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4 Consciousness: Sleep, Dreams, Hypnosis, and Drugs 1. What term do psychologists use to designate our personal awareness of feelings, sensations, and thoughts? a. thinking b. cognition c. conscience d. consciousness Answer: d. consciousness Correct. Consciousness is defined as personal awareness of feelings, sensations, and thoughts. c. conscience Incorrect. Conscience is related to morality, not awareness. 2. Consciousness is the ________________. a. state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes b. awareness of ourselves and the environment c. memory of personally experienced events d. intentional recollection of an item of information Answer: b. awareness of ourselves and the environment Correct. Consciousness is defined as awareness. c. memory of personally experienced events Incorrect. Consciousness is more than just memory. 3. Our awareness of various mental processes, such as making decisions, daydreaming, reflecting, and concentrating, is called ______. a. consciousness b. creativity c. intelligence d. self-awareness Answer: a. consciousness Correct. Consciousness is defined as awareness. d. self-awareness Incorrect. This is only part of the definition of consciousness. 4. The state we are in when we are awake and reasonably alert is called ______. a. altered state of consciousness b. waking consciousness c. self-awareness d. intelligence Answer: b. waking consciousness Correct. The key word is waking. c. self-awareness Incorrect. Self-awareness is only part of the definition of consciousness. 5. What do we call a state of consciousness that can result from the use of alcohol, drugs, or hypnosis? a. daydreaming b. meditative absorption c. stream of consciousness d. altered state of consciousness Answer: d. altered state of consciousness Correct. The use of drugs or hypnosis “alters” our consciousness. c. stream of consciousness Incorrect. In stream of consciousness there is no shift or alteration generally caused by drugs in the pattern of consciousness. 6. Mental activities that differ noticeably from normal waking consciousness are known as ________. a. hyperconsciousness b. unconscious states c. relaxed wakefulness d. altered states of consciousness Answer: d. altered states of consciousness Correct. Altered states differ noticeably from normal waking consciousness. b. unconscious states Incorrect. Remember that a person’s unconsciousness state is not noticeable by the person. 7. Which of the following is NOT an altered state of consciousness? a. concentration b. meditation c. daydreaming d. intoxication Answer: a. concentration Correct. This is a normal state of consciousness, not an altered one. b. meditation Incorrect. This is an altered state because there is a shift in the pattern of consciousness. 8. Daydreaming, meditation, intoxication, sleep, and hypnosis are all types of ________. a. self-awareness b. self-absorption c. waking consciousness d. altered states of consciousness Answer: d. altered states of consciousness Correct. The above are altered states of consciousness. a. self-awareness Incorrect. This is awareness in a nonaltered state. 9. What used to be called “the gentle tyrant”? a. drugs b. dreams c. sleep d. meditation Answer: c. sleep Correct. Sleep was referred to as the gentle tyrant. a. drugs Incorrect. Sleep was referred to as the gentle tyrant. 10. What aspect of circadian rhythms might explain why we tend to feel so tired at night? a. Body temperature bottoms out on Monday mornings. b. The three biorhythm patterns converge at low points on Mondays. c. Heart rates typically increase at night. d. There is an organ in the brain sensitive to light changes, which then affects our sleepiness. Answer: d. There is an organ in the brain sensitive to light changes, which then affects our sleepiness. Correct. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is light sensitive and causes sleepiness when there is less light. c. Heart rates typically increase at night. Incorrect. There is no evidence that heart rates increase at night. Increased heart rates might even make you less sleepy. 11. A circadian cycle is about ______ hours long. a. 1. 5 b. 12 c. 6 d. 24 Answer: d. 24 Correct. From this 24-hour cycle comes the term “about a day. ” b. 12 Incorrect. This is only one-half of the cycle. 