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This Document Contains Chapters 12 to 13 CHAPTER 12 LOVE AND RELATIONSHIPS TEST QUESTIONS A. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of these has been offered as a view of what love is? a. an addiction b. a disease c. a neurosis d. all of the above Answer: d 2. Early love theorists (e.g., James, Ellis) developed their taxonomies of love from which of the following sources? a. literature and philosophical discourse b. national and cross-cultural surveys c. laboratory-based experimental studies d. psychometric techniques Answer: a 3. C. S. Lewis (1960) developed one of the earliest classification systems for love. According to his theory, ____________ is a variety of love that is based on common interests, cooperation, mutual respect, and understanding. a. Affection b. Charity c. Eros d. Friendship Answer: d 4. Which of the following statements best reflects Sternberg’s intimacy component of love? a. “I feel so close to my partner. We have such a wonderful, warm bond” b. “I am so physically attracted to my partner. We have great chemistry” c. “I think this is it! I’m definitely in love with my partner” d. “I am ready to commit myself to this relationship. I want to spend my life with my partner” Answer: a 5. Which of the following statements best reflects Sternberg’s passion component of love? a. “I feel so close to my partner. We have such a wonderful, warm bond” b. “I am so physically attracted to my partner. We have great chemistry” c. “I think this is it! I’m definitely in love with my partner” d. “I am ready to commit myself to this relationship. I want to spend my life with my partner” Answer: b 6. Which of the following statements best reflects Sternberg’s decision/commitment component of love? a. “I feel so close to my partner. We have such a wonderful, warm bond” b. “I am so physically attracted to my partner. We have great chemistry” c. “I am ready to commit myself to this relationship. I want to spend my life with my partner” d. “I have never felt so connected to another person before” Answer: c 7. According to Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love, intimacy is the ____________ component that reflects feelings of warmth, closeness, connection, and bondedness in the love relationship. a. affective b. motivational c. cognitive d. passionate Answer: a 8. According to Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love, passion is the ____________ component that consists of the drives that are involved in sexuality and romantic and physical attraction. a. affective b. motivational c. cognitive d. emotional Answer: b 9. According to Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love, decision/commitment is the ____________ component that reflects the decision to love another person and the commitment to maintain that love. a. affective b. motivational c. cognitive d. emotional Answer: c 10. According to Sternberg, empty love relationships are characterized by ____________ levels of intimacy, ____________ levels of passion, and ____________ levels of decision/commitment. a. high, high, high b. low, low, low c. high, low, high d. low, low, high Answer: d 11. According to Sternberg, consummate love relationships are characterized by ____________ levels of intimacy, ____________ levels of passion, and ____________ levels of decision/commitment. a. high, high, high b. low, low, low c. high, low, high d. low, high, low Answer: a 12. According to Sternberg, romantic love relationships are characterized by ____________ levels of intimacy, ____________ levels of passion, and ____________ levels of decision/commitment. a. high, high, high b. low, low, high c. high, high, low d. low, high, low Answer: c 13. According to Sternberg, companionate love relationships are characterized by ____________ levels of intimacy, ____________ levels of passion, and ____________ levels of decision/commitment. a. high, high, high b. high, low, high c. high, high, high d. low, high, low Answer: b 14. According to Sternberg, many individuals strive to attain one particular type of love—especially in their romantic relationships. Which type? a. romantic love b. companionate love c. infatuation d. consummate love Answer: d 15. When Sean first met Kristi, he felt an intense attraction to her and immediately asked her out on a date. Since then, he has re-arranged his schedule so that he would have more time to spend with her, and he thinks about her constantly. He is happiest when they are together, enjoys the way he feels, and describes himself as “deeply in love.” According to Lee’s theory of love, Sean is a(n) ____________ lover. a. erotic b. agapic c. ludic d. storgic Answer: a 16. According to Lee’s love theory, the primary style of love that involves intense physical attraction, cognitive preoccupation, and early sexual involvement is known as ____________. a. ludus b. eros c. mania d. storge Answer: b 17. Grace enjoys going out with Doug but has no plans to make their relationship “permanent.” She doesn’t always tell him the truth about where she’s been or the other people in her life, and becomes annoyed when he asks too many questions or expects too much from her. According to Lee’s love theory, Grace is a(n) ____________ lover. a. erotic b. agapic c. ludic d. storgic Answer: c 18. According to Lee’s love theory, the primary style of love that involves game-playing and a desire to avoid commitment is known as ____________. a. ludus b. eros c. mania d. storge Answer: a 19. Which of the following statements best reflects storge? a. “Our friendship gradually turned into love over time” b. “I can’t stand it when my partner gets too needy—I want to run!” c. “We met and I fell instantly in love” d. “It drives me crazy when my partner talks with someone else” Answer: a 20. Misty and Charlie first met 10 years ago in high school, and soon became friends. Over time, they gradually realized that their friendship had grown into love. They enjoy each other’s company, spend most of their time together, and feel deep affection, trust, and respect for one another. According to Lee’s theory, Misty and Charlie are ____________ lovers. a. erotic b. pragmatic c. ludic d. storgic Answer: d 21. Melanie takes a very practical approach to love. She has a list of characteristics that she expects her future spouse to have, and she is very concerned that he reflect well on her family. She will not even consider going out with a man unless he meets these criteria. According to Lee’s theory, Melanie has a(n) ____________ approach to love. a. erotic b. pragmatic c. ludic d. storgic Answer: b 22. Which of the following best describes the pragmatic love style? a. love at first sight b. commitment-phobe love c. shopping-list love d. obsessive love Answer: c 23. Which of the following describes the manic love style? a. emotional self-control b. selfless and unconditional c. jealous and possessive d. affectionate friendship Answer: c 24. When Will met Jada, he immediately began to think of her as his future wife. He calls her every day, worries about whether she’s truly committed to their relationship, and becomes extremely jealous whenever another man even glances in her direction. According to Lee’s theory, Will has a(n) ____________ approach to love. a. manic b. ludic c. pragmatic d. erotic Answer: a 25. Lee