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This Document Contains Chapters 4 to 5 CHAPTER 4 SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN OUR SEXUAL RESPONSES TEST QUESTIONS A. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The first person(s) to study the physiological responses that occur during sexual arousal in humans was (were). a. Alfred Kinsey b. Masters and Johnson c. Henry Havelock Ellis d. Edward Laumann and colleagues Answer: b 2. Masters and Johnson used ____________ to study sexual responses. a. surveys b. the correlation method c. direct observation d. experimental research Answer: c 3. Which of the following is the correct sequence for Masters and Johnson’s sexual response cycle? a. desire, excitement, orgasm, resolution b. excitement, plateau, resolution, orgasm c. excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution d. excitement, plateau, orgasm, refractory period Answer: c 4. Which of these is NOT one of the four stages in Masters and Johnson’s model of sexual response, but is a stage that many sex therapists suggest be included as part of the model? a. desire b. excitement c. resolution d. plateau Answer: a 5. According to Regan and Berscheid (1999), desire is experienced as a. tissues becoming engorged with blood b. a build-up of energy in nerves and muscles c. a psychological state subjectively experienced as awareness that the individual wants or wishes to attain a sexual goal d. all of the above Answer: c 6. The physiological responses described by Masters and Johnson can occur as a result of ____________. a. same-sex stimulation b. opposite-sex stimulation c. fantasy and/or masturbation d. any type of stimulation Answer: d 7. ____________ refers to tissues becoming engorged (filled) with blood. a. Vasocongestion b. Desire c. Myotonia d. Excitement Answer: a 8. In humans, erection of a man’s penis results from a. spongy tissues filling with semen b. the pubic bone protruding into the penis c. spongy tissues becoming engorged with blood d. contraction of the bulbocavernosus muscle Answer: c 9. Which of these statements regarding an erection of the penis is FALSE? a. some men with complete spinal cord transections can get erections b. an erection is caused by spongy-like tissues filling with blood c. the penis always stays fully erect once a man is sexually excited d. erection begins within 3 to 8 seconds after stimulation begins Answer: c 10. Which of these responses occurs in men during the excitement phase of sexual arousal? a. the testicles are elevated toward the body b. the testicles grow smaller and harder c. the Cowper’s glands secrete fluids d. the testicles are lowered farther away from the body Answer: a 11. The clear fluid that often appears at the tip of the penis before orgasm is produced by the a. seminal vesicles b. prostate gland c. Cowper’s glands d. testicles Answer: c 12. Studies indicate that the essence of orgasm lies in the a. brain b. genitals c. entire reproductive tract d. rhythmic muscular contractions Answer: a 13. Orgasm a. is not possible in spinal-damaged people who have no genital sensations b. is not possible before puberty c. is not possible unless the genitals are being touched d. none of the above Answer: d 14. The expulsion of semen from the penis is called a. emission b. ejaculation c. retrograde ejaculation d. orgasm Answer: b 15. Which of these statements about men’s orgasms is FALSE? a. orgasm and ejaculation always occur together b. men can have orgasm without ejaculation c. men can have ejaculation without orgasm d. before puberty, boys can have orgasms, but they do not ejaculate Answer: a 16. After sex, the return to the unaroused state is called a. the refractory period b. plateau c. resolution d. all of the above Answer: c 17. The period of time after an orgasm in which it is physiologically impossible for a man to achieve another orgasm is called the a. plateau phase b. orgasmic platform c. excitement phase d. refractory period Answer: d 18. Research since Masters and Johnson has shown that a. there is very little variation in men’s and women’s sexual responses b. men’s and women’s sexual responses are very similar c. there is greater variation in men’s sexual responses than is observed in women d. there is greater variation in women’s sexual responses than is observed in men Answer: d 19. According to Rosemary Basson, most women’s sexual desire is a. determined largely by hormones b. an innate motivation c. motivated by relationship and intimacy needs d. very similar to men’s Answer: c 20. Masters and Johnson observed that when men and women are sexually stimulated, physiologically a. women respond slower than men b. women respond as fast as men c. women respond faster than men d. most women do not respond Answer: b 21. When sexually aroused, the first physiological responses are a. erection of the penis in men and erection of the clitoris in women b. production of testosterone in men and production of estrogen in women c. secretions from the Cowper’s glands in men and vaginal lubrication in women d. vasocongestion, leading to erection of the penis in men and vaginal lubrication in women Answer: d 22. Which of these statements regarding vaginal lubrication during sexual arousal is TRUE? a. the amount of lubrication is strongly related to the degree of a woman’s arousal b. it results from the walls of the vagina becoming engorged with blood c. presence of