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CHAPTER 14 PARAPHILIAS AND SEXUAL VARIANTS TEST QUESTIONS A. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Whether or not a behavior is considered abnormal depends on a. where it is observed b. when it is observed c. who engages in the behavior d. all of the above Answer: d 2. The psychological approach calls a behavior unconventional if a. only a small number of people engage in it b. it is not customary within a society c. it causes problems functioning efficiently in ordinary social or occupational roles d. it varies from culture to culture Answer: c 3. A paraphiliac is best defined as a person a. who has fantasies about abnormal sex acts b. who occasionally engages in unconventional behaviors c. whose sexual arousal depends on repeatedly engaging in or fantasizing about unconventional sexual behavior d. all of the above Answer: c 4. Bob is aroused by all aspects of sexual relations with his partner, but occasionally likes to tie her to the bedpost during sex. This is an example of a a. paraphilia b. deviant behavior c. variant d. statistical perversion Answer: c 5. A group of paraphilias often seen together are called courtship disorders. These include a. voyeurism, exhibitionism, frotteurism, and telephone scatophilia b. fetishism, transvestism, frotteurism, and telephone scatophilia c. sadism, masochism, bestiality, and pedophilia d. coprophilia, urophilia, and mysophilia Answer: a 6. Voyeurs a. often seek arousal by going to topless/bottomless shows b. are aroused when their victims notice them c. prefer to remain unseen while watching victims without their consent or knowledge d. are aroused by going to nudist colonies Answer: c 7. Tom likes to masturbate while peeking at girls through their windows at night and watching them undress. However, whenever he tries to have sexual intercourse with a female, he has erectile difficulties. Tom is a. a voyeur b. an exhibitionist c. a fetishist d. a frotteurist Answer: a 8. Voyeurism is a disorder of the ____________ phase of the normal courtship sequence. a. finding b. affiliative c. tactile d. copulatory Answer: a 9. Exhibitionism is a disorder of the ____________ phase of the normal courtship sequence. a. finding b. affiliative c. tactile d. copulatory Answer: b 10. Which of these statements about exhibitionists is TRUE? a. they typically feel inadequate and fear rejection b. many expose themselves in the same location c. most prefer to keep their victims at a distance of at least several feet d. all of the above Answer: d 11. An exhibitionist’s sexual arousal usually a. decreases if his victim shows shock and disgust b. decreases if he thinks about getting caught c. increases if his victim shows shock and disgust d. increases if his victim approaches him Answer: c 12. Telephone scatophilia is a disorder of the ____________ phase of the normal courtship sequence. a. finding b. affiliative c. tactile d. copulatory Answer: b 13. Obscene phone callers a. are similar in many respects to exhibitionists b. usually have good sexual relationships, in contrast to exhibitionists c. usually do not get aroused when their victims express shock, in contrast to exhibitionists d. usually are interested in raping their victims, in contrast to exhibitionists Answer: a 14. If you should be the target of an exhibitionist or an obscene phone caller, how should you respond? a. act shocked b. act angry c. act disgusted and tell them so d. completely ignore him Answer: d 15. Henry likes to rub his penis up against other people on crowded buses. Henry is a(n) a. exhibitionist b. klismaphiliac c. fetishist d. frotteurist Answer: d 16. Frotteurism is a disorder of the ____________ phase of the normal courtship sequence. a. finding b. affiliative c. tactile d. copulatory Answer: c 17. Pedophilia is a condition in which an adult repeatedly seeks sexual relations with a child younger than ____________ years old. a. 13 b. 15 c. 18 d. 21 Answer: a 18. ____________ is frequently found to exist in individuals diagnosed with courtship disorders. a. Fetishism b. Transvestism c. Sadomasochism d. Pedophilia Answer: d 19. A man can only become sexually aroused when he is fondling or thinking about a woman’s shoes. He has a. an inferiority complex b. a fixation c. a shoe simplex d. a fetish Answer: d 20. A man can only become sexually aroused when he is fondling or thinking about women’s feet. His condition is called a. transvestism b. erotic fetishism c. partialism d. frotteurism Answer: c 21. Which of the following individuals would a clinician most likely classify as having a fetish? a. a man who is aroused by women’s large breasts b. a man who likes his wife to wear lacy panties and brassieres c. a man who masturbates while looking at pornography d. a man who cannot reach orgasm unless his wife is wearing a pink garter Answer: d 22. Transvestism is most closely related to a. fetishism b. exhibitionism c. voyeurism d. none of the above Answer: a 23. Which of these statements regarding transvestites is TRUE? A transvestite is a. a person who achieves sexual arousal primarily by dressing as a member of the opposite sex b. usually a person with homosexual tendencies c. a person with a confused gender identity d. all of the above Answer: a 24. Which of the following would a clinician most likely classify as a transvestite? a. a professional female impersonator b. a heterosexual man who usually wears women’s panties c. a man who is considering transsexual surgery d. all of the above Answer: b 25. Urophilia, coprophilia, mysophilia, and klismaphilia might be considered specific types of a. variants b. exhibitionism c. psychoses d. fetishes Answer: d 26. Coprophiliacs and urophiliacs are sexually aroused by a. copulation b. looking at genitals c. body fluids and excrement d. underarm and facial hair Answer: c 27. Hank’s preferred means of sexual arousal is having prostitutes give him an enema. Hank’s