believed that one particular love style was difficult for most romantic lovers to experience. Which one? a. erotic love b. storgic love c. agapic love d. manic love Answer: c 26. Which of the following describes the agapic love style? a. emotional self-control b. selfless and unconditional c. jealous and possessive d. affectionate friendship Answer: b 27. Hans is an agapic lover. Which of these statements is he most likely to make to his partner? a. “Your incessant demands for commitment are stifling me—I’ve got to get out of this relationship!” b. “You are exactly what I’m looking for—you have all the right qualities” c. “Do you love me? Really? Are you sure? How much? Prove it!” d. “The most important thing to me is your happiness” Answer: d 28. Research on love styles reveals which of the following? a. American adults tend to score higher on pragma than Chinese adults b. In the U.S., Asian American adults tend to score higher on eros than adults from other ethnic groups c. Women tend to score higher on agape than men d. Men tend to score higher on ludus than women Answer: d 29. Research on love styles reveals that relationship satisfaction is higher when partners are ____________ and lower when partners are ____________. a. erotic, ludic b. storgic, pragmatic c. agapic, erotic d. manic, agapic Answer: a 30. Lee believes that the key to finding mutual love is to find a. a person who will give the same amount of love that you do b. a person with a love style that is similar to yours c. a person who has a love style that is exactly opposite to yours d. a person who gives a high amount of love to you Answer: b 31. All love theorists agree that a. only one kind of love exists b. love is interesting but not very important in people’s lives c. adult romantic love can be divided into four basic varieties d. None of the above Answer: d 32. In general, love theorists agree that adult romantic love is composed at a minimum of ____________ varieties. a. two b. four c. five d. over a dozen Answer: a 33. “Love” is to companionate love as “in love” is to ____________. a. passionate love b. unconditional love c. sexual desire d. all of the above Answer: a 34. Of all the varieties of love that have been identified, which one of the following has received the most attention from researchers? a. passionate love b. companionate love c. maternal love d. pure love Answer: a 35. One reason why passionate love has received so much attention from scientists and scholars is because a. it is the strongest form of friendship b. it is a rare and mystical event c. it appears to be a universal human experience d. it is incredibly easy to study Answer: c 36. Theorists suggest that passionate love consists of a number of basic features, including a. a long lifespan b. idealization of the loved one c. a slow onset d. all of the above Answer: b 37. Research reveals that which emotions are commonly reported by people who are “in love”? a. depression b. joy c. anger d. hostility Answer: b 38. Which one of the following was listed as a key distinguishing feature between the experience of being “in love with” and “loving” another person (Myers & Berscheid, 1997)? a. duration of relationship b. sexual desire c. commitment d. friendship Answer: b 39. When Sally tells Harry, “I love you, but I’m just not in love with you,” what is the distinction she is probably making? a. she cares deeply for Harry but is not sexually attracted to him b. she feels nothing at all for Harry c. she is physically attracted to Harry but does not trust him d. she likes Harry but finds him untrustworthy Answer: a 40. According to the text, the ____________ is the most commonly used measure of passionate love. a. Love Attitudes Scale b. Sternberg’s Triangular Measure c. Passionate Love Scale d. none of the above Answer: c 41. In all but a small percentage of societies, the predominant form of marriage practiced by both men and women is a. monogamy b. polygyny c. polyandry d. polygamy Answer: a 42. “I think I’d like to move to a place where I could have many husbands.” The woman who made this statement prefers which marriage system? a. monogamy b. polyandry c. polygyny d. arranged Answer: b 43. “I think I’d like to move to a place where I could have many wives.” The man who made this statement prefers which marriage system? a. monogamy b. polyandry c. polygyny d. love-based Answer: c 44. Research reveals that about ____________ of the men in polygynous societies have more than one wife. a. 80 % b. 50 % c. 25 % d. 10 % Answer: d 45. A marriage in which the partners were chosen for each other by parents, other relatives, or matchmakers, is known as a(n) ____________ marriage. a. love-based b. pragmatic c. arranged d. polygamous Answer: c 46. Theorists agree that companionate love is characterized by several basic features, including a. intimacy and affection b. commitment c. durability d. all of the above Answer: d 47. Which one of the following statements about companionate and passionate love is correct? a. companionate love seems to be relatively more stable and enduring than passionate love b. passionate love mainly involves emotional trust; companionate love involves primarily involves interpersonal trust c. companionate love is based on a state of high positive emotional arousal; passionate love is based on a state of high negative emotional arousal d. passionate love is generally assumed by theorists to be a more intense form of companionate love Answer: a 48. Researchers who study neurotransmitters believe that ____________ is involved in passionate love, whereas ____________ is involved in companionate love. a. dopamine, oxytocin b. vasopressin, serotonin c. serotonin, lactose d. oxytocin, vasopressin Answer: a 49. Research on romantic partner preferences reveals that characteristics related to ____________ tend to be highly desired by men and women. a. physical attractiveness b. intelligence c. honesty and trustworthiness d. all of the above Answer: d 50. People tend to emphasize attributes that reflect ____________ in their friend and love relationships. a. physical attractiveness b. responsiveness c. wealth d. good housekeeping skills Answer: b 51. Saul recently joined a dating service. So far, he has received information about four women who might be compatible with him. He has read their personal biographies and “sexual histories” and is ready to ask one of them out on a date. Based on research discussed in your textbook, which one will he probably choose? a. Cathy, who has had sex before (but only with her last boyfriend) b. Karen, who describes herself as “extremely sexually experienced” c. Wendy, who has had so many sex partners she’s “lost count” d. Abbe, who has never been kissed (or done anything else sexually) Answer: a 52. Which one of the following conclusions can we draw from research on preferences for chastity? a. chastity has become increasingly important to both men and women over time b. chastity has declined in importance over time c. there are virtually no cross-cultural differences in preferences for chastity d. chastity is universally preferred in a potential mate by men and women Answer: b 53. According to research on attraction, which one of the following people would probably be viewed as most physically attractive? a. Tom, who is very thin and has an hour-glass shape b. Becky, who is