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This Document Contains Chapters 8 to 9 CHAPTER 8 GENDER IDENTITY AND GENDER ROLES TEST QUESTIONS A. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following statements is TRUE? a. “sex” and “gender” refer to the same thing b. “sex” and “gender” are both dichotomous classifications c. “sex” refers to biological characteristics, whereas “gender” is the social construction of femininity and masculinity d. both “sex” and “gender” are biological constructs Answer: c 2. ____________ is the social construction of femininity and masculinity. a. Gender b. Gender identity c. Gender role d. Androgyny Answer: a 3. The term gender identity refers to a. one’s genetic (chromosomal) sex b. one’s sense of self as being a man or a woman c. attitudes and behaviors considered to be appropriate for men and women d. all of the above Answer: b 4. The term gender role refers to a. one’s sense of self as being a man or a woman b. a set of culturally specific norms concerning the expected behaviors and attitudes of men and women c. one’s primary choice of sexual partners (men or women) d. all of the above Answer: b 5. Jim believes that men should work, support a family, and do the heavy labor around the home, like mowing the lawn. Jim is expressing what he believes to be his gender a. identity b. preference c. role d. androgyny Answer: c 6. The genetic sex of a child is determined by a. the father b. the mother c. both the father and the mother d. environmental forces Answer: a 7. If a person is genetically a man, he received a. an X chromosome from his mother and an X chromosome from his father b. an X chromosome from his mother and a Y chromosome from his father c. a Y chromosome from his mother and a Y chromosome from his father d. a Y chromosome from his mother and an X chromosome from his father Answer: b 8. Money and Ehrhardt (1972) said, “Nature’s rule is, it would appear, that to masculinize, something must be added.” The “something” is a. estrogen b. progesterone c. testosterone d. interstitial cell stimulating hormone Answer: c 9. The male reproductive structures develop from a. the Mullerian duct system b. the XY continuation system c. the Wolffian duct system d. the ejaculatory duct system Answer: c 10. Which of these statements BEST summarizes the role of hormones in determining anatomical sex of the embryo? a. if testosterone is present, the embryo will develop into a girl b. if estrogen is absent, the embryo will develop into a boy c. if testosterone is absent, the embryo will develop into a girl d. if estrogen is present, the embryo will develop into a boy Answer: c 11. Men’s and women’s brains differ anatomically because of differences in hormones a. before birth b. shortly after birth c. at puberty d. none of the above (there is no difference) Answer: a 12. Today, the term ____________ recognizes that sex is not dichotomous. a. disorders of sex development b. transsexual c. homosexual d. all of the above Answer: a 13. When a baby is born with ambiguous genitalia, it is called disorder of a. sex development b. sex identity c. gender identity d. all of the above Answer: a 14. This man has an extra X chromosome (XXY) and has long arms, poor muscular development, and enlarged breasts and hips. a. Klinefelter’s Syndrome b. Turner’s Syndrome c. Triple-X Syndrome d. Mullerian Syndrome Answer: a 15. In congenital adrenal hyperplasia, over secretion of testosterone during the last few months of pregnancy can affect the female fetus by a. feminization of the Wolffian ducts b. changing female genitals into male genitals c. masculinization of male genitals d. masculinization of the female genitals Answer: d 16. The most common hormonal disorder of sex development in men is a. congenital adrenal hyperplasia b. cortisone treatment c. XXY syndrome d. androgen insensitivity syndrome Answer: d 17. ____________ is a condition in which a person feels that he or she is trapped in a body of the wrong gender. a. Gender identity b. Gender dysphoria c. Homosexuality d. Transvestism Answer: b 18. An adult who feels that he or she has a gender identity of the opposite sex is a ____________. a. transgender b. transvestite c. homosexual d. all of the above Answer: a 19. An individual who wishes to change his or her anatomical sex is a a. transvestite b. transsexual c. homosexual d. all of the above Answer: b 20. When individuals experience gender incongruence and wish to change, they change their a. anatomy b. gender identity c. gender roles d. all of the above Answer: a 21. “Transgendered” may be a better team than “transsexual” because a. when transsexuals choose to change their conditions they change their body, not their gender b. it better describes an individual having a gender role in a body opposite to society’s expectations c. both of the