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This Document Contains Chapters 10 to 11 CHAPTER 10 LIFE-SPAN SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT TEST QUESTIONS A. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The physical responses associated with sexual arousal (e.g., penis erection, vaginal lubrication) are first present at a. infancy b. early childhood c. puberty d. adolescence Answer: a 2. Infants touch their genitals because a. of sexual desires directed toward their mother b. of erotic thoughts c. touching the genitals produces physically pleasurable sensations d. all of the above Answer: c 3. While walking through the hall, you notice your child in his or her room touching their genitals. Most sex educators would advise you to a. punish him or her b. take him or her to a child psychologist c. ignore it d. stop the behavior by interrupting him or her Answer: c 4. The genitals become the focus of children’s attention in what Freud called the ____________ stage (approximately ages 3–7). a. anal b. phallic c. genital d. latency Answer: b 5. Freud believed that the age period from 7 to 11 was a. a latency period b. a phallic stage c. the genital stage d. the anal period Answer: a 6. Puberty is defined as the time of life when we a. begin to grow pubic hair b. begin to grow breasts or testicles c. begin to show sexual attraction and become capable of reproduction d. all of the above Answer: c 7. At puberty, the first increase in sex hormones comes from the a. adrenal glands b. testicles or ovaries c. pituitary gland d. hypothalamus Answer: a 8. The two stages of puberty are called a. phallic and latency b. testicular and ovarian c. pubic and adolescent d. adrenarche and gonadarche Answer: d 9. Before puberty a. boys do not get erections and girls do not have vaginal lubrication b. boys do not ejaculate and girls do not menstruate c. boys and girls cannot have orgasms d. all of the above Answer: b 10. The physical changes in girls and boys at puberty (e.g., breast development, facial hair) are called a. primary sex characteristics b. secondary sex characteristics c. gender roles d. sexual features Answer: b 11. The development of breasts in girls during puberty occurs as a result of increased levels of a. estrogen b. FSH c. progesterone d. testosterone Answer: a 12. A woman’s first menstrual period is called a. primary menstruation b. menarche c. adrenarche d. gonadarche Answer: b 13. Since the early 1800s, the average age of first menstruation in Europe and the United States has a. been dropping b. been rising c. remained the same d. been dropping, but lately has risen Answer: a 14. At puberty, an increase in vaginal lubrication during sexual arousal is due to an increase in the hormone a. estrogen b. progesterone c. luteinizing hormone d. all of the above Answer: a 15. Testosterone stimulates growth of the a. penis b. prostate gland c. seminal vesicles d. all of the above Answer: d 16. Nocturnal emissions (“wet dreams”) are a sign that a boy a. is having erotic thoughts b. is capable of reproduction c. is masturbating d. all of the above Answer: b 17. Pubic hair starts to appear during puberty as a result of increased levels of a. follicle stimulating hormone in both boys and girls b. testosterone in boys and estrogen in girls c. testosterone in both boys and girls d. estrogen in both boys and girls Answer: c 18. When secondary sex characteristics appear before the age of 8 in girls and 9 in boys, it is called a. premenstrual syndrome b. precocious puberty c. gynecomastia d. gonadarche Answer: b 19. Sexual attraction first occurs at about age a. 4 b. 7 c. 10 d. 13 Answer: c 20. Adolescence refers to the time in life a. when one has developed secondary sex characteristics b. when one becomes capable of reproduction c. between puberty and adulthood d. when one enters early adulthood Answer: c 21. For most adolescent boys and girls, the most important issue in their lives is a. sexual relations b. self-identity c. gender identity d. gender roles Answer: b 22. For most men, the first experience with orgasm occurs during a. masturbation b. petting/necking c. sexual intercourse d. dreams Answer: a 23. Nearly ____________ of high school seniors have engaged in sexual intercourse. a. one third b. one half c. two thirds d. all Answer: c 24. By the age of 20, ____________ of Americans have engaged in premarital sex. a. 50% b. 75% c. 90% d. 95% Answer: b 25. The average age at marriage in the U.S. has ____________ in recent years. a. decreased b. increased c. remained about the same d. none of the above Answer: b 26. Emerging adulthood refers to a. late adolescence b. the period between puberty and adulthood c. the period between adolescence and young adulthood d. all of the above Answer: c 27. Non-relationship sex without commitment is called a. emerging adulthood b. serial monogamy c. peer pressure d. hooking up Answer: d 28. For most adults aged 26 and older, their sexual lifestyle is characterized by a. long-lasting monogamy b. serial monogamy c. hooking up d. emerging adulthood Answer: a 29. Sexual activity is generally highest for a. people in their late teens b. people aged 18-25 (emerging adulthood) c. singles aged 18-29 d. married persons in their mid-20s to mid-30s Answer: d 30. The frequency of sexual intercourse usually ____________ over time in a