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This Document Contains Chapters 2 to 3 CHAPTER 2 OUR SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE ANATOMY TEST QUESTIONS A. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The use of slang terms to describe our sexual anatomy a. is more common among men than women b. sometimes leads to misinformation c. often reflects an individual’s ambivalent feelings about sex d. all of the above Answer: d 2. The external female genitalia are collectively known as the a. vagina b. vulva c. vestibule d. mons veneris Answer: b 3. Which of the following structures is NOT part of the vulva? a. mons veneris b. labia majora and labia minora c. cervix d. urethral opening Answer: c 4. In women, the soft layer of fatty tissue overlaying the area where the pubic bones come together is called the a. mons veneris b. labia majora c. labia minora d. pudendum Answer: a 5. The elongated folds of skin that cover the vaginal and urethral openings are called the a. perineum b. labia c. foreskin d. clitoral hood Answer: b 6. The ____________ are two folds of skin that extend from the mons to the perineum and which become covered with hair at puberty. a. labia majora b. vestibular area c. labia minora d. clitoral hood Answer: a 7. The clitoral hood is formed by the joining of the a. labia majora b. labia minora c. labia majora and labia minora d. mons veneris and labia majora Answer: b 8. The ____________ are located at the base of the labia minora and contribute a few drops of fluid to the inner surfaces during sexual arousal. a. perineum b. vestibular bulbs c. Cowper’s glands d. Bartholin’s glands Answer: d 9. The clitoris a. is very sensitive to touch b. develops from the same embryonic tissue as the penis c. is the only structure with no known function other than to focus pleasurable sensations during sexual arousal d. all of the above Answer: d 10. In women, the organ most similar to the penis in structure is the a. clitoris b. cervix c. labia d. vagina Answer: a 11. Ann is experiencing very little sensation during sexual intercourse. Her partner might be advised to provide her with greater stimulation of the a. vagina b. labia c. clitoris d. uterus Answer: c 12. The area between the two labia minora is called the a. vulva b. vaginismus area c. vaginitis area d. vestibular area Answer: d 13. The ____________ are located on both sides of the vaginal opening and help grip the penis by swelling with blood during sexual arousal. a. vestibular bulbs b. Bartholin’s glands c. Cowper’s glands d. all of the above Answer: a 14. The hymen a. is an accurate measure of previous sexual experience b. is found in all primate females c. is not easily broken or stretched d. none of the above Answer: d 15. In women, the urethral opening is located between the a. clitoris and vaginal opening b. vaginal opening and anus c. clitoris and mons veneris d. vaginal opening and perineum Answer: a 16. Breast size is determined by a. the amount of fatty tissue b. the number of mammary glands c. the amount of exercise that enlarges breasts d. all of the above Answer: a 17. Which of the following statements about a woman’s breasts is TRUE? a. breast size determines a woman’s level of sensitivity to touch b. having large breasts is related to being able to have orgasms c. breast size is related to sexual responsiveness d. breast size is unrelated to sensitivity or sexual responsiveness Answer: d 18. Other than skin cancer, the most common type of cancer in women is a. cancer of the cervix b. cancer of the ovaries c. breast cancer d. lung cancer Answer: c 19. The best time for women to examine themselves for breast cancer is a. during menstruation b. after menstruation c. during ovulation d. all times during the menstrual cycle are equally good Answer: b 20. To find cancerous breast tumors that are too small to be felt by hand, the American Cancer Society has been recommending that women over age 40 have a. Pap smears b. EKGs c. EEGs d. mammograms Answer: d 21. If an egg and sperm unite, it usually occurs in the a. Fallopian tubes b. vagina c. uterus d. ovaries Answer: a 22. Which of the following paths will an ovum take out of a woman’s body if it is not fertilized? a. ovary, cervix, Fallopian tube, vagina b. ovary, Fallopian tube, uterus, vagina c. Fallopian tube, ovary, uterus, vagina d. vagina, uterus, Fallopian