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This Document Contains Chapters 6 to 7 CHAPTER 6 BIRTH CONTROL TEST QUESTIONS A. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The world population of over 7 billion is a. starting to show a small decline due to birth control b. starting to stabilize due to birth control c. still rapidly increasing despite birth control d. expected to stabilize by the year 2020 due to birth control Answer: c 2. Which of these statements regarding teenage pregnancy is TRUE? a. The U.S. teenage pregnancy rate is about the same as for other developed nations b. Because of contraceptive devices and education, the U.S. teenage pregnancy rate is lower than in most other developed nations c. The U.S. leads developed nations in yearly teenage pregnancy rates by a large margin d. The pregnancy rate for unwed teens in the U.S. has not changed since 1960 Answer: c 3. Which of these statements regarding the U.S. teenage pregnancy rate is TRUE? a. It is only half of what it was in 1991. b. It has not changed in the last 25 years. c. It is greater than it was in 1991. d. It is lower than in most other developed nations. Answer: a 4. Which of the following countries has the highest teenage pregnancy rate? a. United States b. Canada c. England d. Sweden Answer: a 5. As a result of voluntary birth control, the population of the United States has a. increased rapidly in recent years b. stabilized, with only a moderate increase due to immigration c. declined rapidly in recent years d. not changed since the end of World War II Answer: b 6. For a technique with a first-year pregnancy rate of 5%, the 10-year pregnancy rate is a. less than 5% (it declines over time) b. 5% (it stays the same) c. between 23% and 40% d. 100% (pregnancy is virtually certain) Answer: c 7. Which of these statements is TRUE? a. a girl is capable of reproduction as soon as she starts having menstrual periods b. a woman must have orgasm during sexual intercourse to become pregnant c. you cannot get pregnant if you have sexual intercourse while standing up d. none of the above Answer: a 8. Because many men do not withdraw before orgasm, ____________ is a relatively ineffective method of contraception. a. a condom b. rhythm c. coitus interruptus d. douching Answer: c 9. Douching (washing out the contents of the vagina) as a means of birth control is a. relatively effective if done within 20 minutes after sexual intercourse b. safe and very effective c. relatively effective if a woman is not menstruating d. very unreliable Answer: d 10. Breast-feeding (the lactational amenorrhea method) a. works as contraception by preventing implantation b. works as contraception by preventing release of FSH c. works as contraception by thickening cervical mucus d. does not work as contraception Answer: b 11. The lactational amenorrhea method (breast-feeding) is effective as contraception if a. the baby is fed “on demand” b. the woman has amenorrhea c. it has been less than 6 months since the women has given birth d. all of the above criteria must be met Answer: d 12. The fertility awareness methods of birth control attempt to predict a. when menstruation will begin b. when menstruation will end c. when ovulation will occur d. the regularity with which a couple has sexual intercourse Answer: c 13. Sexual intercourse can result in conception during the ____________ day(s) before ovulation and for ____________ day(s) afterwards. a. MISSING b. 1, 1 c. 2, 2 d. 1, 5 Answer: a 14. If a woman keeps track of her menstrual cycles and finds that the shortest was 24 days and the longest was 32 days, what is the fertile (unsafe) period to avoid sexual intercourse according to the calendar method? a. day 14 plus or minus 2 b. day 6 to day 21 c. day 7 to day 22 d. day 20 to day 28 Answer: b 15. The Standard Days Method is only for women whose menstrual cycles do not vary by more than ____________ days. a. 2 b. 4 c. 6 d. 8 Answer: c 16. A woman’s basal body temperature a. rises at ovulation b. decreases after ovulation c. rises after menstruation d. decreases after menstruation Answer: a 17. The ____________ method is a fertility awareness method used to prevent pregnancy by noticing changes in cervical mucus that accompany ovulation. a. calendar b. Billings c. basal body temperature d. all of the above Answer: b 18. The symptom thermal method of contraception combines the a. Billings and BBT methods b. Billings and calendar methods c. BBT and rhythm methods d. rhythm and Billings methods Answer: a 19. The typical couple using fertility awareness methods of contraception must abstain from sexual intercourse for ____________ days a month. a. 1 b. 5 c. 7 d. 12-17 Answer: d 20. Spermicides work as contraception by a. preventing ovulation b. preventing implantation c. killing sperm d. all of the above Answer: c 21. The