marriage. a. gradually increases b. gradually decreases c. remains the same d. none of the above Answer: b 31. Cohabitation is the “first union” for ____________ of American women. a. one-fourth b. one-third c. over half d. two-thirds Answer: c 32. With regards to extramarital affairs, as a general rule men are more concerned about their partner’s ____________ infidelity; women are more concerned about their partner’s ____________ infidelity. a. sexual, emotional b. sexual, sexual c. emotional, sexual d. emotional, intellectual Answer: a 33. Whitehurst found that the two main reasons individuals have extramarital affairs are a. apathy and boredom b. unhappiness and resentment c. opportunity and alienation d. higher than normal sex drive and unhappiness Answer: c 34. Many teenagers and young adults do not believe that their parents enjoy sex regularly. This belief a. is likely to be true because the frequency of sex in marriage decreases over time b. is likely to be untrue, but can result in an individual feeling less sexual when he or she becomes a parent c. is not true, because the frequency of sex in marriage increases over time d. is likely to be true because one’s physical capacity for sex decreases rapidly in middle age Answer: b 35. Within marriage, the frequency of sex a. declines only gradually from age 40 to 60 b. declines rapidly from age 40 to 60 c. does not begin to decline until age 60 d. declines rapidly from age 30 to 40 Answer: a 36. For both men and women, the best predictor of sexual activity in old age is a. good nutrition throughout life b. exercising regularly c. a healthy, positive attitude about sex when younger d. the amount of exposure to sexually explicit material Answer: c 37. Within a relationship, sexual motivation and the quality of sex are highly associated with a. hormone levels b. physical conditioning c. being younger than 40 d. the overall quality of the relationship Answer: d 38. Menopause refers to the time in life when a. a woman loses her sexual desire b. a man’s sexual desire slows down c. a woman stops menstruating d. all of the above Answer: c 39. The changes that occur in the few years preceding and following the end of menstruation are called a. menopause b. resolution c. climacteric d. refractory period Answer: c 40. Many of the problems associated with menopause are due to loss of ____________. a. follicle stimulating hormone b. estrogen c. progesterone d. testosterone Answer: b 41. In different cultures, the experience of menopause a. does not exist b. is always viewed negatively c. is sometimes viewed positively d. almost always ends a women’s sexual desire Answer: c 42. As men grow older, they will probably a. unlike women, show no change in hormone levels b. experience a gradual decline in testosterone c. similar to women, experience a sharp decline in hormone levels d. experience male menopause Answer: b 43. For healthy, elderly people (aged 60 and older), sexual desire is a. uncommon in both men and women b. common in men, but not in women c. common in women, but not in men d. common in both men and women Answer: d 44. The biggest problem preventing many middle-aged and older women from having sexual relations is a. hormones b. menopause c. lack of a partner d. poor health Answer: c 45. One of the biggest problems for healthy, elderly people interested in sexual relations is a. a sharp decrease in hormones b. our culture’s negative stereotypes of the aged as sexless c. lack of stimulation d. potential heart problems Answer: b 46. Sexual learning begins a. in infancy b. in the school-aged years c. at puberty d. in adolescence Answer: a 47. For most teenagers, ____________ is the primary source of sexual information. a. their peer group and the media b. parents c. schools d. church Answer: a 48. In most families, which parent is most likely to talk to the children about sex? a. mothers b. fathers c. no difference between mothers and fathers d. mothers with daughters, fathers with sons Answer: a 49. You should teach your child words such as penis and vagina beginning a. at the time you teach him or her the names of the other parts of the body b. when he or she starts school c. at puberty d. at a time in adolescence when he or she is mature enough to not use such words inappropriately Answer: a 50. When discussing sexuality with your child, you should a. emphasize the negative consequences of sex b. avoid talking about the pleasures of sex c. make your answers age-appropriate d. all of the above Answer: c 51. How should you talk with your child about sex? a. lecture b. discuss c. emphasize negative consequences d. do not include values Answer: b 52. To be successful in communicating with your child about sex, it is important that you be a. authoritative b. askable and accepting c. a disciplinarian d. all of the above Answer: b 53. When discussing sex with your child, a. you should not talk about your values b. it is okay to emphasize your values c. it is okay to dictate your values d. it is okay to preach morality Answer: b 54. You will know if your attempts to discuss sexuality with your children have been successful by whether or not a. they engage in sex b. they get pregnant, get someone else pregnant, or contract a sexually transmitted infection c. they are willing to come to you when they have questions about sex d. all of the above Answer: c B. TRUE-FALSE 55. Male fetuses have erections before they are born. a. True b. False Answer: a 56. Nearly all young children touch their genitals. a. True b. False Answer: a 57. Engaging in same-sex sexual contact at a young age means that the child will probably be homosexual as an adult. a. True b. False Answer: b 58. If your child touches himself or herself at home, the best thing to do is ignore it. a. True b. False Answer: a 59. Research supports Freud’s belief that children aged 7-11 show little or no interest in sex (“latency period”). a. True b. False Answer: b 60. The first changes that occur during puberty are due to increases in testicular or ovarian hormones. a. True b. False Answer: b 61. Growth of pubic and underarm hair in girls at puberty is the result of increasing levels of testosterone. a. True b. False Answer: a 62. The average age for girls’ first menstruation has been decreasing over the last few centuries. a. True b. False Answer: a 63. Many boys develop breasts at puberty as a result of increased levels of estrogen. a. True b. False Answer: a 64. Puberty never begins before age 8 in girls or age 9 in boys. a. True b. False Answer: b 65. The onset of sexual attraction during puberty coincides with rising levels of androgens from the adrenal gland. a. True b. False Answer: a 66. The number of sexually active teens has decreased since the early l990s. a. True b. False Answer: a 67. Most teenage girls have positive emotional experiences with their first experience of intercourse. a. True b. False Answer: b 68. Many teens engage in sex to boost social status and to gain acceptance. a. True b. False Answer: a 69. The average age at marriage has increased decreased in recent decades. a. True b. False Answer: b 70. Married couples in their mid-20s to mid-30s have sex more often than do younger or same-age singles. a. True b. False Answer: a 71. For over half of American women, their “first union” is cohabitation. a. True b. False Answer: a 72. Women are more concerned about emotional infidelity by their mates than they are sexual infidelity. The reverse is true for men. a. True b. False Answer: a 73. There is very little association between social backgrounds (including religion) and whether one engages in extramarital affairs. a. True b. False Answer: a 74. Frequency of sexual intercourse does not dramatically decline from young adulthood through the 50s. a. True b. False Answer: a 75. Most women show a decreased interest in sex after menopause. a. True b. False Answer: b 76. The symptoms of menopause are more or less the same for women of all cultures. a. True b. False Answer: b 77. The large majority of men do not experience a true menopause. a. True b. False Answer: a 78. Elderly, healthy people seldom show an interest in sexual relations. a. True b. False Answer: b 79. The best estimate of how you will feel about sex when you are older is how you feel about it now. a. True b. False Answer: a 80. Growing older does not affect sexual functioning. a. True b. False Answer: b 81. Sexual learning begins in infancy. a. True b. False Answer: a 82. You should teach your children the proper names for their genitalia before they even begin going to school. a. True b. False Answer: a 83. To properly teach elementary school children about AIDS, you will have to discuss oral and anal sex. a. True b. False Answer: b 84. It is okay to use scare tactics when talking to your children about sex. a. True b. False Answer: b 85. To be 100% correct, you should always talk to your child (about sex) as if he or she were an adult. a. True b. False Answer: b 86. When talking to you child about sex, the most important message is that nothing he or she does will be made worse by talking to you about it. a. True b. False Answer: a 87. It is okay to talk to your child about values and morals. a. True b. False Answer: a 88. Your own behavior is not really important; it is what you say that is important. a. True b. False Answer: b 89. The best indicator of whether or not you have succeeded in your talks with your child about sex is whether or not they engage in sex. a. True b. False Answer: b C. ESSAY 90. Discuss the evidence that children are sexual human beings. Answer: Children are recognized as sexual beings based on developmental psychology, which acknowledges that from infancy, children exhibit curiosity about their bodies and those of others. This natural exploration is a normal part of their cognitive and emotional growth. 91. Describe some of the major changes that take place in boys and girls during puberty and the hormones associated with these changes. Answer: During puberty, boys and girls experience significant physical changes due to hormones. Boys: Testosterone production increases, leading to growth of facial and body hair, deepening of voice, muscle development, and growth of the penis and testes. Girls: Estrogen and progesterone levels rise, causing breast development, growth of pubic and underarm hair, onset of menstruation (menarche), and hips widening. These hormonal changes trigger the development of secondary sexual characteristics and prepare the body for reproduction. 