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CHAPTER 10: Gender: Expectations, Roles, and Behaviors
1. ________ refers to the masculinity-femininity dimension of our basic nature as humans.
a. Sex
b. Orientation
c. Gender
d. Self-concept
Answer: C
Rationale:
Gender refers to the masculinity-femininity dimension of our basic nature as humans.
2. According to the text, celebrities such as David Bowie, Grace Jones, RuPaul, Peaches, and
Chris Colfer could be called ________, because through their dress, actions, and attitudes
they challenge what it means to be male or female, man or woman, masculine or feminine.
a. gender-benders
b. confused gender
c. gender dysphoric
d. gender identifiers
Answer: A
Rationale:
Gender-benders challenge our social and cultural preconceptions of what it means to be male
or female, man or woman, masculine or feminine.
3. ________ was the first widely publicized person to receive sex reassignment surgery; a
pioneer in the social awareness of transgender issues.
a. Christine McAuliffe
b. Christine Applebee
c. Christine Martin
d. Christine Jorgensen
Answer: D
Rationale:
Christine Jorgensen was a pioneer in the social awareness of transgender issues.
4. Which of the following statements is true?
a. “Sex” and “gender” are both dichotomous classifications.

b. “Sex” refers to biological characteristics, whereas “gender” is the social construction of
femininity and masculinity.
c. “Sex” and “gender” refer to the same thing.
d. Both “sex” and “gender” are biological constructs.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Sex refers to biology, whereas gender refers to a social construction of femininity and
masculinity.
5. ________ is something we learn or construct for ourselves based upon our social and
cultural experiences in childhood and throughout life.
a. Gender equity
b. Gender
c. Sex
d. Androgyny
Answer: B
Rationale:
We learn or construct gender based on social and cultural experiences.
6. Pat’s gender identity is the opposite of his biological sex. He would be referred to as
________.
a. having an identity crisis.
b. confused.
c. transgender.
d. dysfunctional.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Transgender is a term used to describe individuals in which one’s gender identity is opposite
from one’s biological sex.
7. Kyle is genetically a male; this means he received a(n) ________.
a. X chromosome from his mother, and a Y chromosome from his father
b. Y chromosome from his mother, and a Y chromosome from his father
c. X chromosome from his mother, and an X chromosome from his father
d. Y chromosome from his mother, and an X chromosome from his father

Answer: A
Rationale:
A genetic male has an X chromosome from the mother and Y chromosome from the father.
8. In the presence of the Y sex chromosome, male hormones, called ________ are secreted,
causing the fetus to develop testicles, a penis, and male internal sexual anatomy.
a. estradiol
b. HCG
c. androgens
d. progesterone
Answer: C
Rationale:
Androgens are male hormones that cause the fetus to develop testicles, a penis, and male
internal sexual anatomy.
9. Instead of the typical XY pairing, some males may have an XXY chromosome
configuration that may result in ________.
a. Klinefelter syndrome
b. complete androgen insensitivity syndrome
c. hermaphroditism
d. Turner syndrome
Answer: A
Rationale:
Klinefelter syndrome is the result of having an XXY chromosome configuration.
10. Christopher has been diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome. If he displayed the most
common physical signs and symptoms, these would include all the following except
________.
a. breast development in puberty
b. tendency to be shorter than average
c. smaller than normal testicles
d. lack of facial hair
Answer: B
Rationale:

Individuals with Klinefelter syndrome typically have breast development at puberty, smaller
than normal testicles, and lack facial hair.
11. As an infant, Suzie was diagnosed with ________, which is caused by the lack of, or
damage to, one of the pair of X chromosomes.
a. Klinefelter syndrome
b. complete androgen insensitivity syndrome
c. hermaphroditism
d. Turner syndrome
Answer: D
Rationale:
Turner syndrome is caused by lack of, or damage to, one pair of the X chromosomes.
12. The most common conditions associated with Turner syndrome include all the following
except ________.
a. soft upturned fingernails
b. slow or no sexual development in puberty
c. excessive tallness
d. heart abnormalities
Answer: C
Rationale:
Individuals with Turner’s syndrome typically have soft upturned fingernails, slow or no
sexual development in puberty, and heart abnormalities.
13. Intersexed babies are born with the following conditions except they________.
a. are genetically male but have external genitals that are completely female
b. are genetically female but have external genitals that are completely male
c. are genetically female but have external genitals that are ambiguous
d. have no genetic sex
Answer: D
Rationale:
Intersex individuals are born with anatomy that is not completely male or female, but rather
a combination.
14. Your ________ was determined at conception, but your ________ developed during the
months and years after conception.

a. maleness; femaleness
b. sex; gender
c. gender; sex
d. sexual desire; gender identification
Answer: B
Rationale:
Sex is determined at conception, while gender is developed in the months and years after
conception.
15. The gender effects of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) on girls have found
________.
a. they are overly feminine in their patterns of behaviors
b. they tend to develop the usual patterns of sex-typed behaviors
c. they tend to engage in many sex-atypical behaviors
d. no difference in sex-typed behavior
Answer: C
Rationale:
Girls with CAH have been found to engage in many sex-atypical behaviors.
16. If Karen and Beth are pretty typical of most children, they will have a preference for
friends and playmates of ________.
a. their own sex
b. different sexes
c. different ages
d. all the same ages
Answer: A
Rationale:
Most children prefer friends and playmates of their own sex.
17. Society influences and molds the behavior of its members through a process known as
________.
a. scripting
b. role play
c. socialization
d. gender differentiation

Answer: C
Rationale:
Socialization is the process in society of influencing and molding behavior.
18. Like most children, Bev and Barbie’s ideas of gender roles are affected by all of the
following except ________.
a. the types of toys they are given to play with
b. the way their parents interact with them
c. watching male and female characters on TV
d. how much testosterone they have
Answer: D
Rationale:
Children ideas about gender roles are influenced by such things as toys, TV, and parents.
19. In the story of the mother who was concerned that people be able to tell that her baby was
a girl, what did the mother do to ensure that her baby would not be mistaken for a boy?
a. had her ears pierced
b. taped a pink bow to the child’s bald head
c. had a sign made that said “I am a girl”
d. dressed her only in pink
Answer: B
Rationale:
For some parents, it is important that others be able to tell if their baby is a boy or girl.
20. In terms of same-sex friendships, boys tend to have ________ groups of friends, while
girls typically have ________ groups of friends.
a. closer; distant
b. smaller; larger
c. happier; unhappier
d. larger; smaller
Answer: D
Rationale:
Researchers have found that boys tend to have larger groups of friends, while girls have
smaller groups of friends.