above d. none of the above Answer: c 22. A two-spirit was a. a native-American religious leader b. a native-American shaman c. a native-American male who assumed female gender roles d. all of the above Answer: c 23. In Freudian theory, gender identity is acquired in the ____________ of psychosexual development. a. anal stage b. oral stage c. phallic stage d. latency stage Answer: c 24. In Freudian theory, successful resolution of the Oedipus complex occurs when the child ____________ the same gender parent. a. reinforces b. identifies with c. competes with d. fantasizes about killing Answer: b 25. A 2-year-old boy picks up a doll, and his father pays no attention. But when the boy picks up a toy hammer, the father talks to him and laughs. In social learning theory, this would be an example of a. imitation b. Oedipus complex c. reinforcement d. identification Answer: c 26. When asked what he wants to be when he grows up, 3-year-old Johnny replies “a mommy.” He is demonstrating a. that he is probably a transsexual b. latent homosexuality c. that he has not acquired the concept of gender constancy d. that he has identified with his mother Answer: c 27. According to cognitive-developmental theory, gender constancy is usually acquired by age a. 2 or 3 b. 4 or 5 c. 6 or 7 d. 8 or 9 Answer: c 28. In cognitive-developmental theory, the motivation for gender identification is driven by a. the need to reduce anxiety b. the need to maintain a good self-image c. the need to receive rewards that follow behavior d. the need to understand the behaviors typical of one’s gender Answer: d 29. The ____________ theory of gender role development is based on the idea that behavioral differences between men and women are due to the different reproductive pressures each faced over thousands of generations. a. Evolutionary b. Sociocultural c. Schema d. Freudian Answer: a 30. ____________ theory regarding gender role development is based on the notion that it is society’s expectations of men’s and women’s behavior that predict how they will behave. a. Evolutionary b. Sociocultural c. Freudian d. All of the above Answer: b 31. A person who is capable of integrating both masculinity and femininity into his or her gender role is a. androgynous b. homosexual c. transsexual d. undifferentiated Answer: a 32. John is a mechanic who not only does the household repairs and mows the lawn, but who also helps with the cooking, cleaning, and care of the baby. John is best described as a. sex-typed b. transsexual c. undifferentiated d. androgynous Answer: d 33. A man would be considered ____________ if he chose only to display “masculinity” in himself and preferred not to show signs of “femininity.” a. stereotyped b. androgynous c. undifferentiated d. sex-role identified Answer: a 34. According to Bem’s theory of androgyny, masculinity and femininity a. are opposite ends of a unidimensional continuum b. are independent constructs c. are unidimensional during childhood, but evolve to become independent constructs d. are complimentary constructs Answer: b 35. ____________ are oversimplified, preconceived beliefs that supposedly apply to anyone in a given group. a. Socializations b. Gender roles c. Reinforcers d. Stereotypes Answer: d 36. A(n) ____________ orientation refers to a cognitive focus on “getting the job done.” a. instrumental b. expressive c. androgynous d. stereotyped Answer: a 37. The process of internalizing society’s beliefs about how men and women are supposed to behave is called ____________ and begins at birth. a. psychosexual development b. internal control c. socialization d. individualism Answer: c 38. ____________ refer to theories or ideas about gender roles that children create from their interactions with the social environment. a. Schemas b. Limitations c. Complexes d. Cognitions Answer: a 39. Which parent is more likely to be concerned that children follow stereotyped gender roles? a. the mother b. the father c. both equally d. neither Answer: b 40. Children’s ideas of gender roles are affected by a. the types of toys they are given to play with b. watching male and female characters on TV c. reading children’s stories with male and female characters d. all of the above Answer: d 41. Children show gender-stereotyped behavior a. only after they understand gender constancy b. only after they have acquired their gender identity c. even before they have a firm grasp of gender identity d. during the latency stage Answer: c 42. Regarding gender stereotyped behavior, which of the following statements is FALSE? a. many teenage girls view being popular and attractive as the primary way to enhance their self-worth, while for boys achievement in athletics and career-related activities is most important b. “tomboy” behavior in girls is less tolerated than “effeminate” behavior in boys c. physical