overweight and has symmetrical facial features c. Eliza, who is normal weight and has a typical WHR d. Walter, who is normal weight and has a very prominent nose Answer: c 54. People tend to prefer potential partners who possess ____________ demographic characteristics, ____________ personality traits, and ____________ attitudes and interests. a. similar, dissimilar, similar b. dissimilar, similar, similar c. dissimilar, dissimilar, dissimilar d. similar, similar, similar Answer: d 55. One of the primary reasons people give for not initiating a relationship with someone they find attractive is a. fear of being rejected b. lack of similarity c. absence of sexual desire d. none of the above Answer: a 56. The concept of “depth of self-disclosure” refers to a. the number of areas or topics that partners discuss b. how often partners actually talk c. the degree of intimacy and detail in partners’ disclosures d. how responsive partners are to each other Answer: c 57. The concept of “breadth of self-disclosure” refers to a. the number of areas or topics that partners discuss b. how often partners actually talk c. the degree of intimacy and detail in partners’ disclosures d. how responsive partners are to each other Answer: a 58. An equitable relationship is one in which the partners a. experience high levels of satisfaction b. use positive conflict resolution strategies c. engage in self-disclosure d. have a relatively equal ratio of positive to negative outcomes Answer: d 59. Andrew makes 10 contributions and receives 20 benefits in his relationships with each of his four friends. With which of his friends does he have the most equitable relationship? a. Bartholomew, who makes 10 contributions and receives 30 benefits b. Catherine, who makes 20 contributions and receives 20 benefits c. Dirk, who makes 5 contributions and receives 10 benefits d. Emma, who makes 15 contributions and receives 5 benefits Answer: c 60. The following figures represent the ratio of benefits to contributions for the partners in a relationship. According to equity theory, which of the following relationships is inequitable? Partner A Partner B a. 5/5 4/4 b. 10/5 10/10 c. 2/2 1/1 d. 10/2 20/4 Answer: b 61. Lynn has very negative self-esteem. It is therefore likely that a. her parents did not raise her in a loving and supportive manner b. she has trouble accepting her strengths and weaknesses c. she may have difficulty in creating and maintaining a loving relationship d. all of the above Answer: d 62. Current evidence shows that ____________ is most important in maintaining the health of a relationship. a. accepting the partner for who he or she really is b. having an idealized vision of the partner c. having a realistic, “warts and all,” understanding of the relationship d. having positive illusions about the partner and the relationship Answer: a 63. “Realistic idealism” means that we a. idealize the partner and the relationship b. idealize the partner, but view the relationship as it really is (good and bad) c. accept the partner as he or she is, but have an idealized view of the relationship d. accept both the partner and the relationship as they really are Answer: c 64. ____________ is one of the most common—and challenging—processes that many couples have to face over time. a. Infidelity b. Habituation c. Divorce d. Jealousy Answer: b 65. A common reason couples give for divorcing is ____________. a. work-related stress b. arguments over child-rearing c. financial crises d. boredom Answer: d 66. A good index that a marriage will be happy and successful is a. a high degree of habituation b. a lot of shared pleasurable activities c. a high initial level of passion d. high amounts of disengagement Answer: b 67. Which of the following statements illustrates the emotional indifference component of disengagement? a. “We’re so different—it’s like we’ve become strangers” b. “I feel nothing for her anymore” c. “I know he wants to talk, but I’m too busy” d. “She can go to the party by herself—I’m not interested” Answer: b 68. Which of the following statements illustrates behavioral distancing? a. “He is so unresponsive and detached” b. “I feel nothing for her anymore” c. “He makes me so angry” d. “She can go to the party by herself—I’m not interested” Answer: d 69. Which of the following statements illustrates the cognitive disconnection aspect of disengagement? a. “She’s so unresponsive and uninvolved—it’s like we’ve become strangers” b. “I feel nothing for her anymore” c. “I know he wants to talk, but I’m too busy” d. “She can go to the party by herself—I’m not interested” Answer: a 70. Joe is a very jealous person. He likely a. has low self-esteem b. experiences a high level of disengagement in his relationships c. has cheated on his partner d. all of the above Answer: a 71. One day Fabio accidentally read a flirtatious email that his partner received from a coworker. He is now worried that this coworker is falling in love with his partner and may try to steal her away. Fabio is experiencing a. sexual infidelity b. passionate love c. jealousy d. emotional infidelity Answer: c 72. When going through a breakup, most people have to deal with emotional and social loneliness, dealing with their ex-partner still being around, and a. habituation b. obsessive review c. disengagement d. all of the above Answer: b B. TRUE-FALSE 73. Scholars have argued for centuries over whether different types of love exist. a. True b. False Answer: a 74. Sternberg’s model of love says that all the different positive emotions (types of love) that people can have for other individuals can be understood by the combination of just three components. a. True b. False Answer: a 75. Sternberg believes that most of us strive for consummate love in our romantic relationships. a. True b. False Answer: a 76. Both Sternberg’s model and Lee’s model suggest that one style of love is superior or better than another. a. True b. False Answer: b 77. Erotic lovers seek to have an exclusive relationship with their partners. a. True b. False Answer: a 78. Ludic lovers avoid commitment and treat love like a game. a. True b. False Answer: a 79. With few exceptions, passionate love is found only in modern Western cultures. a. True b. False Answer: b 80. Passionate love has always been the primary reason for marriage in cultures around the world. a. True b. False Answer: b 81. Many cultures are experiencing a decline in the number of arranged marriages that take place. a. True b. False Answer: a 82. Most people do not differentiate between the terms “love” and “in love.” a. True b. False Answer: b 83. Most people typically are in love with one person at a time. a. True b. False Answer: a 84. Features of passionate love include mental preoccupation and intense emotions. a. True b. False Answer: b 85. People who are passionately in love engage in sexual activity less often than people who are not in love. a. True b. False Answer: b 86. When initially meeting someone, we tend to pay most attention to how that person looks. a. True b. False Answer: a 87. Self-disclosure is related to partners’ feelings of satisfaction, closeness, love, and commitment. a. True b. False Answer: a 88. Equity seems to be relatively unimportant in determining relationship satisfaction. a. True b. False Answer: b 89. For most couples, passion declines over time in their relationship. a. True b. False Answer: a 90. A gradual decline in passion in a relationship is a sign that something is wrong. a. True b. False Answer: b 91. A good way to maintain similarity and minimize habituation is to embark on new activities together. a. True b. False Answer: a 92. In a loving relationship, you should not express your doubts, irritations, fears, or anger. a. True b. False Answer: b C. ESSAY 93. Discuss how early theorists discovered or created their ideas about love. Answer: Early theorists developed their ideas about love through a blend of philosophical inquiry and observations of human behavior. Philosophers like Plato and Aristotle explored concepts of love as a form of virtue or desire. Later, psychologists such as Freud and Jung examined love through the lens of subconscious desires and archetypes. These early theories laid the groundwork for understanding love as a complex interplay of emotions, biology, and social factors. 