21. If Tony is like most preschool children in the U.S., he watches TV an average of
________ per week.
a. 3 hours
b. 12 hours
c. 30 hours
d. 48 hours
Answer: C
Rationale:
Children watch an average of 30 hours of TV per week.
22. If John is typical of how math and science teachers view boys, which of the following
would be true?
a. His teachers will provide more homework.
b. His teachers will have more negative attitudes toward him as compared to the girls.
c. His teachers will have more positive attitudes and maintain higher expectations.
d. His teachers will assume he is not as good in math as science.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Math and science teachers have a more positive view of boys.
23. Approximately ________ of the characters in television programs are male.
a. 25%
b. 50%
c. 65%
d. 80%
Answer: C
Rationale:
There are more male characters in television programs.
24. Men are ________ as likely as women to be portrayed as problem-solvers in television
programs.
a. twice
b. three times
c. four times

d. five times
Answer: A
Rationale:
Men are twice as likely as women to be portrayed as problem solvers on TV.
25. Children who grow up without television tend to be ________.
a. more stereotyped in their attitudes about gender
b. less stereotyped in their attitudes about gender
c. no different in their attitudes about gender
d. unclear in their attitudes about gender
Answer: B
Rationale:
Children who grew up without television tend to be less stereotyped in their attitudes about
gender.
26. A ________ individual may be a biological male who perceives herself as female, and is
uncomfortable with her male sexual body and society’s expectations that she “behaves like a
male.”
a. transvestite
b. hermaphrodic
c. transgender
d. gender incoherenent
Answer: C
Rationale:
Transgender individuals may experience extreme discomfort with their biological sex and
feel that their physical self is at odds with their gender identity.
27. ________ refers to the desire or insistence that one is of the other sex, combined with
persistent discomfort about one’s biological sex or a sense of inappropriateness in the gender
role of that sex.
a. Homosexuality
b. Gender inconsistency
c. Transvestism
d. Gender identity disorder
Answer: D

Rationale:
Gender identity disorder is characterized by a strong and persistent cross-gender
identification.
28. If Pat is receiving therapy for gender anxiety issues involving being transgender, his
therapy most likely revolves around ________.
a. helping him understand and accept himself for who he is
b. helping him figure out what caused this disorder
c. assisting Pat in practicing behaviors to revert back to the correct gender
d. conversion therapy
Answer: A
Rationale:
Therapy for a transgender person typically focuses on helping the person accept who they
are.
29. ________ refers to transgender persons who, in varying degrees, transition from their
biological sex to the sex that conforms to their gender identity.
a. Transsexual
b. Transvestite
c. Gender dysphoric
d. Bisexual
Answer: A
Rationale:
A transsexual person refers to someone who transitions from their biological sex to the sex
that conforms to their gender identity.
30. When male-to-female transsexuals receive the female hormones estrogen and
progesterone, all of the following changes are likely to result except that ________.
a. breasts enlarge
b. fat deposits on the hips
c. growth of facial hair decreases
d. voice deepens
Answer: D
Rationale:
Female hormones lead to breast enlargement, fat deposits on the hips, and a decrease in
growth of facial hair.

31. When female-to-male transsexuals receive the male hormone testosterone, all of the
following changes are likely to result except that ________.
a. voice deepens
b. body hair growth increases
c. muscles enlarge
d. fat deposits on hips
Answer: D
Rationale:
Taking testosterone can lead to a deeper voice, an increase in body hair growth, and an
increase in muscle.
32. ________ is commonly known as a “sex-change operation.”
a. Sexual reconstruction
b. Sex reassignment surgery
c. Genital mutilation
d. Cosmetic surgery
Answer: B
Rationale:
Sex-reassignment surgery is also called a “sex-change operation.”
33. Phonosurgery refers to a procedure to ________.
a. remove facial hair
b. enlarge breasts
c. raise voice pitch
d. remove testicles
Answer: C
Rationale:
Phonosurgery is a procedure to raise voice pitch.
34. Male-to-female sexual reassignment surgery may involve all of the following except
________.
a. metadioplasty
b. orchiectomy
c. vaginoplasty

d. penectomy
Answer: A
Rationale:
Many things are involved in male-to-female reassignment surgery, including orchiectomy,
vaginoplasty, and penectomy.
35. ________ refers to which gender a person is primarily attracted to, romantically,
emotionally, and sexually.
a. Dysphoria
b. Sexual orientation
c. Preference
d. Gender identity
Answer: B
Rationale:
Our sexual orientation is the term to describe which gender we are primarily attracted to.
36. ________ is an assumption about a person based solely on his or her gender.
a. Gender stereotype
b. Gender identity
c. Sexual role
d. Androgyny
Answer: A
Rationale:
A gender stereotype is an assumption about a person based on if they are male or female.
37. ________ refers to children’s understanding that a person’s gender stays the same even if
the person violates expected, traditional sex role behaviors.
a. Gender identification
b. Gender equality
c. Gender constancy
d. Gender stability
Answer: C
Rationale:
When a child understands a person’s gender does not change it is referred to as gender
constancy.

38. Audry is now ________ years old, and like most children her age, she now has a clear
sense of the difference between masculine and feminine sex roles in the culture.
a. two
b. three
c. four
d. five
Answer: D
Rationale:
Researchers believe that by age five children have a clear sense of the difference between
masculine and feminine sex roles.
39. Looking around the annual Halloween party, the teacher notes that, just like last year,
________ of Halloween costumes are gender-appropriate.
a. 25%
b. 30%
c. 65%
d. 90%
Answer: D
Rationale:
Halloween is a time when almost all children will display costumes that are genderappropriate.
40. One of the strongest and most widely accepted stereotypes is that male humans are
________ than female humans.
a. less active
b. more aggressive
c. more cooperative
d. less personable
Answer: B
Rationale:
A widely held stereotype is that males are more aggressive than females.
41. Social alienation refers to all of the following except ________.
a. shunning
b. malicious gossip

c. spreading negative rumors
d. shyness
Answer: D
Rationale:
Social alienation includes such behaviors as shunning, malicious gossip, and spreading
negative rumors.
42. When we add social alienation to the definition of aggressive relational behavior, we find
that ________.
a. boys are still more aggressive than girls
b. girls are still less aggressive as boys
c. girls are equally or more aggressive than boys
d. boys do not know how to act this way
Answer: C
Rationale:
Girls are equally or more aggressive than boys if we expand the definition of aggression to
include aggressive relational behavior.
43. When it comes to research on intuition, the findings show that ________ at “reading
people.”
a. women and men are equally good
b. women are better than men
c. men are better than women
d. There is not enough research to know if there is a difference.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Research on intuition has found that women are better than men at “reading people.”
44. When it comes to differences in sexual attitudes and desires, men (compared to women)
have been found to display all of the following except being ________.
a. more accepting of premarital sex
b. less disapproving of extramarital affairs
c. more tolerant of casual encounters
d. more concerned about what others think
Answer: D