play at recess is tolerated more in boys than girls d. crying is okay for girls, but boys are encouraged to cry as little as possible Answer: b 43. Research suggests that gender roles ____________ in adulthood. a. do not change b. become more stereotyped c. tend to converge d. regress Answer: c 44. Sociocultural theorists, such as Cancian, argue that love became feminized (nurturant, supportive) in the United States a. when the U.S. became industrialized and men began earning a living away from home b. during colonial America with its emphasis on Puritan values c. because of the influence of Christianity d. after the start of the feminist movement Answer: a 45. According to sociocultural theory, which of the following would be LEAST likely to affect present gender roles? a. women employed in construction and machine shops b. women employed as executives c. women employed as caregivers (nurses, teachers) d. women gaining political office Answer: c 46. Studies have shown that since 1990, differences between men and women in sexual desire have a. remained about the same b. become smaller c. become greater d. become greater except for number of sexual partners Answer: b B. TRUE-FALSE 47. The terms “gender” and “sex” basically mean the same thing. a. True b. False Answer: b 48. Sex and gender are biological facts. a. True b. False Answer: b 49. Gender role is the outward expression of your gender identity. a. True b. False Answer: a 50. In the absence of testosterone during development, we would all be born anatomically as girls. a. True b. False Answer: a 51. The anatomy of male and female brains differs. a. True b. False Answer: a 52. Males always have an XY chromosome combination and females an XX combination. a. True b. False Answer: b 53. Women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia have male reproductive anatomy. a. True b. False Answer: b 54. One’s gender identity is fixed by the gender of rearing. a. True b. False Answer: b 55. Transsexuals are a type of transvestites. a. True b. False Answer: b 56. It is easier to change one’s gender identity than it is to change one’s a. True b. False Answer: b 57. In Freud’s explanation of gender identity development, boys unconsciously identify with their fathers. a. True b. False Answer: a 58. Children acquire an understanding that anatomical sex cannot change at the time they learn the difference between boys and girls. a. True b. False Answer: b 59. Evolutionary theory states that behavioral differences between men and women are due to the different reproductive pressures each faced over thousands of generations. a. True b. False Answer: a 60. Androgynous individuals are capable of integrating both traditionally masculine and traditionally feminine gender roles. a. True b. False Answer: a 61. Individuals who score low in both femininity and masculinity on Bem’s Sex Role Inventory are called androgynous. a. True b. False Answer: b 62. Mothers are more likely than fathers to treat their children in gender stereotyped ways. a. True b. False Answer: b 63. Gender stereotyped behavior begins before children acquire gender identity. a. True b. False Answer: a 64. Gender roles tend to become less stereotyped in adulthood. a. True b. False Answer: a 65. Androgynous individuals are generally less adaptive than sex-typed a. True b. False Answer: b 66. The differences between men and women in sexual desire are greater today a. True b. False Answer: b C. ESSAY 67. Explain how babies are born anatomically a boy or a girl. Answer: Babies are anatomically born as boys or girls based on their sex chromosomes. Boys have XY chromosomes, determined by the father's contribution (sperm), while girls have XX chromosomes, determined by the mother's contribution (egg). This genetic difference directs the development of male or female reproductive organs during fetal growth. 68. Describe the biological and environmental factors that influence development of gender identity. Answer: Gender identity development is influenced by both biological and environmental factors: 1. Biological Factors: • Hormonal Influences: Prenatal exposure to hormones can affect brain development related to gender identity. • Genetic Factors: Chromosomal and genetic variations can influence gender identity development. 2. Environmental Factors: • Socialization: Cultural norms, family dynamics, and peer interactions shape understanding of gender roles. • Experiences: Personal experiences and societal expectations play roles in forming individual gender identity. These factors interact complexly to shape each person's sense of their gender identity. 