94. Compare and contrast Sternberg’s and Lee’s model of love. How are they similar? How do they differ? Answer: Sternberg's triangular theory of love and Lee's theory of love styles both attempt to explain different aspects of love: Similarities: 1. Classification of Love: Both models classify types or components of love based on distinct factors. 2. Psychological Perspective: They are psychological theories that seek to understand and categorize the complexities of love. 3. Complexity: Both theories acknowledge that love is multifaceted and can vary in intensity and expression. Differences: 1. Structure: • Sternberg: Describes love as consisting of three components: intimacy, passion, and commitment, which combine to form different types of love (e.g., consummate, romantic). • Lee: Proposes six love styles (eros, ludus, storge, pragma, mania, agape), each emphasizing different attitudes and behaviors in relationships. 2. Focus: • Sternberg: Focuses on the dynamic interaction and balance between intimacy, passion, and commitment in relationships. • Lee: Focuses on identifying primary styles or approaches individuals use in romantic relationships. 3. Nature of Love: • Sternberg: Views love as evolving and changing over time based on the interplay of its components. • Lee: Views love styles as relatively stable, representing enduring patterns of behavior and attitudes towards love. In summary, while both models aim to categorize and explain aspects of love, Sternberg's model emphasizes the dynamic interaction of love components, while Lee's model focuses on stable patterns of love styles individuals adopt in relationships. 95. Discuss the love classification scheme proposed by John Lee. Specifically, define the three primary and three secondary styles of love. What would be the best pairing of love styles? The worst? Why? Answer: John Lee proposed six primary styles of love, categorized into three primary and three secondary styles: Primary Styles: 1. Eros: Passionate, intense love characterized by physical attraction and romantic idealization. 2. Ludus: Playful, uncommitted love focused on enjoyment and fun without deep emotional involvement. 3. Storge: Stable, friendship-based love rooted in companionship and shared interests. Secondary Styles: 1. Pragma: Practical, pragmatic love driven by logical considerations such as compatibility and mutual benefits. 2. Mania: Intense, turbulent love marked by obsession, possessiveness, and emotional highs and lows. 3. Agape: Selfless, compassionate love focused on giving and nurturing without expecting anything in return. Best Pairing of Love Styles: • The best pairing would likely involve complementary styles that balance each other's strengths and weaknesses. For example, Eros (passionate love) paired with Storge (companionate love) could create a balanced relationship where passion is complemented by stability and friendship. Worst Pairing of Love Styles: • The worst pairing would involve styles that are fundamentally incompatible or exacerbate each other's negative traits. For instance, Mania (obsessive love) paired with Ludus (playful love) could lead to misunderstandings, with Ludus potentially not taking Mania's intensity seriously, causing distress and conflict. Understanding these pairings helps in predicting potential dynamics and challenges in relationships based on individuals' predominant love styles. 96. Why have scientists tended to devote so much attention to passionate love (as opposed to other love varieties)? Do you think that this focus has helped or hindered our understanding of love in general? Answer: Scientists have often focused on passionate love because it is intense, emotionally charged, and easier to measure and study compared to other love varieties. This focus has helped uncover aspects of romantic attraction, attachment, and neurochemical processes involved in love. However, this emphasis may have hindered a comprehensive understanding of love, as it neglects other important dimensions like companionate love, pragmatic love, and selfless love (agape), which are also crucial in relationship dynamics and personal fulfillment. A broader focus could provide a more holistic view of love's complexities and variations across different cultures and contexts. 97. Compare and contrast the experiences of passionate and companionate love. If you had to choose, which would you rather feel for a romantic partner? Why? Be sure to support your answer with research and theory. Answer: Passionate love is characterized by intense emotions, physical attraction, and heightened arousal, often associated with the early stages of a romantic relationship. It involves strong feelings of longing, desire, and excitement. In contrast, companionate love is more stable and grounded in friendship, trust, and mutual respect. It develops over time and focuses on deep emotional intimacy, comfort, and shared goals. Research suggests that passionate love tends to decline over time if not nurtured, while companionate love can endure and even deepen with shared experiences and mutual support (Aron et al., 2005). Passionate love is associated with activation of brain regions linked to reward and motivation, similar to those activated by addictive behaviors (Fisher et al., 2002), while companionate love is linked to feelings of security and satisfaction in long-term relationships (Acevedo & Aron, 2009). If I had to choose, I would prefer to feel companionate love for a romantic partner. This is because companionate love provides a stable foundation for a lasting and fulfilling relationship. It offers emotional security, deep connection, and a sense of partnership that supports mutual growth and well-being over time. While passionate love is exciting and exhilarating, its intensity can fluctuate and may not sustain a relationship in the long run without the support of companionate love to provide stability and emotional intimacy. References: • Aron, A., Fisher, H., Mashek, D. J., Strong, G., Li, H., & Brown, L. L. (2005). Reward, motivation, and emotion systems associated with early-stage intense romantic love. Journal of Neurophysiology, 94(1), 327-337. • Fisher, H. E., Aron, A., & Brown, L. L. (2002). Romantic love: A mammalian brain system for mate choice. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 367(1589), 2373-2380. • Acevedo, B. P., & Aron, A. (2009). Does a long-term relationship kill romantic love? Review of General Psychology, 13(1), 59-65. 