohol interferes with a person’s ability to think clearly and make rational decisions.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Alcohol consumption impairs cognitive functions and decision-making abilities by affecting
brain function. Under the influence of alcohol, individuals may exhibit impaired judgment,
decreased inhibitions, and diminished self-control, leading to risky behaviors, including
unprotected sex and substance abuse.

31. If Jack and Jane are like other married couples who report greater sexual satisfaction with
their partner, they also will report higher levels of happiness in their marriage.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Research suggests that sexual satisfaction is positively associated with overall marital
satisfaction and happiness. Couples who report greater sexual satisfaction with their partner
tend to also report higher levels of relationship satisfaction and happiness in their marriage.
32. Nearly all cohabitating relationships will end within five years due to breakup or
marriage.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Cohabitation is associated with a higher risk of relationship dissolution compared to
marriage. While not all cohabitating relationships end within five years, research indicates
that cohabiting couples are more likely to separate or transition to marriage within that
timeframe compared to couples who do not cohabit.
33. Cohabitation has been found to cause a series of problems in children, including behavior
problems and reduced engagement in school.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Research findings regarding the effects of cohabitation on children are mixed, and it is not
accurate to suggest that cohabitation inherently causes problems such as behavior issues or
reduced school engagement in children. Factors such as family stability, parental
relationships, and socioeconomic status play significant roles in children's well-being, rather
than simply the parents' marital status.
34. Living together before marriage leads to better, happier marriage with less chance of
divorce.
Answer: False
Rationale:
While some research suggests that cohabiting before marriage may be associated with lower
divorce rates for some demographic groups, the relationship between premarital cohabitation
and marital outcomes is complex and varies depending on factors such as age, education, and
socioeconomic status. Cohabiting before marriage does not guarantee a better or happier
marriage, and some studies indicate that it may actually increase the risk of divorce for
certain couples.
35. Most heterosexual married couples have sexual intercourse several times a week.
Answer: False
Rationale:

Research indicates that the frequency of sexual intercourse among married couples varies
widely and is influenced by factors such as age, health, relationship satisfaction, and life
circumstances. While some couples may engage in sexual activity several times a week,
many others have sex less frequently, with some couples having sex only a few times per
month or even less frequently.
36. In a study of 5,000 married adults, the couples’ overall satisfaction with the marriage
accounted for the greatest amount of the couples’ sexual satisfaction.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Research has consistently shown that overall marital satisfaction is strongly associated with
sexual satisfaction among married couples. A study of 5,000 married adults supports this
finding, indicating that couples' perceptions of their relationship quality significantly
influence their sexual satisfaction.
37. Sexual problems often resolve on their own when conditions in the couple’s life become
more accommodating to sexual intimacy.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Sexual problems within a relationship can be influenced by various factors, including stress,
communication issues, health concerns, and relationship dynamics. In some cases, addressing
underlying issues and improving conditions within the relationship can lead to the resolution
of sexual problems without specific interventions.
38. Our ability to enjoy life as sexual beings continues late into adulthood and throughout the
aging process.
Answer: True
Rationale:
While sexual activity may change with age due to factors such as declining hormone levels,
physical health issues, and relationship dynamics, many adults maintain a satisfying and
fulfilling sex life well into late adulthood. With communication, adaptation, and possibly
medical interventions, older adults can continue to enjoy sexual intimacy and pleasure.
39. There is no evidence to suggest that remaining romantically and sexually active into old
age provides a wide range of emotional and physical health benefits.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Research indicates that remaining sexually active and engaged in romantic relationships into
old age is associated with numerous emotional and physical health benefits, including
improved quality of life, reduced risk of depression, enhanced cardiovascular health, and
increased longevity. Maintaining intimacy and connection with a partner can contribute to
overall well-being in older adults.