most common complaint about spermicides is that they a. interfere with the spontaneity of sex b. do not work at the time of ovulation c. cause birth defects d. cause toxic shock syndrome Answer: a 22. Male condoms a. are highly effective in preventing the spread of sexually transmitted infections b. present no health hazards c. are available without a prescription d. all of the above Answer: d 23. Regarding the use of rubber condoms, which of the following is NOT recommended by the authors of the text? a. if the condom does not have a nipple tip, you should leave a little extra space at the tip b. if the condom is the nonlubricated type, use Vaseline or mineral oil with it c. do not use a condom more than once d. hold on to the base of the condom when you are finished and withdraw Answer: b 24. Compared to latex condoms, skin (natural animal membrane) condoms a. are weaker b. are less effective at preventing the spread of viruses c. are less effective as contraception d. all of the above Answer: b 25. Considering all factors, if you have multiple sexual partners (over time or at the same time) the best type of birth control for you is probably a. the condom b. the pill c. the IUD d. sterilization Answer: a 26. The female condom is actually a. a type of IUD b. a type of diaphragm c. a male condom inserted into the vagina d. an intravaginal pouch Answer: d 27. A diaphragm works as a birth control device by a. not allowing sperm to enter the vagina b. not allowing sperm to enter the uterus c. not allowing a fertilized egg to implant d. killing sperm Answer: b 28. Before using her first diaphragm, a woman should a. be fitted for it by a physician or health care worker b. be given a prescription for one that fits her c. practice putting it in properly d. all of the above Answer: d 29. Which of these statements about the use of a diaphragm is FALSE? a. it should be used with a spermicidal jelly b. if you have intercourse more than once while having sex, remove the diaphragm before each time to apply more spermicide c. it should be left in for 6 to 8 hours after intercourse d. it should be inserted no more than 3 hours in advance of intercourse Answer: b 30. The ____________ fits over the cervix by suction and can be left in place for 24 hours. a. diaphragm b. cervical cap c. contraceptive sponge d. all of the above Answer: b 31. The ____________ contains enough spermicide to be effective for 24 hours. a. female condom b. diaphragm c. contraceptive sponge d. cervical cap Answer: c 32. The most popular method of birth control among American women is a. the pill b. the IUD c. spermicides d. sterilization Answer: a 33. Among the following, the most effective type of birth control is the a. pill b. condom c. spermicides d. diaphragm Answer: a 34. The pill is rendered less effective by simultaneous use of many types of a. antibiotics b. tranquilizers c. analgesics d. all of the above Answer: d 35. The most common type of birth control pill contains a. testosterone b. estrogen only c. estrogen and progesterone d. FSH and LH Answer: c 36. The combination birth control pill works by preventing a. menstruation b. copulation c. ovulation d. implantation Answer: c 37. Which of these is a health benefit of using the birth control pill? a. reduced risk of cancer of the endometrium and ovaries b. reduced menstrual problems c. decreased number of benign breast tumors and ovarian cysts d. all of the above Answer: d 38. The “shot” and hormone implants contain a. a synthetic form of estrogen b. a synthetic form of progesterone c. synthetic estrogen and progesterone d. a synthetic form of luteinizing hormone Answer: b 39. ____________ is a synthetic hormone that is surgically implanted under the skin and prevents pregnancy for 3 years by inhibiting ovulation and thickening cervical mucus. a. Depo-Provera b. Gossypol c. IUD d. Nexplanon Answer: d 40. Which of the following contain both estrogen and progesterone? a. Ortho Evra patch b. Nuvaring c. combination pill d. all of the above Answer: d 41. Plan B emergency contraception can be used to prevent pregnancy when taken within ____________ days of unprotected intercourse. a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 7 Answer: c 42. Which of the following is NOT a barrier method of contraception? a. condom b. diaphragm c. cervical cap d. intrauterince device Answer: d 43. IUDs work as birth control primarily by preventing a. fertilization b. implantation c. ovulation d. all of the above Answer: a 44. The most common type of birth control used worldwide is a. the pill b. sterilization c. condoms d. rhythm Answer: b 45. Which of the following contraceptive methods does NOT offer women protection against some sexually transmitted infections? a. IUD b. patch and Nuvaring c. birth control pill d. none of the above offer any protection Answer: d 