tube, ovary Answer: b 23. Vaginal lubrication a. often decreases after menopause b. is super-filtered blood plasma c. results from the walls of the vagina becoming filled with blood d. all of the above Answer: d 24. A musky smell from the vagina is an indication of a. vaginal infection b. too much lactic acid c. a normal, healthy vagina d. the need for feminine hygiene products Answer: c 25. Feminine hygiene products a. should be used regularly after sexual intercourse b. help prevent vaginal yeast infections c. are necessary for normal female hygiene d. none of the above Answer: d 26. The walls of the inner two thirds of the vagina are a. relatively insensitive to touch b. very sensitive to touch c. more sensitive to touch than the vaginal opening d. as sensitive to touch as the clitoris Answer: a 27. Exercises that are designed to strengthen the pubococcygeus muscle are called a. PC exercises b. Kegel exercises c. G-spot exercises d. vaginal stretches Answer: b 28. Which of these statements about the Grafenberg spot (G-spot) is FALSE? a. it is on the front wall of the vagina b. stimulation of it can lead to an orgasm c. almost all women have one d. it was discovered by a man named Grafenberg Answer: c 29. A Pap smear is used to detect a. breast cancer b. cancer of the cervix c. cancer of the prostate d. all of the above Answer: b 30. Women should start having regular pelvic exams and Pap smear tests a. at puberty b. 3 years after they start having sexual intercourse c. at age 21 d. at menopause Answer: b 31. The uterus opens into the vagina through the a. fundus b. vestibule c. endometrium d. cervix Answer: d 32. A fertilized egg normally implants in the ____________ of the uterus. a. endometrium b. perimetrium c. cervix d. fundus Answer: a 33. Which of the following statements about the Fallopian tubes is TRUE? a. they extend about 4 inches laterally b. the fertilized egg takes 3 to 4 days to pass through a Fallopian tube c. there is no direct physical connection between the tubes and the ovaries d. all of the above Answer: d 34. Each egg is contained within a thin capsule to form a(n) a. ovary b. ovum c. fimbria d. follicle Answer: d 35. The ovaries a. develop from the same embryonic tissue as the testicles b. continue to produce new eggs from birth through menopause c. have a direct connection with the Fallopian tubes d. all of the above Answer: a 36. The ____________ has a reproductive function and also a urinary function. a. prostate gland b. penis c. vagina d. b and d Answer: b 37. The smooth rounded end of the penis is called the a. glans b. penile gland c. corona d. corpora cavernosa Answer: a 38. Regarding male circumcision, the American Academy of Pediatrics currently a. favors the operation for health reasons b. takes a neutral stand, leaving it to the parents and physicians c. opposes the routine use of the operation, saying that normal bathing is just as effective for health reasons d. favors the operation for promoting cultural similarity among men Answer: a 39. The shaft of the penis is made up of a. smooth muscle fibers b. a bone and surrounding tissue c. parallel cylinders of spongy tissue d. the corona and glans Answer: c 40. The human penis becomes erect during sexual arousal because of a. a bone that protrudes into it b. blood filling it c. the urethra expanding d. muscles contracting and enlarging Answer: b 41. The external sac in men that contains the testicles is the a. scrotum b. prostate c. seminal vesicles d. testicles Answer: a 42. Sperm can be produced only at a temperature a. lower than normal body temperature b. greater than normal body temperature c. within one degree of normal body temperature d. equal to the outside environment Answer: a 43. The testicles develop from the same embryonic tissue as the a. prostate gland b. ovaries c. penis d. vagina Answer: b 44. Sperm are produced in the a. cells of Leydig b. seminiferous tubules c. spermatic cord d. all of the above Answer: b 45. A man should examine himself for testicular cancer a. after a cool bath or shower b. after a warm bath or shower c. first thing in the morning d. at the beginning of the month Answer: b 46. You are a sperm and have just completed your journey through the vas deferens. You are about to enter the a. testicles b. epididymis c. seminal vesicles d. ejaculatory ducts Answer: d 47. Which of these is the correct