Rationale:
Men more have been found to display more acceptance of premarital sex, extramarital
affairs, and casual encounters than women.
45. When it comes to differences in sexual attitudes and desires, women are more likely to
display all of the following except ________.
a. focusing on the relationship aspects of sexual activities
b. romanticizing sexual experiences
c. seeing the goals of sex as building intimacy and experiencing affection
d. more tolerance of casual encounters
Answer: D
Rationale:
Women more than men have been found to focus on the relationship, romanticize sexual
experiences, and see the goals of sex as building intimacy.
46. When researchers find gender differences – such as men’s sexual interest and desires are
greater than women’s – they are basing their conclusions on ________.
a. averages
b. assumptions
c. qualitative evaluations
d. faulty statistics
Answer: A
Rationale:
Conclusions about the gender differences between men and women are typically based on
averages.
47. When examining gender differences, the author points out that it is important to not only
consider averages, but also to consider ________.
a. who is highest
b. who is lowest
c. how the two groups overlap
d. how they diverge
Answer: C
Rationale:
It is important to consider not just averages, but also how men and women’s attitudes and
behaviors overlap.

48. What we know about communication between the sexes is that ________.
a. males and females communicate similarly
b. males tend to use more language
c. males and females communicate differently
d. females are more likely to communicate poorly
Answer: C
Rationale:
Researchers have found that males and females communicate in different ways.
49. If Darcy is like most women, she tends to express personal problems to those she is close
to because she ________.
a. thinks it feels good
b. wants support and understanding
c. wants a solution
d. likes to hear herself talk
Answer: B
Rationale:
Women are more likely to want support and understanding when expressing their personal
problems.
50. Men tend to express personal problems to those they are close to because they ________.
a. think it feels good
b. want support and understanding
c. want a solution
d. like to hear themselves talk
Answer: C
Rationale:
Men tend to want a solution when they express personal problems.
51. The ________ argument contends that differences are rooted in our biology and are
passed down to us through our genetic heritage.
a. nature
b. nurture
c. gender

d. sex
Answer: A
Rationale:
The “nature” argument implies that differences are rooted in out biology.
52. Some have argued that differences exist in humans as part of nature’s grand design that
has enabled humans to survive and evolve as a species. From this perspective, the reason men
are more aggressive and women are more intuitive is that these characteristics are considered
________.
a. gender stereotypes
b. adaptive mechanisms
c. survival of the fittest
d. biological requirements
Answer: B
Rationale:
Adaptive mechanisms are thought to be those gender differences that lead to survival
strategies that are part of nature’s grand design.
53. The ________ argument downplays genetic influences and focuses on sociocultural
factors as responsible for producing gender differences.
a. nature
b. nurture
c. gender
d. sex
Answer: B
Rationale:
The “nurture” argument focuses on the sociocultural and environmental factors responsible
for producing gender differences.
54. ________ refers to people who perceive themselves as having both strong masculine and
strong feminine traits.
a. Transsexual
b. Undifferentiated
c. Androgynous
d. Transgender
Answer: C

Rationale:
People who perceive themselves as having both masculine and feminine traits are called
androgynous.
55. As a person who is capable of integrating both masculinity and femininity into his gender
role, Pat would be considered ________.
a. transsexual
b. androgynous
c. homosexual
d. undifferentiated
Answer: B
Rationale:
People who perceive themselves as having both masculine and feminine traits are called
androgynous.
56. Sandra Bem’s groundbreaking gender research in the 1970s proposed ________.
a. a two-dimensional model of gender
b. a better way to think of masculinity
c. additional categories for femininity
d. new names for those who are transgendered
Answer: A
Rationale:
Sandra Bem proposed a two-dimensional model of gender.
57. Bem’s Sex-Role Inventory allows a person to determine his or her degree of each of the
following except ________.
a. masculinity
b. femininity
c. androgyny
d. intersexuality
Answer: D
Rationale:
The Bem Sex-Role Inventory allows a person to determine his or her degree of masculinity,
femininity, and androgyny.

58. Studies have found that people who are more androgynous appear to be ________ than
those who are strongly sex-typed.
a. more confused
b. happier and better adjusted
c. more immature
d. less stable
Answer: B
Rationale:
Androgynous people tend to be happier and better adjusted.
59. Numerous researchers have suggested that the psychological advantages experienced by
people who score high in androgyny may be due to the presence of ________.
a. feminine traits
b. positive qualities in general
c. masculine traits
d. high self-esteem
Answer: C
Rationale:
The advantages for those who score high on androgyny are thought to be due to masculine
traits.
60. Further refinement of the androgyny concept looks at those traits that are all of the
following except ________.
a. desirable feminine traits
b. undesirable feminine and masculine traits
c. desirable masculine traits
d. undesirable genetic traits
Answer: D
Rationale:
Further refinement of the androgyny concept looks at the desirable and undesirable traits of
both masculinity and femininity.
TRUE-FALSE
1. Gender and your gender identity are more about who you are as a person than simply about
what sex you are.

Answer: True
Rationale:
Gender and gender identity are complex concepts that encompass not only biological factors
but also psychological, social, and cultural influences. It goes beyond just the biological
aspect of sex and is deeply intertwined with one's sense of self and how they perceive and
express themselves in relation to societal norms and expectations.
2. According to the text, few human characteristics define us more than our gender.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Gender plays a significant role in shaping individual identity and experiences. It influences
various aspects of life, including behavior, social interactions, opportunities, and
expectations. Therefore, few characteristics have as profound an impact on individuals and
society as gender does.
3. Christine Jorgensen’s sex-change operation was the first to receive worldwide media
attention, and she did not shy away from the publicity.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Christine Jorgensen's sex-change operation in the 1950s garnered widespread media
attention and played a pivotal role in bringing issues of transgender identity and gender
confirmation surgery into the public spotlight. Jorgensen embraced the publicity, becoming
an advocate for transgender rights and visibility.
4. A person’s gender is more analogous to the concept of a biological trait than a personality
characteristic.
Answer: False
Rationale:
While gender is influenced by biological factors, it is not solely determined by them. Gender
identity is a complex interplay of biological, psychological, social, and cultural factors.
Comparing it solely to a biological trait oversimplifies the complexity of gender and
undermines the significance of individual experiences and self-expression.
5. A person’s sex and gender identity are two separate expressions of who that person is as a
sexual being.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Sex refers to biological characteristics such as anatomy and chromosomes, whereas gender
identity refers to an individual's deeply felt sense of being male, female, both, neither, or
somewhere along the gender spectrum. These two aspects of a person's identity can
sometimes align but are distinct from one another.