46. Which of these statements regarding vasectomies is FALSE? a. it can be done in a doctor’s office under local anesthesia in about 20 to 30 minutes b. a man is sterile as soon as the operation is done c. a vasectomy does not interfere with the production of sperm in the testicles d. after a vasectomy, a man can still experience ejaculations Answer: b 47. The chances of having a sterilization successfully reversed (i.e., leading to conception) is a. almost 100% b. very good c. moderate d. 0% (it is impossible) Answer: c 48. The biggest deterrent to new contraceptive methods in the United States is a. lack of technology b. lack of research c. product-liability problems d. the small market for such products Answer: c 49. Legal abortions a. do not increase the risk of a later ectopic pregnancy b. result in death less often than deaths from childbirth c. do not increase a woman’s risk of infertility or miscarriage d. all of the above Answer: d 50. This abortion procedure does not require general anesthesia in the first 6 weeks of pregnancy and involves removing fetal material by suction. a. D & C b. induced labor c. D & E d. all of the above Answer: c 51. ____________ prevented states from interfering with abortion decisions made between a woman and her physician. a. Roe v. Wade b. Webster v. Reproductive Health Services c. The Hyde Amendment d. Plessy v. Ferguson Answer: a B. TRUE-FALSE 52. Because of the availability of birth control, the world population has stabilized in recent years. a. True b. False Answer: b 53. Worldwide, about 41% of births are unintended. a. True b. False Answer: a 54. Because of birth control technology and availability, the United States has a lower teenage pregnancy rate than most other Western nations. a. True b. False Answer: b 55. Because of the availability of birth control, the U.S. birth rate has stabilized in recent years. a. True b. False Answer: a 56. Drinking soft drinks with high levels of caffeine works effectively as contraception by lowering a man’s sperm count. a. True b. False Answer: b 57. Douching can be an effective contraceptive technique if done within 5 minutes after sexual intercourse. a. True b. False Answer: b 58. If a baby is allowed to nurse “on demand,” it inhibits the release of follicle stimulating hormone from the mother’s pituitary gland. a. True b. False Answer: a 59. Fertilization can occur only during the first 24 hours after ovulation. a. True b. False Answer: a 60. Sperm can live in a Fallopian tube for 3 to 5 days. a. True b. False Answer: a 61. The consistency of cervical mucus becomes clear and slippery just before ovulation. a. True b. False Answer: a 62. When using rubber condoms, it helps to use mineral oil or Vaseline as a lubricant. a. True b. False Answer: b 63. Rubber condoms are more effective in preventing the spread of STIs than are condoms made of animal membranes. a. True b. False Answer: a 64. The female condom is effective as contraception, but does not help to protect against sexually transmitted infections. a. True b. False Answer: b 65. It is recommended that diaphragms be used in combination with a spermicide. a. True b. False Answer: a 66. The cervical cap resembles a large thimble and fits over the cervix by suction. a. True b. False Answer: a 67. The most common cause of failure for the blockade methods of contraception is inconsistent use. a. True b. False Answer: a 68. The birth control pill is made less effective by antibiotics. a. True b. False Answer: a 69. The combination birth control pill works primarily by preventing implantation. a. True b. False Answer: b 70. There is now solid research evidence that taking the pill greatly increases the risk of developing breast cancer. a. True b. False Answer: b 71. The birth control pill has many health benefits. a. True b. False Answer: a 72. Ortho Evra (the patch) and NuvaRing contain the same hormones as the combination birth control pill. a. True b. False Answer: a 73. Emergency contraception works primarily by causing an abortion. a. True b. False Answer: b 74. The IUD works primarily by preventing implantation. a. True b. False Answer: b 75. The IUD is now regarded as a relatively safe method of contraception. a. True b. False Answer: a 76. Once implanted, Nexplanon must remain in place for 3 years. a. True b. False Answer: b 77. Most men with vasectomies end up producing antibodies to their own sperm. a. True b. False Answer: a 78. Advances in microsurgery have allowed nearly all sterilizations to be successfully reversed, leading to fertilization. a. True b. False Answer: b 79. A male (birth control) pill should be available by the year 2020. a. True b. False Answer: b 80. Legal abortions increase the subsequent risk of infertility. a. True b. False Answer: b 81. RU 486, the medical abortion pill, is taken entirely at home. a. True b. False