SHORT ANSWER
1. Freud saw the development of our entire personality as occurring in a series of ________
during the first 12 years or so of life.
Answer: psychosexual stages
Rationale:
Freud's theory of psychosexual development suggests that personality development occurs in
distinct stages, each characterized by a focus on different erogenous zones of the body. These
stages include oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages, spanning the first 12 years of
life.
2. Freud’s theory that a girl becomes aware that her father has a penis (something she and her
mother are lacking) and she feels this is unjust is called ________.
Answer: penis envy
Rationale:
According to Freudian psychoanalytic theory, penis envy occurs during the phallic stage of
psychosexual development, where girls develop an unconscious desire for a penis after
realizing their lack of one compared to boys. This concept plays a significant role in Freud's
explanation of female psychosexual development.
3. Both male and female infants are capable of sexual arousal soon after birth. Male infants
have ________ and female infants ________ within 24 hours after birth.
Answer: erections; lubricate
Rationale:
Research has shown that both male and female infants can experience genital responses soon
after birth. Male infants can have erections, while female infants can produce vaginal
lubrication, indicating that sexual arousal responses can occur early in life.
4. Research relying on mothers’ observations has shown that among children between 2 and
10 years old, ________ of boys and ________ of girls engage in hand-to-genital
masturbation.
Answer: 30%; 21%
Rationale:
Studies based on maternal reports have indicated that a significant proportion of children
between the ages of 2 and 10 engage in hand-to-genital masturbation. This behavior is
considered within the range of normal childhood sexual exploration and development.
5. Virtually all child development specialists, psychologists, physicians, and other
professionals consider ________ to be a natural, harmless, and extremely common childhood
behavior.
Answer: masturbation

Rationale:
Masturbation is widely recognized by child development specialists, psychologists, and
physicians as a natural and common behavior in childhood. It is typically viewed as a normal
aspect of sexual development and exploration.
6. If you discover your child engaging in sex play with other children, most childhood
development experts recommend approaching the situation ________, avoiding any
________.
Answer: gently; extreme emotional responses
Rationale:
Childhood development experts advise approaching instances of children engaging in sex
play with other children gently and calmly. Extreme emotional responses may negatively
impact the child's perception of sexuality and may not address the underlying curiosity and
exploration that drives such behavior.
7. Normal childhood sexual behaviors and problematic sexual behaviors can be distinguished
by the ________ and ________ of the activities and by linking them to other troubling
aspects of the child’s behavior.
Answer: pervasiveness; intensity
Rationale:
Differentiating between normal childhood sexual behaviors and problematic ones involves
considering the pervasiveness and intensity of the activities. Additionally, linking these
behaviors to other troubling aspects of the child's behavior can provide further insight into
whether intervention or support is needed.
8. ________ of teens report having a meaningful talk about sex with their parents during the
preceding year.
Answer: Only half
Rationale:
Research suggests that only around half of teenagers report having meaningful discussions
about sex with their parents within the previous year. This highlights the need for improved
communication between parents and teens regarding sexual health and behavior.
9. ________ probably receive a greater number of mixed and confusing messages of any
other age group about sex.
Answer: Adolescents
Rationale:
Adolescents likely receive a greater number of mixed and confusing messages about sex
compared to other age groups. They may encounter conflicting information from peers,
media, and adults, contributing to confusion and uncertainty about sexual norms and
behaviors.

10. Outward signs of puberty normally unfold between the ages of ________ for boys and
between ________ for girls.
Answer: 11 and 16; 8 and 16
Rationale:
Puberty typically begins between the ages of 8 and 16 for girls and between 11 and 16 for
boys. These age ranges encompass the usual onset of physical changes such as growth spurts,
breast development in girls, and voice deepening in boys, marking the onset of puberty.
11. The primary hormone influencing sexual development in boys is ________, and the
primary hormone for girls is ________.
Answer: testosterone; estrogen
Rationale:
Testosterone is the primary hormone responsible for the development of male sexual
characteristics such as deepening of the voice, growth of facial and body hair, and
development of the reproductive organs. Estrogen, on the other hand, is the primary hormone
responsible for the development of female sexual characteristics such as breast development,
regulation of the menstrual cycle, and development of the reproductive organs.
12. Within a year after a girl’s first period, hormonal changes also cause the ovaries to begin
releasing mature eggs, called ________.
Answer: ova
Rationale:
After a girl's first menstrual period (menarche), hormonal changes trigger the ovaries to
release mature eggs, known as ova or egg cells. This marks the beginning of a girl's
reproductive capability.
13. Adolescence is a time of ________, when young people are moving out of the orbit
around their parents and becoming individuals in their own right.
Answer: individuation
Rationale:
Adolescence is characterized by individuation, which refers to the process of establishing a
sense of identity separate from one's parents or family. It involves developing one's own
beliefs, values, and interests, and becoming increasingly independent.
14. In terms of adolescent romantic relationships, nonheterosexual teens appear to follow a
________ path during early adolescence.
Answer: somewhat different
Rationale:

Nonheterosexual teens often experience somewhat different paths in their romantic
relationships compared to heterosexual teens during early adolescence due to factors such as
societal attitudes, acceptance, and identity formation related to sexual orientation.
15. Like so many teen girls, Carrie sees oral sex as a way of remaining a ________while
satisfying the demands of her boyfriend to be sexually active.
Answer: technical virgin
Rationale:
Some teenagers, like Carrie, may view engaging in oral sex as a way to remain a "technical
virgin" while still engaging in sexual activity with their partner. This perception may stem
from cultural or personal beliefs about virginity and sexual behavior.
16. The drop in teen pregnancies is partly attributable to a greater acceptance and use of
________.
Answer: condoms
Rationale:
The increased acceptance and use of condoms have contributed to a decline in teen
pregnancies by providing a reliable method of contraception to prevent unintended
pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among sexually active teens.
17. Ken and Katherine have unprotected sex. They consult a pharmacist who tells them that
emergency contraception is more than ________ effective in preventing pregnancy if taken
within ________ of intercourse.
Answer: 80%; 72 hours
Rationale:
Emergency contraception, commonly known as the morning-after pill, is over 80% effective
in preventing pregnancy if taken within 72 hours (3 days) of unprotected intercourse. It works
by preventing or delaying ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of the egg.
18. Many teens are engaging in unprotected oral sex in the false belief that is a ________
behavior for contracting STIs.
Answer: low-risk
Rationale:
Some teens mistakenly perceive oral sex as a low-risk behavior for contracting sexually
transmitted infections (STIs) compared to vaginal or anal intercourse. However, oral sex can
still transmit STIs such as herpes, gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, and human papillomavirus
(HPV).
19. Research is clear that comprehensive sex education ________ effective and safer choices
among teens.
Answer: increases

Rationale:
Comprehensive sex education has been shown to increase the likelihood of teens making
informed and safer choices regarding sexual behavior, contraception, and prevention of
sexually transmitted infections (STIs) compared to abstinence-only or limited sex education
programs.
20. Most college students ________ using condoms when they engage in intercourse.
Answer: are not
Rationale:
Studies have indicated that a significant portion of college students do not consistently use
condoms when engaging in sexual intercourse, which can increase their risk of unintended
pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
21. Two of the most important reasons STIs spread so easily among college populations are
1) ________, and 2) ________.
Answer: they can be without symptoms in some people; students avoid being tested for them
Rationale:
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can spread easily among college populations due to
factors such as asymptomatic infections, where infected individuals may not show any
symptoms but can still transmit the infection to others, and reluctance among students to
undergo testing for STIs, leading to undiagnosed and untreated cases.
22. ________ has been shown to contribute significantly to college students’ decisions to
engage in sexual intercourse, including casual sex or sex with multiple people.
Answer: Alcohol
Rationale:
Alcohol consumption has been shown to lower inhibitions and impair judgment, leading
college students to engage in sexual behaviors they may not otherwise consider, including
casual sex or sex with multiple partners. This can increase the risk of unplanned pregnancies
and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
23. ________ is when a romantically involved couple lives together without marriage.
Answer: Cohabitation
Rationale:
Cohabitation refers to the arrangement where a romantically involved couple lives together in
a domestic partnership without being married. It is a common living arrangement among
couples, particularly before or instead of marriage.
24. The aging process affects sexual responding, including: ________, ________, and
________.

