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This Document Contains Chapters 15 to 16 CHAPTER 15 SEXUAL VICTIMIZATION: RAPE, COERCION, HARASSMENT, AND ABUSE OF CHILDREN TEST QUESTIONS A. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following constitute sexual assault, according to your textbook? a. sex obtained through physical force b. sex with someone who is unconscious c. sex obtained through manipulation or pressure d. all of the above Answer: d 2. Which of the following statements is NOT true? a. Sexual assault can occur between romantic partners b. Men can be the victims of sexual assault c. Women cannot be the perpetrators of sexual assault d. Sexual assault includes forced penetration by a foreign object Answer: c 3. Until very recently, rape was defined by U.S. federal authorities as a. forcible penile-vaginal penetration b. nonconsensual oral, anal, or vaginal penetration c. aggravated assault with a deadly weapon d. sexual coercion Answer: a 4. Today, rape is defined in the United States as a. forcible penile-vaginal penetration b. nonconsensual oral, anal, or vaginal penetration c. aggravated assault with a deadly weapon d. sexual coercion Answer: b 5. Dr. S studies rape prevalence. To determine rates of victimization, she asks a group of women about various types of sexual violence they may have experienced. Dr. T also studies rape prevalence. He examines cases of sexual violence that are reported to law enforcement. Dr. S is using ____________, whereas Dr. T is using ____________. a. crime data, victimization surveys b. research reports, FBI reports c. victimization surveys, crime data d. self-report, behavioral indices Answer: c 6. Which of the following statements about rape prevalence is true? a. Victimization surveys yield higher prevalence rates than do national crime reports. b. National crime reports dramatically overestimate the prevalence of rape. c. The most accurate way of determining rape prevalence is to analyze crime data. d. Victimization surveys indicate lower rape prevalence rates than crime reports. Answer: a 7. The number of rapes committed each year is probably ____________ the number reported. a. equal to b. much higher than c. much lower than d. approximately the same as Answer: b 8. ____________ can be the victim of rape. a. Infants b. Men c. The elderly d. all of the above Answer: d 9. The most frequently reported victims of rape are a. men and women in their 20s b. people 65 or older c. teenage girls d. women between 12 and 34 Answer: d 10. Large national surveys reveal that about ____________ of American women have been the victims of rape or attempted rape in their lifetimes. a. 10% b. 20% c. 30% d. 40% Answer: b 11. What is true of sexual assaults that occur in nursing homes or residential care facilities? a. The perpetrators are usually outsiders b. Victimization is less likely if the target is confined to a wheelchair c. Victims are usually staff members d. none of the above Answer: d 12. Based on what you know about sexual assaults of the elderly, which one of the following nursing home residents is MOST likely to be victimized? a. Abbi, who is suffering from dementia b. Bobbi, who is physically fit and walks five miles every morning c. Cari, whose family visits her every day d. Debi, who is still “sharp as a tack” Answer: a 13. About ____________ of sexual assaults happen at home. a. 10% b. half c. two-thirds d. 90% Answer: c 14. Sexual assault is least likely to occur at which of the following locations? a. the victim’s own home b. the home of a friend, relative, or acquaintance of the victim c. on public transportation d. at school Answer: d 15. Sexual assault is most likely to occur at which of the following locations? a. the home of the victim or a friend, relative, or acquaintance b. in a commercial building, parking lot, or garage c. on public transportation d. at school Answer: a 16. National surveys reveal that very few victims of sexual assault are attacked by ____________. a. strangers b. acquaintances c. relationship partners d. people they know Answer: a 17. Rape which occurs during a social encounter between the victim and assailant is known as a. social rape b. romantic rape c. date rape d. stranger rape Answer: c 18. Joe and Amanda meet for dinner and a movie. After, they drive back to Amanda’s apartment for a cup of coffee. While there, Joe forces Amanda to engage in oral sex. Amanda has been the victim of a. social rape b. date rape c. gang rape d. stranger rape Answer: b 19. Research reveals that people tend to attribute ____________ blame to victims of date rape than to victims of stranger rape. a. about equal b. less c. more d. none of the above-there is not enough research to come to a conclusion Answer: c 20. Early surveys of college men have found that ____________ admitted to using some form of sexual force or aggression on a date. a. about 25% b. less than 10% c. almost none d. about 90% Answer: a 21. About how many date or acquaintance rapes are reported to the police? a. 50% b. 35% c. 15% d. 5% Answer: d 22. Eva was raped by a dating partner last night. What is her most likely response? a. She will immediately file a restraining order. b. She will call the police within 24 hours. c. She will notify her friends and family. d. She will not report the rape to the police. Answer: d 23. According to the textbook, the use of verbal