92. How does the period of emerging adulthood differ from adolescence and young adulthood? Answer: Emerging adulthood (typically ages 18-25) differs from adolescence (roughly ages 10-19) and young adulthood (ages 20s-30s) by its focus on identity exploration, instability in life choices, self-focused exploration, and a sense of possibilities in love and work. 93. Describe the physical and behavioral changes that occur during middle age in men and women. What are the best predictors of whether or not middle-aged individuals will have a fulfilling sexual relationship? Answer: Physical and Behavioral Changes in Middle Age: • Men: Experience decreased testosterone levels, leading to reduced muscle mass, hair loss, and erectile dysfunction. They may also face increased risk of cardiovascular disease and weight gain. • Women: Go through menopause, involving cessation of menstruation and hormonal shifts causing hot flashes, mood swings, and changes in libido. They also experience changes like decreased bone density. Predictors of Fulfilling Sexual Relationship in Middle Age: • Communication: Open and honest communication about desires and concerns. • Emotional Connection: Feeling emotionally close and supported by partner. • Health: Overall physical and mental health impacts sexual satisfaction. • Relationship Satisfaction: General satisfaction with the relationship and intimacy. 94. How common are sexual relations among people aged 60 and older? Discuss the social and physical factors that prevent some elderly persons from having sexual relations. Answer: Sexual relations among people aged 60 and older are more common than commonly perceived. Many remain sexually active due to improved health, longer life expectancy, and societal changes. However, social factors like stigma, lack of opportunities, and partner availability, as well as physical factors such as health issues, medication side effects, and decreased libido, can prevent some elderly individuals from engaging in sexual relations. 95. Outline how you will teach your child about sexuality and sex, from infancy through early adolescence. Answer: Infancy to Early Adolescence Sexuality Education Outline: 1. Infancy (0-2 years): • Normalize body exploration and provide accurate names for body parts. • Respond positively to questions about bodies and bodily functions. 2. Early Childhood (3-5 years): • Teach basic concepts of privacy and boundaries. • Discuss differences between boys and girls in a simple and age-appropriate manner. • Use books or stories to introduce concepts of families and relationships. 3. Middle Childhood (6-10 years): • Provide more detailed information about puberty, including physical changes and emotions. • Discuss reproduction in an age-appropriate way. • Teach about personal safety, boundaries, and consent. 4. Early Adolescence (11-14 years): • Discuss sexual orientation and gender identity inclusively. • Address peer pressure, relationships, and communication skills. • Teach about contraception, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and healthy sexual behaviors. • Encourage open communication and establish trust for discussing sensitive topics. Throughout all stages, emphasize respect, consent, and the importance of healthy relationships. Adjust conversations based on the child's maturity and readiness. 96. When talking to your child about sexuality, knowledge is not enough. How you say it is just as important as what you say. Elaborate. Answer: When discussing sexuality with children, how information is conveyed is crucial for their understanding and comfort: • Tone and Attitude: Maintain a calm and open demeanor to encourage questions and reduce discomfort. • Language: Use age-appropriate and clear language that matches their level of understanding. • Timing: Choose appropriate moments for discussions, ensuring privacy and enough time for questions. • Respect and Validation: Acknowledge their feelings, provide accurate information, and emphasize respect for themselves and others. These factors foster trust and openness, helping children develop healthy attitudes toward sexuality. CHAPTER 11 ADULT SEXUAL BEHAVIORS AND ATTITUDES TEST QUESTIONS A. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. It is best to think of “normal” as a. a range of behaviors or values b. the mean (the “average”) c. the 50th percentile d. the most frequent behavior or value Answer: a 2. The belief that masturbation is bad can be traced to a. early religious teachings b. the medical profession c. Victorian morality d. all of the above Answer: d 3. Which of the following harmful consequences was produced by masturbation, according to early (e.g., Victorian-era) beliefs? a. acne b. constipation c. misshapen genitals d. all of the above Answer: d 4. Kinsey found that ____________ had masturbated by the age of 40. a. 92% of women and 96% of men b. 92% of women and 62% of men c. 92% of men and 62% of women d. 46% of women and 49% of men Answer: c 5. Masturbation is a. bad for your health if done regularly b. safe as long as it is not practiced to excess c. not a cause of any sort of physical problems d. a sign of psychological problems if done in adulthood Answer: c 6. Which of these statements regarding masturbation in today’s society is FALSE? a. most adults discontinue masturbation after marriage b. the majority of men and women report having masturbated c. masturbation rates generally increase among both sexes through their 30s d. men tend to masturbate more frequently than do women Answer: a 7. Survey research generally