vaginal lubrication means that a woman is ready to begin intercourse d. all of the above Answer: b 23. The clitoris is most prominent during which phase of sexual arousal? a. excitement b. plateau, particularly just before orgasm c. orgasm d. it is equally likely for all of the above Answer: a 24. In women, nipple erection is likely to be most noticeable during a. the excitement phase b. the plateau phase, particularly just before orgasm c. orgasm d. it is equally likely for all of the above Answer: a 25. Which of the following statements is TRUE? a. for both men and women, subjective arousal is highly correlated with physiological arousal b. for many women, subjective arousal is poorly correlated with physiological arousal c. for many men, subjective arousal is poorly correlated with physiological arousal d. for both men and women, subjective arousal is poorly correlated with physiological arousal Answer: b 26. According to Rosemary Basson’s model, many women do not separate a. desire from arousal b. desire from plateau c. arousal from plateau d. plateau from the refractory period Answer: a 27. The orgasmic platform in women refers to a. swelling of the outer third of the vagina, resulting in a narrowing of the vaginal opening b. the sex flush, which occurs during the late plateau stage just before orgasm c. having an orgasm before entering the resolution stage d. elevation of the uterus to create a “tenting effect” Answer: a 28. Which of the following occurs in more women than men during sexual arousal? a. vasocongestion b. increased heart rate c. sex tension flush d. neuromuscular tension Answer: c 29. The “sex-tension flush” a. occurs in a majority of men and in about one-fourth of women b. occurs in a majority of women and in about one-fourth of men c. occurs in a majority of both men and women d. occurs in only a few men and women Answer: b 30. Which of these responses is normal for women in the plateau phase? a. the clitoris disappears beneath the clitoral hood b. the breasts swell, obscuring nipple erection c. secretion from the vaginal walls can slow down if the plateau stage is prolonged d. all of the above Answer: d 31. Which of the following responses is never found in men? a. orgasmic platform b. nipple erection c. sex-tension flush d. tissues becoming engorged with blood Answer: a 32. Which of the following is TRUE about the vagina when a woman becomes sexually aroused? a. the vaginal opening and inner 2/3 of the vagina expand in order to accommodate the penis b. the vaginal opening and inner 2/3 of the vagina narrow in order to grip the penis c. the vaginal opening expands and the inner 2/3 of the vagina narrows d. the vaginal opening narrows and the inner 2/3 of the vagina expands Answer: d 33. Which of the following statements regarding orgasm is FALSE? a. orgasm occurs in two stages in men and in a single stage in women b. men’s and women’s descriptions of orgasm are very different c. there is no strong relationship between the perception of orgasm and the strength of the muscular contractions associated with orgasm d. contractions can begin before a person’s perception of orgasm begins and end before the person reports an orgasm to be over Answer: b 34. Which of these structures contract rhythmically during orgasm in women? a. the outer third of the vagina b. the uterus c. the anal sphincter muscles d. all of the above Answer: d 35. Regarding multiple orgasms, which of the following is FALSE? a. many men are capable of having multiple orgasms with ejaculation without having a refractory period b. only a minority of women experience multiple orgasms on a regular basis c. many women report that multiple orgasms are most easily experienced during masturbation d. some women are capable of having multiple orgasms without ever dropping below plateau Answer: a 36. Multiple orgasms refers to having a. two or more orgasms while having sex b. an orgasm during the orgasmic platform c. an orgasm at the same time as one’s partner is having an orgasm d. two or more orgasms without dropping below the plateau level Answer: d 37. Women’s subjective descriptions of orgasms suggest that they a. only have clitoral orgasms b. only have vaginal orgasms c. always have orgasms centered in both the clitoris and vagina d. may experience two or more different types of orgasms Answer: d 38. The Grafenberg spot (G-spot) refers to a. the point at which the labia minora come together, stimulation of which is pleasurable b. the clitoris, stimulation of which is pleasurable c. the area on the front wall of the vagina that some women say is sensitive to touch d. the spot on a G-string that covers the vagina Answer: c 39. Which of the following statements about the Grafenberg (G) spot is TRUE? a. all women have one b. about 40% of women have one c. about 10% of women have one d. there is no such thing as a G-spot Answer: c 40. Regarding “ejaculation” in women, which of the following statements is FALSE? a. the fluid is emitted from the urethra b. the fluid is emitted from the vagina c. in some women the fluid differs biochemically from urine d. for some women, emission of fluid is due to loss of bladder control Answer: b 41. Some women emit a fluid during orgasm. The fluid comes from the a. urethra b. vagina c. seminal vesicles d. Fallopian tubes Answer: a 42. In some cultures, cutting of females’ genitals is done a. to reduce their sexual desire b. to free them to fulfill