or physical tactics to manipulate or pressure someone to comply with sexual demands is known as a. sexual assault b. sexual violence c. sexual coercion d. sexual abuse Answer: c 24. Which of the following represents a physically coercive tactic? a. pressuring the partner to have sex b. begging the partner for sex c. making the partner feel guilty for refusing sex d. getting the partner drunk in order to have sex Answer: d 25. Zeke wants to have sex with his girlfriend, but she is not interested and refuses. Which of the following represents a physically coercive tactic on Zeke’s part? a. “Oh, c’mon, if you loved me, you’d have sex with me.” b. “I will end this relationship if you don’t do this.” c. “Here, have another drink.” d. “Please, please, please, please....” Answer: c 26. Which of the following represents a verbally coercive tactic? a. having sex with the partner once he or she is asleep b. begging the partner for sex c. having sex with someone who is unconscious d. getting the partner drunk in order to have sex Answer: b 27. Zelda wants to have sex with her boyfriend, but he is not interested and refuses. Which of the following represents a verbally coercive tactic on Zelda’s part? a. “Fine. Let’s just get you a little more drunk.” b. “I will end this relationship if you don’t have sex with me.” c. “Why don’t you take one of your sleeping pills and get into bed?” d. “Oh good, he’s totally unconscious. I’ll just go ahead and do what I want.” Answer: b 28. During a date, X drank too much and passed out. Z then engaged in sexual activity with X. What specific type of sexual assault has Z enacted? a. physical assault b. anger rape c. forcible rape d. sexual coercion Answer: d 29. It is sometimes difficult to determine whether a sexual interaction is fully consensual because a. women often lie about how interested they are in having sex b. men often lie about their own sexual intentions c. men and women differ in how they interpret behaviors that occur during dates d. men tend to communicate directly about sex, whereas women tend to communicate indirectly about sex Answer: c 30. Most people tend to use ____________ methods when communicating about sex. a. indirect, nonverbal b. direct, verbal c. explicit, direct d. clear, physical Answer: a 31. Kate likes Will and is very attracted to him. During one of their dates, the two begin to kiss and make out with each other. When Will tries to engage in intercourse with Kate, however, she tells him “no” even though she really wants to have sex with him-and subsequently does. What does this scenario illustrate? a. rape b. compliance c. sexual coercion d. token resistance Answer: d 32. ____________ is defined as saying “no” to sexual activity when you really mean “yes.” a. Token resistance b. Compliance c. False refusal d. Indirect communication Answer: a 33. Pippa is on a date with her boyfriend Harry. During one of their dates, Harry asks Pippa if they can have sex. She agrees even though she really does not want to. What does this scenario illustrate? a. rape b. compliance c. sexual coercion d. token resistance Answer: b 34. ____________ is defined as agreeing to engage in sexual activity when you do not really want to. a. Token resistance b. Compliance c. Sexual coercion d. Indirect refusal Answer: b 35. Research studies show that ____________% of women have complied with a partner’s sexual request when they did not want to. a. 0–10 b. 10–20 c. 30–50 d. 80–90 Answer: c 36. The 17th century idea that a husband cannot rape his wife because by marrying him, she has consented to all sexual activity is known as the ____________. a. token resistance act b. law of wifely duty c. spousal privilege rule d. marital rape exemption Answer: d 37. The marital rape exemption refers to the outdated legal notion that a. a wife has given de facto consent to sexual intercourse by marrying her husband b. husbands can only be prosecuted for extremely violent sexual assaults c. spouses have a duty to give in to each other’s sexual demands d. all of the above Answer: a 38. Marital rape is a crime ____________. a. in about half of the states in the U.S. b. in all 50 states and the District of Columbia c. around the world d. in Western Europe but not yet in the U.S. Answer: b 39. The least common type of marital rape is ____________. a. battering rape b. anger rape c. force-only rape d. obsessive rape Answer: d 40. ____________ is a type of marital or relational rape in which the victim experiences forced sex as well as physical violence and coercive control from the partner. a. Battering rape b. Sadistic rape c. Force-only rape d. Obsessive rape Answer: a 41. ____________ occurs when the perpetrator is generally not physically abusive, but uses force or coercion to obtain sex from an unwilling partner. a. Battering rape b. Sadistic rape c. Force-only rape d. Obsessive rape Answer: c 42. ____________ is a type of marital or relational rape in which the perpetrator enjoys sexually tormenting the partner, takes pleasure in the partner’s humiliation, and will use force to achieve these sexual goals. a. Battering rape b. Anger rape c. Force-only rape d. Obsessive rape Answer: d 43. Regarding marital rape, which of these statements is FALSE? a. It has been estimated that at least 10% to 14% of married women have been raped by their husbands b. Marital rape is often accompanied by beating