6. Both the father and the mother determine the genetic sex of a child.
Answer: False
Rationale:
While the mother always contributes an X chromosome, the father can contribute either an X
or a Y chromosome, determining the genetic sex of the child. If the father contributes an X
chromosome, the child will be female (XX); if the father contributes a Y chromosome, the
child will be male (XY).
7. Research has found that the genitals of male and female human fetuses are
indistinguishable until about the 12th week of pregnancy.
Answer: True
Rationale:
During early fetal development, male and female genitalia begin from the same
undifferentiated structures. It is not until around the 12th week of pregnancy that the genitalia
start to differentiate, and male and female characteristics become apparent.
8. Biology is the sole determinant of a child’s gender.
Answer: False
Rationale:
While biology plays a role in determining aspects of gender, such as physical attributes, it
does not solely determine a child's gender identity. Gender identity is influenced by a
complex interplay of biological, psychological, social, and cultural factors, and individuals
may identify differently from their assigned sex at birth.
9. Not all XXY males will develop the characteristics of Klinefelter syndrome, and some may
never even know they have the extra chromosome.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Klinefelter syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by the presence of an extra X
chromosome in males (XXY). However, the symptoms and severity can vary widely among
individuals. Some XXY males may exhibit few or mild symptoms and may not even be
aware of their condition without genetic testing.
10. Ronda’s biology class is reviewing the symptoms of Klinefelter syndrome. The symptoms
are untreatable, and males with the disorder are usually unable to live normal, healthy lives.
Answer: False
Rationale:
While Klinefelter syndrome can present challenges and may require medical intervention for
certain symptoms, it is not untreatable. Treatment options such as hormone therapy and
assisted reproductive technologies can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for

individuals with Klinefelter syndrome. With appropriate medical care and support, many
individuals with the disorder can lead fulfilling lives.
11. Turner syndrome is far less common than Klinefelter syndrome, affecting only one in
2,000 to 2,500 female births.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects females, characterized by the absence of
one X chromosome or significant abnormalities of the second X chromosome. It is indeed
less common than Klinefelter syndrome, which affects males, occurring in approximately one
in 2,000 to 2,500 female births.
12. Due to hormonal abnormalities, virtually all Turner syndrome individuals are infertile.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Turner syndrome often involves ovarian insufficiency or ovarian dysgenesis, leading to
infertility in most affected individuals. However, with advances in assisted reproductive
technologies, some women with Turner syndrome may still be able to conceive with the help
of donor eggs or other interventions.
13. Intersex individuals are born with half male anatomy and half female anatomy.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Intersex individuals are born with variations in sex characteristics that do not fit typical
binary notions of male or female anatomy. This can include differences in chromosomes,
gonads, hormones, or genitalia. It is incorrect to characterize intersex anatomy as "half male
and half female," as it varies widely among individuals.
14. The practice of surgical alteration of intersex babies has become widely accepted.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The practice of performing non-consensual surgical interventions on intersex infants to
modify their genitalia has been highly controversial and is increasingly being challenged.
Many medical and human rights organizations advocate for delaying such surgeries until the
individual can provide informed consent, as these procedures can have significant physical
and psychological consequences.
15. Hilary is a lesbian. She wonders why. Hormones may have played a role in the
development of her sexual orientation.
Answer: True
Rationale:

While the exact causes of sexual orientation are not fully understood, research suggests that
biological factors, including hormonal influences during prenatal development, may
contribute to sexual orientation. Hormones such as testosterone and estrogen play essential
roles in brain development and organization, which may influence sexual orientation.
16. Hormones are not thought to play a role in the development of gender-typed behavior.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Hormones, particularly during prenatal and early postnatal development, are believed to
influence the development of gender-typed behavior. Testosterone, for example, is associated
with masculine-typical behaviors, while estrogen and other hormones may influence
feminine-typical behaviors. However, socialization and environmental factors also play
significant roles in shaping gender expression and behavior.
17. The desire for same-sex playmates is seen in nearly every culture worldwide and in many
nonhuman animals.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Cross-cultural and observational studies have shown that the preference for same-sex
playmates is a common phenomenon observed in children across diverse cultures and even in
nonhuman animals. This suggests that such preferences may have biological underpinnings
and are not solely influenced by cultural factors.
18. Gender differences are so socially ingrained in most of us that we have trouble violating
our expectations, even if we are made acutely aware of them.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Gender norms and expectations are deeply ingrained in societies worldwide, shaping
individual behavior, attitudes, and perceptions from an early age. Even when individuals are
consciously aware of these norms and expectations, they may still struggle to deviate from
them due to societal pressures and internalized beliefs.
19. Studies have shown that parents typically describe their infant in the same way, no matter
what the sex of the baby.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Research has demonstrated that parents often describe and interact with infants differently
based on the perceived sex of the baby. These differences in parental behavior can influence
the child's early socialization and development of gender identity and gender-typed
behaviors.

20. The tactics used for persuasion for boys and girls are different; boys learn from their
peers’ “controlling tactics,” whereas girls develop “obliging strategies.”
Answer: True
Rationale:
Research on gender socialization suggests that boys and girls often learn different strategies
for social interaction and persuasion based on societal expectations and gender norms. Boys
may learn more assertive or controlling tactics, while girls may adopt more accommodating
or obliging strategies in their interactions with others.
21. If Ashley’s teacher responds to her like the research says most teachers do to girls in
class, this means she gives her more time and attention in class than boys.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Research indicates that, on average, teachers tend to give more attention and praise to boys
in the classroom compared to girls. This can lead to disparities in academic performance and
opportunities. Therefore, if Ashley's teacher responds to her like the research suggests, it
would likely mean she receives less time and attention compared to boys.
22. According to the research, if Dave is typical of 16-year-olds, he has watched more hours
of television than he has spent attending school.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Studies have shown that, on average, teenagers, including 16-year-olds like Dave, spend
more time watching television than they do attending school. This is a concerning trend as
excessive television viewing can have negative effects on academic performance, physical
health, and social development.
23. Marriage and family are not as important to men as to women in television programs.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Television programs often portray gender stereotypes and traditional gender roles, which
may influence perceptions of marriage and family. Research indicates that men are often
depicted as less invested in marriage and family life compared to women in television
programming, perpetuating gender stereotypes and expectations.
24. Those children who watch programs that violate traditional gender roles tend to be less
traditional in their gender roles.
Answer: True
Rationale:

Exposure to media that challenges traditional gender roles and stereotypes can influence
children's attitudes and beliefs about gender. Research suggests that children who watch
programs depicting non-traditional gender roles are more likely to have less rigid or
traditional views of gender and may be more open to diverse gender expressions.
25. Official medical estimates place the prevalence of transgender at about 1 in 30,000 for
FTM and 1 in 100,000 for MTF.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Official medical estimates of transgender prevalence vary, but they are generally higher than
the figures provided. Estimates may vary depending on the population studied and the criteria
used for defining transgender status. However, transgender individuals are believed to be
more prevalent than these figures suggest.
26. For the transgender individual, cross-dressing is about gender, not sexual thrills.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Cross-dressing for transgender individuals is typically about expressing their gender identity
rather than seeking sexual arousal. Cross-dressing is a form of gender expression that allows
transgender individuals to align their outward appearance with their internal sense of gender
identity.
27. While sex reassignment surgery is capable of altering physical sex with remarkably
accurate visual results, it is not able to preserve sexual response and orgasmic functioning.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Sex reassignment surgery (SRS) for transgender individuals aims to align physical
characteristics with their gender identity. Modern surgical techniques, along with hormone
therapy, can achieve satisfactory results in terms of both physical appearance and sexual
function. SRS can preserve or enhance sexual response and orgasmic functioning for many
transgender individuals.
28. Theoretically, you could meet, get to know, date, have sex with, and even marry a postoperative transsexual without realizing the person is transsexual.
Answer: True
Rationale:
With advances in medical and surgical techniques for gender affirmation, individuals who
have undergone sex reassignment surgery may have physical characteristics that align with
their gender identity. As a result, it is theoretically possible to interact with and form
relationships with post-operative transsexual individuals without necessarily realizing their
transgender status unless they choose to disclose it.

29. Research has shown that most transsexuals who undergo surgery are satisfied with the
outcome and are better adjusted in life.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Studies have found that the majority of transgender individuals who undergo sex
reassignment surgery report high levels of satisfaction with the outcomes and improvements
in psychological well-being and quality of life. Gender-affirming medical interventions can
alleviate gender dysphoria and help transgender individuals live authentically.
30. If little Billy was a transgender child, his parents would see his behavior characterized by
being more adamant and insistent than Billy occasionally saying he likes to play with a doll.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Transgender children may exhibit persistent and consistent gender identity expressions that
do not align with their assigned sex at birth. This may include insistence on being referred to
by a different name or pronouns, a strong preference for clothing and activities typically
associated with the gender they identify with, and expressing discomfort or distress with their
assigned gender. Such behaviors are typically more than occasional preferences and are
indicative of a deeper gender identity.
31. If little Billy is transgender, his parents’ attempt to “force” gender-traditional toys and
activities is likely to lead to anger, sadness, and withdrawal.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Forcing gender-traditional toys and activities on a transgender child can cause distress and
psychological harm. Transgender children often have a strong sense of their gender identity
and may experience negative emotions such as anger, sadness, and withdrawal when
pressured to conform to gender expectations that do not align with their identity.
32. If Billy, who is a 12-year-old transgender child, saw a doctor who specialized in gender
issues, he may be given “puberty blockers” to stop development of facial hair, an Adam’s
apple, or lowering of his voice.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Puberty blockers, also known as hormone blockers, are medications used to delay the onset
of puberty. They are commonly prescribed to transgender adolescents to prevent the
development of secondary sex characteristics that may cause distress and dysphoria. This
gives the individual more time to explore their gender identity before making decisions about
hormone therapy or surgery.
33. A biological female who identifies as male and is attracted to women may feel
heterosexual.

Answer: True
Rationale:
Sexual orientation refers to the gender(s) to which an individual is romantically or sexually
attracted. In this scenario, if a biological female (assigned female at birth) identifies as male
and is attracted to women, they may perceive themselves as heterosexual, as their gender
identity (male) aligns with their attraction to women.
34. Gender constancy means that a person’s gender stays the same even if that person violates
expected, traditional sex role behaviors (such as a man dressing up in women’s clothes for a
skit, or a woman who is a plumber).
Answer: True
Rationale:
Gender constancy is the understanding that one's gender identity remains consistent and does
not change based on superficial changes in appearance or behavior. Even if a person engages
in behaviors that do not conform to traditional gender roles, their underlying sense of gender
identity remains unchanged.
35. Most Halloween costumes are usually not gender-appropriate.
Answer: False
Rationale:
While there are some Halloween costumes that may reinforce traditional gender stereotypes,
many costumes are gender-neutral or allow for individual expression regardless of gender. In
recent years, there has been a growing trend toward inclusive and gender-neutral costume
options that cater to diverse preferences and identities.
36. Older children tend to be more flexible in the gender-violating behaviors they will accept.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Research suggests that older children tend to be more flexible and accepting of gendernonconforming behaviors compared to younger children. As children grow and develop, they
gain a better understanding of gender diversity and may become more open-minded and
inclusive in their attitudes and behaviors.
37. If comparing Joe to Jane, we can be confident in saying that in general Joe is more
physically and verbally aggressive than Jane.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Research has consistently shown that, on average, males tend to exhibit higher levels of
physical and verbal aggression compared to females. This difference is influenced by a
combination of biological, social, and cultural factors and is observed across various age
groups and cultures.

38. If we compare Scott to Sarah, we can assume Sarah is the one who has a clear advantage
in the ability to read nonverbal communication and facial expressions.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Studies have suggested that females generally outperform males in tasks related to nonverbal
communication, including the interpretation of facial expressions and body language. This
difference may be attributed to biological and social factors influencing the development of
social skills.
39. Consider Abby and Adam. Research would suggest that Abby is a better communicator
than Adam.
Answer: False
Rationale:
While stereotypes may suggest that females are inherently better communicators than males,
research indicates that individual differences in communication skills vary widely and are not
solely determined by gender. Both males and females can be effective communicators, and
communication abilities depend on various factors such as personality, upbringing, and
experiences.
40. The nurture argument would say female’s greater intuitive ability is explained by
society’s expectation that she should be more focused on the emotional side of social
interactions.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The nurture argument suggests that differences in gender-related behavior and abilities are
primarily shaped by socialization and environmental factors rather than inherent biological
differences. In this case, societal expectations and norms regarding gender roles may
influence the development of intuitive abilities and emotional intelligence in females.
41. The two-dimensional model of gender allowed for the possibility that gender is not an
either-or proposition, but that people could manifest elements of both genders.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The two-dimensional model of gender, proposed by Sandra Bem, conceptualizes gender as
consisting of two independent dimensions: masculinity and femininity. This model allows for
the recognition that individuals can express varying degrees of both masculine and feminine
traits, rather than adhering strictly to traditional gender roles.
42. Individuals who score low on both femininity and masculinity on Bem’s Sex-Role
Inventory are called androgynous.
Answer: False