69. Discuss transgendered individuals and relate your discussion to the development of gender identity. Answer: Transgender individuals identify with a gender different from their assigned sex at birth. This may result from a complex interplay of biological, psychological, and social factors: 1. Biological Factors: • Hormonal and Genetic Influences: Prenatal hormone exposure or genetic variations may contribute to a mismatch between biological sex and gender identity. 2. Psychological Factors: • Gender Dysphoria: A disconnect between assigned sex and gender identity can lead to distress, influencing a transgender person's self-concept. 3. Social Factors: • Cultural and Social Norms: Societal expectations and acceptance influence how transgender individuals navigate their identity. Understanding transgender experiences underscores the diversity and complexity of gender identity development beyond traditional binary frameworks. 70. Compare/contrast how learning theory, cognitive-developmental theory, and Freudian theory explain the development of gender identity. Answer: 1. Learning Theory (Behaviorism): • Explanation: Gender identity is acquired through reinforcement, punishment, and observational learning. • Example: Children imitate behaviors and adopt gender roles based on rewards and punishments received from caregivers. 2. Cognitive-Developmental Theory (Piaget): • Explanation: Gender identity evolves through stages of cognitive development and understanding of gender constancy. • Example: Children develop a stable sense of being male or female as they mature cognitively and understand that gender is consistent over time. 3. Freudian Theory (Psychoanalytic): • Explanation: Gender identity forms through unconscious processes and early experiences, including identification with same-sex parent. • Example: Boys identify with their father to resolve the Oedipus complex, while girls identify with their mother in the Electra complex, shaping their gender identity. Each theory offers unique perspectives on how individuals develop their sense of gender identity, emphasizing different aspects of cognitive, behavioral, and psychoanalytic processes. 71. What factors contribute to the development of gender roles in childhood? Answer: Several factors contribute to the development of gender roles in childhood: 1. Socialization: Children learn gender roles through interactions with family members, peers, and society at large. They observe and imitate behaviors considered appropriate for their perceived gender. 2. Cultural Norms: Cultural expectations and values dictate gender roles, influencing how children are taught to behave, dress, and interact based on their gender. 3. Media and Entertainment: Television, movies, books, and other media often portray stereotypical gender roles, shaping children's perceptions and expectations of what is typical for boys and girls. 4. Peer Influence: Peers play a significant role in reinforcing gender norms through play activities, social interactions, and peer pressure to conform to gender-specific behaviors. 5. Parental Influence: Parents' attitudes, behaviors, and expectations regarding gender roles can strongly influence children's understanding and adoption of gender-specific behaviors and roles. 6. Educational Settings: Schools and educational environments can reinforce traditional gender roles through curricula, teacher interactions, and expectations for behavior. These factors interact to form children's understanding of gender roles, influencing their behavior, self-concept, and interactions with others from an early age. 72. Explain the theory of androgyny and discuss several factors that lead individuals to become more androgynous. Answer: The theory of androgyny suggests that individuals can possess both traditionally masculine and feminine characteristics, regardless of their biological sex. Factors contributing to androgyny include: 1. Psychological Flexibility: Openness to adopting traits and behaviors typically associated with both genders. 2. Cultural and Social Acceptance: Societal norms increasingly accept and value gender diversity and fluidity. 3. Education and Exposure: Exposure to diverse gender expressions and identities through education, media, and social interactions. 4. Personal Identity Exploration: Individuals actively explore and integrate aspects of both masculinity and femininity into their self-concept. 5. Parental and Peer Influence: Supportive environments that encourage and validate the expression of diverse gender traits. Androgyny allows individuals to navigate and challenge traditional gender norms, promoting personal growth and societal acceptance of gender diversity. 73. Describe how traditional gender roles developed in this country. Are they still influential today? Answer: Traditional gender roles in many countries, including the United States, developed through historical and cultural factors such as: 1. Historical Norms: Historical divisions of labor and societal expectations shaped gender roles, assigning tasks based on perceived strengths and abilities. 