or other forms of physical abuse c. All 50 states have laws against marital rape d. none of the above-they are all true Answer: d 44. Rape which involves more than one assailant is known as a. acquaintance rape b. gang rape c. date rape d. stranger rape Answer: b 45. In the United States, about ____________ % of rape victims are assaulted by more than one attacker. a. 5 b. 10 c. 15 d. 20 Answer: b 46. At a college party, Zoe was sexually assaulted by two men. What type of rape does this illustrate? a. gang rape b. acquaintance rape c. date rape d. stranger rape Answer: a 47. Which of the following statements about gang rape is accurate? a. Perpetrators of gang rape usually know their victims b. Gang rapes tend to be less violent than other forms of rape c. Gang rapes tend to cause more injury to the victim than single-perpetrator rapes d. none of the above Answer: c 48. In addition to the usual reasons for rape, individuals may participate in gang rape a. because individual responsibility is diffused b. to demonstrate loyalty to the group c. in order not to be seen as a coward d. all of the above Answer: d 49. Laws which protect teenagers who have consensual sex with each other from being charged with statutory rape are known as ____________ laws. a. Fred and Wilma b. Statutory exemption c. Brad and Angelina d. Romeo and Juliet Answer: d 50. An adult who has sexual intercourse with a willing partner under the legal age of consent has committed ____________. a. statutory rape b. sodomy c. pedophilia d. juvenile rape Answer: a 51. Ted is 21. His girlfriend Alicia is 15. The two of them are engaging in consensual sexual intercourse. What does this scenario illustrate? a. sodomy b. statutory rape c. pedophilia d. juvenile rape Answer: b 52. Sexual violence against women is likely to be particularly high in countries ____________. a. that have a highly permissive attitude toward female sexuality b. that emphasize gender equality c. that are sexually liberal d. that have a patriarchal cultural orientation Answer: d 53. Marital rape is not a crime in many parts of ____________. a. North America b. Western Europe c. Africa d. South America Answer: c 54. Most victims of sexual assault are ____________ and most assailants are ____________. a. female, female b. female, male c. male, female d. male, male Answer: b 55. Male rape victims are more likely than female rape victims a. to be seriously injured during the assault b. to have been raped during childhood c. to be raped by a stranger d. to report the assault to the police Answer: b 56. Sexual assault is more likely among adult men who a. are pedophiles b. identify as heterosexual c. have multiple dating partners d. identify as gay or bisexual Answer: d 57. Which of the following statements about male rape is accurate? a. Most male prisoners are raped while in prison b. Men who are raped in prison often have multiple assailants c. Most male rape victims are raped by women d. Male rape victims are attacked by strangers Answer: b 58. Research on sexual coercion indicates that men often employ ____________ coercion, whereas women tend to use ____________ coercion. a. verbal, physical b. forced, non-forced c. physical, verbal d. rational, emotional Answer: c 59. With regards to the use of sexual coercion, a. both men and women generally use verbal coercion b. both men and women generally use physical coercion c. men generally use verbal coercion, whereas women generally use physical coercion d. men generally use physical coercion, whereas women generally use verbal coercion Answer: d 60. Compared with other criminals, most convicted rapists a. have much lower IQs b. show greater psychiatric illness c. have a different set of personality attributes d. none of the above Answer: d 61. Compared with non-sex offenders, most convicted rapists a. have much lower IQs b. are more likely to have experienced parental abuse and neglect c. are less sexually aroused by rape-related stimuli d. None of the above Answer: b 62. Hank is a convicted rapist. What are we likely to find if we examine his family background? a. parental neglect b. childhood abuse c. early exposure to sexual violence d. all of the above Answer: d 63. Which of the following characteristics is true about most rapists? a. they have distorted beliefs about female behavior b. they lack empathy c. they accept rape myths d. all of the above Answer: d 64. Dr. F studies convicted rapists. She approaches her work from a psychodynamic perspective, and has just published a book detailing her theory of rape. Which one of the following book titles do you think best represents her work? a. “How Culture Creates Sexual Violence” b. “Psychopathology and the Origins of Rape” c. “Sexual Violence as a Destabilizing Force” d. “Rape: A Human Ancestral Byproduct” Answer: b 65. Psychodynamic theories of rape state that men who rape do so a. because they are hypersexual and cannot control their sexual arousal b. because they are generally psychotic c. to express power, anger, or sadism d. it is part of their ancestral heritage Answer: c 66. Jack rapes women to overcome personal feelings of insecurity and inadequacy. Jim is probably a(n) ____________ rapist. a. power b. anger c. sadistic d. opportunistic Answer: a 67. ____________ rapes are committed by men who generally despise women and want revenge. a. Anger b. Power c. Neurotic d. Sadistic