order in which sperm travel from the seminiferous tubules during ejaculation? a. ejaculatory ducts, vas deferens, epididymis, urethra b. epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory ducts, urethra c. urethra, ejaculatory ducts, epididymis, vas deferens d. scrotum, vas deferens, urethra, ejaculatory ducts Answer: b 48. In which part of the male duct system do sperm get mixed with fluids to form semen? a. epididymis b. vas deferens c. ejaculatory ducts d. urethra Answer: c 49. Which of the following produces most of the fluid in semen? a. vas deferens b. Cowper’s glands c. prostate gland and seminal vesicles d. testicles Answer: c 50. The fluid that appears at the tip of the penis prior to orgasm is produced by the a. seminal vesicles b. prostate gland c. urethra d. Cowper’s glands Answer: d 51. Cancer of the ____________ is the most common non-skin type of cancer in men. a. testicles b. epididymis c. prostate d. penis Answer: c 52. Which of these statements regarding the prostate gland is FALSE? a. enlargement of the prostate is most common in men over age 40 b. the American Cancer Society recommends that all men have a yearly prostate exam starting at age 50 c. early symptoms of prostate problems may include difficulty in urination or frequent need to urinate, especially at night d. about one man in every 6 develops cancer of the prostate by age 85 Answer: d B. TRUE-FALSE 53. In women, pubic hair should be shaved for hygiene purposes. a. True b. False Answer: b 54. The inner, elongated folds of skin that cover the vaginal and urethral openings are called the labia majora. a. True b. False Answer: b 55. The vagina develops from the same embryonic tissue as the penis. a. True b. False Answer: b 56. The erotic pleasure of women is related to the size of their clitoris. a. True b. False Answer: b 57. Removal of the clitoris is a common practice in parts of Africa. a. True b. False Answer: a 58. Bleeding is a good indicator of whether or not a woman has had sexual intercourse. a. True b. False Answer: b 59. Breast size is determined by the number of mammary glands. a. True b. False Answer: b 60. Breast cancer is the most common type of non-skin cancer in women. a. True b. False Answer: a 61. The American Cancer Society recommends that women should examine themselves for breast cancer on a monthly basis. a. True b. False Answer: a 62. Most lumps discovered in women’s breasts are cancerous. a. True b. False Answer: b 63. The female’s vagina serves as receptacle for the penis, as the birth canal, and as the passageway for urine. a. True b. False Answer: b 64. Vaginal lubrication is really super-filtered blood plasma resulting from engorgement of the vaginal walls with blood. a. True b. False Answer: a 65. The odor of a healthy vagina is musky and non-offensive. a. True b. False Answer: a 66. Women should use feminine hygiene sprays and douches in order to prevent vaginal infections. a. True b. False Answer: b 67. Only 10% or fewer of women have a Grafenberg spot. a. True b. False Answer: a 68. Women who have had numerous sexual partners are at higher risk for cervical cancer than celibate women. a. True b. False Answer: a 69. Each Fallopian tube is directly connected to the uterus at one end and to an ovary at the other end. a. True b. False Answer: b 70. The ovaries produce several thousand new eggs every month until menopause. a. True b. False Answer: b 71. The glans of the penis is the expanded front end of the two corpora cavernosa. a. True b. False Answer: b 72. In males of some mammalian species, but not humans, an erection results from a bone that protrudes into the penis. a. True b. False Answer: a 73. The vas deferens is the passageway for both urine and sperm. a. True b. False Answer: b 74. In men, the urethra travels through the corpus spongiosum of the penis. a. True b. False Answer: a 75. The American Academy of Pediatrics favors circumcision in boys for health purposes. a. True b. False Answer: a 76. Sperm can be produced only at several degrees below normal body temperature. a. True b. False Answer: a 77. Sperm are produced in one testicle and male hormones in the other. a. True b. False Answer: b 78. Cancer of the testicles occurs mainly in men aged 15 to 34. a. True b. False Answer: a 79. Most of the volume of an ejaculation is made up of sperm. a. True b. False Answer: b 80. It is common for the prostate to enlarge as men grow older. a. True b. False Answer: a C. ESSAY 81. Describe the production of sperm and their passage through a man’s reproductive system (be sure to include how semen is formed). Answer: Sperm are produced in the testes through spermatogenesis, where immature cells mature into spermatozoa. They then move to the epididymis for storage and maturation. During ejaculation, sperm travel through the vas deferens, mixing with fluids from the seminal vesicles and prostate gland to form semen. Semen exits the body through the urethra during ejaculation. 