their roles as wives and mothers c. to guarantee the inheritance of property from fathers to legitimate sons d. all of the above Answer: d 43. Among men, differences in penis size are most apparent a. when fully erect b. during plateau c. in the flaccid, unaroused state d. during excitement Answer: c 44. Penis size is related to a man’s a. height b. weight c. race d. none of the above Answer: d 45. Most women indicate that a. their sexual pleasure during intercourse is directly related to penis size b. their sexual pleasure during intercourse is not related to penis size c. they prefer a partner with a small penis d. they prefer a partner with a very large penis Answer: b 46. Which of the following increases sexual physiological responsiveness? a. oysters b. bull’s testicles c. vitamin E d. none of the above Answer: d 47. Most substances that have a reputation for enhancing sexual desire or performance work because a. of chemicals in the substance that affect nerves in the penis or clitoris b. of chemicals in the substance that affect the brain c. of chemicals in the substance that affect blood flow d. of heightened expectations and the social situation Answer: d 48. Alcohol a. enhances sexual performance by stimulating the central nervous system b. impairs sexual performance by depressing the central nervous system c. has effects on sexual behavior similar to cocaine and amphetamine d. can be considered to be an aphrodisiac Answer: b 49. Which of these statements regarding sexuality in individuals with disabilities is TRUE? a. paralyzed individuals are not able to achieve orgasms b. individuals with disabilities have very little interest in sex c. it is generally not possible to enjoy sexual relations if a person cannot have sexual intercourse d. none of the above Answer: d B. TRUE-FALSE 50. In order to measure sexual arousal, Masters and Johnson directly recorded the volume of blood in the genitals. a. True b. False Answer: a 51. Some therapists have suggested that desire be included as the first phase of the sexual response cycle. a. True b. False Answer: a 52. A person can have physiological responses, such as vaginal vasocongestion or penile erection, without feeling sexually aroused. a. True b. False Answer: a 53. The first physiological response to occur in both men and women during sexual arousal is a vasocongestive response. a. True b. False Answer: a 54. Many men who have had their spinal cord cut can still get erections. a. True b. False Answer: a 55. Some men experience nipple erection during sexual arousal. a. True b. False Answer: a 56. The essence of orgasm is in the brain. a. True b. False Answer: a 57. Many paraplegics who have had their spinal cords transected can experience orgasms. a. True b. False Answer: a 58. Orgasm is the rhythmic muscular contractions in specific tissues of the genitals and reproductive tract. a. True b. False Answer: b 59. The pleasurable sensations experienced by men during orgasm are caused by the ejaculate traveling through the urethra of the penis. a. True b. False Answer: b 60. Men can have a full orgasm without ejaculation. a. True b. False Answer: a 61. Just as a man is immediately aware when he is having an erection, a woman is immediately aware when her vagina is lubricating. a. True b. False Answer: b 62. The presence of vaginal lubrication means that a woman is ready to begin sexual intercourse. a. True b. False Answer: b 63. The clitoris is most prominent during the excitement phase. a. True b. False Answer: a 64. For both men and women, subjective arousal is highly correlated with physiological arousal. a. True b. False Answer: b 65. Many women do not separate desire from arousal. a. True b. False Answer: a 66. In the plateau phase, tissues around the vaginal opening become filled with blood and the vaginal opening narrows. a. True b. False Answer: a 67. During the plateau stage, many women find direct stimulation of the clitoris to be too intense and less pleasurable than indirect stimulation. a. True b. False Answer: a 68. Men’s and women’s descriptions of their own orgasms are very similar. a. True b. False Answer: a 69. Multiple orgasms refer to having two or more orgasms during sex. a. True b. False Answer: b 70. The female sexual response cycle is more variable than men’s. a. True b. False Answer: a 71. Many sexually experienced women have not had an orgasm during vaginal intercourse. a. True b. False Answer: a 72. The inner two thirds of the vagina is very insensitive to touch. a. True b. False Answer: a 73. Most women have a Grafenberg spot. a. True b. False Answer: b 74. All female orgasms are focused in the clitoris. a. True b. False Answer: b 75. A mature woman ought to be able to achieve vaginal orgasms. a. True b. False Answer: b 76. For women who emit a fluid during orgasm, the fluid is exaggerated vaginal lubrication. a. True b. False Answer: b 77. Skene’s glands may be the equivalent of the male’s prostate gland. a. True b. False Answer: a 78. Penis size is important for stimulation of the walls of the inner 2/3 of the vagina. a. True b. False Answer: b 79. Chronic use of cocaine can lead to nearly total sexual dysfunction. a. True b. False Answer: a 80. Regular use of marijuana by men can cause erectile problems and lower testosterone levels. a. True b. False Answer: a 81. Most individuals with disabilities do not have sexual desire. a. True b. False Answer: b C. ESSAY 82. Describe desire and explain the reasons for adding a desire phase to Masters and Johnson’s model. Answer: Desire in Masters and Johnson's model refers to the initial phase of sexual response, characterized by interest and motivation for sexual activity. Adding this phase acknowledges that sexual response involves psychological and emotional components, not just physiological arousal. This phase helps understand variations in sexual interest and readiness, considering factors like mood, context, and relationship dynamics. 