2. Cultural Values: Religious and cultural beliefs often reinforced gender roles, prescribing distinct behaviors and responsibilities for men and women. 3. Legal and Economic Structures: Legal frameworks and economic realities historically limited opportunities and rights based on gender. Today, traditional gender roles still exert influence but are increasingly challenged by movements advocating for gender equality and diversity CHAPTER 9 SEXUAL ORIENTATION TEST QUESTIONS A. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. On Kinsey’s 7-point scale (0–6), he regarded anyone as bisexual who had a rating of a. 2 b. 3 c. 4 d. all of the above Answer: d 2. Today, sexual orientation is viewed as a(n) a. dichotomous model b. bipolar model c. a continuum d. either/or phenomenon Answer: c 3. Kinsey’s report that 10% of United States men were predominantly homosexual is now known to be a. an underestimate b. an overestimate c. accurate d. accurate only for white, middle-class Americans Answer: b 4. Recent surveys indicate that ____________% of American men and ____________% of American women are homosexual and bisexual. a. 2.5–3, 1–2 b. 3–7, 1.5–4.5 c. 5–10, 5–10 d. 10, 10 Answer: b 5. In this book, sexual orientation is defined as a. a dichotomous choice b. distinct preferences formed during childhood c. distinct preferences consistently made after adolescence in the presence of clear alternatives d. exclusive preferences made in the presence of clear alternatives Answer: c 6. Which of these men is clearly demonstrating that he has a homosexual orientation? a. a man who has sex with his wife twice a week and occasionally allows other men to give him oral sex in public bathrooms b. a man who has occasional fantasies about homosexual behaviors while having sexual intercourse with his female lover c. a man who is sexually attracted only to other men, though he has not yet engaged in homosexual behavior d. all of the above Answer: c 7. A bisexual is a person who a. is really a homosexual who has not yet “come out of the closet” b. has not yet formed a sexual orientation c. can enjoy and engage in sexual activity with members of both sexes, or recognizes a desire to do so, without any clear preference d. all of the above Answer: c 8. Sexual orientation consists of which of the following components? a. affective (sexual attraction, feelings of desire and love) b. behavioral c. self-identity d. all of the above Answer: d 9. The developmental pathway to homosexuality is a. more diverse for women than for men b. more diverse for men than for women c. equally diverse for men and women d. less diverse than for heterosexuals Answer: a 10. An asexual individual is someone who has a. low sexual desire b. had little or no interest in sex for 3 years c. a lifelong lack of sexual attraction to men or women d. impaired gender (sexual) identity Answer: c 11. The gender identity of the vast majority of homosexuals and bisexuals is a. just as strong as is found among heterosexuals b. weaker than is found among heterosexuals c. inconsistent with their anatomical gender d. evidence of gender dysphoria Answer: a 12. Gender role nonconformity is a. an accurate predictor of sexual orientation b. an accurate predictor of sexual orientation in women, but not men c. a better predictor of sexual orientation in men than in women d. almost always a poor predictor of sexual orientation Answer: c 13. “You can always tell if someone is homosexual by their appearance, walk, and other mannerisms.” This statement is a. true for both gays and lesbians b. true only for male homosexuals c. true only for female homosexuals d. not true Answer: d 14. Psychoanalytic theories attribute homosexuality to a. early masturbation b. differences in parenting styles c. childhood sexual abuse d. all of the above Answer: b 15. Which of these is a problem with the social learning environmental theory explanation for the cause of homosexuality? a. most female homosexuals have had pleasurable sexual relations with men b. even in cases of extreme childhood gender role nonconformity, one cannot absolutely predict future sexual orientation c. homosexual orientation as an adult is no more common in cultures that encourage homosexual practices during childhood than it is in cultures that discourage it d. all of the above Answer: d 16. Studies with identical twins indicate that a. homosexuality is not genetically determined b. there is only a moderate (20–30%) concordance for homosexual orientation c. there is a substantial (50–60%) concordance for homosexual orientation d. there is a 100% concordance for homosexual orientation Answer: c 17. Which of the following statements is NOT true? a. studies of identical twins indicate a genetic determinant for sexual orientation b. the brains of