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CHAPTER 1 WHY A COURSE IN HUMAN SEXUALITY? TEST QUESTIONS A. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A person’s sexuality refers to his or her a. sexual attitudes b. sexual feelings c. sexual behaviors d. all of the above Answer: d 2. For most teens, the major source(s) of information about sex is (are) a. friends and the media b. parents c. sex education d. parents and sex education Answer: a 3. What percentage of Americans favors the teaching of comprehensive sexual education in high schools? a. about a third b. about half c. about two-thirds d. over 85% Answer: d 4. Which of these countries has the highest rate of teenage pregnancy? a. United States b. Canada c. Sweden d. England Answer: a 5. Cross-cultural studies of such groups of people as the Inis Baeg, Pohnpeians, and Mangaians suggest that a. American sexual behavior is normal compared to the strange behavior of others b. the sexual behavior of these groups is perverted c. the sexual behavior of Americans may appear as strange to others as their behavior seems strange to us d. sexual intercourse is not universal Answer: c 6. Which of these is associated with erotic arousal in all cultures? a. breasts b. the navel c. kissing d. none of the above Answer: d 7. Which of the following is considered erotic in at least one culture? a. the navel b. a very obese woman c. the knees d. all of the above Answer: d 8. Most anthropologists believe that the most sexually permissive society in the world is the a. Gusii b. United States c. Mangaians d. Inis Baeg Answer: c 9. Most anthropologists consider the ____________ to be the most sexually repressed culture in the world. a. Mangaians b. Inis Baeg c. Pohnpeians d. United States Answer: b 10. In the United States, sexual attitudes and behaviors are influenced by a. ethnicity b. level of education c. socioeconomic status d. all of the above Answer: d 11. In the United States, sexual attitudes and behaviors are a. similar for all ethnic groups b. different among ethnic groups c. are similar for white Americans and African Americans d. are similar for white Americans and Latinos Answer: b 12. Among people living in the United States, ____________ are generally the least permissive in their sexual attitudes and behaviors. a. African Americans b. Asian Americans c. Caucasians d. Latinos Answer: b 13. Which of the following was NOT true of the biblical Jews? a. women were considered to be property b. the genitals were considered to be obscene c. the primary object of sex was to have children d. sexual relations between a husband and wife were regarded as something very positive Answer: b 14. The idea that the primary purpose of sex is procreation originally came from a. the biblical Jews b. early Christians c. early Protestants d. early Greeks Answer: a 15. The idea of having spiritual love without sex comes to us from a. Plato b. the Romans c. the Hebrews d. Jesus Answer: a 16. John and Stacy are married, but not to each other. They claim that they love each other, but do not want to express that love physically, only intellectually. Such feelings of love were originally described by a. Greek philosophers b. the Romans c. the Hebrews d. Jesus Answer: a 17. Which of these cultures did NOT separate physical and spiritual love? a. Greeks b. Christians c. Hebrews d. all of the above Answer: c 18. Which of these individuals thought that a celibate lifestyle was superior to marriage? a. Plato b. St. Paul c. Jesus d. Henry Havelock Ellis Answer: b 19. This man was the first to equate sex with guilt, because he linked sex with the downfall of Adam and Eve. a. St. Paul b. St. Augustine c. Pope John Paul II d. Jesus Answer: b 20. In Christianity, this person taught that marital sex for the purpose of procreation should be viewed as an unpleasant necessity. a. St. Paul b. St. Augustine c. St. Jerome d. Jesus Answer: b 21. The belief that sex should not be pleasurable and should be done only for procreation originally came from a. the biblical Hebrews b. the early Christians c. the Victorians d. the Inis Baeg Answer: b 22. Which of the following did NOT have a negative attitude about the human body? a. biblical Hebrews b. early Christians c. Victorians d. all of the above Answer: a 23. In Western culture, the two groups that have had the greatest influence on negative sexual attitudes are a. the early Christians and biblical Hebrews b. the early Christians and the Puritans c. the early Christians and the Victorians d. the Puritans and the Victorians Answer: c 24. Which of these beliefs were popular in the Victorian era? a. pleasurable aspects of sex should be denied b. women should be viewed as asexual c. wives engage in sex only to perform their “wifely duties” d. all of the above Answer: d 25. The belief that women were asexual can be traced most clearly to a. the Victorian era b. St. Augustine c. the Puritan era d. the biblical Hebrews Answer: a 26. In the 19th century, most physicians believed that masturbation would lead to a. blindness b. consumption c. insanity d. all of the above Answer: d 27. Generally speaking, the Victorian era’s views about sexuality were even more negative than earlier Christian views because of a. the writings of Freud b. the beliefs of the Puritans c. the mistaken