83. Discuss (support and/or critique) Masters and Johnson’s conclusion that men’s and women’s sexual response cycles are very similar. Answer: Masters and Johnson's conclusion that men's and women's sexual response cycles are very similar has been both supported and critiqued. Support stems from their pioneering research that highlighted physiological similarities in arousal phases. Critics argue their model oversimplified complexities like emotional and contextual factors influencing sexual response, potentially overlooking gender-specific differences in arousal patterns and psychological aspects of desire. 84. Describe the various vasocongestive responses that occur in men and women during the excitement and plateau phases of sexual arousal. Answer: During the excitement and plateau phases of sexual arousal: 1. Men (Vasocongestive Responses): • Excitement Phase: Increased blood flow to the penis causes erection, involving dilation of penile arteries and filling of erectile tissues. • Plateau Phase: Continued engorgement of erectile tissues sustains erection, supported by vasoconstriction of veins to maintain blood within the penis. 2. Women (Vasocongestive Responses): • Excitement Phase: Increased blood flow to the clitoris, labia, and vaginal walls leads to engorgement, facilitated by dilation of pelvic arteries. • Plateau Phase: Vasoconstriction of veins maintains pelvic blood engorgement, supporting heightened sensitivity and lubrication necessary for sexual activity. 85. Describe both the similarities and differences in orgasms experienced by men and women. Answer: Similarities in Orgasms: • Both men and women experience rhythmic muscular contractions during orgasm. • Orgasms in both sexes involve a sense of intense pleasure and release. • Neurochemical changes, such as the release of dopamine and oxytocin, contribute to feelings of satisfaction and bonding. Differences in Orgasms: • Men: Orgasm typically coincides with ejaculation, characterized by seminal fluid release and muscle contractions in the pelvic region. • Women: Orgasm may not always coincide with ejaculation (if present), and can involve contractions of the pelvic floor muscles and rhythmic pulsations around the clitoris and vaginal walls. These differences reflect both physiological and functional variations in sexual response between men and women. 86. From what you have learned about female anatomy, how important is penis size for women’s pleasure during vaginal intercourse? Answer: Based on female anatomy, penis size is not universally crucial for women's pleasure during vaginal intercourse. Most sensitive nerve endings in the vagina are located in the first few inches, making girth and technique more relevant than length for stimulating pleasure. Emotional connection, communication, and overall sexual compatibility are often more significant factors influencing female sexual satisfaction than penis size alone. 87. What is the evidence regarding the existence of aphrodisiacs? Answer: The evidence regarding aphrodisiacs is largely anecdotal and lacks robust scientific support. While some substances may have placebo effects or cultural associations with increased libido, scientific studies have generally failed to demonstrate consistent and reliable aphrodisiac effects across different populations. Individual responses to substances claimed to be aphrodisiacs can vary widely, often influenced by psychological factors and expectations rather than direct physiological effects. 88. What are the barriers that prevent many persons with disabilities from having a sexual relationship, and what can be done to change this? Answer: Barriers preventing persons with disabilities from having sexual relationships include societal stigma, lack of accessible information and education, physical limitations, and healthcare providers' assumptions about their sexuality. To address this, promoting inclusive sex education, improving accessibility in sexual health services, challenging stereotypes, and advocating for disability rights and representation in media can help empower individuals with disabilities to pursue fulfilling sexual relationships. 89. Discuss the debate as to why women have orgasms. Answer: The debate on why women have orgasms revolves around evolutionary theories. Some argue orgasms in women may have evolved as a mechanism to promote bonding with sexual partners or as a byproduct of male orgasm evolution. Others suggest they serve no direct evolutionary purpose but are a pleasurable side effect of shared male-female developmental pathways. Overall, the exact evolutionary role of female orgasms remains uncertain and continues to be debated among researchers. CHAPTER 5 SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS AND SEXUALLY RELATED DISEASES TEST QUESTIONS A. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Recent studies indicate that 1 in ____________ Americans will contract at least one STI in their lifetime. a. 15 b. 8 c. 4 d. 2 Answer: d 2. Every year, ____________ million Americans contract an STI. a. fewer than 8 b. 12 c. 15 d. more than 19 Answer: d 3. ____________ is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States today. a. HIV/AIDS b. Chlamydia c. Human papillomavirus infection d. Gonorrhea Answer: c 4. Sexually transmitted infections are caused by a. promiscuity (sex with many partners) b. oral-genital and anal sex c. homosexuality d. bacteria and viruses Answer: d 5. The bacterium that causes gonorrhea normally lives a. on mucous membranes b. in the blood c. in the testicles or ovaries d. all of the above Answer: a 6. In men, the first symptom of gonorrhea is usually a. a chancre on the penis b. a pus-like discharge from the penis c. pain in the groin area d. an itchy rash on the penis or scrotum Answer: b 7. Your sexual partner has a discharge that has been diagnosed by a physician as gonorrhea, but you are not showing any symptoms. You should probably conclude that a. because only 80% of men and 20% of women show early symptoms, there is a good chance you will have it as well b. because only 80% of women and 20% of men show early symptoms, there is a good chance you will have it as well c. you have a natural immunity to the disease and do not have it d. there is nothing to worry about unless you start to show symptoms Answer: a 8. Which of these statements about gonorrhea is FALSE? a. most women show no symptoms during the early stage b. in men, an early symptom is frequent and painful urination c. it is easily contracted by using a toilet seat previously used by an infected individual d. it can cause pelvic inflammatory disease in women who are not treated Answer: c 9. You have a pus-like discharge from the urethra (or vagina). You probably have a. gonorrhea b. chlamydia c. syphilis d. herpes Answer: a 10. If not treated, gonorrhea frequently causes a. permanent scarring of the reproductive system b. senility c. syphilis d. all of the above Answer: a 11. In addition to the urethra and vagina, the bacteria that cause gonorrhea and chlamydia can also invade the a. rectum b. throat c. eyes d. all of the above Answer: d 12. Which of these statements about chlamydia is TRUE? a. it is more common than gonorrhea b. its initial symptoms are generally less severe than those for gonorrhea c. if left untreated, it is more likely to cause sterility than gonorrhea d. all of the above Answer: d 13. You recently have had sex with a new partner, and you now have mild irritation and burning of the urethra and a thin, clear discharge. You probably have a. gonorrhea b. chlamydia c. syphilis d. herpes Answer: b 14. The two major causes of pelvic inflammatory disease are a. gonorrhea and chlamydia b. gonorrhea and syphilis c. chlamydia and syphilis d. herpes and syphilis Answer: a 15. Which of these statements about the effects of pelvic inflammatory disease is TRUE? a. scar tissue can cause sterility b. scar tissue can cause a fertilized egg to implant in a Fallopian tube c. its symptoms often include severe abdominal pain and fever d. all of the above Answer: d 16. The bacterium that causes this infection does not need contact with mucous membranes to spread, and can pass directly into the bloodstream through a cut. a. gonorrhea b. syphilis c. chlamydia d. all of the above Answer: b 17. Syphilis has ____________ stages of infection. a. two b. three c. four d. five Answer: c 18. The first symptom of syphilis is usually a. a pus-like discharge from the penis or vagina b. a painless sore at the place where the bacterium entered the body c. a rash d. discomfort or pain during urination Answer: b 19. You have recently had sex with a new partner, and now have an ugly, painless, ulcer-like sore on your penis or vagina. You probably have a. gonorrhea b. chancroid c. syphilis d. herpes Answer: c 20. The main symptom of the secondary stage of syphilis is a. chancres b. large ulcers called gummas c. a measles-like rash d. there are no symptoms in the secondary stage Answer: c 21. If left untreated, syphilis can eventually cause a. death due to heart failure b. blindness or deafness c. mental problems d. all of the above Answer: d 22. Which of these infections is most easily passed on to the fetus during pregnancy by an infected mother? a. syphilis b. gonorrhea c. herpes d. chlamydia Answer: a 23. Painful sores are the main symptom of this sexually transmitted infection. a. gonorrhea b. chlamydia c. syphilis d. chancroid Answer: d 24. A person with fever blisters on their mouth can transfer herpes virus to a. another person’s genitals b. another person’s mouth c. their own eyes d. all of the above Answer: d 25. The most common symptom of herpes on dry skin areas is a. painless open sores b. painful chancres c. painful blisters d. an itchy rash Answer: c 26. You have recently had sex with a new partner, and now have painful fluid-filled blisters on your genitals. You probably have a. gonorrhea b. primary stage syphilis c. chancroid d. herpes Answer: d 27. Which of these statements regarding symptoms of genital herpes is FALSE? a. the primary attack often includes flu-like symptoms (e.g. fever, aches and pains) b. after a primary attack, the person builds up immunity and can no longer suffer primary attacks from other strains of the virus c. recurrent attacks are usually less severe than primary attacks d. the major cause of recurrent attacks is stress Answer: b 28. There is no cure for this infection. a. herpes b. gonorrhea c. syphilis d. chlamydia Answer: a 29. Which of these is NOT caused by a virus? a. herpes b. genital warts c. syphilis d. AIDS Answer: c 30. ____________ is a viral infection that causes inflammation of the liver and can be spread through sexual intercourse. a. Molluscum contagiosum b. Hepatitis c. Syphilis d. all of the above Answer: b 31. Which of the following is TRUE about hepatitis A? a. It is spread by oral contact with contaminated feces b. It is most often contracted through non-sexual means c. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends routine vaccination of all children. d. all of the above Answer: d 32. A symptom of this sexually transmitted infection can be cauliflower-like growths on the genitals. a. molluscum contagiosum b. HPV infection c. genital herpes d. scabies Answer: b 33. You have cauliflower-like growths on your genitals. You probably have a. HPV infection b. HIV infection c. molluscum contagiosum d. trichomoniasis Answer: a 34. This STI can cause cancer. a. syphilis b. chancroid c. HPV infection d. trichomoniasis Answer: c 35. Women who have had a genital HPV infection should get regular checkups for a. trichomoniasis b. cervical cancer c. AIDS d. heart disease Answer: b 36. Regarding genital warts (HPV infection), which of the following is FALSE? a. men with HPV have an increased risk of cancer of the penis b. it is possible to have HPV infection and infect others without having visible warts c. removing the warts completely rids the infected individual of the underlying HPV (virus) d. The great majority of women who have cervical cancer also have HPV Answer: c 37. The symptoms of ____________ look like small pimples filled with kernels of corn. a. molluscum contagiosum b. hepatitis C c. herpes type 2 d. granuloma inguinale Answer: a 38. AIDS is caused by a. the human immunodeficiency bacteria b. the AIDS bacteria c. the human immunodeficiency virus d. the human T-cell virus Answer: c 39. HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, lives in and slowly kills CD4+ (white blood) cells, a critical part of the body’s ____________ system. a. cardiovascular b. reproductive c. endocrine d. immune Answer: d 40. A diagnosis of AIDS refers to a. anyone who is infected with HIV b. anyone who has symptomatic HIV infection c. anyone in whom HIV infection has become life-threatening d. all of the above Answer: c 41. You have a sexually transmitted infection that is destroying your immune system, leaving you very weak and susceptible to other diseases. You have a. HPV infection b. HIV infection c. congenital syphilis d. any of the above Answer: b 42. For all individuals who become infected with HIV, without medication about half will progress to the stage called AIDS within ____________ years. a. 2 b. 5 c. 7 d. 11 Answer: d 43. Of the people diagnosed with AIDS in 2014, most probably became infected with HIV a. 1999 or earlier b. 2009 or earlier c. in 2014 d. in 2013 Answer: b 44. Regarding AIDS, which of the following statements is FALSE? a. it is estimated that for every patient diagnosed with AIDS, there are many more with HIV infection just starting to show symptoms b. death does not result directly from HIV, but from opportunistic diseases c. only about half of the people with HIV develop AIDS within 11 years of infection d. AIDS can be slowed in the early stages by taking antibiotics Answer: d 45. Recent studies indicate that HIV-1 originated from a. a contaminated polio vaccine b. chimpanzees c. germ research laboratories d. none of the above Answer: b 46. The risk of transmission of HIV is directly related to an infected person’s a. sexual orientation b. viral load c. age d. none of the above Answer: b 47. HIV is transmitted almost exclusively by intimate sexual contact and a. contaminated blood b. living with an infected person c. insect bites d. all of the above Answer: a 48. Bob and Sharon have a mutually faithful, monogamous relationship and have never had sex with anyone else. With regards to HIV/AIDS, they should a. be concerned about engaging in vaginal intercourse b. be concerned about engaging in oral-genital sex c. be concerned about engaging in anal intercourse d. not be concerned about any of the above Answer: d 49. Which of these statements regarding transmission of HIV is TRUE? a. high rates of HIV infection have never been found among heterosexual groups b. heterosexuals who do not engage in anal intercourse are safe from getting AIDS c. heterosexual transmission is a leading cause of AIDS in women in the United States d. none of the above Answer: c 50. Worldwide, HIV is spread most commonly by a. sex between heterosexuals b. sex between homosexuals c. intravenous drug use d. poor hygiene Answer: a 51. The most commonly used “AIDS tests” are diagnostic tests looking for a. the HIV virus b. AIDS syndrome c. antibodies to HIV d. all of the above Answer: c 52. Which of these statements is TRUE regarding the treatment for HIV/AIDS? a. combination drug therapy can slow the progression of the disease b. high doses of AZT or ddI can cure AIDS in the early stages of infection c. antibiotics are sometimes effective if used early in the infection d. all of the above Answer: a 53. ____________ are six-legged parasites that attach themselves to hair and feed on human blood. a. Scabies b. Pubic lice c. Pinworms