heterosexuals and homosexuals differ c. studies with nonhuman mammals have shown that treatment with hormones before birth can result in homosexual behavior d. level of circulating testosterone is greater in adult heterosexuals than it is in adult homosexuals Answer: d 18. Studies have found that, on average, homosexual men a. had a greater number of older brothers b. had a greater number of older sisters c. had a greater number of younger brothers d. had a greater number of younger sisters Answer: a 19. Hormones probably affect one’s sexual orientation a. before birth or in the first 20 weeks after birth b. during the phallic stage of psychosexual development c. during puberty d. during adolescence Answer: a 20. Which of these statements about the origins of sexual orientation is most correct? a. sexual orientation is caused mainly by the social environment (including how one is raised) b. sexual orientation is a matter of free choice c. sexual orientation is caused by biological factors d. sexual orientation is predisposed, in part, by biological factors Answer: d 21. Which of these terms is most different in meaning from the others? a. gay b. lesbian c. homosexual d. transsexual Answer: d 22. Which of these cultures was intolerant of homosexuality? a. ancient Greek b. ancient Roman c. biblical Hebrew d. all of the above Answer: c 23. The idea that homosexuality was “against the laws of nature” originated with a. the biblical Jews b. Saint Thomas Aquinas c. the Puritans d. the rise of modern medicine in the 1800s Answer: b 24. Cross-cultural studies of homosexuality have found that, compared to the United States, most cultures a. have about the same attitudes b. are even less tolerant c. are more tolerant d. are more tolerant regarding female homosexuality, but less tolerant regarding male homosexuality Answer: c 25. The idea that homosexuality is a sickness originated with a. the rise of the medical model in the 1800s b. the biblical Hebrews c. Christian writers during the Middle Ages d. The Puritans Answer: a 26. The American Psychiatric Association classifies homosexuality as a. a mental illness b. a deviation c. an emotional disturbance d. none of the above Answer: d 27. Sexual prejudice is a negative attitude that a. some heterosexuals have of homosexuals b. some homosexuals have of heterosexuals c. stereotyped men have of women d. all of the above Answer: a 28. Which of these statements regarding sexual prejudice is FALSE? a. sexual prejudice is greater among men than it is among women b. sexual prejudice is socially reinforced c. men generally feel more threatened by female homosexuality than by male homosexuality d. men generally feel more threatened by male homosexuality than by female homosexuality Answer: c 29. Jennifer has had a homosexual orientation for several years and has taken a lesbian lover. She has kept her homosexuality a secret from her parents, but has now decided to tell them and everyone else she knows about it. This is known as a. becoming a swinger b. letting loose c. coming out d. becoming a homo sapiens Answer: c 30. Homosexuals discover their sexual orientation a. in childhood b. in adolescence c. in adulthood d. all of the above Answer: d 31. The first stage in coming out is a. admitting to oneself of a homosexual orientation b. complete openness about one’s homosexuality c. getting to know other homosexuals d. telling family and friends of one’s sexual orientation Answer: a 32. An important task for any adult, regardless of their sexual orientation, is to a. develop an acceptance of their sexuality b. find acceptable ways to express it c. learn to incorporate their sexuality into their total lifestyle d. all of the above Answer: d 33. With regard to homosexual lifestyles, which of the following statements is FALSE? a. male homosexuals generally have many more partners in their lifetime than male heterosexuals b. whether heterosexual or homosexual, women generally prefer commitment and romantic love c. both male and female homosexuals generally have many more partners than do heterosexuals d. many homosexuals describe themselves as happy with their sexual lifestyle Answer: c 34. With regards to homosexuals as parents, which of the following is TRUE? a. most homosexuals have weak parental instincts b. children raised by openly homosexual parents usually grow up to have a homosexual orientation c. children raised by openly homosexual parents usually grow up to have a heterosexual orientation d. children raised by openly homosexual parents are more likely to show gender identity conflicts than children raised by heterosexual parents Answer: c 35. The American Medical Association presently recommends that a. homosexuals be treated for their sexual orientation b. homosexuals be converted to heterosexuals c. unhappy homosexuals be made comfortable