medical beliefs of that era d. the industrial revolution Answer: c 28. A recently discovered questionnaire conducted by Dr. Clelia Mosher in 1892 reveals that many married Victorian women a. did not enjoy sex, but engaged in it to perform their “wifely duties” b. engaged in sex only for procreation c. desired and enjoyed sex d. were sexually repressed and prudish Answer: c 29. Which of the following was NOT a major factor contributing to the start of the sexual revolution? a. the industrial revolution b. more sexually explicit Hollywood movies c. the growing women’s rights movement d. the birth control pill and IUD Answer: b 30. Socialization refers to a. a form of government b. the way in which society shapes individual behaviors and expectations of behaviors c. the ability to interact with others d. all of the above Answer: b 31. Which of the following is a socializing agent for sexual behavior? a. parents b. school c. the media d. all of the above Answer: d 32. Bob is a college freshman. With regards to sex, which of the following is NOT a socializing agent for Bob? a. Bob’s own sexual behavior b. Bob’s peers c. Bob’s church and religion d. the media Answer: a 33. Which of the following has the greatest impact on most children’s and teenagers’ sexual attitudes and behaviors? a. parents b. peers c. school-based sexuality education d. the media Answer: d 34. For most teens, which of the following is the most influential socializing agent for sexual attitudes and behaviors? a. magazines b. music c. movies d. television Answer: d 35. Which branch of the media has research found to be the most powerful socializing agent for teenagers’ sexual attitudes and behavior? a. magazines b. music (including radio) c. movies d. television Answer: d 36. Brown (2002) stated that ____________ is (are) “the most powerful storyteller in American culture, one that continually repeats the myths and ideologies, the fact and patterns of relationships that define and legitimize the social order.” a. movies b. music (including radio) c. parents d. television Answer: d 37. What percentage of prime time television programs have sexual content? a. 10% b. 25% c. 50% d. 75% Answer: d 38. Advertisers use attractive models in sexy or romantic poses to sell their products. This is called a. idealization b. socialization c. identification d. a socializing agent Answer: c 39. Children and teenagers who watch television shows with a lot of sexual content a. are less likely to begin having sexual intercourse earlier than other children b. are no more likely to begin having sexual intercourse earlier than other children c. are more likely to begin having sexual intercourse earlier than other children d. eventually become less influenced by television than other children Answer: c 40. Frequent exposure to sexual content on television results in a. overestimation of the prevalence of sexual intercourse at an earlier age b. a more liberal attitude about sex c. learning about sexual topics d. all of the above Answer: d 41. ____________ was a Victorian-era physician who emphasized the sexuality of all human beings. a. Benjamin Rush b. Sigmund Freud c. Henry Havelock Ellis d. Alfred Kinsey Answer: b 42. The ____________, according to Freud, was sexual energy channeled into different areas of the body at different ages. a. superego b. phallic c. libido d. neuroses Answer: c 43. Jack is a 13-year-old living in Victorian England. He was taken to a doctor after having his first wet dream. It is likely that the doctor will say that wet dreams are a. caused by a disease b. normal c. a sign of virility d. caused by the son’s sexual desire for his mother Answer: a 44. ____________’s tolerant view of sexuality expressed in his seven-volume Studies in the Psychology of Sex was a major influence on researchers for several generations. a. Richard Von Krafft-Ebing b. Sigmund Freud c. Alfred Kinsey d. Henry Havelock Ellis Answer: d 45. Which of these did Henry Havelock Ellis believe to be true? a. women are not asexual b. masturbation should be considered normal c. homosexuality should be considered normal d. all of the above Answer: d 46. The person who conducted two famous surveys about sexual behavior in the 1940s and early 1950s was a. Henry Havelock Ellis b. Alfred Kinsey c. Sigmund Freud d. William Masters Answer: b 47. Which of these was a finding of Kinsey’s research surveys? a. most people masturbated b. women could have multiple orgasms c. many men had a same-sex sexual experience d. all of the above Answer: d 48. ____________ was (were) the first to directly observe and record the physiological responses of humans engaged in sexual activity under laboratory conditions. a. Alfred C. Kinsey b. Henry Havelock Ellis c. Masters and Johnson d. Howard Kelly Answer: c 49. The research of Masters and Johnson a. was appreciated by most people in the medical community b. was based on over 10,000 episodes of sexual activity c. led to a behavioral approach to treating sexual disorders d. all of the above Answer: d 50. A comprehensive nationally representative survey of sexual behaviors was conducted in the 1990s by a research team headed by a. Edward Laumann b. George Gallup c. Masters and Johnson d. Alfred Kinsey Answer: a 51. If a researcher wishes to conclude something about a population