98. Samantha has fallen deeply in love for the first time in her life. If you were to examine her brain, what do you think you’d find? Answer using your knowledge of research on the biochemistry of love. Answer: If Samantha has fallen deeply in love for the first time, research on the biochemistry of love suggests that her brain would likely show increased activity in areas associated with reward, pleasure, and motivation. Neurochemicals such as dopamine, oxytocin, and serotonin would likely be involved. Dopamine, in particular, plays a key role in the brain's reward system, leading to feelings of euphoria and reinforcing behaviors associated with romantic attraction. Oxytocin promotes bonding and attachment, while serotonin influences mood and emotional balance, contributing to the intensity and emotional aspects of Samantha's experience of falling in love. 99. Discuss how self-disclosure promotes the development and continued health of a close relationship. Answer: Self-disclosure promotes the development and continued health of a close relationship by fostering intimacy, trust, and understanding between partners. When individuals share personal thoughts, feelings, and experiences, it deepens emotional connection and mutual empathy. This openness helps partners learn about each other's values, beliefs, and vulnerabilities, which strengthens the bond and promotes supportive behaviors. Research shows that effective self-disclosure correlates with relationship satisfaction and longevity, as it encourages a positive cycle of communication and responsiveness between partners (Reis & Shaver, 1988). Thus, self-disclosure plays a crucial role in nurturing intimacy and maintaining a healthy relationship over time. Reference: Reis, H. T., & Shaver, P. (1988). Intimacy as an interpersonal process. In S. Duck (Ed.), Handbook of personal relationships: Theory, research, and interventions (pp. 367-389). John Wiley & Sons. 100. One day you overhear two people arguing. “The best thing for any relationship is for the partners to truly know each other—the good, bad, and ugly,” the first person says. “You are completely wrong,” counters the second person. “It’s best if the partners believe only the best of each other—seeing only the good will keep them happy.” Based on your knowledge of research, what will you tell these two people to help them resolve their argument? Answer: Research suggests that a healthy balance between knowing each other's strengths and weaknesses (the good, bad, and ugly) and maintaining positive illusions (seeing the best in each other) is ideal for relationship satisfaction. Knowing each other deeply fosters intimacy and realistic expectations, which promotes long-term stability and understanding. However, maintaining positive illusions, such as perceiving the partner in a more positive light than others might, contributes to relationship happiness and resilience during challenges. Therefore, a combination of realistic knowledge and positive perceptions is likely to support a strong and fulfilling relationship over time. 101. Discuss how people can effectively deal with occasional feelings of jealousy. Answer: To effectively deal with occasional feelings of jealousy, individuals can: 1. Acknowledge and Understand Feelings: Recognize and accept jealousy as a normal emotion triggered by insecurity, fear of loss, or perceived threat to a relationship. 2. Communicate Openly: Discuss feelings calmly and honestly with the partner, focusing on sharing concerns without accusations or blame. 3. Build Trust: Work on strengthening trust through consistent communication, reliability, and reassurance of commitment. 4. Address Insecurities: Identify underlying insecurities or past experiences contributing to jealousy and work on building self-confidence and self-worth. 5. Set Boundaries: Establish clear boundaries with the partner regarding acceptable behavior and mutual respect. 6. Focus on Self-Growth: Invest in personal hobbies, interests, and friendships to maintain individual fulfillment and reduce dependency on the relationship for validation. 7. Seek Support if Needed: Consider seeking guidance from a therapist or counselor to explore and manage underlying issues contributing to jealousy. By addressing jealousy constructively through communication, self-awareness, and relationship-building strategies, individuals can maintain healthier, more secure relationships. CHAPTER 13 SEXUAL PROBLEMS AND THERAPY TEST QUESTIONS A. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Studies have found that ____________ of all couples have had, or will eventually have, sexual problems at some time in their relationships. a. 15% b. one-third c. half or more d. 100% Answer: c 2. Couples often have sexual problems due to differences in a. the frequency with which sex is desired b. desired types of sexual activities c. expectations about sex d. all of the above Answer: d 3. Barbara and Tim have been arguing. Barbara wants to have sexual intercourse four to five times a week in a variety of positions, while Tim wants sex twice a week and only in the missionary position. We should say that a. Barbara is oversexed b. Tim is undersexed c. the couple have a sex problem d. Barbara is happier with her sexuality than Tim Answer: c 4. Cognitive-behavioral therapy focuses on a. the specific behavioral problem b. insight into the historical cause of the problem c. insight about the function of the problem in the current relationship d. all of the above Answer: a 5. Which of these therapies best recognizes that sexual problems frequently have multiple causes and that solutions must be multidisciplinary? a. biopsychosocial approach b. cognitive-behavioral therapy c. couples therapy d. medical model Answer: a 6. Which of these therapies will be used to improve communication and resolve conflicts? a. biopsychosocial approach b. cognitive-behavioral therapy c. couples therapy d. medical model Answer: c 7. Which sequence of events BEST characterizes the treatment program used by most sex therapists today? a. sexual intercourse, mutual touching exercises, specific exercises, medical and sexual history b. medical and sexual history, mutual touching exercises, specific exercises, sexual intercourse c. medical and sexual history, specific exercises, mutual touching exercises, sexual intercourse d. medical and sexual history, sexual intercourse, mutual touching exercises, specific exercises Answer: b 8. Most sex therapists today have their clients engage in sensate focus as part of the therapy program. This refers to a. exercises that teach couples how to get maximum sensations in different positions of intercourse b. focusing on sensations produced during masturbation and reproducing them during intercourse c. non-demand pleasuring exercises intended to help a couple increase their erotic awareness through touching of all parts of each other’s body except for genitals and breasts d. exercises designed to increase the erotic pleasure of sexual intercourse by focusing on the mutual stimulation of each other’s genitals Answer: c 9. Sensate focus exercises are a. non-demand mutual pleasuring techniques b. genital sensation focus exercises c. self-awareness exercises d. all of the above Answer: a 