Rationale:
Individuals who score high on both femininity and masculinity on Bem's Sex-Role Inventory
are considered androgynous. They exhibit a combination of traits traditionally associated with
both genders and are often described as having a flexible and adaptive approach to gender
roles.
SHORT ANSWER
1. Researchers credit ________ with pioneering the way for the development over the past 50
years for more effective treatments and procedures for thousands of transgender people
uncomfortable with their biological sex.
Answer: Christine Jorgensen
Rationale:
Christine Jorgensen was one of the first individuals to undergo gender confirmation surgery
in the 1950s, which brought transgender issues into the public spotlight and contributed to
advancements in treatments and procedures for transgender individuals seeking to align their
physical appearance with their gender identity.
2. Two ________ chromosomes combine to produce a female, while a(n) ________
combination produces a male.
Answer: X; X-Y
Rationale:
In typical human development, individuals with two X chromosomes (XX) typically develop
as females, while individuals with one X and one Y chromosome (XY) typically develop as
males. The presence of the Y chromosome triggers the development of male characteristics.
3. Two of the most common chromosomal variations in humans are ________ and ________.
Answer: Klinefelter syndrome; Turner syndrome
Rationale:
Klinefelter syndrome occurs when a male has an extra X chromosome (XXY), while Turner
syndrome occurs when a female is missing one X chromosome (XO). These chromosomal
variations can lead to a variety of physical and developmental differences.
4. Approximately one out of every ________ male babies is born with an additional X sex
chromosome.
Answer: 500
Rationale:
Klinefelter syndrome, characterized by the presence of an additional X chromosome (XXY),
occurs in approximately 1 out of every 500 male births.
5. Because of hormonal abnormalities, virtually all Turner syndrome individuals are
________.

Answer: infertile
Rationale:
Turner syndrome individuals typically have underdeveloped ovaries or may lack ovaries
altogether due to hormonal abnormalities, resulting in infertility in nearly all cases.
6. A very small percentage of people are born with sexual anatomy that is neither completely
male nor female, but rather a combination of male and female features; those with these
characteristics are referred to as ________ individuals.
Answer: intersex
Rationale:
Intersex individuals have variations in their sexual anatomy, chromosomes, or reproductive
organs that do not fit typical definitions of male or female. This condition occurs in a small
percentage of the population.
7. The stereotype of the ________ is usually portrayed as a person having a functional penis,
a vagina, and usually breasts.
Answer: hermaphrodite
Rationale:
The term "hermaphrodite" is outdated and considered offensive. It refers to individuals who
were thought to possess both male and female reproductive organs. However, true
hermaphroditism, in which an individual has both fully functional male and female
reproductive organs, is extremely rare in humans.
8. Today, widespread agreement exists among behavioral and biological scientists that most
human traits and characteristics are influenced by an interaction between ________ and
________.
Answer: nature; nurture
Rationale:
The nature versus nurture debate acknowledges that both genetic (nature) and environmental
(nurture) factors play significant roles in shaping human traits and characteristics. Most
researchers agree that both factors interact to influence individual development.
9. ________ are the distinctive behaviors society expects and encourages us to engage in
depending on our sex.
Answer: Gender roles
Rationale:
Gender roles are social expectations and norms regarding how individuals of a particular
gender should behave, based on societal perceptions and beliefs about masculinity and
femininity.

10. The number and strength of gender-based attribution made by parents appear to be
decreasing somewhat as people have become more educated about gender issues, and as
________.
Answer: fathers play a larger role in the birthing and parenting process
Rationale:
Increased involvement of fathers in the birthing and parenting process has led to a shift in
traditional gender roles and expectations. As fathers take on more caregiving responsibilities,
there is often a greater recognition of the diverse ways in which individuals can express their
gender, leading to a decrease in rigid gender-based attributions.
11. Mothers tend to interact with ________with their daughters, whereas fathers typically
________with their sons, as compared with their daughters.
Answer: greater emotional warmth and responsiveness; spend more time and engage in more
physical activity
Rationale:
Research suggests that mothers often engage in more emotionally warm and responsive
interactions with their daughters, while fathers typically spend more time and engage in more
physical activities with their sons, reflecting traditional gender roles and socialization
patterns.
12. Men on television are often portrayed as ________, ________, ________, ________,
________, ________, ________, and ________.
Answer: rational, ambitious, smart, competitive, powerful, stable, violent, tolerant
Rationale:
These portrayals of men on television often reflect societal ideals and stereotypes associated
with masculinity, presenting male characters as rational, ambitious, intelligent, competitive,
powerful, stable, sometimes violent, and sometimes tolerant.
13. Women on television are often portrayed as ________, ________, ________, ________,
________, _______, ________, ________, ________, and ________.
Answer: sensitive, romantic, attractive, happy, warm, sociable, peaceful, fair, submissive,
timid
Rationale:
These portrayals of women on television often reflect societal ideals and stereotypes
associated with femininity, presenting female characters as sensitive, romantic, attractive,
happy, warm, sociable, peaceful, fair, sometimes submissive, and sometimes timid.
14. ________ refers to a strong and persistent cross-gender identification.
Answer: Gender identity disorder
Rationale:

Gender identity disorder is a term previously used to describe a strong and persistent crossgender identification, where an individual's gender identity does not align with the sex they
were assigned at birth. However, this term has been replaced with "gender dysphoria" in the
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5).
15. Official medical estimates of transgender people suggest that ________is much more
common than ________.
Answer: male-to-female; female-to-male
Rationale:
Official medical estimates typically indicate that male-to-female transgender individuals are
more commonly reported or seek medical assistance than female-to-male transgender
individuals.
16. If Billy is a transgender child and feels he is really a little girl, he may be given ________
to stop the development of facial hair, Adam’s apple, and lowering of his voice by doctors
who specialize in gender issues.
Answer: puberty blockers
Rationale:
Puberty blockers are medications used to temporarily halt the onset of puberty, allowing
transgender children like Billy to explore their gender identity without undergoing unwanted
physical changes associated with puberty.
17. By age four or five, most children have acquired the concept of ________, that is, they
believe that, when they grow up, they will be either a man or a woman.
Answer: gender stability
Rationale:
Gender stability refers to the understanding that one's gender remains consistent over time;
by age four or five, most children have acquired this concept and believe that their gender
will remain the same as they grow older.
18. In terms of the differences in the way men and women communicate, when she expresses
an issue to her male partner typically she is looking for ________, but what he is likely to
give is ________.
Answer: understanding; advice
Rationale:
Research suggests that women often seek emotional support and understanding when
expressing issues, while men tend to offer solutions and advice. This difference in
communication styles can sometimes lead to misunderstandings in interpersonal
relationships.
19. Someone who is ________ might be considered well-rounded.
Answer: androgynous