from a sample, it is best that the sample be a. large b. taken randomly c. homogenous d. taken from phone books Answer: b 52. A random sample is one in which observations are drawn so that a. the sample is large b. the subjects are selected randomly from a phone book c. each possible sample of that size has an equal chance of being selected d. all of the above Answer: c 53. The biggest problem with the Kinsey studies was that a. the groups he studied were not representative samples of the U.S. population b. the interviewers were not well trained c. the samples were very small d. all of the above Answer: a 54. Which of these is a problem for surveys used in sex research? a. lying b. faulty recall c. exaggeration d. all of the above Answer: d 55. Some people refuse to answer questions dealing with their sexual beliefs or behavior. For sex researchers, this creates a problem of a. volunteer bias b. random sampling c. exaggeration d. all of the above Answer: a 56. Surveys show that many Americans do not regard ____________ as “sex.” a. anal intercourse b. oral-genital contact c. vaginal intercourse d. both a and b Answer: d 57. In the National Health and Social Life Survey (Laumann et al., 1994), “sex” or “had sex” was defined as a. sexual intercourse only b. sexual intercourse and oral-genital sex only c. sexual intercourse that ends in orgasm only d. any mutually voluntary activity with another person that involves genital contact Answer: d 58. ____________ measures the degree of relationship between two variables. a. Stratified random sample b. Correlation c. Case studies d. Experimental research Answer: b 59. Researchers have found that there is a high positive correlation between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and lung disease. This means that a. cigarette smoking causes lung disease b. people who do not smoke will not get lung disease c. increases in numbers of cigarettes smoked is related to increases in incidence of lung disease d. all of the above Answer: c 60. The method of study used by Masters and Johnson and most anthropologists is called a. surveys b. direct observation c. case study d. experimental research Answer: b 61. If, in a case study, a therapist’s conclusions are influenced by his or her own values, this is called a. observer bias b. observer effect c. an unrepresentative sample d. noncorrelation Answer: a 62. The scientific method used to demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships is called a. correlation b. direct observation c. experimental research d. all of the above Answer: c 63. In experimental research, the variable that is systematically manipulated by the researcher is called the a. positive variable b. extraneous variable c. dependent variable d. independent variable Answer: d 64. The modern view of children as vulnerable and needing protection arose a. in early Christianity b. in medieval times c. during the 1700s d. with the end of the Victorian era Answer: c 65. In the United States, sex education in schools a. originated as part of a social hygiene movement b. was initially moralistic and anti-sex c. originally taught prophylactics -protection from “distorted knowledge” d. all of the above Answer: d 66. The National Institutes of Health’s Consensus Panel on AIDS concluded that ____________ programs are most effective in preventing teenage pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. a. abstinence-only b. abstinence-plus c. neither one is effective d. both are equally effective Answer: b 67. A democratic sexuality education a. teaches the views of sexuality held by the majority b. reflects a single sexual philosophy c. is committed to freedom of belief d. all of the above Answer: c B. TRUE-FALSE 68. Marge is a 17-year-old high school senior. Like most young women her age, she probably got most of her knowledge about human sexuality from her mother. a. True b. False Answer: b 69. Most young people turn to their friends and the media for sexual information. a. True b. False Answer: a 70. Despite the sexual revolution, most American teens have not had sexual intercourse by the time they are high school seniors. a. True b. False Answer: b 71. The teenage pregnancy rates in countries that have extensive sex education programs are much lower than in the United States. a. True b. False Answer: a 72. Heterosexual men in all cultures find thin women to be more sexually attractive than heavy women. a. True b. False Answer: b 73. Men’s attraction to female breasts is an unlearned biological response. a. True b. False Answer: b 74. In many societies, at least until recently, people never kissed. a. True b. False Answer: a 75. The Mangaians represent the most sexually permissive society in the world. a. True b. False Answer: a 76. Because the United States is the “great melting pot,” there is little difference in sexual behaviors among ethnic groups. a. True b. False Answer: b 77. The biblical Hebrews had a positive attitude about the human body and sex within marriage. a. True b. False Answer: a 78. In ancient Greece, sexual relations between adult men and adolescent boys was encouraged as part of the boys’ intellectual and moral development. a. True b. False Answer: a 79. The Greek’s ascetic philosophy taught that wisdom and virtue could only be achieved by