reveals that a. most adolescents masturbate, but most adults do not b. most people with sexual partners masturbate c. most people who live alone masturbate, but most stop after they have a sexual partner d. as a general rule, only those people without sexual partners masturbate Answer: b 8. If a person continues to masturbate after beginning a monogamous, long term sexual relationship, he or she probably a. is masturbating to put variety into his or her sex life b. is unhappy with the sexual relations with his or her partner c. prefers masturbation to sexual intercourse d. is sexually dysfunctional Answer: a 9. Troy masturbated quite a bit during his teenage years. What does research predict will happen to Troy as an adult, sexually speaking? a. He will have difficulty adjusting to a sexual relationship b. He will have an increased likelihood of premature ejaculation during intercourse. c. He will experience lower sexual satisfaction once he is married. d. He will experience no alterations in his sexual adjustment Answer: d 10. With regard to ethnic differences in sexual behavior, a. white adults are less likely to have masturbated and engaged in oral-genital sex than other groups b. African-American adults are less likely to have masturbated and engaged in oral-genital sex than other groups c. African-American and Latino adults are more likely to have masturbated and engaged in oral-genital sex than other groups d. white adults are more likely to have masturbated than other groups, but African-American adults are more likely to have engaged in oral-genital sex than other groups Answer: b 11. Behaviors like masturbation and oral-genital sex are a. uncommon among all groups, regardless of education b. common among all groups, regardless of education c. more common among lower-educated groups d. more common among higher-educated groups Answer: d 12. Which of the following statements about sexual fantasies is TRUE? a. relatively few women have had sexual fantasies b. more women than men have had sexual fantasies c. the majority of men and women have had sexual fantasies d. sexual fantasies are uncommon for both men and women Answer: c 13. In which way do women’s sexual fantasies tend to differ from men’s? a. more romantic b. more explicit c. more visual d. all of the above Answer: a 14. During intercourse with her husband, Olivia enjoys fantasizing about her coworker Elliot. She is having a(n) ____________ fantasy. a. submission b. inappropriate c. replacement d. sexual exploration Answer: c 15. Which of the following is a common theme in sexual fantasies? a. sexual exploration b. sexual intimacy c. impersonal sex d. all of the above Answer: d 16. Regarding sexual fantasies, which of the following statements is FALSE? a. sexual fantasies can occur at any time and in any setting b. having a sexual fantasy means that a person wants to experience the fantasy in real life c. some people feel guilty about their sexual fantasies d. the content of a sexual fantasy does not necessarily indicate dysfunction Answer: b 17. At work one day, Craig suddenly finds himself thinking about being tied up and sexually assaulted. He cannot seem to stop this thought, and experiences considerable distress. What has Craig experienced? a. a rape fantasy b. a bondage fantasy c. a sexually intrusive thought d. a replacement thought Answer: c 18. Surveys tell us that when two (heterosexual) people have sex, the most common act they report doing is ____________. a. vaginal intercourse b. mutual masturbation c. bondage d. striptease Answer: a 19. National surveys reveal that most younger married couples have sexual intercourse a. several times a day b. once a day c. one to three times a week d. two to three times a month Answer: c 20. Which of the following statements about sexual frequency is TRUE? a. Most married couples have sex one to three times per month b. The majority of gay male couples have sex six or more times per week c. Heterosexual married couples have sex more often than all other groups d. Partnered people have sex more frequently than single people Answer: d 21. Research reveals that sexual intercourse—the total shared event—typically lasts ____________ for most couples. a. between 15 and 60 minutes b. about an hour and a half c. less than 10 minutes d. not nearly enough time Answer: a 22. Mike and Carol just engaged in mutually satisfying sexual interaction with each other. Research tells us that they probably spent how much time engaged in the actual act of intercourse? a. 15 to 60 minutes b. 3 to 13 minutes c. 1 to 5 minutes d. 37 seconds Answer: b 23. Of the following individuals, whose sexual encounters probably last the longest? a. Aidan, a 56-year-old b. Bill, a 45-year-old c. Chuck, a 30-year-old d. David, a 23-year-old Answer: d 24. Some couples find that the missionary position of sexual intercourse has several disadvantages. Which of the following is NOT one of them? a. it is difficult for the woman to move freely b. it is difficult for the partners to easily access each other’s genital areas c. it is less likely that the partners will achieve orgasm at the same time d. there is less potential for clitoral stimulation than in some other positions Answer: c 25. What is a major advantage of the missionary position of sexual intercourse? a. it allows for emotional, face-to-face intimacy b. it