82. Describe in detail the passage of an ovum after ovulation. Answer: After ovulation, the ovum travels from the ovary into the fallopian tube (oviduct). The journey begins with the fimbriae capturing the ovum and moving it into the tube. Cilia lining the tube and muscular contractions guide the ovum towards the uterus. If fertilization occurs along the way, the resulting embryo implants in the uterus. 83. In this chapter, you learned about some anatomical structures in men and women that develop from the same tissue during embryonic (first 2 months of pregnancy) development. Name two pairs of these structures and describe how they are similar in structure and function. Answer: Two pairs of anatomical structures that develop from the same tissue during embryonic development are: 1. Clitoris and Penis: • Structure: Both the clitoris and the penis originate from the genital tubercle during embryonic development. • Function: They both contain erectile tissue that becomes engorged with blood during sexual arousal, contributing to sexual pleasure. 2. Labia Majora and Scrotum: • Structure: The labia majora in females and the scrotum in males both develop from the labioscrotal swellings. • Function: They both serve to protect and support the internal reproductive structures (ovaries in females and testes in males). These structures illustrate how developmental pathways can lead to similar anatomical features adapted for different reproductive roles in males and females. 84. List the specific structures in men’s and women’s sexual anatomy that are very sensitive to touch (i.e., have lots of nerve endings). Are there any structures that are stimulated during sexual intercourse that are not very sensitive to touch? Answer: In men, the structures sensitive to touch include the glans penis (especially the frenulum), the foreskin (if present), and the scrotum. In women, the clitoris, labia minora, and vestibular bulbs are highly sensitive to touch. During sexual intercourse, structures like the vagina and cervix are involved but are not as sensitive to touch compared to the aforementioned structures. They play crucial roles in sexual response and reproduction but have fewer nerve endings dedicated to sensitivity. 85. Discuss the pros and cons of routine circumcision in newborn boys. Answer: Pros of routine circumcision in newborn boys include reduced risk of urinary tract infections, decreased risk of sexually transmitted infections like HIV and HPV, and lower incidence of penile cancer. It can also align with cultural or religious beliefs. Cons include potential risks such as bleeding, infection, and complications from anesthesia. Some argue it violates the child's right to bodily autonomy, and the medical benefits may not outweigh these risks for all families. 86. Describe the methods of self-examination for cancer of the breasts and testicles. Answer: Methods of self-examination for cancer of the breasts and testicles are: 1. Breast Self-Examination (BSE): • Stand in front of a mirror and visually inspect breasts for changes in size, shape, or skin texture. • Raise one arm and use the opposite hand to feel for lumps or thickening in the breast tissue in a circular motion from the outer to inner areas. • Repeat for the other breast and also check underarms for any lumps or swelling. 2. Testicular Self-Examination (TSE): • Stand in front of a mirror and visually inspect the scrotum for any swelling or changes in size or shape. • Hold the testicle between the thumbs and fingers of both hands and roll it gently between fingers to feel for any hard lumps or nodules. • Repeat for the other testicle and also check the epididymis (located behind each testicle) for any abnormalities. Regular self-examination can help detect changes early and should be followed up with medical evaluation if any abnormalities are found. CHAPTER 3 HORMONES AND SEXUALITY TEST QUESTIONS A. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Hormones are transported throughout the body by a. nerves b. muscles c. the bloodstream d. all of the above Answer: c 2. The network of ductless glands in our bodies is called the a. endocrine system b. hormone system c. pituitary system d. endoderm system Answer: a 3. Which of these hormones is produced by the ovaries? a. estrogen b. testosterone c. progesterone d. all of the above Answer: d 4. Which of these produces the hormone estrogen? a. the testicles b. the ovaries c. the adrenal glands d. all of the above Answer: d 5. Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone are secreted by the a. pituitary gland b. adrenal gland c. ovaries d. all of the above Answer: a 6. Follicle-stimulating hormone a. stimulates the maturation of a follicle in one of the ovaries b. stimulates production of sperm in the testicles c. both of the above d. none of the above Answer: c 7. The hormone that stimulates production of sperm and maturation of ova is a. follicle-stimulating hormone b. luteinizing hormone c. estrogen d. testosterone Answer: a 8. Which hormone stimulates the testicles to produce male hormones? a. follicle-stimulating hormone b. luteinizing hormone c. testosterone d. gonadotropin Answer: b 9. Which of these hormones triggers ovulation? a. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) b. progesterone c. luteinizing hormone (LH) d. estrogen Answer: c 10. Oxytocin is associated with a. milk release during breast-feeding b. labor contractions c. orgasmic contractions d. all of the above Answer: d 11. The release of FSH and LH from the pituitary gland follows the release of a. estrogen b. testosterone c. GnRH d. progesterone Answer: c 12. The average length of women’s menstrual cycles is a. 24 hours b. 4 days c. 14 days d. 28 days Answer: d 13. For numbering purposes, day 1 of the menstrual cycle is a. the start of menstruation b. the end of menstruation c. ovulation d. puberty Answer: a 14. A woman’s menstrual cycle begins with the release of a. estrogen b. progesterone c. follicle-stimulating hormone d. luteinizing hormone Answer: c 15. The release of estrogen during the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle a. inhibits release of follicle-stimulating hormone b. stimulates release of luteinizing hormone c. promotes growth of the endometrium d. all of the above Answer: d 16. The correct order of events leading to ovulation is a. development of a follicle, release of LH, secretion of estrogen, increased levels of FSH b. increased levels of FSH, release of LH, development of a follicle, secretion of estrogen c. release of LH, increased levels of FSH, secretion of estrogen, development of a follicle d. increased levels of FSH, development of a follicle, secretion of estrogen, release of LH Answer: d 17. In humans, the ____________ signals the onset of ovulation within 12 to 24 hours. a. change in the cervical mucus to white and sticky b. LH surge c. onset of bleeding d. sudden increase in sexual interest Answer: b 18. The rupturing of the follicle and the release of the mature egg into the abdominal cavity is called a. proliferation b. ovulation c. fertilization d. preovulation Answer: b 19. The mucus of the cervix becomes ____________ at ovulation. a. white and sticky b. clear and slippery c. thick and yellowish d. red with released blood Answer: b 20. In the ____________ phase of the menstrual cycle, the cells of the corpus luteum begin to secrete high levels of progesterone. a. preovulatory phase b. ovulation c. postovulatory phase d. menstruation Answer: c 21. If implantation fails to occur, the corpus luteum a. will secrete estrogen continually for 3 months b. will degenerate c. will secrete progesterone continually for 3 months d. all of the above Answer: b 22. Menstruation consists of a. blood b. cervical mucus c. sloughed off endometrial tissue d. all of the above Answer: d 23. Women’s menstrual cycles a. are always 28 days b. are always 28±1 days c. average 28 days, but often vary by at least 7 days d. average 28 days and vary by no more than 2 days Answer: c 24. Women’s menstrual cycles vary mostly because of big differences in the length of their ____________. a. ovulation phases b. postovulatory phases c. preovulatory phases