avoiding strong passions. a. True b. False Answer: a 80. Early Christian attitudes about sex were influenced by the Greek concept of dualism. a. True b. False Answer: a 81. The major influence on Christian ideas about sexuality came from Jesus. a. True b. False Answer: b 82. St. Paul preached that all Christians should lead a celibate lifestyle. a. True b. False Answer: a 83. St. Augustine considered marital sex for procreation to be an unpleasant necessity. a. True b. False Answer: a 84. In the Victorian era, all pleasurable aspects of sex were denied. a. True b. False Answer: a 85. In the Victorian era, women were considered to be temptresses. a. True b. False Answer: b 86. Victorian-era physicians believed that the best chance for a woman to conceive was during menstruation. a. True b. False Answer: a 87. The industrial revolution was one of the major changes that led to the sexual revolution. a. True b. False Answer: a 88. Starting in the early 1990s, there has been a decline in the percentage of American teenagers engaging in sexual intercourse. a. True b. False Answer: a 89. Teenagers who watch music videos a lot are generally more sexually permissive than teenagers who do not. a. True b. False Answer: a 90. Three fourths of the programs shown on evening prime time have sexual content, with an average of 5.9 scenes per hour. a. True b. False Answer: a 91. Advertisers use models in sexy and romantic poses to sell their products in a process called socialization. a. True b. False Answer: b 92. Children who watch television shows with a lot of sexual content are no more likely than others to begin having sexual intercourse. a. True b. False Answer: b 93. Frequent sexual content on television allows viewers to more accurately estimate the prevalence of sexual activities in the general public. a. True b. False Answer: b 94. Freud believed that the loss of semen was as detrimental to a man’s health as loss of blood. a. True b. False Answer: a 95. Kinsey’s work was immediately recognized as providing important information to the medical community and the general public. a. True b. False Answer: b 96. The first large-scale sexual surveys conducted in the United States were done by Masters and Johnson. a. True b. False Answer: b 97. Dr. Smith wishes to survey people in an economically depressed area of his state. He blindly draws names from the phone book. His sample can therefore be called a random sample. a. True b. False Answer: b 98. Because Kinsey’s surveys were large, they are representative of the U.S. population. a. True b. False Answer: b 99. Nearly everyone agrees with the meaning of “sex” and “had sex.” a. True b. False Answer: b 100. A very high correlation between two variables is proof of a cause-and-effect relationship. a. True b. False Answer: b 101. The best tool that researchers can use to prove cause and effect is the in-depth case study. a. True b. False Answer: b 102. In the experimental method, the variable measured is called the dependent variable. a. True b. False Answer: a 103. According to some historians, the idea of childhood did not exist in medieval society. a. True b. False Answer: a 104. The biological immaturity of children is an irrefutable fact. a. True b. False Answer: a 105. Childhood is a concept, not a biological fact. a. True b. False Answer: a 106. In some cultures, individuals marry and begin having sexual intercourse before puberty. a. True b. False Answer: a 107. In the United States, sex education in schools originated with the start of the sexual revolution. a. True b. False Answer: b 108. School-based sex education reflects the views of society, and thus is not a socializing agent. a. True b. False Answer: b 109. The National Institutes of Health’s Consensus Panel on AIDS concluded that abstinence-only sexuality education programs were the most effective in preventing pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. a. True b. False Answer: b 110. The World Health Organization concluded that comprehensive sexuality programs did not increase sexual experimentation or activity. a. True b. False Answer: a C. ESSAY 111. List the major sources of sexual information for teenagers today and relate this to the arguments for and against sexuality education in junior high and high schools. Answer: The major sources of sexual information for teenagers today include: 1. Internet and Social Media: Teenagers often turn to online platforms for information, though the accuracy and quality can vary greatly. 2. Peers: Friends and classmates are common sources, but peer-shared information can sometimes be inaccurate or misleading. 3. Parents and Family: Some teenagers receive information from parents, though comfort levels and knowledge can affect this source. 4. School-Based Sexuality Education: Formal education provided in schools offers structured and often comprehensive information. 5. Media: TV shows, movies, and music can shape teenagers' perceptions and knowledge about sex. Arguments for Sexuality Education in Schools: 1. Comprehensive Knowledge: Schools can provide accurate, comprehensive, and age-appropriate information, reducing misinformation. 2. Promotes Safe Practices: Education on safe sex practices can help reduce rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and teenage pregnancies. 