is easy for the partners to access each other’s genital areas c. it is less physically demanding than other positions d. there is more potential for clitoral stimulation than in other positions Answer: a 26. The preferred manner of sexual intercourse in all known cultures is a. woman-on-top b. man-on-top c. side-to-side d. face-to-face Answer: d 27. Researchers believe that a culture’s preferred position of sexual intercourse is a reflection of a. religious views b. Western vs. Eastern cultures c. degree of industrialization d. women’s social status Answer: d 28. Peggy wants her lover Bob to have sexual intercourse with her in different positions, including rear vaginal entry. Peggy’s wishes reflect a. sexual dysfunction b. reduced sexual desire for Bob c. hypersexuality d. a normal desire for sexual variety Answer: d 29. Hal and Sylvia often use a different room when they have sex and are always experimenting with new positions. This shows that their sexual relationship is NOT a. ritualized b. fulfilling c. normal d. orgasmic Answer: a 30. When a person orally stimulates the partner’s penis, it is called a. cunnilingus b. fellatio c. penile kissing d. rimming Answer: b 31. When a person orally stimulates the partner’s vulva, it is called a. cunnilingus b. fellatio c. vaginal kissing d. rimming Answer: a 32. Regarding oral-genital sex, a. the large majority of young adults engage in oral-genital relations b. more people enjoy receiving it than giving it c. it is less common among African Americans than other groups d. all of the above Answer: d 33. Which of the following statements regarding oral-genital sex is FALSE? a. there are no health benefits to swallowing genital secretions b. mouth-genital contact is no less hygienic than mouth-to-mouth contact c. the natural secretions of the genitals are unhealthy d. sexually transmitted diseases can be transmitted by oral-genital sex Answer: c 34. Which of the following activities count as “anal sex”? a. inserting a penis into the partner’s anus b. orally stimulating the partner’s anus c. inserting a dildo into the partner’s anus d. all of the above Answer: d 35. Of the following individuals, who is the most likely to have engaged in anal intercourse within the last year? a. Joel, a gay man in a committed relationship b. Sean, a single heterosexual man c. Carter, a heterosexual man in a committed relationship d. Billie, a single homosexual woman Answer: a 36. Anilingus is defined as a. oral stimulation of the partner’s penis b. oral stimulation of the partner’s anus c. penis-in-anus sex d. none of the above Answer: b 37. Dr. M has just completed a survey of young adults’ sexual behaviors and preferences. What do you think she found with respect to anal intercourse? a. The majority preferred it and engaged in it regularly b. Most people had done it the last time they had sex with their partners c. Many people had tried it, but very few said they found it to be very appealing d. Hardly anyone had tried it, but most wanted to Answer: c 38. Anal intercourse is most common among which group? a. heterosexuals b. lesbians c. single people d. gay men Answer: d 39. Laumann and colleagues (1994) found that the second most preferred sexual behavior of Americans was a. vaginal intercourse b. watching their partner undress c. oral-genital sex d. anal stimulation Answer: b 40. If you were to conduct a large, national survey similar to the one that Laumann and colleagues (1994) conducted on sexual preferences, what do you think you would find in terms of people’s MOST preferred sexual behaviors? a. vaginal intercourse b. anal intercourse c. watching other people engage in sex d. giving and receiving oral sex Answer: a 41. A sexually healthy person is defined as someone who a. feels comfortable with his or her sexuality b. feels free to choose whether or not he or she wishes to try a variety of sexual behaviors c. is free from life-threatening diseases d. all of the above Answer: d 42. Which of these individuals would NOT be considered sexually healthy? a. an elderly woman who masturbates several times a week b. a 20-year-old man who has decided not to have sex until marriage c. a 20-year-old woman who agrees to have sex, even though she often doesn’t want to d. a 20-year-old man who wants to have anal sex with his boyfriend Answer: c 43. Laws that ban specific sexual behaviors (oral and anal sex) between consenting adults are called a. pornography laws b. obscenity laws c. erotica laws d. sodomy laws Answer: d 44. Ray and Wendy are 16 year-old high school students. They have been dating for about two years and plan to get married after college. One day, Ray’s parents come home from work early and catch them in Ray’s bed having sex. Depending on the state where they live, Ray and Wendy can be prosecuted for a. fornication b. sodomy c. adultery d. crimes against nature Answer: a 45. Until 2003, in some states oral-genital sex was illegal a. between homosexual individuals b. between unmarried heterosexual individuals c. between married partners d. all of the above Answer: d 46. A 2003 U.S. Supreme Court decision essentially a. upheld all sodomy laws b. denied that there was a Constitutional right to sexual privacy c. invalidated sodomy laws against heterosexuals, but upheld sodomy laws aimed at homosexuals d. invalidated all sodomy laws Answer: d 47. Consensual