d. menstrual phases Answer: c 25. Some studies have found that women who live together eventually have synchronized menstrual cycles. Evidence suggests that this is due to a. hormones b. pheromones c. estrogen d. gonadotropins Answer: b 26. In mammals that have an estrous cycle, the female is sexually receptive only during a. the preovulatory phase b. ovulation c. the postovulatory phase d. menstruation Answer: b 27. Studies indicate that women a. show a large peak in sexual interest in the week before ovulation b. show a large peak in sexual interest at the time of ovulation c. show a large peak in sexual interest in the week after ovulation d. can be interested in sex any time during the menstrual cycle Answer: d 28. In Western culture, negative attitudes about menstruation can be traced as far back as the a. biblical Hebrews b. early Christians c. Puritans d. Victorians Answer: a 29. Anthropologists believe that menstrual taboos within a culture a. emphasize the procreational purpose of sex b. deny the pleasurable aspects of sex c. serve to emphasize the low status and inferiority of women d. all of the above Answer: c 30. Many couples avoid sexual intercourse during menstruation because a. the chance of pregnancy is greatest at this time b. of socially learned negative attitudes c. the chance of infection is greatest at this time d. women are biologically programmed not to be interested in sex at this time Answer: b 31. During menstruation, couples should a. avoid sex because of the chance of infection b. avoid sex because the chance of pregnancy is high c. avoid sex because women are biologically programmed not to be interested in sex at this time d. none of the above Answer: d 32. In terms of risk for pregnancy, the safest phase of the menstrual cycle to have sexual intercourse is during a. the preovulatory phase b. ovulation c. the postovulatory phase d. menstruation Answer: d 33. Amenorrhea can be caused by a. intense exercise and stress b. anorexia nervosa c. pituitary or ovarian problems d. all of the above Answer: d 34. Susan is always dieting and is underweight. She is likely to experience a. amenorrhea b. premenstrual syndrome c. painful menstruation d. toxic shock syndrome Answer: a 35. Which of these statements regarding PMS is FALSE? a. physical symptoms of PMS can include swelling, weight gain, tenderness, and headaches b. women with PMS generally have abnormal progesterone levels c. emotional symptoms of PMS may include depression, tension, anxiety, and an inability to concentrate d. symptoms of PMS show rapid relief once menstruation begins Answer: b 36. Susan is feeling nervous, irritable, and has anxieties, but the symptoms disappear when her menstrual period begins. Susan probably has a. amenorrhea b. premenstrual syndrome c. dysmenorrhea d. menarche Answer: b 37. The symptoms of PMS are often made worse by a. negative attitudes about menstruation b. caffeine c. excess salt intake d. all of the above Answer: d 38. Recent studies indicate that PMS is due in part to a. an estrogen/progesterone imbalance b. high levels of estrogen c. high levels of progesterone d. an interaction of ovarian hormones with serotonin Answer: d 39. Secondary dysmenorrhea is often caused by a. endometriosis b. pelvic inflammatory disease c. ovarian cysts d. all of the above Answer: d 40. Primary dysmenorrhea is caused by an overproduction of a. prostaglandins b. ibuprofen c. Mittelschmerz d. progesterone Answer: a 41. Women who suffer from primary dysmenorrhea can often get relief by a. having orgasms b. anti-prostaglandin drugs c. birth control pills d. all of the above Answer: d 42. A condition in which the endometrium tissue grows in places other than the inner uterus is called a. endometriosis b. dysmenorrhea c. toxic shock syndrome d. premenstrual syndrome Answer: a 43. Endometriosis is a condition that causes pain at menstruation and is caused by a. endometrial tissue growing outside the uterus b. overproduction of prostaglandins c. bacterial infection d. all of the above Answer: a 44. Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a. endometrial tissue growing outside the uterus b. overproduction of prostaglandins c. toxins produced by a bacterium d. all of the above Answer: c 45. In men, FSH production is inhibited by increases in blood levels of a. testosterone b. inhibin c. GnRH d. all of the above Answer: b 46. Women have monthly cycles of fluctuating hormone levels and men do not because of differences in their a. pituitary glands b. FSH and LH c. hypothalamus d. all of the above Answer: c 47. Castration in sexually experienced men causes a. a total and permanent loss of sexual desire in all cases b. a gradual decline in sexual desire in all cases c. only a temporary loss of sexual desire in all cases d. loss of sexual desire in most men, but little change in others Answer: d 48. The most important hormone for sexual desire in women appears to be a. estrogen b. progesterone c. testosterone d. depo-provera Answer: c 49. Kim has shown a loss of sexual desire after reaching menopause (note: this usually does not occur). Her doctor would probably advise that she be given ____________ to restore desire. a. estrogen b. progesterone c. testosterone d. follicle stimulating hormone Answer: c 50. Taking anabolic steroids to improve athletic performance can lead to a. mild to severe mental disorders b. liver damage, elevated calcium levels, and increased blood pressure c. testicular atrophy in men and masculinizing effects in women d. all of the above Answer: d B. TRUE-FALSE 51. The endocrine system includes the pituitary gland, adrenal glands, and sweat glands. a. True b. False Answer: b 52. Young, adult men normally do not have any estrogen in their bodies. a. True b. False Answer: b 53. Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates the production of sperm in the testicles. a. True b. False Answer: a 54. The pituitary gland controls the release of FSH and LH. a. True b. False Answer: b 55. A woman’s ovaries continue to produce new eggs until she reaches menopause. a. True b. False Answer: b 56. The average length of women’s menstrual cycles is 30 days (1 month). a. True b. False Answer: b 57. In the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle, the follicle releases large amounts of estrogen. a. True b. False Answer: a 58. During ovulation, the follicle is released into the abdominal cavity. a. True b. False Answer: b 59. Some women can tell when they are ovulating. a. True b. False Answer: a 60. In the postovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle, the follicle releases less progesterone than before. a. True b. False Answer: b 61. The length of adult women’s menstrual cycles is almost always 28 ± 2 days. a. True b. False Answer: b 62. Men and women may be able to affect one another’s biological functions via their natural body odors. a. True b. False Answer: a 63. Menstruation is a natural characteristic of female mammals. a. True b. False Answer: b 64. Although women can have sex at any time, they really do not desire it except at the time of ovulation. a. True b. False Answer: b 65. Many couples show a drop in sexual activity during menstruation. This is usually the result of hormones. a. True b. False Answer: b 66. Sexual intercourse during menstruation is unhealthy. a. True b. False Answer: b 67. Menstruation is a sign that a woman is sexually experienced. a. True b. False Answer: b 68. Amenorrhea is common among women athletes who have a low body fat level. a. True b. False Answer: a 69. Most women with PMS can get relief with injections of progesterone. a. True b. False Answer: b 70. It is recommended that women suffering from PMS should avoid caffeine. a. True b. False Answer: a 71. Primary dysmenorrhea is caused primarily by an overproduction of prostaglandins. a. True b. False Answer: a 72. Many cases of dysmenorrhea are caused by endometriosis. a. True b. False Answer: a 73. It is okay for women who use extra-absorbent tampons to change them just once a day. a. True b. False Answer: b 74. Levels of FSH and LH in men undergo monthly cycles somewhat similar to those seen in women. a. True b. False Answer: b 75. Men’s hypothalamus are different from women’s hypothalamus. a. True b. False Answer: a 76. Men’s pituitary glands are different from women’s pituitary glands. a. True b. False Answer: b 77. The reason women’s hormone levels fluctuate and men’s do not is due to differences in the hypothalamus (brain). a. True b. False Answer: a 78. Castration always eliminates sexual desire in men. a. True b. False Answer: b 79. The loss of estrogen and progesterone at menopause does not reduce sexual desire in most women. a. True b. False Answer: a 80. For women, the most important hormone for