3. Encourages Healthy Attitudes: It fosters healthy attitudes and behaviors towards sex and relationships. 4. Equal Access: Ensures all students have access to vital information regardless of their home environment. Arguments Against Sexuality Education in Schools: 1. Parental Rights: Some argue that sexuality education should be the responsibility of parents, not schools. 2. Cultural/Religious Beliefs: Sexuality education may conflict with the cultural or religious beliefs of some families. 3. Moral Concerns: Critics worry it may promote sexual activity or convey messages that clash with their values. 4. Inadequate Implementation: Poorly designed programs may fail to effectively educate or address the needs of all students. 112. What is the evidence that what people find to be sexually arousing is, in large part, culturally learned? Answer: Evidence that sexual arousal is largely culturally learned includes: 1. Variability Across Cultures: Different cultures have distinct norms and taboos regarding what is considered sexually attractive or arousing, indicating that these preferences are not universally innate. 2. Changes Over Time: Historical shifts in beauty standards and sexual norms show that what is considered arousing can change significantly over time within the same culture. 3. Media Influence: Exposure to media and popular culture shapes sexual preferences and arousal patterns, as evidenced by changing trends in fashion, body types, and sexual behaviors portrayed in media. 4. Socialization: Individuals learn what is sexually arousing through socialization processes, including family, peers, and educational systems, which differ across cultures. 5. Psychological Studies: Research demonstrates that sexual arousal can be influenced by cultural and social cues, such as language, symbols, and rituals, further supporting the idea that it is not purely biological. 113. Describe some cultural diversity in sexual attitudes and behaviors around the world. What is “normal” sexual behavior? Answer: Cultural Diversity in Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: 1. Premarital Sex: • Western Cultures: Often more accepting of premarital sex. • Middle Eastern Cultures: Generally prohibit premarital sex due to religious and cultural norms. 2. Homosexuality: • Western Countries: Increasing acceptance and legal recognition of same-sex relationships. • Many African and Middle Eastern Countries: Homosexuality is often stigmatized and may be illegal. 3. Marriage Practices: • Polygamy: Practiced in some African and Middle Eastern cultures. • Monogamy: The norm in most Western cultures. 4. Sexual Expression: • Japan: Certain aspects of sexuality are openly commercialized and represented in media. • India: Public displays of affection are often discouraged and considered inappropriate. "Normal" Sexual Behavior: "Normal" sexual behavior varies widely across cultures and is defined by societal norms and values. What is considered normal in one culture may be taboo in another. Generally, normal sexual behavior is consensual, respects the rights and boundaries of all individuals involved, and aligns with the legal and ethical standards of the society in which it occurs. 114. Discuss the origins of the idea that the only legitimate purpose for having sex is procreation. Answer: The idea that the only legitimate purpose for having sex is procreation has origins in various religious and cultural beliefs. In many ancient societies, particularly those influenced by Judeo-Christian teachings, sex was primarily viewed through the lens of reproduction. Key religious texts, such as the Bible, emphasize procreation as a primary purpose of sex. The teachings of early Christian theologians, such as Augustine of Hippo, further solidified this view, advocating that sexual acts should be confined to marriage and aimed at producing offspring. This perspective has been perpetuated over centuries, influencing societal norms and attitudes toward sexuality. 115. How would you design and administer a questionnaire to survey sexual attitudes and behaviors at your university (consider the present enrollment to be your population of interest)? Answer: To design and administer a questionnaire to survey sexual attitudes and behaviors at a university: 1. Design the Questionnaire: • Objective: Clearly define the purpose of the survey. • Demographics: Include questions on age, gender, year of study, and major. • Attitudes: Use Likert-scale questions to gauge opinions on topics like sexual health, consent, and relationship norms. • Behaviors: Ask about sexual activities, frequency, and safe sex practices using multiple-choice and open-ended questions. • Confidentiality: Ensure questions are sensitive and non-judgmental to encourage honesty. 2. Ethical Considerations: • Approval: Obtain approval from the university's Institutional Review Board (IRB). • Consent: Include an informed consent form explaining the purpose, confidentiality, and voluntary participation. 3. Administration: • Distribution: Use online survey platforms (e.g., SurveyMonkey, Google Forms) to reach a broad audience. Promote via university email lists, social media, and campus flyers. • Incentives: Offer incentives (e.g., gift cards, entry into a prize draw) to increase participation. • Anonymity: Ensure responses are anonymous to protect participants' privacy. 