12. A biological cycle, or rhythm, that is approximately 24 hours long is called a(n) ______ cycle. a. infradian b. circadian c. diurnal d. ultradian Answer: b. circadian Correct. The sleep–wake cycle is an example of this. It takes about 24 hours. a. infradian Incorrect. Infradian means less than a day. 13. Our sleep–wake cycle follows a(n) ______ rhythm. a. infradian b. diurnal c. circadian d. ultradian Answer: c. circadian Correct. From this cycle comes the term “about a day. ” a. infradian Incorrect. Infradian means less than a day. 14. The hypothalamus controls the ___________. a. hypnotic suggestibility ratio b. sleep–wake cycle c. frequency of nightmares d. growth hormones that occur during sleep Answer: b. sleep–wake cycle Correct. The hypothalamus is involved in the sleep–wake cycle. c. frequency of nightmares Incorrect. The hypothalamus is not involved in dreaming. 15. The sleep–wake cycle is ultimately controlled by the part of the brain called the __________. a. optical nerve b. frontal lobe c. hypothalamus d. median forebrain bundle Answer: c. hypothalamus Correct. This is the part of the brain that controls the sleep–wake cycle. b. frontal lobe Incorrect. The frontal lobe is a higher part of the brain and does not control the sleep–wake cycle. 16. Where is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) located? a. thalamus b. cerebellum c. basal ganglia d. hypothalamus Answer: d. hypothalamus Correct. The SCN is located in the hypothalamus. b. cerebellum Incorrect. The SCN is not located in this part of the brain. 17. Circadian rhythms are controlled by the __________________. a. pineal gland b. suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) c. thalamus d. hippocampus Answer: b. suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) Correct. The SCN controls circadian rhythms. a. pineal gland Incorrect. Although the pineal gland is involved in sleep, it does not control the circadian rhythm. 18. ________________, a hormone involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms, is secreted by the pineal gland. a. Serotonin b. Testosterone c. Estrogen d. Melatonin Answer: d. Melatonin Correct. Melatonin, a hormone involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms, is secreted by the pineal gland. a. Serotonin Incorrect. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter, not a hormone. 19. SCN stands for _________________. a. stop control now b. suprachiasmatic nucleus c. serotonin controlled nucleus d. sleep control nucleus Answer: b. suprachiasmatic nucleus Correct. The suprachiasmatic nucleus is represented by the initials SCN. c. serotonin controlled nucleus Incorrect. SCN stands for suprachiasmatic nucleus. 20. The hormone melatonin reaches peak levels in the body during the ____________. a. morning b. early evening c. afternoon d. night Answer: d. night Correct. Melatonin is released in response to light or the lack thereof. a. morning Incorrect. Light causes the release of melatonin to decrease. 21. Melatonin is a _______________. a. hormone b. sleeping pill c. depressant d. stimulant Answer: a. hormone Correct. Melatonin is a hormone. b. sleeping pill Incorrect. Melatonin is a hormone that facilitates sleep. 22. Melatonin is to ___________ as an aspirin is to ____________. a. nausea; nightmare b. nightmare; blood clots c. insomnia; headache d. sleep apnea; blood thinner Answer: c. insomnia; headache Correct. The analogy is that melatonin reduces insomnia like aspirin reduces headache pain. d. sleep apnea; blood thinner Incorrect. Melatonin has no effect on sleep apnea. 23. Sid is taking part in research on the effects of sleep deprivation; he has been without sleep for 75 hours. Right now researchers have asked him to sit in front of a computer screen and hit a button each time he sees the letter S on the screen. A few days ago, Sid was a whiz at this task; however, he is doing very poorly today. How are sleep researchers likely to explain Sid’s poor performance? a. Due to the sleep deprivation, Sid does not understand the task. b. Microsleeps are occurring due to the sleep deprivation and he is asleep for brief periods of time. c. He is determined to ruin the research because of the suffering he is enduring at the hands of the researchers. d. He is probably dreaming that he is somewhere else and has no interest in responding to the “here and now. ” Answer: b. Microsleeps are occurring due to the sleep deprivation and he is asleep for brief periods of time. Correct. Microsleeps occur causing a block-out during that time. a. Due to the sleep deprivation, Sid does not understand the task. Incorrect. Sleep deprivation will not completely cause a lack of understanding. 