sexual activity between men is a crime in approximately 80% of the countries in a. Western Europe b. Africa c. Asia d. North America Answer: b 48. In some countries, people who commit adultery may be sentenced to a. death b. imprisonment c. flogging d. all of the above Answer: d 49. Two men have entered a consensual sexual relationship. Assuming that others find out about their relationship, in which country are they likely to receive the harshest punishment? a. Iran b. England c. South Africa d. Mexico Answer: a 50. For which of the following behaviors can people still be prosecuted in some states in the U.S.? a. anal intercourse b. fellatio c. premarital sex d. cunnilingus Answer: c B. TRUE-FALSE 51. For a behavior to be “statistically normal,” all people must engage in it. a. True b. False Answer: b 52. One “cure” for masturbation practiced in America during the late 1800s was castration. a. True b. False Answer: a 53. Masturbation does not cause any serious health problems. a. True b. False Answer: a 54. Masturbation can cause serious physical health problems if done to excess. a. True b. False Answer: b 55. Sally has found out that her husband likes to occasionally masturbate, even though they have sexual intercourse three times a week. This probably means that her husband is unhappy with their sex life. a. True b. False Answer: b 56. There are ethnic differences in rates of masturbation. a. True b. False Answer: a 57. African Americans are more likely to engage in oral-genital sex than other ethnic groups. a. True b. False Answer: b 58. Lower-educated groups are more likely to engage in oral-genital sex than higher-educated groups. a. True b. False Answer: b 59. Masturbation is considered healthy by most sex therapists today, and is sometimes prescribed as a part of therapy. a. True b. False Answer: a 60. Because most people masturbate, a person who does not masturbate is abnormal. a. True b. False Answer: b 61. There is clear evidence linking masturbation with the development of abnormal adult sexuality. a. True b. False Answer: b 62. Nearly all adults have sexual fantasies. a. True b. False Answer: a 63. Women’s sexual fantasies tend to be less explicit than men’s fantasies. a. True b. False Answer: a 64. Nearly all adults have fantasized about having sex with someone other than their usual partner. a. True b. False Answer: a 65. Dominance fantasies are more common among men than women. a. True b. False Answer: a 66. Most dominance/submission fantasies involve themes of seduction, arousal, and mutually satisfying intercourse. a. True b. False Answer: a 67. Most dominance/submission fantasies involve themes of violent, painful, realistic rape. a. True b. False Answer: b 68. The content of sexual fantasies often indicates sexual unhappiness or personality problems. a. True b. False Answer: b 69. Single people generally have sex more often than married people. a. True b. False Answer: b 70. American couples today are practicing a greater variety of sexual positions during intercourse than in Kinsey’s time. a. True b. False Answer: a 71. A culture’s preferred position of sexual intercourse is often a reflection of women’s social status. a. True b. False Answer: a 72. The natural secretions of the genitals are no less healthy than saliva. a. True b. False Answer: a 73. Swallowing semen or other genital secretions can cure acne. a. True b. False Answer: b 74. The survey by Laumann et al. (1994) found that vaginal intercourse was by far the most preferred sexual behavior of Americans. a. True b. False Answer: a 75. To be a sexually healthy person, one must have engaged in a variety of sexual behaviors with multiple partners. a. True b. False Answer: b 76. In the U.S., it is possible to be prosecuted for adultery in some states. a. True b. False Answer: a 77. The Supreme Court has ruled that states have the right to regulate sexual behaviors between consenting adults. a. True b. False Answer: b C. ESSAY 78. Define and explain: a) a statistically normal behavior, and b) a sexually healthy adult. Answer: a) A statistically normal behavior refers to actions or behaviors that are common or typical within a given population. These behaviors are considered within the range of what is expected or usual based on statistical norms and distributions. b) A sexually healthy adult is someone who has a positive and respectful attitude towards their own sexuality and the sexuality of others. They are able to communicate openly about sexual matters, engage in consensual sexual activities, and maintain physical and emotional well-being in their sexual relationships. 79. One day you overhear two people talking. “Masturbation is unhealthy,” Person A says, “If you masturbate, you won’t be interested in having sex with your partner.” “You’re wrong,” Person B replies, “Masturbation is a normal human behavior—doing it doesn’t hurt a relationship.” Discuss each of these two perspectives—which one is the most accurate, from a scientific perspective? Answer: From a scientific perspective, Person B's perspective is more accurate. Masturbation is a normal and healthy sexual behavior. It does not typically interfere with sexual interest in a partner or harm relationships. Research generally supports that masturbation can have positive effects on sexual health and well-being, including stress relief and improved sexual function. 