10. John and Martha are in sexual therapy. The therapist has determined that John rushes to begin intercourse as soon as touching begins. John might greatly benefit by several days of a. self-awareness exercises b. systematic desensitization c. psychosexual therapy d. sensate focus Answer: d 11. Most cases of hypoactive sexual desire in men are the result of a. primary asexuality b. low testosterone levels c. psychological factors d. mental illness Answer: c 12. The sexual problem that therapists have the most difficulty treating successfully is a. erectile disorder b. premature ejaculation c. hypoactive sexual desire d. anorgasmia Answer: c 13. ____________ is the term preferred today by most therapists to refer to a man’s inability to attain or maintain an erection. a. Erectile disorder b. Impotency c. Dyspareunia d. Premature ejaculation Answer: a 14. Robert is trying to have an affair, but whenever he gets alone and undressed with his new girlfriend, he thinks about his wife and cannot attain an erection. Robert is experiencing a. primary erectile disorder b. situational erectile disorder c. global erectile disorder d. ejaculatory incompetence Answer: b 15. Which of these statements regarding erectile problems is FALSE? a. erectile problems are inevitable with advancing age b. 10–20% of men aged 30 to 49 had erectile problems lasting at least a few months during the previous year c. it often isn’t easy to attribute an erectile problem to solely organic or psychological factors d. most men will experience erectile failure sometime in their lives Answer: a 16. The most common psychological cause of erectile disorder is a. ritualization b. personality disorder c. sensate focusing d. performance anxiety Answer: d 17. If a person is spectatoring, he or she is a. observing and evaluating his or her own sexual responses b. watching others have sex c. watching himself or herself in mirrors d. observing and evaluating the sexual performance of their partner Answer: a 18. In the teasing procedure for treatment of erectile disorder, the partner is instructed to a. undress slowly in front of the man, but not to have physical contact b. touch all parts of his body except his penis c. stop fondling the man’s penis after he gets an erection d. tell the man about her sexual fantasies Answer: c 19. Experience has shown that the best therapy for men with erectile dysfunction is probably a. the medical approach (e.g., Viagra) b. cognitive-behavioral therapy c. couples therapy d. the biopsychosocial approach Answer: d 20. The most common sexual problem for men is probably a. erectile disorder b. premature ejaculation c. sexual cephalalgia d. inhibited orgasm Answer: b 21. Many therapists define premature ejaculation as a. absence of reasonable voluntary control of ejaculation b. ejaculation before sexual intercourse begins c. ejaculation within three minutes of beginning sexual intercourse d. ejaculation before one’s partner reaches orgasm in half or more of their sexual encounters Answer: a 22. The squeeze technique is designed to allow men to a. learn how to achieve erections b. achieve orgasms c. have intercourse without pain d. delay ejaculation Answer: d 23. ____________ refers to a difficulty reaching orgasm and ejaculating in a woman’s vagina. a. Premature ejaculation b. Orgasmic disorder c. Inhibited sexual desire d. Vaginismus Answer: b 24. Male orgasmic disorder is often treated with a. the squeeze technique b. a Heimlich maneuver c. a bridge maneuver d. stop-start Answer: c 25. Which of the following statements about dyspareunia in men is FALSE? a. it is a sexual problem that can be experienced by both men and women b. the major symptom is pain during intercourse c. if it is not cured, it can lead to other sexual problems d. it is usually caused by psychological problems Answer: d 26. ____________ is a rare condition in which the penis remains erect for prolonged periods of time. a. Priapism b. Peyronie’s disease c. Phimosis d. Inhibited male orgasm Answer: a 27. Sexual cephalalgia refers to a. thinking too much about sex b. severe headaches during sex c. being fixated in the cephalic stage of psychosexual development d. having an allergic reaction to sex Answer: b 28. Which of these is typical for individuals who have severe headaches during sex? a. they are often women with severe anxieties b. they are often somewhat hypertensive, mildly obese men c. the headaches are usually associated with other sexual disorders d. they usually occur just as intercourse begins Answer: b 29. Sexual interest/arousal disorder should be considered a “problem” only if a woman a. is not initiating at least two sexual experiences a month b. is not receptive to sexual activity c. is experiencing personal distress because of it d. is having a phobic aversion to sex Answer: c 30. Marie has no interest in having sex with her husband or with anyone else, even though there is nothing physically wrong with her. This could have been caused by a. relationship problems b. a sexually repressive upbringing c. a past traumatic event, such as rape or molestation d. any of the above Answer: d 31. Today, the most successful therapy for female sexual interest/arousal disorders usually includes a. psychotherapy b. medical approaches c. behavioral-cognitive techniques alone d. couples therapy Answer: d 32. About ____________ of American women aged 18 to 59 report being unable to achieve orgasm for at least several months of the previous year. a. 10% b. one fourth c. one third d. one half Answer: b 33. In order to better enable a woman to achieve orgasm during sexual intercourse, her partner should a. engage in lengthy foreplay b. be sure the woman receives clitoral stimulation c. use a woman-on-top position d. all of the above Answer: d 34. If a woman says that she does not have much physical sensation during intercourse, a sex therapist would probably advise her partner to stimulate her ____________ during intercourse. a. breasts b. vagina c. clitoris d. uterus Answer: c 35. Sex therapists agree that a. women in good health should not require direct clitoral stimulation to reach orgasm b. vaginal orgasms resulting from stimulation by the penis are preferred to clitoral orgasms c. manual stimulation of the clitoris by a woman during intercourse is not cheating d. the most fulfilling way for a woman to reach orgasm is during sexual intercourse Answer: c 36. Which of these can cause orgasmic disorder in women? a. a religious upbringing that associates sex with sin b. performance anxiety c. relationship problems d. any of the above Answer: d 37. Which of these is LEAST likely to be used by a therapist treating a woman who has difficulty reaching orgasm? a. sensate focus b. couples therapy c. rapid pelvic thrusting of the penis d. lengthy foreplay Answer: c 38. Which of these positions of sexual intercourse is usually assigned first by therapists to clients with sexual problems? a. man-on-top b. rear vaginal entry c. woman-on-top d. standing face-to-face Answer: c 39. For many women, sexual satisfaction is closely related to a. the size of their partners’ penis b. how often they have sex c. how happy they are in their overall relationship d. all of the above Answer: c 40. For most women, the best predictor of sexual satisfaction is a. frequency of sex b. number of orgasms c. variety of sexual behaviors