24. According to research on sleep deprivation, a moderate amount of sleep loss _______. a. is still a serious problem b. is not a problem at all c. only is a problem for women, not men d. does not affect people older than age 50 Answer: a. is still a serious problem Correct. Even moderate loss of sleep can cause serious problems in behavioral function. b. is not a problem at all Incorrect. Even moderate loss of sleep can cause serious problems in behavioral function. 25. All of the following result from sleep deprivation EXCEPT ________________. a. droopy eyelids b. irritability c. hyperalertness d. cognitive impairment Answer: c. hyperalertness Correct. This is not listed as a symptom of sleep deprivation. b. irritability Incorrect. This is a definite symptom of sleep deprivation. 26. Which of the following can be an emotional symptom of sleep deprivation? a. hyperactivity b. cheerfulness c. depression d. nausea Answer: c. depression Correct. Depression is a frequently reported emotional symptom of sleep deprivation. b. cheerfulness Incorrect. Rarely would we see cheerfulness as a result of sleep deprivation. 27. According to this theory, sleep is a product of evolution. a. restorative theory b. adaptive theory c. psychoanalytic theory d. dream theory Answer: b. adaptive theory Correct. Adaptation is one of the key elements of evolutionary theory. a. restorative theory Incorrect. This theory focuses on restoration of energy and health, not evolution. 28. The restorative theory views sleep as ________. a. having evolutionary advantages b. helping the body repair the wear and tear of the day’s events c. a means to cope with stress d. important only to the extent that we don’t enter a state of sleep deprivation Answer: b. helping the body repair the wear and tear of the day’s events Correct. This concept suggests that while we sleep our bodies sends out “repair crews” to repair the damage that we do while we’re awake. a. having evolutionary advantages Incorrect. This would be the main premise of the evolutionary theory, not the restorative theory. 29. According to this theory, sleep is necessary for growth and repair of the body. a. restorative theory b. adaptive theory c. psychoanalytic theory d. dream theory Answer: a. restorative theory Correct. Restorative theory says sleep is necessary for physical health. b. adaptive theory Incorrect. Adaptive theory says sleep keeps animals safe from predators. 30. Which statement is correct concerning how much sleep people need? a. Most older people need at least 10 hours. b. Men need more sleep than women. c. Most young adults need between 7 and 9 hours of sleep. d. Women need more sleep than men. Answer: c. Most young adults need between 7 and 9 hours of sleep. Correct. Research supports the idea that humans need about 7 to 8 hours of sleep. d. Women need more sleep than men. Incorrect. There is no research supporting the idea that women need more sleep than men. 31. Which of the following statements accurately reflects the relationship of the total amount of sleep that an individual receives as a function of age? a. We require more sleep as we age. b. As we age, we tend to get less sleep. c. We require much sleep during infancy and early childhood, less sleep in adolescence and early adulthood, and then more sleep in middle and older age. d. The amount of sleep we require solely depends on individual difference variables. Answer: b. As we age, we tend to get less sleep. Correct. As we get older, the average amount of sleep we get per night drops to about 6 hours. a. We require more sleep as we age. Incorrect. While we may get less sleep as we age, there is no indication that we need more sleep than at younger years. 32. REM sleep refers to __________________. a. dreamless sleep b. sleep induced by sleeping pills c. sleep periods in which sleepwalking is likely d. sleep periods in which a person’s eyes move rapidly Answer: d. sleep periods in which a person’s eyes move rapidly Correct. Hence, the term rapid eye movement. a. dreamless sleep Incorrect. People in REM sleep have dreams. 