Rationale:
Androgynous individuals possess a combination of traditionally masculine and feminine
characteristics, behaviors, and traits. Being androgynous can be perceived as being wellrounded or versatile in terms of gender expression and identity.
ESSAY
1. Describe the difference between Klinefelter syndrome and Turner syndrome.
Klinefelter Syndrome
Approximately one out of every 500 male babies is born with an additional X sex
chromosome. These males, instead of the typical XY pairing have an XXY chromosome
configuration and are referred to in the medical community as XXY males. This unusual
genetic makeup may result in a condition called Klinefelter syndrome, named after the
physician who discovered it in 1942. Not all XXY males will develop the characteristics of
Klinefelter syndrome, and some may never even know they have the extra X chromosome.
However, when the syndrome is activated, common physical signs and symptoms include a
rounded body type, lack of facial hair, breast enlargement in puberty (often temporary),
smaller than normal testicles, osteoporosis, and a tendency to be taller and heavier than
average. Most, but not all, XXY males fail to produce enough sperm in adulthood to be
fertile. They also appear to have a somewhat higher risk of autoimmune diseases such as
diabetes and lupus. XXY males who develop breast tissue have a risk of breast cancer equal
to that of women, which is 20 to 50 times greater than the risk to normal XY men. An early
developmental concern for XXY males is that they often display delayed development of
language and may have learning difficulties, especially in reading and writing. These children
are not mentally retarded and eventually learn to speak and converse normally. Furthermore,
their learning difficulties are treatable with proper guidance and attention. Virtually all the
symptoms of Klinefelter syndrome are treatable to various degrees, and males with the
disorder are usually able to live normal, relatively healthy lives. Learning problems can be
minimized with therapy; surgery, assisted fertility techniques, and adoption can help
Klinefelter syndrome men have families; hormone therapy can enhance masculine
development in puberty and throughout life; and breast enlargement often reverses itself
naturally or, if desired, may be corrected surgically
Turner Syndrome
In female infants, instead of an extra chromosome, Turner syndrome, named for the physician
who discovered it in 1938, is caused by a lack of or damage to one of the pair of X
chromosomes. This condition is far less common than Klinefelter syndrome, affecting only
one in 2,000 to 2,500 female births. Nearly all cases of Turner syndrome (99 percent) result
in miscarriage of the afflicted fetus in the first or second trimester of pregnancy. For the
fetuses that survive, the symptoms and effects of Turner syndrome tend to be more physically
and psychologically serious than those of Klinefelter syndrome, although a wide range of
symptomology exists, ranging from mild to severe. The most common conditions associated
with Turner syndrome (see Figure 10.3) are short stature (average height of 4 feet 7 inches in
adulthood), slow or no sexual development at puberty, puffy hands and feet, kidney
malformations, hearing problems, extra folds of skin at the sides of the neck, heart
abnormalities, lack of ovarian function (hormone and ovum production), and soft upturned

fingernails. Because of hormonal abnormalities, virtually all Turner syndrome individuals are
infertile. As they age, women with the syndrome are at a significantly increased risk of bone
thinning (osteoporosis). Underdevelopment of the kidneys or the lack of one kidney is also
quite common. Most worrisome are the 20 percent of Turner syndrome individuals who have
heart valve and vessel malformations. These conditions may be life threatening and require
careful monitoring and treatment throughout life. As for Klinefelter syndrome, Turner
syndrome patients also have twice the incidence of diabetes than the general population.
Cognitively, Turner syndrome individuals are of normal intelligence but may have learning
difficulties, especially associated with math and spatial relationships. Although the dangers of
Turner syndrome may be serious, with awareness and proper treatment, most of the effects
can be controlled and mitigated successfully.
2. Discuss the influences of parents on our gender role development.
• Parents’ assumptions about the gender of their children are reflected in how the parents treat
and interact with their sons and daughters and how their children behave in response. Studies
have shown that parents describe their infants in different ways, depending on the sex of the
baby. Parents tend to describe their newborn girls as soft, fine-featured, petite, delicate, and
beautiful and their boys as strong, big, and determined. They also describe infant girls as
little, beautiful, pretty, cute, and resembling their mothers but describe their infant sons
primarily as big.
• The number and strength of gender-based attributions made by parents appear to be
decreasing as people have become more educated about gender issues and as fathers,
especially stay-at-home dads, play a larger role in the birthing and parenting process.
Nevertheless, parental expectations of their infants based on the baby’s gender persist.
• In part, children are directed into gender-appropriate activities and attitudes throughout
childhood by the choices parents make for toys, room décor, and clothing the child wears.
Perhaps even more important, children are rewarded by the subtle or not-so-subtle reactions
of parents and others to the children’s behaviors. Most parents are uncomfortable if their
child engages in activities and behaviors that are gender-inappropriate. Parents and other
important individuals in a child’s life reward behaviors that conform to gender expectations
and either withhold rewards for or punish behaviors that appear to violate those expectations
• Mothers tend to interact with greater emotional warmth and responsiveness with girls but
encourage greater independence in boys. Fathers typically spend more time and engage in
more physical activity with their sons than with their daughters. This parental influence on
children’s gender development continues throughout childhood. Among school-age children,
many parents maintain a distorted perception of their children’s academic skills based on
gender. As children grow up, these childhood gender-based experiences cause males and
females to pursue different educational and professional paths, further reinforcing cultural
gender stereotypes.
3. Discuss the central findings of research on the content of most television programming as
it relates to gender.
• Men are usually more dominant than women in male-female interactions.