4. Data Collection and Analysis: • Duration: Keep the survey open for a set period (e.g., 2-4 weeks). • Reminders: Send reminders to encourage participation. • Analysis: Use statistical software to analyze data, ensuring confidentiality and ethical handling of sensitive information. This approach balances thorough data collection with respect for participants' privacy and ethical standards. 116. How did the published works of Sigmund Freud, Henry Havelock Ellis, Alfred Kinsey, and Masters and Johnson both reflect and help to change the Zeitgeist (the spirit, or trend of thought of the age) of their respective time periods? Answer: The published works of Sigmund Freud, Henry Havelock Ellis, Alfred Kinsey, and Masters and Johnson significantly influenced and reflected the Zeitgeist of their respective periods by challenging prevailing sexual norms and expanding understanding of human sexuality: 1. Sigmund Freud: • Reflection: Freud's works, such as "Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality" (1905), reflected the early 20th-century curiosity and anxiety about human sexuality. • Change: He introduced concepts like the libido and unconscious desires, fundamentally altering how society viewed sexual development and behavior. 2. Henry Havelock Ellis: • Reflection: Ellis's "Studies in the Psychology of Sex" (1897-1928) mirrored the growing interest in a scientific approach to sexology during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. • Change: By addressing taboo subjects such as homosexuality and masturbation, Ellis helped destigmatize these topics and promoted a more open discussion about sexual diversity. 3. Alfred Kinsey: • Reflection: Kinsey's "Sexual Behavior in the Human Male" (1948) and "Sexual Behavior in the Human Female" (1953) captured the mid-20th century's shifting attitudes towards sex. • Change: His empirical research and data-driven approach challenged moralistic views and highlighted the prevalence of diverse sexual behaviors, leading to greater sexual openness. 4. Masters and Johnson: • Reflection: Their work, including "Human Sexual Response" (1966), reflected the 1960s' cultural revolution and the quest for scientific understanding of sex. • Change: By studying the physiological aspects of sexual response and debunking myths about sexuality, they contributed to the sexual liberation movement and informed more progressive sexual education and therapy. These scholars not only documented the sexual norms of their times but also actively contributed to changing societal attitudes towards sexuality through their groundbreaking research and publications. 117. A friend says that sex is a biological fact that is the same for all people. What is your response? Answer: I would respond that while sex has biological components (such as reproductive organs and genetic differences), the experience and expression of sexuality are influenced by cultural, social, and individual factors. People's attitudes, behaviors, and identities related to sex vary widely across different societies and personal experiences. Thus, sex is not the same for all people—it encompasses both biological and diverse psychosocial dimensions. 118. Explain how school-based sex education programs are both a reflection of society and a socializing agent. Answer: School-based sex education programs both reflect societal values and act as socializing agents in the following ways: 1. Reflection of Society: • Content and Curriculum: The topics covered, such as contraception, abstinence, or gender identity, mirror the prevailing cultural, moral, and political attitudes towards sexuality in society. • Policy and Implementation: Decisions on how sex education is approached (e.g., comprehensive vs. abstinence-only) reflect societal debates and consensus on sexual norms and health priorities. 2. Socializing Agent: • Shaping Attitudes and Behaviors: These programs influence students' understanding of sexual health, relationships, and personal boundaries, helping to shape their attitudes and behaviors in line with societal expectations. • Promoting Norms and Values: By educating young people about consent, respect, and safe practices, sex education programs instill social norms and values that are considered important for responsible and healthy sexual conduct. In essence, school-based sex education programs serve as both a mirror of societal beliefs and a mechanism for imparting those beliefs to the next generation. 119. A producer of a television show with heavy sexual content says (let us assume honestly) that he or she did not intend the show to be a socializing agent. What is your response? Answer: I would respond that regardless of the producer's intentions, television shows with heavy sexual content can still act as socializing agents. Media, including TV shows, influence viewers' perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors by normalizing certain ideas and behaviors. Even if not intended, such content can shape societal norms and expectations about sexuality through repeated exposure and portrayal of sexual themes. Test Bank for Human Sexuality Today Bruce, M. King, Pamela C. Regan 9780205996384, 9780134804460

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