33. If the EEG record reveals evidence of very small and very fast waves, you are likely to conclude that the sleeping person is ___________________. a. really not sleeping and is awake b. in stage 2 c. in stage 3 d. in stage 4 Answer: a. really not sleeping and is awake Correct. The faster the waves the more likely it is that a person is awake. b. in stage 2 Incorrect. There are faster waves than stage 2 34. You see an advertisement for a method of learning a foreign language that seems simple—just put on a tape and fall asleep. The accompanying description cites proof that people can learn while asleep. Being a good psychological detective, what question would you ask about the offered proof? a. Did the individuals actually dream about the foreign language? b. What did the EEG indicate about the participants’ level of sleep? c. Did the researchers use only long sleepers who would spend more time with the tapes? d. Were study breaks included in the tape to provide greater comprehension of the material? Answer: b. What did the EEG indicate about the participants’ level of sleep? Correct. If you know what the EEG indicates, you will know whether they were really asleep. c. Did the researchers use only long sleepers who would spend more time with the tapes? Incorrect. The length of time asleep is irrelevant to whether they were actually sleeping. 35. Which device would a sleep researcher use to monitor a sleeping person’s brain waves? a. electromyograph (EMG) b. electrocardiograph (EKG) c. electro-oculograph (EOG) d. electroencephalograph (EEG) Answer: d. electroencephalograph (EEG) Correct. Electro Encephalo Graph. b. electrocardiograph (EKG) Incorrect. The EKG is for monitoring the heart (electrocardiograph). 36. You are watching sleep researchers monitor the sleep of a normal adult. The participant is hooked up to an EEG. What brain waves would you observe as the person becomes drowsy and then enters the first stage of sleep? a. alpha eventually replaced by delta b. delta eventually replaced by theta c. beta eventually replaced by alpha d. delta eventually replaced by beta Answer: c. beta eventually replaced by alpha Correct. The pattern sequence goes this way. a. alpha eventually replaced by delta Incorrect. Delta waves only occur in deep sleep. 37. What term do sleep researchers use to designate stages 1–4 of sleep? a. REM sleep b. Non-REM sleep c. REMN sleep d. paradoxical sleep Answer: b. Non-REM sleep Correct. This indicates that it is non-REM sleep. a. REM sleep Incorrect. This sleep occurs after stages 1 through 4 and then a repetition of stage 3 and stage 2. 38. Periods of REM sleep alternate with periods of non-REM sleep in a cycle that recurs about every ______________ minutes or so. a. 30 b. 90 c. 150 d. 210 Answer: b. 90 Correct. See the chart on page 142. a. 30 Incorrect. See the chart on page 142. 39. If you are awakened from sleep and you feel as though you had not even been asleep, then you were most likely in which stage of sleep? a. Stage 1 b. Stage 2 c. Stage 3 d. Slow wave sleep Answer: a. Stage 1 Correct. Stage 1 sleep is our lightest stage, where we are very close to being awake. d. Slow wave sleep Incorrect. Slow wave sleep, or stage 3 or 4, is when we are very difficult to wake up. 40. Upon just waking up, you report a vivid visual event. What term do psychologists use for such phenomena? a. hypnotic illusion b. positive hallucination c. hypnagogic hallucination d. hypnopompic image Answer: d. hypnopompic image Correct. Funny name, but that’s what they call it. c. hypnagogic hallucination Incorrect. This is related to hypnosis. 41. If the EEG record reveals evidence of sleep spindles, you are likely to conclude that the sleeping person is in which stage of sleep? a. REM b. stage 1 c. stage 2 d. stage 4 Answer: c. stage 2 Correct. Spindles occur in stage 2. b. stage 1 Incorrect. Spindles occur in stage 2. 42. Sleep spindles appear during ______ sleep. a. stage 1 b. REM c. stage 2 d. stage 4 Answer: c. stage 2 Correct. Spindles occur during stage 2. a. stage 1 Incorrect. Spindles occur during stage 2. 