d. a good emotional relationship with the partner Answer: d 41. Sexual problems are considered to be “primary” if the problem a. has an organic (physical) cause b. is the only sexual problem the individual is experiencing c. has resulted in the partner also having sexual problems d. has always existed Answer: d 42. Pain experienced during attempted intercourse that is caused by involuntary contractions of the muscles surrounding the outer third of the vagina is called a. dysmenorrhea b. vaginitis c. vaginismus d. sexual cephalalgia Answer: c 43. Which of these statements regarding vaginismus is FALSE? a. it is usually caused by anxieties about having sexual intercourse b. it refers to pain experienced during attempted intercourse c. it is usually caused by underlying physical factors d. it has a very high rate of successful treatment Answer: c 44. The therapy usually recommended for ____________ is gradual dilation of the vagina with a set of increasingly larger objects. a. inhibited sexual desire b. vaginismus c. frigidity (orgasmic dysfunction) d. dyspareunia Answer: b 45. A hypersexual individual is distinguished from other people by the ____________ of their sexual behaviors. a. frequency b. duration c. type or variety d. compulsiveness Answer: d 46. The definition used in this book for hypersexuality (Goodman, 1992) is similar to the definition in DSM-5 for a. psychoactive substance abuse b. exhibitionism c. sexual molester d. hypertension Answer: a 47. The model of sex therapy presented in Chapter 13 is based primarily on Western middle-class emphasis on a. morality b. sex for physical pleasure c. sex for emotional expression d. sex for spiritual growth Answer: b 48. Compared to Western cultures, many Asian cultures place a greater emphasis on ____________ during sex. a. spiritual union b. mutual physical pleasure c. sensate focus d. orgasm Answer: a 49. Intercourse means a. sex b. coitus c. procreate d. communication Answer: d 50. For many couples, communication about sex is often hampered by a. inexperience with discussing sex b. belief in stereotypic gender roles c. power differences in the relationship d. all of the above Answer: d 51. When referring to sex with one another, a couple should a. use the words “screw” or “fuck” b. refer to it as sexual intercourse c. refer to it as “making love” d. use a vocabulary with which they are both comfortable Answer: d 52. When discussing a sexual difference or problem with your partner, you should a. emphasize what is wrong b. accentuate the positive c. do so right after sex d. do so right before sex Answer: b 53. When discussing a sexual problem with your partner, you should a. take the responsibility for your own pleasure b. express your concerns in general terms so you don’t offend your partner c. lay the blame on your partner d. expect your partner to take responsibility for your pleasure Answer: a 54. If you criticize your partner, make sure you criticize his or her a. behavior b. character c. personality d. none of the above Answer: a 55. When expressing your desires to your partner, you should begin sentences with a. “You....” b. “We....” c. “I....” d. “Why (don’t you)....” Answer: c 56. To find out about your partner’s desires and needs, you should a. ask questions that can be answered with one word b. ask questions that are open-ended c. start with self-disclosure d. b and c Answer: d 57. The ____________ pattern of communication can be very damaging to a relationship. a. mutually constructive b. avoidance c. demand/withdraw d. all of the above Answer: c 58. John Gottman has found that ____________ is the best predictor of whether or not a relationship will survive. a. the frequency of sexual relations b. the timing of sexual relations c. the ratio of positive and negative emotional interactions d. all of the above Answer: c B. TRUE-FALSE 59. Several studies estimate that at least half of all couples will eventually experience sexual problems. a. True b. False Answer: a 60. A woman who wants to have sex twice as often as her partner can be regarded as hypersexual. a. True b. False Answer: b 61. The medical approach has proven effective for most sexual problems. a. True b. False Answer: b 62. Most sexual problems have multiple causes. a. True b. False Answer: a 63. The technique most commonly used by sexual therapists is psychosexual therapy. a. True b. False Answer: b 64. A major advantage of sexual therapy is that there is no need for a medical exam or history. a. True b. False Answer: b 65. Sensate focus requires that one focuses on the sensual responses of the partner. a. True b. False Answer: b 66. Hypoactive sexual desire is the most difficult sexual problem to treat successfully. a. True b. False Answer: a 67. Most erectile disorders have a psychological cause. a. True b. False Answer: b 68. Performance anxiety is a fear of failure. a. True b. False Answer: a 69. Spectatoring refers to observing one’s partner during sex. a. True b. False Answer: b 70. A man is said to have premature ejaculation if he reaches orgasm before his partner at least 50% of the time. a. True b. False Answer: b 71. Most cases of male orgasmic disorder have a physical cause. a. True b. False Answer: b 72. Headaches during sex are more common in men than women. a. True b. False Answer: a 73. Relationship problems are one of the most important factors contributing to female sexual interest/arousal disorder. a. True b. False Answer: a 74. Most women’s orgasm problems are global in nature. a. True b. False Answer: b 75. Only men can suffer from performance anxiety. a. True b. False Answer: b 76. For women, pain during attempted intercourse is usually caused by physical problems. a. True b. False Answer: b 77. As many as one-third of both women and men have experienced postcoital blues. a. True b. False Answer: a 78. Hypersexuality is generally viewed as a form of compulsive disorder. a. True b. False Answer: a 79. The word intercourse means communication. a. True b. False Answer: a 80. We are most likely to express a difference of opinion to someone we perceive as having equal (power) status. a. True b. False Answer: a 81. When talking about sex, couples should always use correct terms such as “penis,” “vagina,” and “sexual intercourse” instead of euphemisms or slang terminology. a. True b. False Answer: b 82. You should always express your dissatisfactions about sex immediately after having sex. a. True b. False Answer: b 83. You should never discuss your sexual problems while in bed. a. True b. False Answer: a 84. You must take the responsibility for your own pleasure. a. True b. False Answer: a 85. You should never complain to your partner, even when you think he or she is to blame. a. True b. False Answer: b 86. When expressing your feelings or desires to your partner, it is best to begin sentences with “we.” a. True b. False Answer: b 87. A good way to start to know your partner’s sexual desires is to disclose your own. a. True b. False Answer: a 88. The best way to find out about your partner’s preferences is to ask yes-or-no questions. a. True b. False Answer: b 89. It isn’t necessarily important that there be agreement between the verbal and nonverbal aspects of communication. a. True b. False Answer: b 90. One of the best predictors of long-term success in a relationship is the manner in which couples handle their disagreements. a. True b. False Answer: a 91. The best predictor of whether or not a relationship will survive is the quality of the sexual relationship. a. True b. False Answer: b C. ESSAY 92. What differences commonly occur between individuals in a long-term relationship? Should individuals regard these differences as their problem, their partner’s problem, or the couple’s problem? Answer: In long-term relationships, common differences often arise in communication styles, values, interests, and ways of handling conflict. These differences should be seen as challenges for both individuals and the couple. Addressing them requires mutual effort, compromise, and understanding to foster growth and harmony in the relationship. 