with their sexual orientation d. all of the above Answer: c B. TRUE-FALSE 36. Today, sexual orientation is viewed as a dichotomous choice: heterosexual or homosexual. a. True b. False Answer: b 37. Most studies have found that 10% of American men are predominantly or exclusively homosexual. a. True b. False Answer: b 38. Homosexual refers to anyone who has had sex with a same-sexed person after adolescence. a. True b. False Answer: b 39. Most bisexuals are actually homosexuals. a. True b. False Answer: b 40. Homosexuality results from reversed gender roles. a. True b. False Answer: b 41. The gender identity for most homosexuals is as consistent with their anatomy as is found for heterosexuals. a. True b. False Answer: a 42. Conforming or not conforming to gender stereotypes does not reliably predict sexual orientation. a. True b. False Answer: a 43. Most gays are effeminate in their appearance, while most lesbians are masculine in appearance. a. True b. False Answer: b 44. Extremely effeminate (“sissy”) boys invariably turn out to be homosexual. a. True b. False Answer: b 45. Most lesbians have had pleasurable sexual relations with men. a. True b. False Answer: a 46. If one member of identical twins is homosexual, the other always will be, too. a. True b. False Answer: b 47. The brains of heterosexuals and homosexuals have been found to be different. a. True b. False Answer: a 48. On average, homosexual men have more older brothers than heterosexual men. a. True b. False Answer: a 49. Hormones, before or shortly after birth, probably predispose an individual to a particular sexual orientation. a. True b. False Answer: a 50. Homosexual men have been found to have different finger length ratios than heterosexual men. a. True b. False Answer: a 51. In Western culture, homosexuality has always been viewed with negativity. a. True b. False Answer: b 52. Homosexuality is viewed negatively in almost all cultures. a. True b. False Answer: b 53. All Sambian boys engage in oral-genital sex with other boys, and many continue to prefer this as adults—strong evidence in support of social learning theory. a. True b. False Answer: b 54. Homosexuality is classified as a mental illness by mental health professionals. a. True b. False Answer: b 55. Sexually prejudiced men generally have a more negative attitude about lesbians than they do gays. a. True b. False Answer: b 56. Today, coming out is beginning at a younger age than in the past. a. True b. False Answer: a 57. Women, whether straight or lesbian, tend to value commitment and romantic love. a. True b. False Answer: a 58. Most homosexuals adopt a single role (“masculine” or “feminine”) in a sexual relationship. a. True b. False Answer: b 59. There is a greater than normal chance of children raised by openly homosexual parents becoming homosexual. a. True b. False Answer: b 60. Most homosexuals would like to change their sexual orientation. a. True b. False Answer: b 61. The American Medical Association and American Psychological Association both oppose attempts by therapists to change an individual’s sexual orientation. a. True b. False Answer: a C. ESSAY 62. Discuss the problems in defining and estimating the prevalence of sexual orientation. Answer: Defining and estimating the prevalence of sexual orientation faces several challenges: 1. Social Stigma: Many individuals may not disclose their sexual orientation due to fear of stigma or discrimination. 2. Fluidity and Diversity: Sexual orientation can be fluid and diverse, making it difficult to categorize accurately. 3. Cultural Variability: Definitions and acceptance of sexual orientation vary across cultures, affecting how individuals identify. 4. Methodological Issues: Surveys may not capture the full spectrum of sexual orientations, leading to underestimation or misrepresentation. 5. Self-Identification: Individuals may interpret sexual orientation differently from researchers, impacting how data is collected and analyzed. 63. Discuss the relationship between sexual orientation and gender roles. Answer: Sexual orientation and gender roles are related but distinct concepts: 1. Gender Roles: These are societal expectations and norms regarding behaviors, attitudes, and activities considered appropriate for individuals based on their perceived or assigned gender. 2. Sexual Orientation: This refers to an individual's enduring emotional, romantic, or sexual attraction to others, often categorized as heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, or other orientations. While gender roles can influence how sexual orientation is expressed and perceived (e.g., expectations of who should be attracted to whom), sexual orientation itself is about attraction rather than conformity to gender norms. Individuals may conform to, challenge, or disregard gender roles regardless of their sexual orientation. 