• Men are often portrayed as rational, ambitious, smart, competitive, powerful, stable, violent,
and tolerant; women are portrayed as sensitive, romantic, attractive, happy, warm, sociable,
peaceful, fair, submissive, and timid.
• Television programming emphasizes male characters’ strength, performance, and skill; for
women, it focuses on attractiveness and desirability.
• Marriage and family are not as important to men as to women in television programs. One
study of TV programming found that for nearly half the men it wasn’t possible to tell if they
were married, a fact that was true for only 11 percent of the women.
• Television ads for boy-oriented products focus on action, competition, destruction, and
control; television ads for girl-oriented products focus on limited activity, feelings, and
nurturing.
• Approximately 65 percent of the characters in television programs are male (even most of
the Muppets have male names and voices).
• Men are twice as likely as women to come up with solutions to problems.
• Women are depicted as sex objects more frequently than men.
• Men are shown to be clumsy and inept in dealing with infants and children.
• Saturday morning children’s programs typically feature males in dominant roles with
females in supporting or peripheral roles.
4. How do gender stereotypes develop?
• Gender stereotypes develop parallel with gender identity. By the time children are five years
old, they have a remarkably clear sense of the difference between masculine and feminine sex
roles in the culture, and they use people’s gender as the main criterion to predict the
behaviors of others. Even today, when society has developed an increased awareness of
sexual inequalities, most preschoolers are confident that girls cannot be, say, firefighters and
boys cannot be schoolteachers. If you watch young children pretending to go somewhere in a
car, the boy nearly always drives. Interestingly, these stereotypes persist even when the
child’s personal experience provides examples of exceptions to the gender expectations, such
as when the child’s father is a schoolteacher, when the mother does all the driving, or when
the child’s books take a nonstereotypical approach to gender roles.
• In the United States, you can easily see these gender beliefs in children by observing the
costumes they choose for Halloween. Although the costume might hide the child’s true
identity, 90 percent of children’s Halloween costumes are conspicuously gender-appropriate,
and only 10 percent are gender-neutral. Girls dress up as beauty queens, princesses, brides,
animals (butterfly, cat), and food items (lollipop, ice cream cone). Boys are more likely to
wear costumes representing police officers, warriors, villains, monsters, or symbols of death
(Dracula, executioner, grim reaper). The gender identities and stereotypes in young children
are so strongly formed that a child might well forgo all the candy Halloween promises than
set out trick-or-treating in a clearly opposite-gender costume.
• As children move into the school years, gender stereotypes are further strengthened by
systematic expectations about which subjects and activities are feminine and which are

masculine. As early as second grade, children perceive math, sports, and various mechanical
skills as masculine, whereas art, reading, and music are seen as feminine. This is not to say
that boys refuse to produce art or play music or that girls reject math and sports. However, if
you ask most children whether subjects such as math are “girl activities” or “boy activities,”
they are quite clear about the expected differences
• As children enter middle and high school, their gender stereotypes have already begun to
mirror those held by adults. They see certain courses, extracurricular activities, recreational
choices, and jobs as appropriate for one sex or the other. This stereotyped thinking then
guides their social, educational, and professional choices throughout the teen years and into
adulthood.
• Gender-based stereotyped beliefs are so ingrained by adolescence that they tend to be an
integral part of teens’ view of the world. However, older children also tend to be more
flexible in the gender-violating behaviors they will accept. They become increasingly willing,
as most adults are, to judge people on other criteria in addition to their gender. They become
aware that gender roles are social norms and that “breaking the rules” is sometimes
acceptable (or even cool). However, this does not imply that as adults we become “genderblind.” Various gender-role expectations and the resulting stereotypes remain strong
throughout life. For example, many adults are still surprised—and some are uncomfortable or
even disapproving—upon encountering, say, a female airline captain or a male nurse.
5. Discuss the concept known as androgyny.
• Early theories of gender assumed a mutually exclusive view: that people have a gender-role
identity that is either primarily masculine or primarily feminine and that masculinity and
femininity are at opposite ends of a one-dimensional gender scale. If you were to complete a
test measuring your gender identity based on this view, your score would place you
somewhere along a single scale, either more toward the masculine or more toward the
feminine end of the scale.
• During the 1970s, psychologists proposed a groundbreaking two-dimensional model of
gender. This approach allowed for the possibility that gender is not an either-or proposition
but that people may manifest elements of both genders. This two-dimensional view of gender
measures people on two separate scales, one for masculinity and one for femininity. Instead
of being either masculine or feminine, a person can rate high on both masculinity and
femininity. This may not sound very surprising to you now, but at the time it was
revolutionary. One of the leading figures in gender research, Sandra Bem, described people
who perceive themselves as having both strong masculine and feminine traits as androgynous
(from andro, meaning “male” or “masculine,” and gyn, meaning “female” or “feminine”).
• Bem was not simply theorizing a new way of looking at gender, but was also suggesting
that some advantages might exist for people who are less strongly sex-typed and more able to
behave in either masculine or feminine ways, depending on the situation. In her article, Bem
developed a new instrument for measuring gender that incorporated her two-dimensional
approach. The Bem Sex-Role Inventory contains a list of 60 characteristics that are masculine
(e.g., acts as leader, ambitious, assertive, dominant, independent, self-reliant, willing to take
risks), feminine (e.g., affectionate, childlike, sympathetic, understanding, yielding, shy), or
gender-neutral (e.g., adaptable, conscientious, friendly, reliable, truthful, adaptable) on which

people can rate themselves on a 7-point scale. By examining the differences among the
feminine, masculine, and gender-neutral scores, a person can determine his or her degree of
masculine, feminine, or androgynous gender identity.
• A great deal of research was generated by the new conceptualization of gender as twodimensional, allowing for the existence of androgyny in addition to the traditional divisions
of masculine and feminine. Prior to the 1970s, the prevailing belief was that people would be
most well-adjusted in life if their “gender matched their sex.” That is, boys and men should
display masculine attitudes and behaviors, and girls and women should display feminine
attitudes and behaviors. However, the recognition of androgyny shifted this focus.
• Studies began to show that people who are more androgynous appear to be happier and
better adjusted than those who are strongly sex-typed. Other research has suggested that
androgynous individuals have greater success in heterosexual intimate relationships, probably
because of their greater ability to understand and accept each other’s differences and needs
than couples in which the man is highly masculine and the woman is highly feminine. More
recent research has revealed that people with the most positive traits of androgyny tend to be
psychologically healthier and happier overall.
• The basic theory of androgyny as developed by Bem and others has undergone various
changes and refinements over the years. One finding has been that what are seen as
masculine, feminine, and, therefore, androgynous characteristics vary across cultures.
Therefore, Bem’s original methods of measuring androgyny may not apply to other, diverse
cultures such as India, Taiwan, or Turkey and may need to be adapted or reconceptualized to
retain validity when used for research in diverse cultures.
• Numerous researchers have suggested that the psychological advantages experienced by
people who score high in androgyny may be due more to the presence of masculine traits than
to a balance between male and female characteristics.

Test Bank for Human Sexuality
Roger R. Hock
ISBN's: 9780205989409, 9780133971385, 9780134224961

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