93. Outline the general steps that you might experience if you were to go to a sexual therapist. Answer: If you were to go to a sexual therapist, the general steps might include: 1. Initial Assessment: Discussing your concerns, goals, and relationship dynamics. 2. Exploration: Identifying underlying issues affecting intimacy and sexual satisfaction. 3. Education: Learning about healthy sexual practices and communication techniques. 4. Skills Building: Developing strategies to improve intimacy and resolve conflicts. 5. Follow-Up and Support: Implementing changes and assessing progress over sessions. 94. Define and explain hypoactive sexual desire and hypersexuality, and discuss any controversies about labeling people with these disorders. Answer: • Hypoactive Sexual Desire: This refers to persistently low or absent interest in sexual activity, often causing distress or interpersonal difficulties. • Hypersexuality: Also known as compulsive sexual behavior or sex addiction, it involves excessive or uncontrollable sexual thoughts, urges, or behaviors. Controversies arise regarding labeling these as disorders due to cultural and individual variability in sexual norms and behaviors. Critics argue that pathologizing variations in sexual desire or behavior may stigmatize individuals and overlook the complexity of human sexuality. However, diagnosis can provide clarity and access to treatment for those experiencing distress or impairment in daily functioning. 95. Discuss the possible causes and treatments for erectile disorder. Answer: Causes: Erectile disorder can stem from psychological factors (stress, anxiety, depression), physical causes (diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease), medications (antidepressants, antihypertensives), hormonal imbalances (low testosterone), or lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol abuse). Treatments: Treatment options include addressing underlying health conditions, counseling or therapy (to address psychological factors), medications (such as Viagra or Cialis), lifestyle changes (exercise, diet), and devices or surgery in severe cases. Treatment effectiveness varies based on the underlying cause and individual response. 96. Discuss the role of relationship satisfaction in female sexual interest/arousal disorders. Answer: Relationship satisfaction plays a significant role in female sexual interest/arousal disorders. High relationship satisfaction is associated with greater sexual desire and arousal in women. Positive relationship dynamics, emotional intimacy, and effective communication can enhance sexual interest and arousal. Conversely, relationship dissatisfaction, conflict, and communication issues can contribute to decreased sexual desire and arousal. Addressing relationship factors through therapy, communication improvement, and mutual support can positively impact female sexual interest and arousal disorders. 97. Discuss the possible causes and treatments for female orgasmic disorder. Answer: Causes: Female orgasmic disorder may be caused by psychological factors (such as stress, anxiety, past trauma), relationship issues (communication problems, intimacy issues), physical factors (hormonal imbalances, medication side effects), or cultural/religious factors affecting attitudes towards sex. Treatments: Treatments may include psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioral therapy, sex therapy), addressing underlying psychological issues, couples therapy to improve communication and intimacy, hormonal therapy if hormonal imbalances are detected, and education on sexual techniques and arousal. Medications such as antidepressants may also be considered in some cases, under medical supervision. 98. What language should you use when referring to sexual anatomy or sexual behaviors with your partner? When expressing your needs and desires? Answer: When referring to sexual anatomy or behaviors with your partner, use respectful and clear language that you both understand and are comfortable with. When expressing your needs and desires, use positive and affirming language that encourages open communication and mutual understanding. 99. What are some common communication styles used by couples during anger and conflict? How should couples properly communicate to resolve anger? Answer: Common communication styles during anger and conflict include: 1. Avoidance: Ignoring the issue or withdrawing from the conversation. 2. Accusation: Blaming the other person for the problem. 3. Defensiveness: Denying responsibility and deflecting blame. 4. Criticism: Attacking the other person's character or behavior. To resolve anger and conflict effectively, couples should: • Use "I" Statements: Express feelings and needs without blaming. • Active Listening: Pay attention and validate each other's feelings. • Stay Calm: Avoid escalation and take breaks if emotions run high. • Seek Compromise: Focus on finding solutions that meet both partners' needs. • Practice Empathy: Understand each other's perspectives and emotions. Effective communication fosters understanding and strengthens relationships during times of conflict. 100. Imagine that you are unhappy with some aspect of the sexual relationship with your steady partner. Outline how you should address this with him or her. Answer: 1. Choose the Right Time and Place: Find a quiet and private setting where you both feel comfortable and can talk openly. 2. Use "I" Statements: Express your feelings and needs without blaming. For example, "I've been feeling a bit unsatisfied with our sexual relationship lately, and I'd like to talk about how we can improve things." 3. Be Specific and Constructive: Clearly explain what aspects of the sexual relationship are bothering you and suggest positive changes or solutions. Avoid generalizations or criticism. 4. Encourage Open Dialogue: Allow your partner to share their perspective and feelings without interruption. Listen actively and show empathy. 5. Focus on Solutions: Work together to brainstorm ideas or strategies that can improve your sexual relationship. Be open to compromise and consider each other's preferences and boundaries. 6. Reassure and Affirm: Reinforce your commitment to the relationship and your desire to strengthen your connection through improved communication and intimacy. 7. Follow Up: Check in regularly to see how things are progressing and make adjustments as needed. Communication is an ongoing process in any relationship. Test Bank for Human Sexuality Today Bruce, M. King, Pamela C. Regan 9780205996384, 9780134804460

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