condition is called a. urophilia b. coprophilia c. mysophilia d. klismaphilia Answer: d 28. Donald lives in the country and prefers having sex with lambs, rather than with women. Donald’s behavior is BEST described as a. bestiality b. zoophilia c. sadism d. animal husbandry Answer: b 29. In his famous survey of 1948, Kinsey found that ____________% of men reported having had sex with an animal. a. 0–1 b. 1–2 c. 8 d. 25 Answer: c 30. ____________ refers to achieving sexual arousal primarily by having pain inflicted on oneself. a. Sadism b. Masochism c. Scoptophilia d. Bondage Answer: b 31. The distinctive feature in most sadomasochistic relations is a. inflicting and receiving pain b. physical abuse c. domination and submission d. scarification Answer: c 32. A subtype of masochism in which individuals achieve sexual arousal by restricting breathing is called a. klismaphilia b. mysophilia c. necrophilia d. asphyxiophilia Answer: d 33. Herman the mortician can get an erection and have sexual intercourse with his wife only if she first takes an ice-cold shower, sprinkles herself with baby powder to appear very white, and then lies very still as if she were dead. Herman probably is a(n) a. coprophiliac b. necrophiliac c. sadist d. klismaphiliac Answer: b 34. Which of the following paraphilias are related to one another? a. voyeurism, exhibitionism, telephone scatologia, and frotteurism b. fetishism and transvestism c. sadism and masochism d. all of the above are true Answer: d 35. According to Freudian theory, paraphilias are the result of a. arrested psychosexual development b. an overly powerful superego c. a set of learned responses under the control of reinforcers in the environment d. regression to the anal stage of psychosexual development Answer: a 36. The large majority of paraphiliacs are a. men b. homosexual c. fetishists d. all of the above Answer: a 37. What do the objects that produce sexual arousal for the fetishist, voyeur, pedophile, zoophiliac, and necrophiliac all have in common? a. all of them have a female odor b. all of them are used for sexual arousal only if a female partner is unavailable c. all of them are active and respond vigorously and loudly d. all of them are non-rejecting Answer: d 38. Rock prefers having sex with his pet poodle rather than with women, while Kirk prefers masturbating with a size 38-D cup bra, and Wally likes to rub up against female executives in crowded elevators. What do these men have in common? a. they are all neurotic b. they all have fetishes c. they all probably have sexual problems in normal adult relationships d. they all probably have hormone deficiencies Answer: c 39. Paraphilias have much in common with a. anxiety disorders b. borderline personality disorders c. compulsive disorders d. depressive disorders Answer: c 40. Paraphilias are a. usually easy to treat because most paraphiliacs want to be cured of their deviant behavior b. relatively easy to treat compared to other problems like erectile and orgasmic dysfunctions c. usually difficult to treat because most people with paraphilias do not want to be cured d. usually difficult to treat with the behavioral modification techniques used for other sexual problems, but usually easy to treat with psychotherapy Answer: c B. TRUE-FALSE 41. Deviance is a problem of sexual desire. a. True b. False Answer: b 42. Paraphilias is a general term for all statistically or sociologically unusual behaviors. a. True b. False Answer: b 43. Most voyeurs eventually become rapists. a. True b. False Answer: b 44. Exhibitionists often keep exposing themselves in the same location, as if they want to be caught. a. True b. False Answer: a 45. Telephone scatophilia is closely related to exhibitionism. a. True b. False Answer: a 46. Most frotteurists prefer to practice their paraphilia in the privacy of their home. a. True b. False Answer: b 47. Voyeurism, exhibitionism, and frotteurism are all disorders of the finding phase of the normal courtship sequence. a. True b. False Answer: b 48. Pedophile refers to anyone who has sexually molested a child. a. True b. False Answer: b 49. A person with a fetish is typically aroused by as many as three or four different objects or parts of the body. a. True b. False Answer: b 50. Transvestism is an example of a sexual variant. a. True b. False Answer: b 51. Most transvestites are heterosexual men. a. True b. False Answer: a 52. A transvestite is a type of transsexual. a. True b. False Answer: b 53. Coprophilia, urophilia, and klismaphilia all involve arousal to specific body discharges. a. True b. False Answer: a 54. A person may commit an act of bestiality and yet not be a zoophiliac. a. True b. False Answer: a 55. There are female sadists as well as female masochists. a. True b. False Answer: a 56. The distinctive feature in most sadomasochistic relations is not pain. a. True b. False Answer: a 57. Recent studies have found that a sizeable minority of paraphiliacs are women. a. True b. False Answer: b 58. Therapies with paraphiliacs often fail because most paraphiliacs don’t want to be cured. a. True b. False Answer: a C. ESSAY 59. What is “normal” and “abnormal” sexual behavior, and how can they be defined? Answer: "Normal" sexual behavior typically refers to consensual sexual activities that are culturally and socially accepted within a given society or context. It varies widely across cultures and may encompass a broad range of practices and preferences. "Abnormal" sexual behavior, on the other hand, often refers to behaviors that deviate significantly from cultural norms or involve non-consensual acts, coercion, or harm to oneself or others. It may also include behaviors that are illegal or considered harmful to mental or physical health. These terms are subjective and can be influenced by cultural, legal, and ethical perspectives. Professional guidelines and societal norms help define what is considered within the bounds of normal sexual behavior versus what may be considered abnormal or problematic. 