Answer: a 68. ____________ rapists are erotically aroused by physical force and account for only about 5% of all rapes. a. Anger b. Power c. Neurotic d. Sadistic Answer: d 69. Most men who commit date rape are probably ____________ rapists. a. anger b. power c. opportunistic d. sadistic Answer: c 70. Dr. B studies convicted rapists. He approaches his work from a feminist/sexual script perspective, and has just published a book detailing his work on rape. Which one of the following book titles do you think best reflects his viewpoint? a. “How Culture Creates Sexual Violence” b. “Psychopathology and the Origins of Rape” c. “Sexual Violence and Personality Disorders” d. “Rape: A Human Ancestral Byproduct” Answer: a 71. Dr. K studies convicted rapists. She approaches her work from an evolutionary perspective, and has just published a book detailing her theory of rape. Which one of the following book titles do you think best reflects her viewpoint? a. “How Culture Creates Sexual Violence” b. “Psychopathology and the Origins of Rape” c. “Sexual Violence as a Destabilizing Force” d. “Rape: A Human Ancestral Byproduct” Answer: d 72. One day you overhear a classmate discussing a recent rape case that received a good deal of media attention. When talking about the victim in the case, your classmate says that although no one deserves to be attacked, the victim was at least partly to blame because of the way she was dressed. This statement reflects a. incredible stupidity b. a rape myth c. a sexual script d. an assault stereotype Answer: b 73. Which of the following statements about rape is a myth? a. No woman can be raped if she does not want to be b. Women who are raped usually provoked the attack by their dress or behavior c. Women subconsciously want to be raped d. all of the above Answer: d 74. Q was sexually assaulted by a former romantic partner. Since the assault, Q has been unable to stop thinking about the attack, frequently has nightmares about what happened, is afraid of being alone, and has become severely depressed. Q is experiencing ____________. a. rape anxiety syndrome b. depression c. post-rape posttraumatic stress disorder d. chronic fatigue syndrome Answer: c 75. Victims of rape often go through months or even years of emotional and psychological problems. This is called a. post-rape posttraumatic stress disorder b. rape desensitization syndrome c. chronic fatigue syndrome d. rape dissociative disorder Answer: a 76. Rape victims who are displaying a great deal of anguish, grief, anger, or controlled calmness are most likely going through the a. acute phase of recovery b. long-term reorganization phase of recovery c. dynamic reconstruction phase of recovery d. psychological healing phase of recovery Answer: a 77. After being raped, Marianne joined a victim advocacy group, took self-defense classes, installed an alarm system in her home, and changed her work hours. She is probably in the ____________ phase of recovery. a. acute b. long-term reorganization c. dynamic reconstruction d. psychological healing Answer: b 78. Rape victims may show which of the following long-term reactions to their experience? a. difficulties forming close relationships b. inability to enjoy sex c. risky sexual behavior d. any of the above Answer: d 79. Most experts today would advise a women who believes she is about to be raped to a. resist with all means possible (verbal and physical) and try to escape b. try to talk her way out of it, but not to react physically, as this often results in greater physical harm c. avoid verbal assertiveness, as this may anger the rapist d. not resist, as there is little chance of escape, and resistance will likely result in greater physical injury Answer: a 80. According to the social systems perspective, rape is caused by a. imperfect physical environments provided by society, such as poorly lit parking lots b. society having too lenient a set of laws against rape c. our society’s belief that men should be sexually aggressive and dominant d. all of the above Answer: c 81. Which of these statements regarding sexual harassment is FALSE? a. sexual harassment can be in the form of physical or verbal conduct b. a victim must prove that sexual favors were demanded in exchange for job benefits c. a victim does not have to prove that sexual favors were demanded in exchange for job benefits if a hostile or offensive work environment was created d. sexual harassment can be directed at both men and women Answer: b 82. Sexual harassment usually occurs a. when women (or men) invite such behavior by their dress or behavior b. in a relationship where there is equal power c. in a relationship where there is unequal power d. in egalitarian relationships Answer: c 83. Sexual harassment is most likely to be committed by men who a. believe in traditional stereotypical roles for men and women b. are androgynous c. believe in egalitarian relationships d. all of the above Answer: a 84. Surveys generally find that ____________ of women college students have been sexually harassed by an instructor. a. fewer than 10% b. 30% or more c. well over half d. the majority Answer: b 85. Surveys generally find that ____________ of middle and high school students have been sexually harassed. a. less than 1% b. between 10% and 20% c. nearly half d. almost 100% Answer: c 86. What are the most common forms of sexual harassment