43. Short, rhythmic bursts of brainwave activity that appear during stage 2 sleep are called __________. a. delta waves b. sleep spindles c. paradoxical sleep waves d. beta waves Answer: b. sleep spindles Correct. Sleep spindles are short, rhythmic bursts of brainwave activity. d. beta waves Incorrect. These waves occur when you are awake and do not have spindles. 44. Your brain waves are being monitored in a sleep laboratory. If you are in deep sleep less than an hour after falling asleep, what brain waves will be detected? a. beta b. alpha c. theta d. delta Answer: d. delta Correct. Delta waves occur in stage 4 and indicate the deepest sleep. c. theta Incorrect. Theta waves indicate the second deepest level of sleep. 45. The stage of sleep in which delta waves begin to appear is ________ sleep. a. stage 1 b. stage 2 c. stage 3 d. stage 4 Answer: c. stage 3 Correct. Delta waves begin to appear in stage 3. d. stage 4 Incorrect. Delta waves begin to occur in stage 3. 46. The deepest stage of sleep is ________ sleep. a. stage 1 b. stage 2 c. stage 3 d. stage 4 Answer: d. stage 4 Correct. Stage 4 is the deepest sleep we get. c. stage 3 Incorrect. Stage 4 is the deepest sleep we get. 47. The stage of sleep marked by the production of very slow delta waves is ________ sleep. a. REM b. stage 1 c. stage 2 d. stage 4 Answer: d. stage 4 Correct. Delta waves occur in stage 4 and they are the slowest waves. c. stage 2 Incorrect. Stage 4 has the slowest waves. 48. Stage 4 sleep is marked by _________ waves. a. alpha b. beta c. theta d. delta Answer: d. delta Correct. Delta waves occur in stage 4 and indicate the deepest sleep. c. theta Incorrect. Delta waves occur in stage 4 and indicate the deepest sleep. 49. People in stage 4 sleep _____________. a. dream all the time b. are hard to wake up c. are easy to wake up d. hallucinate Answer: b. are hard to wake up Correct. This sleep is very deep and waking takes time. c. are easy to wake up Incorrect. This sleep is very deep and waking takes time. 50. Each of the following is a sleep disorder EXCEPT _________. a. narcolepsy b. REM rebound c. insomnia d. night terrors Answer: b. REM rebound Correct. This is related to lack of dreaming. a. narcolepsy Incorrect. This is a sleep disorder in which one falls asleep without warning. 51. This early researcher did a study that seemed to suggest that people deprived of REM sleep would become paranoid, seemingly mentally ill, from lack of this one stage of sleep. a. Freud b. Dement c. Jung d. James Answer: b. Dement Correct. Dement did this study. a. Freud Incorrect. Freud was more interested in dreams and what they mean. 52. Which of the following is CORRECT concerning REM deprivation? a. REM deprivation results in long-term mental illness. b. REM deprivation only occurs among the elderly. c. REM deprivation leads to increased amounts of REM sleep on subsequent nights of sleep. d. REM deprivation can lead to visual impairments. Answer: c. REM deprivation leads to increased amounts of REM sleep on subsequent nights of sleep. Correct. Research found REM-deprived subjects increasing REM sleep when they slept again. a. REM deprivation results in long-term mental illness. Incorrect. There is no scientific evidence suggesting REM deprivation causes mental illness. 53. John will likely experience REM rebound tonight if he: a. takes a sleeping pill before bed tonight. b. drinks too much caffeine prior to sleeping. c. did not sleep much last night. d. slept more than 8 hours last night. Answer: c. did not sleep much last night. Correct. REM rebound refers to the tendency to “recapture” lost REM sleep before other stages of sleep when we are sleep-deprived. d. slept more than 8 hours last night. Incorrect. Getting more than eight hours of sleep will not induce REM rebound. 54. REM behavior disorder results from _________________. a. too much sleep b. not enough sleep c. failure of the brain mechanisms to block brain signals to the muscles d. deterioration of the medial hypothalamus Answer: c. failure of the brain mechanisms to block brain signals to the muscles Correct. REM behavior disorder results from the failure of the brain mechanisms to block signals to the muscles. b. not enough sleep Incorrect. REM behavior disorder results from the brain mechanisms blocking signals to the muscles. 