Answer: b C. ESSAY 82. Describe how the various fertility awareness methods are used and the reasons why they succeed or fail as contraceptive techniques. Answer: Fertility awareness methods involve tracking ovulation to determine fertile and non-fertile periods. They typically include tracking basal body temperature, cervical mucus changes, and calendar calculations. Success depends on consistent and accurate tracking, which can be challenging due to cycle irregularities, human error, and the need for abstinence or barrier methods during fertile periods. They may fail due to incorrect calculations or unexpected ovulation shifts, making them less reliable compared to other contraceptives like hormonal methods or IUDs. 83. How do the various barrier methods of contraception and spermicides work? Answer: Barrier methods of contraception, such as condoms, diaphragms, and cervical caps, physically block sperm from reaching the uterus. Spermicides, which are chemicals in gels, foams, or creams, immobilize sperm to prevent fertilization. Barrier methods are effective when used correctly and consistently but can fail due to improper use, breakage, or slippage. Spermicides enhance their effectiveness but are less reliable on their own. 84. How do the hormonal methods of contraception work? Discuss their effectiveness and some possible side effects. Answer: Hormonal methods of contraception, like birth control pills, patches, injections, and implants, work by altering hormone levels to prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus, and thin the uterine lining, making it difficult for sperm to fertilize an egg. They are highly effective when used correctly, with typical use effectiveness varying from 91-99%. Common side effects include nausea, headaches, breast tenderness, and irregular bleeding, while more serious risks include blood clots and increased risk of certain cancers with long-term use. 85. Compare the male and female sterilization techniques. Answer: Male sterilization (vasectomy) involves cutting or blocking the vas deferens to prevent sperm from being ejaculated. It's a minor surgical procedure with a high success rate and minimal long-term side effects. Female sterilization (tubal ligation) blocks or seals the fallopian tubes to prevent eggs from reaching the uterus. It's also effective but involves a more invasive surgical procedure with slightly higher risks. Both methods are considered permanent and highly effective forms of contraception. 86. What methods of abortion are available legally in the U.S., and at what point in pregnancy are they used? Answer: In the United States, legal methods of abortion include medication abortion (using pills to terminate pregnancy) and surgical abortion (procedures like suction aspiration and dilation and evacuation). Medication abortion is typically used up to 10 weeks gestation, while surgical abortions can be performed up to around 24 weeks gestation, depending on state laws and the specific circumstances of the pregnancy. After 24 weeks, abortions are generally restricted except in cases of severe fetal anomalies or risks to the mother's health. 87. List and discuss the various birth control methods that offer some protection against sexually transmitted infections. Answer: Birth control methods that offer some protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) include: 1. Condoms (male and female): Provide a physical barrier that reduces the risk of STI transmission when used correctly and consistently. 2. Internal Condoms (female condom): Similar to male condoms, offering a barrier to prevent STI transmission. 3. Diaphragms and cervical caps: While primarily contraceptive, they can offer some protection against STIs by partially covering the cervix. 4. Spermicides: Chemicals in gels, foams, or creams that can help kill some bacteria and viruses, offering limited STI protection. 5. Birth control pills, patches, and rings: These methods do not protect against STIs unless used in combination with condoms or other barrier methods. While these methods can reduce the risk of STI transmission, only condoms provide significant protection. It's important to combine them with regular STI testing and safer sex practices for maximum effectiveness. CHAPTER 7 PREGNANCY AND CHILDBIRTH TEST QUESTIONS A. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. An egg can only be fertilized during a. the first 24 hours after ovulation b. the first week after ovulation c. the day before ovulation d. at ovulation plus or minus 3 days Answer: a 2. Sexual intercourse can result in conception during the ____________ days before ovulation and for ____________ day(s) afterwards. a. 5, 1 b. 3, 1 c. 2, 2 d. 1, 5 Answer: a 3. While sperm are in the female reproductive tract, they undergo a process called ____________ that enables them to penetrate the egg’s surface. a. cohabitation b. capacitation c. fertilization d. transformation Answer: b 4. Which of the following is the correct sequence of events that follow fertilization of an egg? a. morula, zygote, blastocyst, fetus, embryo b. blastocyst, zygote, morula, embryo, fetus c. zygote, morula, blastocyst, embryo, fetus d. zygote, morula, blastocyst, fetus, embryo Answer: c 5. The round mass of cells that attaches to the endometrium is called the a. morula b. zygote c. oocyte d. blastocyst Answer: d 6. The ____________ is the major link between the developing baby and its mother. a. amnion b. Fallopian tube c. umbilical cord d. chorion Answer: c 7. The thick-skinned sac filled with water that surrounds the embryo is called the a. trophoblast b. chorion c. placenta d. amnion Answer: d 8. The organ that serves as a connection between the embryo’s systems and those of the mother is called the a. amnion b. chorion c. placenta d. trophoblast Answer: c 9. When a fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, it is called an ____________ pregnancy. a. umbilical b. ectopic c. extrauterine d. abdominal Answer: b 10. If a woman has recently had sexual intercourse, she should assume that she is pregnant if she a. is 3 to 4 days late starting her menstrual period b. is nauseated and vomiting in the morning c. gets a positive result on a test for HCG in her urine or blood d. gains a pound or two Answer: c 11. At 8 weeks after conception and until birth, the developing organism is known as a(n) a. embryo b. zygote c. blastocyst d. fetus Answer: d 12. A pregnant woman can feel the fetus move for the first time (called the quickening) during the a. 1st month b. 1st trimester c. 2nd trimester d. 3rd trimester Answer: c 13. Most physicians believe that sexual intercourse during pregnancy a. should be avoided after the 1st trimester b. should be avoided throughout pregnancy c. is usually safe during the first 8 months d. is usually safe during the entire 9 months Answer: c 14. Substances that can harm an embryo or fetus are called a. trophoblasts b. toxemias c. teratogens d. transmissibles Answer: c 15. An embryo/fetus is especially susceptible to harmful substances during the ____________ of pregnancy. a. 1st trimester b. 2nd trimester c. 3rd trimester d. all 3 trimesters are equal in susceptibility Answer: a 16. Although the placenta protects the embryo and fetus from many harmful substances, an embryo/fetus may nevertheless be harmed if the mother a. smokes cigarettes, but not if she drinks alcohol b. drinks alcohol, but not if she smokes cigarettes c. takes drugs, but not if she smokes or drinks alcohol d. smokes cigarettes, drinks alcohol, and/or take drugs Answer: d 17. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with a. increased risk of miscarriage b. lower birth weight c. increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome (crib death) d. all of the above Answer: d 18. A woman’s use of alcohol during pregnancy may result in her baby having a. physical deformities b. mental retardation c. emotional problems d. all of the above Answer: d 19. Drugs that may cross the placental barrier and harm an embryo/fetus include a. illegal drugs (heroin, cocaine) b. prescription drugs c. “over the counter” drugs (aspirin, antihistamines) d. all of the above Answer: c 20. A disease of pregnancy characterized by protein in urine, high blood pressure, weight gain, and swollen joints (due to excessive water retention) is called a. rubella b. teratogen c. preeclampsia d. anemia Answer: c 21. Rh incompatibility results when the mother is ____________ and the fetus is ____________. a. Rh positive ‒ Rh negative b. Rh positive ‒ blood type O c. Rh negative ‒ Rh positive d. all of the above Answer: c 22. ____________ is a noninvasive technique used to detect problems in the fetus while it is in the uterus. a. Chorion villus sampling b. Amniocentesis c. Ultrasound d. none of the above Answer: c 23. A poor diet can increase the risk of a. toxemia b. anemia c. low birth weight d. all of the above Answer: d 24. For normal-weight women, an overall weight gain of ____________ is recommended during pregnancy. a. 10-15 pounds b. 15-25 pounds c. 25-35 pounds d. 35-45 pounds Answer: c 25. “Natural” or prepared childbirth courses instruct women a. not to use a hospital labor room b. not to use anesthesia or pain killers c. not to use a physician d. how to reduce the fear-tension-pain cycle Answer: d 26. A massage technique taught in Lamaze classes to lessen pressure on nerves caused by the fetus moving through the birth canal is called a. depressurization b. effleurage c. anti-pressure technique d. muscle tension relaxation Answer: b 27. The outcome for births attended by nurse-midwives is generally a. just as good as those attended by physicians b. somewhat worse c. much worse