sexual desire is testosterone. a. True b. False Answer: a 81. The use of anabolic steroids can make a man’s penis bigger. a. True b. False Answer: b 82. Women who take anabolic steroids risk permanent masculinization, even after they quit. a. True b. False Answer: a C. ESSAY 83. Describe the hormonal events that take place during the menstrual cycle. Answer: During the menstrual cycle: 1. Follicular Phase (Days 1-14): • FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone) stimulates the growth of ovarian follicles. • Estrogen levels rise, stimulating the thickening of the endometrium. • LH (Luteinizing Hormone) surge triggers ovulation around day 14. 2. Ovulation (Around Day 14): • LH surge causes the mature follicle to release an egg from the ovary. 3. Luteal Phase (Days 15-28): • Corpus luteum forms from the ruptured follicle and produces progesterone and estrogen. • Progesterone maintains the endometrium for potential implantation. • If pregnancy doesn't occur, hormone levels drop, leading to menstruation. 84. Explain some differences between menstrual cycles and estrous cycles. Answer: Menstrual cycles (humans) vs. estrous cycles (animals): 1. Menstrual Cycles: • Occur in humans and some primates. • Bleeding (menstruation) occurs if fertilization doesn't happen. • No distinct "heat" or mating period. 2. Estrous Cycles: • Common in mammals (e.g., dogs, cats). • Female is only receptive to mating during "heat." • No menstruation; instead, reabsorption or resorption of endometrial lining if not fertilized. 85. What are pheromones? What evidence is there that pheromones may play a role in the regulation of human menstrual cycles? Answer: Pheromones are chemical signals released by an organism to influence the behavior or physiology of others of the same species. Evidence suggests pheromones may influence human menstrual cycles: • Menstrual synchrony: Studies have shown women living together may synchronize their cycles. • Axillary (underarm) secretions: Some research indicates chemicals in these secretions may affect hormone levels and cycle timing. • Behavioral studies: Responses to pheromonal cues in mate selection and attraction may indirectly influence reproductive timing. 86. Describe why menstruation is often associated with negative beliefs, and why this should not be the case. Answer: Menstruation is often associated with negative beliefs due to historical and cultural factors, including myths about impurity or weakness. This perception should change because menstruation is a natural bodily process essential for reproduction and should be normalized without stigma, promoting health education and positive attitudes towards menstruation. 87. What role do hormones play in human sexual desire? Answer: Hormones, such as testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone, influence human sexual desire by affecting libido, arousal, and overall sexual function. These hormones regulate physiological responses and play a crucial role in sexual motivation and behavior. 88. Explain the difference between dysmenorrhea and PMS, and discuss what we know about the biological causes of each. Answer: Dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain that occurs during menstruation, often due to uterine contractions. Biological causes include prostaglandin release causing muscle contractions and ischemia. PMS (Premenstrual Syndrome) involves emotional and physical symptoms before menstruation, possibly due to hormone fluctuations affecting neurotransmitters like serotonin. Biological causes include hormone imbalances affecting mood and physical symptoms. 89. Describe the brain-pituitary-gonad feedback loop for the production of sperm and testosterone in men. Answer: In men: 1. Hypothalamus releases Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH). 2. GnRH stimulates the pituitary gland to release Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH). 3. LH stimulates the Leydig cells in the testes to produce testosterone. 4. FSH stimulates Sertoli cells in the testes, which support sperm production (spermatogenesis). 5. Testosterone feeds back to the hypothalamus and pituitary, regulating further GnRH, LH, and FSH production in a negative feedback loop. Test Bank for Human Sexuality Today Bruce, M. King, Pamela C. Regan 9780205996384, 9780134804460

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