reported by middle and high school students? a. being touched in an unwelcome sexual way b. being shown sexual images they did not want to see c. being called gay or lesbian in a negative way d. unwelcome sexual comments, jokes, or gestures Answer: d 87. ____________ is a harmful behavioral syndrome in which one person invades another’s privacy in an effort to create a relationship with that other person. a. Unrequited love b. Love sickness c. Manic love d. Stalking Answer: d 88. To be considered “stalking,” behavior has to be ____________. a. infrequent b. pleasant to the target c. aversive to the target d. life-threatening Answer: c 89. Scott has asked Jean to go out with him. Before we can conclude that Scott’s behavior is problematic, we would need to see evidence that a. Scott has repeatedly asked Jean out b. Jean does not want Scott to ask her out again c. Jean views Scott’s requests as offensive and unpleasant d. all of the above Answer: d 90. Legal definitions of stalking vary across the United States. However, relational stalking typically becomes a crime when ____________. a. it poses a real threat and the target fears for his or her safety b. the target fears for his or her life but there is no real threat c. the target is not afraid but there is a credible threat d. the target becomes enraged or suicidal Answer: a 91. Which of the following conclusions can we draw from research on stalking? a. more men than women have been the target of stalking behavior b. men and women are at equal risk for stalking victimization c. most stalkers have major personality disorders d. sizeable numbers of targets are acquainted with their stalkers Answer: d 92. Within psychiatry and psychology, a child is generally defined as someone who is ____________ years of age or younger. a. 10 b. 13 c. 16 d. 18 Answer: b 93. Children are MOST likely to be sexually molested by a. a transient hanging around the playground b. a stranger driving around in a car c. an acquaintance or relative d. a salesman going from house to house Answer: c 94. Adults whose primary sexual orientation is toward children are referred to as a. preference molesters b. situational molesters c. non-exclusive pedophiles d. all of the above Answer: a 95. Sean is attracted to adult women, but one night he gets drunk and sexually fondles his 13-year-old neighbor. Sean would be described as a(n) a. preference molester b. exclusive pedophile c. situational molester d. bisexual pedophile Answer: c 96. The most common type of pedophile is the ____________ pedophile. a. aggressive b. personally immature c. regressive d. hebephilic Answer: b 97. Victims of child molestation a. usually experience no effects at all from the abuse b. usually tell an adult within two weeks of the abuse c. show little recovery during the first year after the abuse d. have a tendency to blame themselves for the abuse Answer: d 98. Incest is BEST defined as a. sexual contact between a father and daughter b. sexual activity between relatives too closely related to be legally married c. sexual activity with an animal d. sexual activity between an adult and a child Answer: b 99. Which of the following types of incestuous relationships is most common? a. brother-sister b. father-daughter c. grandfather-grandchild d. uncle-niece Answer: a 100. Which of the following statements regarding the prosecution of rape is FALSE? a. A rapist’s past sexual offenses may be introduced in court b. In most states, a victim’s past sexual history cannot be questioned (unless it is brought up by the victim’s attorney) c. In most states, a victim who does not report a rape within 24 hours cannot seek prosecution later d. Many states no longer require evidence of ejaculation as physical evidence that sexual penetration has occurred Answer: c B. TRUE-FALSE 101. Most rapes are committed by someone the victim knows. a. True b. False Answer: a 102. In general, rapists have lower than normal IQs. a. True b. False Answer: b 103. Almost all cases of sexual coercion involve male assailants and female victims. a. True b. False Answer: b 104. If a minor (young teenager) gives his or her consent to having intercourse with an adult, the adult cannot be convicted of rape. a. True b. False Answer: b 105. Estimates of male rape are generally easier to obtain than estimates of female rape. a. True b. False Answer: b 106. It is physically impossible for a woman to rape a man. a. True b. False Answer: b 107. Jurors who believe rape myths are less likely to vote for conviction in rape trials. a. True b. False Answer: a 108. Women often make false accusations about rape. a. True b. False Answer: b 109. Initially, some rape victims are not very expressive about their feelings. a. True b. False Answer: a 110. In determining whether sexual harassment has occurred, courts use the “reasonable woman” standard. a. True b. False Answer: a 111. In order to convict someone of sexual harassment, a victim has to prove that sexual favors were demanded in exchange for benefits. a. True b. False Answer: b 112. Most child molesters are known by their victims. a. True b. False Answer: a 113. Pedophiles have little or no sexual attraction to adults. a. True b. False Answer: a 114. All child molesters are pedophiles. a. True b. False Answer: b 115. Father-child incest generally occurs in households where the father is the absolute authoritarian. a. True b. False Answer: a C. ESSAY 116. Discuss some of the reasons for why the rape rate is so much higher in some cultures than in others. Answer: The variation in rape rates across cultures can be influenced by factors such as: 1. Gender Inequality: Societies with greater gender inequality often have higher rates of rape. 2. Cultural Attitudes: Attitudes that condone or normalize violence against women contribute to higher rape rates. 