d. better Answer: a 28. Before birth, the fetus will usually rotate its position so that its head is a. upward b. downward c. inward d. last to leave the uterus Answer: b 29. False labor contractions are usually ____________ contractions indicating true labor. a. longer than b. shorter than c. the same as d. shorter and longer Answer: b 30. If a woman is going through labor, it means that a. the cervix is dilating b. the cervix is effacing (thinning out) c. the uterus is undergoing contractions d. all of the above Answer: d 31. A woman’s bag of water (her amniotic sac) usually breaks during what stage of labor? a. start-up stage b. transition phase c. second stage d. third stage Answer: a 32. During the second stage of labor, the cervix a. begins to dilate b. is fully dilated c. is finished contracting d. both b and c Answer: b 33. In the third stage of labor, the ____________ detaches from the uterus and leaves the mother’s body. a. fetus b. baby c. amnion d. placenta Answer: d 34. After birth, small pieces of the placenta that remain in the uterus a. must be removed to prevent infection b. help to rebuild the endometrium c. help to prevent infection d. normally discharge within a few hours Answer: a 35. An episiotomy is primarily done to reduce the risk of tearing the a. vagina b. perineum c. urethra d. uterus Answer: b 36. Sometimes the fetus may try to come through the cervix and vagina feet or buttocks first. This is called a a. backward birth b. breech birth c. stillbirth d. cesarean birth Answer: b 37. If a woman has had a cesarean, it means that a. the baby was surgically removed b. the baby was delivered through its mother’s abdomen c. she may still be able to have a vaginal delivery in the future d. all of the above Answer: d 38. The earliest that a newborn has a chance of surviving is ____________ weeks. a. 18-19 b. 23-24 c. 26-27 d. 29-30 Answer: b 39. Before the age of 23 weeks, the fetus cannot produce a liquid called ____________ that lets the lungs transmit oxygen from the atmosphere to the blood. a. surfactant b. hemoglobin c. plasma d. prolactin Answer: a 40. Newborn babies who cannot maintain proper levels of surfactant die of a. sudden infant death syndrome b. Turner’s syndrome c. respiratory distress syndrome d. colostrum Answer: c 41. The two hormones produced by the pituitary gland that are responsible for milk are a. estrogen and progesterone b. prolactin and oxytocin c. androgen and estrogen d. FSH and LH Answer: b 42. Most physicians advise women who have just given birth not to resume sexual intercourse a. for 4 to 6 weeks b. for 2 to 3 months c. until they have regained control over their bladder d. until they are through breast-feeding Answer: a 43. Studies find that after the transition to parenthood, happiness within the marriage is directly related to a. sexual interactions b. the sharing of child-care and housekeeping responsibilities c. postpartum depression d. gender identities Answer: b 44. Women should wait at least ____________ months after giving birth before getting pregnant again. a. 3 b. 6 c. 9 d. 11 Answer: d 45. Infertility problems affect about ____________ of couples of reproductive age. a. 50% b. 20% c. 12% d. 8% Answer: c 46. Infertility is usually due to a. performance anxiety b. physical problems in the woman of the pair c. physical problems in the man of the pair d. physical problems in the man in about half the cases and in the woman in about half the cases Answer: d 47. Low sperm count is due to a. endocrine problems b. varicosity of the veins in the spermatic cord c. infections d. all of the above Answer: d 48. The process in which semen from a man with a low sperm count is collected during several ejaculations, stored, mixed together and then placed in a woman’s vagina at the time of ovulation is called a. artificial coitus b. artificial insemination c. in vitro fertilization d. immaculate conception Answer: b 49. In a process called ____________, a single sperm is injected directly into an egg. a. in vitro fertilization b. gamete intrafallopian injection c. intracytoplasmic sperm injection d. all of the above Answer: c 50. The leading cause(s) of infertility in young women today is a. failure to ovulate b. endometriosis c. blocked Fallopian tubes d. all of the above Answer: d 51. Infertility due to blocked Fallopian tubes is often treated by a technique called a. artificial insemination b. intracytoplasmic sperm injection c. fertility drugs d. in vitro fertilization Answer: d 52. If a baby is a test tube baby, it means that a. it was conceived with artificial eggs and sperm b. it was conceived outside its mother’s body c. its embryonic development occurred outside its mother’s body d. its embryonic and fetal development occurred in a test tube Answer: b B. TRUE-FALSE 53. An ovum can be fertilized only during the first 24 