64. Discuss the role of nature and nurture (biology vs. environment) in the determination of sexual orientation. Which do you find most compelling? Why? Answer: The determination of sexual orientation involves complex interactions between nature (biology) and nurture (environment): 1. Nature (Biology): Biological factors such as genetics, prenatal hormone exposure, and brain structure may contribute to sexual orientation. 2. Nurture (Environment): Environmental factors such as upbringing, socialization, culture, and personal experiences also play a role in shaping sexual orientation. The most compelling explanation often integrates both nature and nurture. While biological factors provide insights into potential predispositions, environmental influences can significantly shape how sexual orientation is expressed and understood. The interaction between these factors suggests that sexual orientation is likely a result of a combination of genetic, hormonal, social, and psychological influences rather than solely one or the other. 65. Describe false stereotypes about homosexuals. Why do these stereotypes exist? Why are they maintained? Answer: False stereotypes about homosexuals include: 1. Promiscuity: Stereotype that all homosexuals are promiscuous. 2. Pedophilia: Incorrect association between homosexuality and pedophilia. 3. Gender Nonconformity: Belief that all homosexuals exhibit gender nonconforming behavior. These stereotypes exist due to ignorance, prejudice, and misinformation perpetuated by societal norms, cultural beliefs, and media portrayal. They are maintained through social conditioning, lack of accurate information, fear of difference, and historical biases. Challenging these stereotypes requires education, exposure to diverse perspectives, and promoting understanding and acceptance of LGBTQ+ individuals. 66. What factors contribute to sexual prejudice? Answer: Sexual prejudice, including homophobia and discrimination against LGBTQ+ individuals, is influenced by several factors: 1. Social Norms: Cultural beliefs and societal attitudes that reinforce heteronormativity and traditional gender roles. 2. Religious Beliefs: Interpretations of religious teachings that condemn or stigmatize non-heterosexual orientations. 3. Lack of Exposure: Limited contact with diverse sexual orientations, leading to stereotypes and misconceptions. 4. Fear and Ignorance: Fear of the unknown or unfamiliar, combined with ignorance about sexual orientation diversity. 5. Political and Legal Context: Laws and policies that discriminate against LGBTQ+ individuals, perpetuating prejudice. 6. Socialization and Peer Influence: Family, peers, and media messages that reinforce negative attitudes towards non-heterosexual orientations. Addressing sexual prejudice involves education, advocacy for LGBTQ+ rights, promoting inclusivity, and challenging discriminatory beliefs and behaviors. 67. Discuss the prevalence of, and attitudes about, homosexuality in other cultures. Answer: Attitudes towards homosexuality vary widely across cultures: 1. Acceptance: Some cultures historically or currently accept diverse sexual orientations, integrating them into social norms and traditions. 2. Stigma: In other cultures, homosexuality may be stigmatized due to religious, legal, or societal norms, leading to discrimination and marginalization. 3. Legal Status: Legal frameworks can vary significantly, influencing public attitudes and the rights of LGBTQ+ individuals. 4. Changing Perspectives: Globalization and advocacy efforts have led to shifts in attitudes and legal recognition of LGBTQ+ rights in many cultures. Understanding these variations helps to contextualize global diversity in attitudes and policies towards homosexuality. 68. What is the evidence regarding homosexuals as parents? Answer: Research consistently shows that homosexuals can be effective and nurturing parents: 1. Parenting Skills: Studies indicate no significant differences in parenting abilities between homosexual and heterosexual parents. 2. Child Development: Children raised by homosexual parents show similar social, emotional, and cognitive development outcomes compared to those raised by heterosexual parents. 3. Family Dynamics: Stability, warmth, and parental involvement are consistent in families with homosexual parents, promoting positive child well-being. 4. Legal and Social Context: Challenges may arise from legal discrimination or societal stigma rather than inherent parenting ability. Overall, evidence supports the conclusion that sexual orientation does not determine parenting competence, emphasizing the importance of supportive environments for all families. Test Bank for Human Sexuality Today Bruce, M. King, Pamela C. Regan 9780205996384, 9780134804460

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