60. Many of you have occasionally engaged in some of the behaviors described in this chapter. Explain the differences between a paraphilia and a sexual variant. Give some examples. Answer: A paraphilia is a specific pattern of sexual arousal or behavior that involves intense and persistent sexual fantasies, urges, or behaviors that typically involve atypical objects, activities, or situations. These behaviors often lead to distress or impairment in functioning for the individual or harm to others. Paraphilias are considered clinically significant and can include: • Pedophilia: Sexual attraction to prepubescent children. • Exhibitionism: Sexual arousal from exposing one's genitals to unsuspecting others. • Fetishism: Sexual arousal from non-living objects or specific body parts. • Voyeurism: Sexual arousal from observing unsuspecting individuals who are naked, disrobing, or engaged in sexual activity. In contrast, sexual variants, also known as sexual variations or atypical sexual behaviors, refer to sexual behaviors that may be uncommon but are not necessarily distressing or impairing to the individual or harmful to others. These behaviors do not typically meet the clinical criteria for paraphilias. Examples include: • BDSM (Bondage, Discipline, Dominance, Submission, Sadism, Masochism): Consensual sexual activities involving power dynamics, restraints, and pain. • Cross-dressing: Wearing clothing typically associated with the opposite gender for sexual arousal or expression. • Frotteurism: Sexual arousal from touching or rubbing against a non-consenting person in crowded places. The key distinction lies in the impact on the individual's well-being and the degree of distress or impairment caused by the behavior. Paraphilias involve intense and potentially harmful patterns of sexual arousal, while sexual variants are less distressing and may be part of consensual sexual expression or identity exploration. 61. What do the courtship disorders have in common? How do they differ? Answer: Courtship disorders, also known as sexual dysfunctions or disorders of sexual preference, share common characteristics related to difficulties or abnormalities in sexual arousal, behavior, or preferences. These disorders often involve patterns of sexual attraction or behavior that can lead to distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. They include: 1. Paraphilic Disorders: These involve intense and persistent sexual arousal to atypical objects, situations, or individuals that may cause distress or harm. Examples include pedophilia, exhibitionism, and voyeurism. 2. Sexual Dysfunctions: These are difficulties in sexual arousal, desire, or performance that cause significant distress. Examples include erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation, and hypoactive sexual desire disorder. While both types of disorders involve abnormal sexual patterns, they differ primarily in their focus and clinical presentation: • Paraphilic Disorders: Focus on atypical objects or activities for sexual arousal and often involve non-consenting individuals or behaviors that are harmful or illegal. • Sexual Dysfunctions: Focus on difficulties in sexual functioning such as arousal, desire, or performance, and may occur in consensual sexual contexts but still cause distress or impairment. Overall, both types of disorders highlight variations in sexual behavior and arousal that can impact individuals' well-being and relationships, but they differ in terms of the nature and impact of the behaviors involved. 62. Why, do you suppose, are almost all paraphiliacs men? Answer the question from this perspective: What do the behaviors (or objects of desire) have in common? Answer: The predominance of paraphilias among men can be attributed to several factors related to both biological and social influences: 1. Biological Factors: • Testosterone: Higher levels of testosterone in men may contribute to increased sexual arousal and drive, potentially influencing the intensity and focus of sexual fantasies and behaviors. • Neurobiological Differences: Variations in brain structure and function related to sexual arousal and reward pathways may differ between men and women, potentially influencing the development of paraphilic behaviors. 2. Social and Cultural Factors: • Socialization: Traditional gender roles and societal expectations may influence how men and women express and perceive sexuality. Men may feel more pressure to conform to stereotypes of sexual prowess and aggression, which could contribute to the development or expression of paraphilic behaviors. • Stigma and Reporting Bias: There may be a cultural stigma against women expressing atypical sexual desires or behaviors, leading to underreporting or misdiagnosis of paraphilic disorders among women. • Access and Opportunity: Societal norms and opportunities for engaging in certain behaviors or accessing specific objects of desire may differ between genders, influencing the manifestation of paraphilic interests. 3. Psychosocial Factors: • Early Experiences: Childhood experiences, such as exposure to trauma or early sexual experiences, may play a role in the development of paraphilic interests, potentially affecting men and women differently. • Personality Traits: Certain personality traits, such as sensation-seeking or impulsivity, may interact with biological and social factors to influence the development of paraphilic behaviors, potentially more pronounced in men. In summary, while the exact reasons for the gender disparity in paraphilias are complex and multifaceted, they likely involve a combination of biological, social, and psychological factors that influence how sexual desires and behaviors are expressed and understood across genders. Test Bank for Human Sexuality Today Bruce, M. King, Pamela C. Regan 9780205996384, 9780134804460

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