hours it leaves an ovary. a. True b. False Answer: a 54. Implantation, the process whereby the blastocyst burrows into the wall of the uterus, usually is completed by about 8-11 days after ovulation. a. True b. False Answer: a 55. Three-fourths of all conceptions fail to survive beyond 6 weeks. a. True b. False Answer: a 56. Ectopic pregnancies are really tubal pregnancies. a. True b. False Answer: b 57. The “expected time of arrival” or the “due date” that the physician sets is rarely the date of the actual birth. a. True b. False Answer: a 58. Some men may experience some of the same symptoms of pregnancy as their partners. a. True b. False Answer: a 59. The three inner layers that will form specific parts of the body in the embryo are the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. a. True b. False Answer: a 60. By 8 weeks, all organs of the embryo have already begun to develop. a. True b. False Answer: a 61. Few problems are associated with having sexual intercourse during the first 8 months of pregnancy. a. True b. False Answer: a 62. Drugs cannot be transmitted to the fetus because it is protected by the placenta. a. True b. False Answer: b 63. Mothers who smoke during pregnancy may double the risk of their baby dying of sudden infant death syndrome (“crib death”). a. True b. False Answer: a 64. Consuming alcohol during pregnancy can cause the baby to be mentally retarded. a. True b. False Answer: a 65. Preeclampsia is most likely to occur in older women. a. True b. False Answer: b 66. It is usually safe to put yourself on a low calorie diet during pregnancy. a. True b. False Answer: b 67. Prepared childbirth programs always consider it a failure if a woman uses pain-killing drugs during labor or delivery. a. True b. False Answer: b 68. Shortly before a woman goes into labor she may experience a burst of energy. a. True b. False Answer: a 69. False labor contractions can usually be recognized because they are more regular than contractions of real labor. a. True b. False Answer: b 70. The second stage of labor begins when the cervix is fully dilated and the fetus begins moving through the birth canal. a. True b. False Answer: a 71. A woman who has had a cesarean section (C-section) can never again give birth vaginally. a. True b. False Answer: b 72. Babies born weighing less than 2 pounds have no chance of surviving. a. True b. False Answer: b 73. The World Health Organization recommends that babies be exclusively breast-fed for 6 months. a. True b. False Answer: a 74. Secondary infertility (inability to conceive after having had a baby) is as common as primary infertility. a. True b. False Answer: a 75. A larger percentage of infertility problems are due to the female partner than the male partner. a. True b. False Answer: b 76. A procedure called artificial insemination is often used when a man is found to have a low sperm count. a. True b. False Answer: a 77. Test tube babies spend several months of their embryonic development in a test tube. a. True b. False Answer: b C. ESSAY 78. Trace the path of the sperm and the egg from ejaculation and ovulation to conception (review from Chapters 2 and 3), and then discuss the events that occur from conception to implantation. Answer: 1. Path from Ejaculation to Conception: • Sperm travels through the cervix, uterus, and into the fallopian tubes. • Fertilization typically occurs in the fallopian tube when sperm meets the egg. 2. Path from Ovulation to Conception: • Egg is released during ovulation and travels down the fallopian tube. • Egg waits in the fallopian tube for sperm to fertilize it. 3. Events from Conception to Implantation: • Fertilized egg (zygote) undergoes rapid cell division. • Zygote becomes a blastocyst, a hollow ball of cells. • Blastocyst moves through the fallopian tube to the uterus. • Blastocyst implants itself into the uterine lining (endometrium). • Implantation completes the process, allowing pregnancy to begin. 79. Describe the function of the umbilical cord, amnion, and the placenta. Answer: 1. Umbilical Cord: • Connects the developing fetus to the placenta. • Functions to transport nutrients, oxygen, and waste between the fetus and the mother's circulation. 2. Amnion: • Thin, tough membrane filled with amniotic fluid. • Surrounds and protects the developing embryo/fetus. • Provides a stable environment, cushioning against external shocks and helping regulate temperature. 3. Placenta: • Organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy. • Acts as an interface between the maternal and fetal circulations. • Supplies nutrients and oxygen from the mother's blood to the fetus and removes waste products. • Produces hormones that support pregnancy and fetal development. 