Answer: the stages of response take longer; intensity of sensation may be reduced; the
genitals may become somewhat less sensitive
Rationale:
As individuals age, changes in sexual responding may occur, including a lengthening of the
time it takes to reach sexual arousal and orgasm, a decrease in the intensity of sexual
sensations, and a reduction in the sensitivity of the genitals. These changes are influenced by
various factors such as hormonal changes, physical health, and psychological factors
associated with aging.
ESSAY
1. Describe what is known about masturbation in young children and how parents might
respond.
• Occasional masturbation is a normal behavior of many infants and preschoolers. Up to onethird of children in this age group discover masturbation while exploring their bodies, just as
they explore all their parts of their bodies eventually. They find it feels good to touch their
genitals and sometimes continue to do so. Genital or urinary infections do not cause
masturbation; they cause pain or itching, inciting the child to scratch the area, but this is
different from masturbation.
• By age 5 or 6, most children have learned that genital touching is not to be done in public
places, and they masturbate only in private. Masturbation becomes increasingly common in
puberty in response to the surges in hormones and sexual drive that occur at that time.
• How should a parent deal with masturbation in their young children? Here are some
suggestions:
1. Once your child has discovered and enjoys masturbation, it is not realistic to eliminate it
entirely. A reasonable goal is to control where it occurs. Perhaps limit it to the bathroom or
bedroom. Tell your child that it is something that should be done only in private. Don’t ignore
it completely; if you do, your child may think it’s acceptable anytime and anyplace, which
may result in criticism by adults and chiding by other children.
2. Ignore masturbation at naptime and bedtime. Keep in mind that this is often a selfcomforting activity.
3. When masturbation occurs outside of the child’s bedroom, try distracting the child with a
different activity. If this fails, remind the child that you know it feels good, but it is not
allowed in front of other people.
4. Discuss your views on the behavior with others who may care for the child so that
everyone is on the same page. Consistency among caregivers is key to success for all child
behavior management.
5. Call the child’s physician if you suspect that the masturbatory behavior may have been
learned from someone else, if your child tries to masturbate others, or if your child continues
to masturbate in front of others.

• Masturbation does not cause physical injury to the body, promiscuity, or sexual deviance
later in life. Masturbation in children is normal. Masturbation is not a problem or considered
excessive unless it is deliberately done in public places after the age of 5 or 6. Masturbation
generally leads to negative emotional consequences only if adults overreact to it and make it
seem dirty or forbidden.
2. Discuss the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS)
guidelines for parents talking to their children about sex.
The Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS) offers the
following guidelines to help parents and caregivers communicate with their children
effectively about sexuality:
1. You are the primary sexuality educator of your children. They want to talk with you about
sexuality and to hear your values.
2. Find “teachable moments.” Make use of TV shows even if you believe they send the
wrong message. Say, “I think that program sent the wrong message. Let me tell you what I
believe.”
3. Remember that it is okay to feel uncomfortable. It is often hard to talk about sexual
matters. Relax and tell your children you are going to talk to them because you love them and
want to help them.
4. Don’t wait until your children ask questions. Many never ask. You need to decide what is
important for them to know and then tell them before a crisis occurs.
5. Be “ask-able.” Reward a question with “I’m glad you came to me.” It will teach your
children to come to you when they have other questions.
6. Become aware of the “question behind the question.” The unspoken question, “Am I
normal?” is often hiding behind questions about sexual development, sexual thoughts, and
sexual feelings. Reassure your children as often as possible.
7. Listen, listen, listen. Ask them why they want to know and what they already know. That
may help you prepare your answer.
8. Remember that facts are not enough. Share your feelings, values, and beliefs. Tell your
children why you feel the way you do.
9. Talk about the joys of sexuality. Tell your children that loving relationships are the best
part of life and that intimacy is a wonderful part of adult life.
10. Remember that you are telling your children that you care about their happiness and wellbeing. You are also sharing your values. This is one of the real joys of parenthood.
11. Know what is taught about sexuality in your schools, faith communities, and youth
groups. Other groups can help. It is often helpful when professionals lead talks.
3. Discuss the signs of an abusive teen dating relationship, and what you can do to help
someone you think may be in an abusive relationship.
Signs of an abusive teen dating relationship:

• Is one partner afraid of the other or scared to break up?
• Does one partner call the other names, make the other feel stupid, or tell the other that he or
she cannot do anything right?
• Is one partner excessively jealous?
• Does one partner tell the other where he or she can and cannot go or whom he or she can
and cannot be with or talk to?
• Does one partner tell the other that no one else would ever go out with him or her?
• Is one partner being cut off from friends and family by the other partner?
• Does one partner feel that saying no to sexual activities will result in trouble or danger?
• Does one partner feel pushed or forced into sexual activity?
• Does one partner say that the other caused the abuse?
• Does one partner shove, grab, hit, pinch, hold down, or kick the other?
• Is one partner really nice sometimes and really mean at other times (almost like two
different people or personalities)?
• Does one partner make frequent promises to change or say that he or she will never hurt the
other again? Does one partner say that the other is “making too big a deal” out of the abuse?
What you can do to help someone you think may be in an abusive relationship:
• Remember, anyone can be a victim.
• If you or someone you know might be affected by relationship violence, look for resources
that can provide help. School counselors, parents, teachers, women’s shelters, and clergy are
all potential sources of assistance.
• Tell someone you trust and whom you feel can intervene, such as a local domestic violence
agency. Try to get help as soon as possible before the violence increases.
• By reaching out, you may literally save your own or someone else’s life.
4. Discuss what is known about the alcohol-sex connection in college students.
• Another very important reason for the high rate of STIs among college students is that sex
and drugs, mainly alcohol, are intimately linked on college and university campuses. Alcohol
is routinely a part of college social interactions, and sex is clearly one common form of social
interaction. If a couple are drinking small to moderate amounts of alcohol in the course of an
evening and as that evening progresses, they mutually agree that they want to make love, that
is their choice as consenting adults. The problem comes when larger amounts of alcohol (or
some other drug) twists the scenario so that they make irresponsible sexual choices, such as
unsafe, unprotected sexual activities. Alcohol may also render one member of the couple
unable to consent freely (or legally) to sexual advances. Without that consent, if sexual
penetration occurs, it is rape.

• Alcohol use has been shown to contribute significantly to college students’ decisions to
engage in sexual intercourse and to participate in various indiscriminate sexual behaviors
such as casual sex and sex with multiple partners. Also, studies have found that the influence
of alcohol reduces the likelihood of safer sexual behaviors such as condom use or other
contraceptive practices. When intoxicated, some students tend to become single-minded,
focusing on the pleasure and excitement of the sexual behaviors of the moment, and they lose
sight of the long-term risks involved in those activities.
5. Discuss normal age-related changes in sexual responding.
• Although sexual activity can continue well into one’s 90s and beyond, the aging process
does have some predictable effects on sexual responding. In general, the response cycle, as
described by Masters and Johnson, slows down. The stages of response take longer, the
intensity of sensation may be reduced, and the genitals may become somewhat less sensitive.
Although sexual excitement and orgasm may be slightly subdued, they are no less
pleasurable. Indeed, for many people, the later years can offer a rich sex life without the
worry of pregnancy and the inconvenience of contraception. However, it is important to
remember that the risk of acquiring HIV and other STIs does not disappear with age.
• In older women, menopause results in drops in estrogen and progesterone, causing
physiological changes that affect sexual function. These hormone-related changes include
thinning of the vaginal lining, reduced elasticity of the vagina, and decreased lubrication,
sometimes resulting in discomfort or pain during intercourse. Urinary incontinence may also
occur (because of reduced estrogen), as well as loss of libido (because of reduced
testosterone). All of these changes are reversible and treatable if they are interfering with
enjoyment of sexual activities.
• In men, the time to achieve erection increases, and the period of time between orgasms
lengthens. Most men as they age require more direct stimulation of the penis for erection,
whereas at younger ages, mere visual or fantasy images were sufficient.

Test Bank for Human Sexuality
Roger R. Hock
ISBN's: 9780205989409, 9780133971385, 9780134224961

Document Details

Related Documents

person
Avery Nelson View profile
Close

Send listing report

highlight_off

You already reported this listing

The report is private and won't be shared with the owner

rotate_right
Close
rotate_right
Close

Send Message

image
Close

My favorites

image
Close

Application Form

image
Notifications visibility rotate_right Clear all Close close
image
image
arrow_left
arrow_right