d. all of the above Answer: b 54. Pubic lice, scabies, and pinworms are all a. bacterial infections b. viral infections c. parasites d. infections that are spread only by sexual contact Answer: c 55. You recently have had a new sexual partner, and now you have intense itching in the genital area and have discovered little “bugs” on your pubic hair. You probably have a. pinworms b. pubic lice c. scabies d. molluscum contagiosum Answer: b 56. Which of these is most common? a. syphilis b. trichomoniasis c. gonorrhea d. hepatitis Answer: b 57. Which of the following types of vaginitis is considered to be a sexually transmitted infection? a. trichomoniasis b. moniliasis c. bacterial vaginosis d. all of the above Answer: a 58. Which of these is NOT recommended as a part of good vaginal health care? a. after a bowel movement, wipe the anus from front to back b. avoid feminine hygiene products c. wear synthetic panties rather than cotton ones d. bathe regularly and do not share washcloths and towels Answer: c 59. Itching and burning in the vaginal area due to overgrowth of yeast is an indication of a. trichomoniasis b. moniliasis c. bacterial vaginosis d. herpes Answer: b 60. Which of these can cause a yeast infection in women? a. heavy use of antibiotics b. hormone changes c. overly frequent douching or use of feminine hygiene products d. all of the above Answer: d 61. As a woman, you recently have taken antibiotics and now have intense itching in the genital region. You probably have a. pubic lice b. trichomoniasis c. bacterial vaginosis d. moniliasis Answer: d 62. Which of these has been found to help prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections? a. rubber condoms b. a monogamous relationship c. both of the above d. none of the above Answer: c 63. Which of these statements regarding sexually transmitted infections is TRUE? a. it is possible to have more than one at the same time b. it is possible to be infected with the same STD more than once c. it is possible to infect others if you are not showing symptoms d. all of the above Answer: d 64. Which of the following is NOT a safer sex practice? a. having sex only with individuals that appear to be safe b. restrict your sexual activity to a mutually faithful long-term relationship c. always use condoms d. abstain from sex until marriage Answer: a B. TRUE-FALSE 65. One in two Americans will contract at least one sexually transmitted infection. a. True b. False Answer: a 66. There are over 19 million new cases of sexually transmitted infections in the United States every year. a. True b. False Answer: a 67. Sexual behavior causes STIs. a. True b. False Answer: b 68. Chlamydia is more than three times as common as gonorrhea. a. True b. False Answer: a 69. Most men and women with gonorrhea show symptoms in the early stages. a. True b. False Answer: b 70. A blood sample is required to test for gonorrhea. a. True b. False Answer: b 71. Once you have been cured of gonorrhea, you are immune and cannot catch it again. a. True b. False Answer: b 72. Gonorrhea may soon be incurable. a. True b. False Answer: b 73. Chlamydia is potentially more dangerous than gonorrhea because damage to reproductive organs may be greater. a. True b. False Answer: a 74. Pelvic inflammatory disease is a sign that a woman has had either gonorrhea or chlamydia. a. True b. False Answer: b 75. If gonorrhea is not treated, it can turn into syphilis. a. True b. False Answer: b 76. A chancre is the major symptom of all stages of syphilis. a. True b. False Answer: b 77. If syphilis is not treated, it can cause dementia or death. a. True b. False Answer: a 78. Antibiotics can cure syphilis at any stage. a. True b. False Answer: a 79. Oral herpes is caused by one type of herpes virus and genital herpes is caused by another type. a. True b. False Answer: b 80. About 24–50 million Americans may be infected with genital herpes. a. True b. False Answer: a 81. It can be safely assumed that a person with an attack of oral herpes was recently involved in sexual activity. a. True b. False Answer: b 82. Herpes is not contagious unless the infected individual is showing symptoms. a. True b. False Answer: b 83. Herpes is the leading cause of blindness resulting from infection in the United States. a. True b. False Answer: a 84. Most doctors prefer to deliver babies by cesarean section for women with genital herpes. a. True b. False Answer: a 85. Over half the cases of hepatitis B are contracted during sex. a. True b. False Answer: a 86. Worldwide, hepatitis B causes 1 million deaths a year. a. True b. False Answer: a 87. The same human papillomaviruses that cause genital warts also cause cervical cancer. a. True b. False Answer: b 88. Human papillomavirus is the leading cause of cervical cancer in women. a. True b. False Answer: a 89. HIV is the least contagious at the very beginning of the infection. a. True b. False Answer: b 90. A person infected with HIV can infect other individuals even when they show no symptoms. a. True b. False Answer: a 91. HIV is not spread by casual contact. a. True b. False Answer: a 92. If a woman is infected with HIV, she can spread it to her baby during breastfeeding. a. True b. False Answer: a 93. Over half of U.S. women with AIDS got it by heterosexual transmission. a. True b. False Answer: a 94. If combination drug therapy is begun early enough in HIV-infected patients, it can stop the progression of the disease. a. True