80. Describe what has gone wrong when a tubal pregnancy occurs, its probable causes, and what measures should be taken. Answer: Tubal Pregnancy (Ectopic Pregnancy): • What has gone wrong: The fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, typically in a fallopian tube instead of the uterus. • Probable Causes: Often due to issues with fallopian tube structure or function, such as scarring from previous surgeries or infections. • Measures to Take: Early detection is crucial. Options include medication to dissolve the pregnancy tissue or surgery to remove the pregnancy and repair the fallopian tube to prevent future complications. 81. Discuss the effects of drinking (alcohol), smoking, and drugs (illicit and prescription) during pregnancy. Answer: 1. Alcohol: • Can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), leading to developmental delays, birth defects, and lifelong cognitive and behavioral issues. 2. Smoking: • Increases the risk of miscarriage, premature birth, low birth weight, and complications during pregnancy. • Linked to higher rates of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). 3. Drugs (Illicit and Prescription): • Illicit drugs (e.g., cocaine, heroin) can lead to premature birth, low birth weight, birth defects, and withdrawal symptoms (neonatal abstinence syndrome) in newborns. • Prescription drugs, if not taken as prescribed, can have similar effects and pose risks depending on the medication. Avoiding these substances is crucial to ensure the health and development of the fetus during pregnancy. 82. Discuss natural or prepared childbirth. How does this type of birth experience differ from a more traditional labor and delivery? Answer: Natural or Prepared Childbirth: • Focuses on minimal medical intervention, emphasizing techniques like breathing exercises, relaxation, and positioning. • Often includes preparation through childbirth education classes and support from a doula or midwife. • Aims to promote a more active role for the mother in the birth process, enhancing her sense of control and empowerment. Traditional Labor and Delivery: • Typically involves medical interventions like pain relief medications (e.g., epidural), continuous fetal monitoring, and potentially assisted delivery methods (e.g., forceps or vacuum extraction). • Managed by healthcare professionals in a hospital setting, focusing on monitoring and managing potential complications. The key difference lies in the approach to medical intervention and the level of involvement and preparation for the mother in managing labor and delivery. 83. What are the stages of labor, and how do they progress? Answer: Stages of Labor: 1. First Stage (Early Labor): • Contractions begin and gradually become regular and stronger. • Cervix dilates (opens) up to around 6 centimeters. • This stage can last for several hours or longer. 2. First Stage (Active Labor): • Contractions intensify and occur closer together. • Cervix continues to dilate from 6 to 10 centimeters. • Typically shorter than early labor, but can still last several hours. 3. Second Stage (Delivery): • Begins when cervix is fully dilated (10 centimeters). • Involves pushing and efforts to deliver the baby through the birth canal. • Ends with the birth of the baby. 4. Third Stage (Delivery of the Placenta): • After birth, contractions continue to expel the placenta from the uterus. • Usually occurs within minutes to an hour after the baby is born. Each stage is crucial for the progression of labor and delivery, ending with the safe delivery of the baby and placenta. 84. Discuss infertility, including its causes and treatments. Answer: Infertility: • Defined as the inability to conceive after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse (or six months for women over 35). • Can affect either partner or both. Causes: • Female Factors: Ovulation disorders, blocked fallopian tubes, age-related decline in fertility, uterine or cervical abnormalities. • Male Factors: Low sperm count or quality, sperm motility issues, anatomical problems. • Other Factors: Hormonal imbalances, genetic factors, lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking, excessive alcohol or drug use). Treatments: • Medications: Hormonal treatments to stimulate ovulation or improve sperm production. • Surgery: Correcting anatomical issues such as blocked fallopian tubes or varicoceles. • Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART): In vitro fertilization (IVF), where eggs and sperm are combined in a lab and then implanted in the uterus. • Lifestyle Changes: Improving diet, exercise, and reducing stress. • Alternative Therapies: Acupuncture, herbal supplements, or other complementary approaches. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and the specific circumstances of the couple. Test Bank for Human Sexuality Today Bruce, M. King, Pamela C. Regan 9780205996384, 9780134804460

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