3. Legal and Law Enforcement: Weak legal protections for victims and ineffective law enforcement can lead to underreporting and impunity. 4. Social Norms and Education: Lack of comprehensive sex education and societal norms that blame victims can perpetuate rape culture. 5. Economic and Social Disparities: Poverty and social instability can increase vulnerability to sexual violence. These factors interact in complex ways, contributing to disparities in rape rates among different cultures. 117. Compare and contrast the three different types of rapists described by Groth, Burgess, and Holmstrom (1977). Answer: Groth, Burgess, and Holmstrom (1977) categorized rapists into three types based on their motivations and behaviors: 1. Power Rapist: • Motivation: Seeks to assert power and control over their victim. • Behavior: Often plans the assault, may use verbal or physical intimidation, and typically targets strangers. • Psychological Profile: Often exhibits narcissistic tendencies and may have a distorted view of masculinity. 2. Anger Rapist: • Motivation: Expresses anger and hostility through sexual violence. • Behavior: Assaults may be impulsive, fueled by feelings of rage or frustration. Targets may include acquaintances or strangers. • Psychological Profile: Often has difficulty managing anger and may blame their victims for perceived injustices. 3. Sadistic Rapist: • Motivation: Derives sexual pleasure from inflicting pain or humiliation. • Behavior: Deliberately causes suffering and may engage in prolonged assaults or torture. • Psychological Profile: Exhibits a deep-seated need for dominance and control, deriving satisfaction from the victim's suffering. These typologies highlight different underlying motivations and behaviors among rapists, aiding in understanding and addressing the complex nature of sexual violence. 118. What are some of the most common myths about rape, and what are the facts? What can we do to correct these myths? Answer: Common myths about rape: 1. Myth: Rape is mainly committed by strangers in dark places. Fact: Most rapes are perpetrated by someone known to the victim. 2. Myth: Victims provoke rape through their appearance or behavior. Fact: Rape is solely the responsibility of the perpetrator; no behavior justifies it. 3. Myth: Men cannot be raped. Fact: Anyone, regardless of gender, can be a victim of rape. 4. Myth: Lack of physical resistance means it wasn't really rape. Fact: Many victims do not physically resist due to fear, shock, or freezing. 5. Myth: False reports of rape are common. Fact: False reporting rates for rape are low, similar to other crimes. To correct these myths: promote education, conduct awareness campaigns, advocate for legal reforms, and foster supportive communities for victims. 119. Explain the circumstances for which behavior can be legally defined as sexual harassment. Answer: Behavior can be legally defined as sexual harassment when it involves unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature. It becomes harassment when: 1. Unwelcome: The behavior is unwanted by the recipient and creates a hostile, intimidating, or offensive work or academic environment. 2. Severe or Pervasive: The conduct is severe enough or happens frequently enough to create a hostile or abusive environment. 3. Creates a Hostile Environment: The behavior interferes with an individual's work performance or academic performance or creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive environment. Legal definitions and protections against sexual harassment can vary by jurisdiction and context, but these criteria generally guide what constitutes unlawful behavior. 120. Describe some characteristics of pedophilic child molesters and discuss how society should handle them once they are caught. Answer: Pedophilic child molesters often exhibit grooming behaviors, manipulation tactics, and secrecy in their actions. Society should handle them with a balance of accountability and rehabilitation. This involves legal consequences, psychological treatment, monitoring, and community awareness to prevent reoffending while supporting victims and their families. CHAPTER 16 SELLING SEX: SOCIAL AND LEGAL ISSUES TEST QUESTIONS A. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The annual revenues for sexually explicit material in the United States is a. $1 billion to $3 billion b. $3 billion to $5 billion c. $5 billion to $10 billion d. $10 billion to $20 billion Answer: d 2. This law, passed in 1873, made it a felony to mail any material considered to be obscene or lewd, including information about birth control. a. Meese Law b. U.S. Postal Reform Law c. Pornography bill d. Comstock Law Answer: d 3. The major reason for the increase in sexually explicit material in the 1960s was a. a large increase in the supply of it b. a large demand for it c. an increase in crime d. a decrease in the number of people who go to church Answer: b 4. Which of the following is NOT one of the major reasons that people look at sexually explicit material? a. to satisfy voyeuristic desires b. to learn about sex c. to rehearse sexual behaviors d. to enjoy the sexual arousal it produces Answer: a 5. The 1970 Commission on Obscenity and Pornography found that people were most aroused by looking at sexual behaviors that a. they considered to be normal b. they considered to be abnormal c. they considered to be kinky d. they had not yet tried themselves Answer: a 6. Which of these statements was NOT a finding made by the 1970 Commission on Obscenity and Pornography? a. looking at pornographic material produces physiological arousal in a majority of both men and women b. exposure to conventional sexual behaviors is generally more arousing than unconventional behaviors c. continued exposure to sexually explicit material leads to a large decrease in interest in this material d. when exposed to sexually explicit material, most people show a substantial increase in sexual behaviors Answer: d 7. The 1970 Commission on Obscenity and Pornography concluded that a. there was an increase in sex crimes in countries where pornography had been legalized b. the easy availability of pornography led to an increase in sex crimes c. there was no demonstrated relationship between sex crimes and pornography d. exposure to pornography leads to an increase in violent sex crimes Answer: c 8. Which of these statements is true regarding lab research findings on the effects of viewing sexually explicit material showing violence toward women? a. looking at sexually violent films often causes arousal in men b. viewing sexually violent films generally results in many men becoming more sympathetic toward women who are rape victims c. viewing sexually violent films generally results in many men becoming less sympathetic toward women who are rape victims d. both a and c Answer: d 9. In studies of countries that ended restrictions on the availability of sexually explicit material, which of the following has generally been found? a. a direct relationship between the availability of pornography and sex crimes b. an inverse relationship between the availability of pornography and sex crimes c. no relationship between the availability of pornography and sex crimes d. none of the above Answer: b 10. According to most scientific studies, which of the following would most likely cause an increase in negative attitudes and behaviors toward women? a. drawings in detective magazines showing men standing over tied, gagged, fully clothed women b. Playboy magazine photos of a naked woman c. Hustler magazine photos of two women having sex d. XXX-rated movies showing consenting adults having sexual intercourse in a male control position Answer: a 11. In states that have had the greatest increase in Internet access to sexually explicit material, there has been a. a decrease in rapes b. an increase in rapes c. no change in the rape rate d. no change in the rape rate, but an increase in other sexual offences Answer: a 12. Teens who seek Internet porn tend to a. view women as sex objects b. have stereotyped views of gender roles c. have lower sexual and/or body image satisfaction d. all of the above Answer: d 13. Which of these publications has been the target of censorship in recent years? a. The American Heritage Dictionary b. The Wizard of Oz and Cinderella c. Playboy and Penthouse magazines d. all of the above Answer: d 14. ____________ is any literature or art with a sexual theme. a. Pornography b. Erotica c. Obscenity d. Passion Answer: b 15. Which of the following is NOT one of the parts of the legal definition of obscenity? a. by contemporary community standards it depicts patently offensive sexual conduct b. it lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value c. it appeals to prurient interest in sex d. it shows sexual behaviors of an unusual or unconventional nature Answer: d 16. A sex worker is someone who a. works as a prostitute b. works in the porn industry c. works as a topless dancer d. all of the above Answer: d 17. In the United States, laws against prostitution were first passed in a. colonial times b. the 1800s c. the early 1900s d. the 1950s Answer: c 18. The Oregon Supreme Court ruled that the feature that distinguishes a prostitute from other women engaging in illicit intercourse is the ____________ with which she offers herself to men for hire. a. frequency b. money c. poses and clothing d. indiscrimination Answer: d 19. Cynthia is a prostitute who works out of a hotel bar. She would be classified as a a. streetwalker b. B-girl c. hustler d. solicitor Answer: b 20. Judy is a high-priced prostitute who accepts clients by appointment only and often accompanies them on social occasions. Judy is called a a. streetwalker b. B-girl c. call girl d. solicitor Answer: c 21. Male prostitutes who have female customers are called a. hustlers b. gigolos c. streetwalkers d. B-boys Answer: b 22. David walks the streets of a large city at night trying to find men who will pay him for oral sex. David would be classified as a a. hustler b. gigolo c. pimp d. streetwalker Answer: a 23. A person generally becomes a prostitute a. for financial reasons b. because of pathological sexual needs c. because they were made to do it by force d. because they have a much higher than normal sex drive Answer: a 24. Teenage prostitutes