80. Discuss the four general categories of sexual fantasy identified by researchers. Answer: Researchers have identified four general categories of sexual fantasy: 1. Exploratory: Fantasies involving new experiences or experimentation. 2. Intimate: Fantasies emphasizing emotional closeness and connection. 3. Impersonal: Fantasies focusing on impersonal or casual sexual encounters. 4. Dominance: Fantasies involving power dynamics, control, or submission. These categories help understand the diversity and psychological aspects of sexual fantasies. 81. Discuss gender differences in sexual fantasy content. Does the fact that some men engage in dominance fantasies, and some women engage in submission fantasies, mean that men and women secretly desire to experience rape? Answer: Gender differences in sexual fantasy content show that while there is some overlap, men tend to fantasize more about dominance and impersonal sex, whereas women often fantasize more about intimacy and submission. These preferences do not indicate a desire for non-consensual experiences like rape. Fantasies are complex and can serve various psychological functions, including exploring desires safely within a controlled mental environment. Consent and mutual pleasure are critical in healthy sexual relationships, contrasting starkly with the traumatic nature of rape. 82. Identify and discuss two factors that appear to be associated with how often a couple engages in sexual activity. [Hint: You may wish to consider the type of couple, as well as the age of the partners.] Answer: Two factors associated with how often a couple engages in sexual activity include: 1. Relationship Duration and Type: Couples in newer relationships tend to have more frequent sex compared to those in longer-term relationships. Additionally, couples in committed relationships or marriages often report more consistent sexual activity due to established intimacy and shared routines. 2. Age of the Partners: Generally, younger couples tend to have more frequent sexual activity than older couples. Age-related factors such as hormonal changes, health issues, and life stressors can impact sexual desire and frequency as couples age. 83. Consider the pros and cons of “missionary position” intercourse. Answer: The missionary position has both pros and cons: Pros: 1. Intimacy: Allows face-to-face contact, eye contact, and emotional connection between partners. 2. Accessibility: Easy for most couples to perform without physical strain or flexibility concerns. 3. Comfort: Generally comfortable and allows for prolonged intercourse without excessive physical effort. Cons: 1. Limited Variation: May become monotonous over time without variations in position. 2. Limited Stimulation: Provides limited clitoral stimulation compared to other positions that allow for more direct access. 3. Gender Dynamics: Some may perceive it as reinforcing traditional gender roles, which might not align with all preferences or relationship dynamics. 84. People often have very strong opinions about anal sex. Discuss the role that a person’s relationship status seems to play in determining both (a) whether he or she is likely to have engaged in anal sex and (b) the reasons why he or she decided to try this particular sexual activity. Answer: Relationship status plays a significant role in anal sex: a) Likelihood of Engagement: • Single or Casual Relationships: People in casual or non-committed relationships may be more likely to engage in anal sex, often driven by exploration or experimentation. • Committed Relationships: Couples in committed relationships may engage in anal sex less frequently, often due to personal comfort levels, trust, and emotional intimacy required. b) Reasons for Trying: • Curiosity and Exploration: Single individuals may try anal sex out of curiosity or to explore new sexual experiences. • Intimacy and Trust: In committed relationships, trying anal sex can be motivated by a desire to deepen intimacy, trust, and shared exploration of pleasure. 85. In the United States, what are the current laws with respect to fornication, adultery, and sodomy? Do you think that states and communities should have the right to pass laws that restrict or ban private sexual behaviors between consenting adults (assuming that the behaviors cause no physical harm to either party)? Why or why not? Answer: In the United States: • Fornication: Laws against consensual sexual relations between unmarried individuals (fornication) are rarely enforced and generally considered outdated or unconstitutional. • Adultery: Adultery laws vary by state but are seldom enforced and often not legally actionable in private matters. • Sodomy: Laws prohibiting sodomy (specifically same-sex relations) were struck down as unconstitutional in the 2003 Supreme Court case Lawrence v. Texas. Regarding state and community laws: • Opinion: States and communities should not have the right to restrict or ban private sexual behaviors between consenting adults that cause no physical harm. Such laws intrude on personal autonomy, privacy, and individual rights. Consensual private actions that do not harm others should be protected as fundamental freedoms. Test Bank for Human Sexuality Today Bruce, M. King, Pamela C. Regan 9780205996384, 9780134804460

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