b. False Answer: a 95. Combination drug therapy has been found to cure many HIV-infected individuals. a. True b. False Answer: b 96. Pubic lice eggs can survive on sheets and towels for up to 10 days. a. True b. False Answer: a 97. Like gonorrhea and chlamydia, most women with trichomoniasis do not show symptoms in the early stages. a. True b. False Answer: b 98. Most yeast infections were acquired during sex. a. True b. False Answer: b 99. Feminine hygiene products help speed recovery from yeasts infections. a. True b. False Answer: b 100. The use of condoms guarantees that one will not contract a sexually transmitted infection during sex. a. True b. False Answer: b C. ESSAY 101. What are the complications if an individual is not treated in the initial stage of gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis? Answer: If left untreated: 1. Gonorrhea: Can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women, infertility, increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, and can spread to other parts of the body causing joint and skin infections. 2. Chlamydia: Can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women, infertility, and increase susceptibility to HIV infection. 3. Syphilis: Can progress through stages, leading to serious complications such as damage to the heart, brain, nerves, and other organs, which can be life-threatening if untreated for many years. 102. Why is looking for symptoms in a potential new sex partner not a good way to avoid getting a sexually transmitted infection? Which STIs show few or no symptoms at first? Answer: Relying on symptoms is unreliable because: 1. Asymptomatic Infections: Many STIs, such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and HPV, often show few or no symptoms initially, making it possible to unknowingly transmit the infection. 2. Delay in Symptoms: Symptoms may not appear immediately after infection, allowing the transmission of the infection before symptoms become noticeable. 3. Incomplete Protection: Even without symptoms, an infected person can still transmit the infection, especially during periods of asymptomatic shedding. 103. What do we mean by the terms “oral herpes” and “genital herpes”? Do the terms imply anything about how the virus is spread? Answer: • Oral herpes: Refers to herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections around the mouth and on the face, often causing cold sores or fever blisters. • Genital herpes: Refers to HSV infections in the genital area, including the genitals, buttocks, and anal area. These terms indicate the location of the infection but do not specify how the virus is spread. Both oral and genital herpes can be transmitted through oral-genital contact (oral sex), genital-genital contact, or even skin-to-skin contact during asymptomatic shedding. 104. What are the possible consequences of getting HPV infection? Answer: HPV (human papillomavirus) infection can lead to various consequences: 1. Genital Warts: HPV can cause visible warts on the genital area, including the vulva, vagina, cervix, penis, and anus. 2. Cancer: Certain high-risk strains of HPV can lead to cervical, vaginal, vulvar, penile, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers. HPV is the primary cause of cervical cancer. 3. Other Health Issues: HPV infection can also cause recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP), a rare condition where warts grow in the throat. Prevention through vaccination (for certain strains) and regular screening (for cervical cancer) are crucial in managing the risks associated with HPV infection. 105. How is HIV spread? How is it not spread? Answer: HIV is spread through: 1. Sexual Contact: Unprotected vaginal, anal, or oral sex with an infected person. 2. Blood-to-Blood Contact: Sharing needles or syringes contaminated with HIV-infected blood, or receiving contaminated blood products or organ transplants. 3. From Mother to Child: During childbirth or breastfeeding if the mother is HIV-positive. HIV is not spread through casual contact such as hugging, kissing, sharing utensils, or through mosquito bites. 106. What impediments prevent many people from practicing safer sex? Answer: Several impediments prevent many people from practicing safer sex: 1. Lack of Awareness: Some individuals may not have accurate information about safer sex practices or the risks associated with unprotected sex. 2. Social and Cultural Norms: Cultural beliefs or social pressures may discourage discussions about sex, condom use, or accessing sexual health services. 3. Fear of Stigma: Fear of being judged, discriminated against, or stigmatized for carrying or discussing condoms or practicing safer sex. 4. Relationship Dynamics: Power imbalances or dynamics within relationships may affect the ability to negotiate condom use or other safer sex practices. 5. Access to Resources: Limited access to condoms, contraceptives, or sexual health services can hinder safer sex practices. 6. Substance Use: Substance use can impair judgment and lead to riskier sexual behaviors. Addressing these barriers requires comprehensive sexual education, promoting open communication about sexual health, reducing stigma, ensuring access to resources, and supporting healthy relationship dynamics. Test Bank for Human Sexuality Today Bruce, M. King, Pamela C. Regan 9780205996384, 9780134804460

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