a. often were abused before and/or after leaving home b. often are runaway or “throwaway” children c. generally are users of addictive drugs d. all of the above Answer: d 25. Which description BEST describes most customers of prostitutes? a. They are average men. b. They are teenage boys or young men. c. They are hypersexual and/or paraphiliacs. d. They are undersexed. Answer: a 26. The U.S. State Department estimates that each year ____________ people are victims of sex trafficking worldwide. a. 250,000 b. 500,000 c. 1,000,000 d. 2,000,000 Answer: d B. TRUE-FALSE 27. The foremost reason many people use sexually explicit material is that they enjoy the sexual arousal it produces. a. True b. False Answer: a 28. Looking at, reading, or listening to sexually explicit material produces physiological arousal in a majority of both men and women. a. True b. False Answer: a 29. People are more aroused by looking at sexual behaviors they consider to be normal than they are by unusual (“kinky”) behaviors. a. True b. False Answer: a 30. When Denmark legalized the sale of hard-core pornographic material to adults, there was an increase in sex crimes in that country. a. True b. False Answer: b 31. The 1970 President’s Commission on Obscenity and Pornography concluded that there was a demonstrable link between pornography and sex crimes. a. True b. False Answer: b 32. Many men are aroused when looking at violent sexually explicit material. a. True b. False Answer: a 33. After watching sexually explicit films showing violence toward women most men become more sympathetic toward female rape victims. a. True b. False Answer: b 34. In states that have made sexually explicit material on the Internet easily available, there has been a decrease in sex crimes. a. True b. False Answer: a 35. Material is legally obscene if it is very sexually explicit. a. True b. False Answer: b 36. The feature that distinguishes a prostitute from other women is the exchange of money for sex. a. True b. False Answer: b 37. Legally, anyone who gives sex in return for favors (including money) has engaged in prostitution. a. True b. False Answer: b 38. The lowest status prostitutes are brothel prostitutes. a. True b. False Answer: b 39. Many hustlers do not consider themselves to be homosexual. a. True b. False Answer: a 40. Most people who become prostitutes do so because of pathological sexual needs. a. True b. False Answer: b 41. Most men who use prostitutes are young. a. True b. False Answer: b 42. Prostitution is the only sexual offense for which more women are prosecuted than men. a. True b. False Answer: a 43. The greater the number of prostitutes in a country, the greater is the rate for HIV. a. True b. False Answer: a C. ESSAY 44. What are the effects of nonviolent and violent sexually explicit material? Answer: Nonviolent sexually explicit material can potentially desensitize viewers to sexual content but is generally considered less harmful than violent sexually explicit material, which can contribute to desensitization to violence and reinforce harmful attitudes towards sexuality and relationships. 45. Discuss the possible consequences of removing all restrictions to the sale of hard-core pornography to adults. Discuss the possible consequences of attempts to ban all such material. Answer: Removing all restrictions on the sale of hardcore pornography to adults could lead to increased consumption, potentially impacting attitudes towards sex, relationships, and consent. It might also influence societal norms and contribute to desensitization and potential harm, especially if consumption patterns become compulsive or addictive. Attempts to ban all such material could lead to challenges in enforcement, push the market underground, and infringe on personal freedoms. It might also limit access to information and stifle discussions about healthy sexuality, potentially driving consumption to unregulated and more extreme forms. 46. Describe the types of prostitutes and discuss the prevalence of prostitution in the United States. Answer: Types of prostitutes include street-based, brothel-based, escort, and online-based. Prostitution prevalence in the United States varies widely by region and context, with estimates suggesting tens of thousands engage in prostitution annually. 47. Discuss the pros and cons of punishing prostitutes or punishing their customers as a means of regulating prostitution. Answer: Punishing Prostitutes: Pros: • Deters individuals from entering prostitution. • Sends a societal message against the activity. • Intended to protect vulnerable individuals. Cons: • Pushes prostitution underground, increasing risks. • Stigmatizes and marginalizes those involved. • Doesn't address root causes like economic need or coercion. Punishing Customers: Pros: • Reduces demand by making it socially unacceptable. • May deter abusive or exploitative behavior. • Sends a message about societal harm. Cons: • Can displace prostitution to more dangerous areas. • Drives demand underground, making regulation harder. • Enforcement challenges and potential unfair targeting. In summary, while both approaches aim to regulate prostitution, they often overlook broader issues and may have unintended consequences. Test Bank for Human Sexuality Today Bruce, M. King, Pamela C. Regan 9780205996384, 9780134804460

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