55. REM behavior disorder most commonly occurs _________________. a. in men over 60 b. in women under 60 c. in children d. among the poor Answer: a. in men over 60 Correct. REM behavior disorder usually occurs in men over 60. c. in children Incorrect. REM behavior disorder usually occurs in men over 60 56. Which of the following statements is correct? a. Sleepwalking has never been used successfully as a murder defense. b. There have been cases in which sleepwalking was a successful murder defense. c. Sleepwalking in prisons is a common occurrence. d. A famous attorney reported that he tried a murder case while he was sleepwalking. Answer: b. There have been cases in which sleepwalking was a successful murder defense. Correct. According to case records at least three cases of murder by sleepwalking were successfully defended. a. Sleepwalking has never been used successfully as a murder defense. Incorrect. According to case records at least 20 cases of murder by sleepwalking have been recorded. 57. What would you expect to see on the EEG record of a person who is engaged in an episode of sleepwalking? a. paradoxical sleep waves b. very large sleep spindles c. evidence of deep sleep (stage 4) d. a record that is virtually the same as a daydreaming person Answer: c. evidence of deep sleep (stage 4) Correct. Sleepwalking occurs in stage 4. b. very large sleep spindles Incorrect. These are not present in deep sleep and that’s when people sleepwalk. 58. Judith is startled when her 6-year-old daughter, Laura, sleepwalks into the family room. It is most likely that Laura is experiencing the _______________ stage of the sleep cycle. a. REM b. first c. third d. fourth Answer: d. fourth Correct. Sleepwalking occurs in stage 4. c. third Incorrect. Sleepwalking occurs in stage 4. 59. Which of the following individuals is most likely to sleepwalk? a. a 10-year-old child b. a 24-year-old adult c. a 44-year-old adult d. a 74-year-old adult Answer: a. a 10-year-old child Correct. Younger children are more likely to sleepwalk. b. a 24-year-old adult Incorrect. This is more common in childhood. 60. Sleepwalking occurs _________. a. primarily during REM sleep b. primarily during NREM Stage 4 sleep c. equally as often in REM and NREM sleep d. only in REM sleep Answer: b. primarily during NREM Stage 4 sleep Correct. This event occurs in stage 4, which is NREM sleep. d. only in REM sleep Incorrect. This event occurs in stage 4, which is NREM sleep. 61. Approximately ______ percent of the population experiences at least some incidents of sleepwalking. a. 20 b. 40 c. 60 d. 80 Answer: a. 20 Correct. Statistics say 20 percent of the population experiences sleepwalking. c. 60 Incorrect. Statistics say 20 percent of the population experiences sleepwalking 62. Each of the following is true of sleepwalking EXCEPT ______. a. more boys than girls sleepwalk b. sleepwalking is more common among children than adults c. waking a sleepwalker is difficult d. waking a sleepwalker is dangerous Answer: d. waking a sleepwalker is dangerous Correct. This is a common misconception. a. more boys than girls sleepwalk Incorrect. Boys sleepwalk more often than girls, so this is a true statement. 63. Which of the following statements is TRUE? a. Night terrors are a rare disorder. b. Nightmares, but not night terrors, suggest some psychological problems. c. Night terrors, but not nightmares, suggest some psychological problems. d. Both nightmares and night terrors suggest psychological problems. Answer: a. Night terrors are a rare disorder. Correct. Night terrors are a rare disorder. d. Both nightmares and night terrors suggest psychological problems. Incorrect. Neither of these sleep problems is associated with other problems. 64. If you have been waking up too early for several weeks, you are probably suffering from ____________. a. insomnia b. parasomnia c. hypersomnia d. reverse insomnia Answer: a. insomnia Correct. Waking up too early is one form of insomnia. b. parasomnia Incorrect. This is a category, not a legitimate disorder. 65. A sleep disorder characterized by difficulty in falling asleep or remaining asleep throughout the night is ______. a. zombulism b. cataplexy c. narcolepsy d. insomnia Answer: d. insomnia Correct. Insomnia is characterized by difficulty in falling asleep or remaining asleep. c. narcolepsy Incorrect. This occurs when you fall asleep without warning. 66. To treat your sleep problem you are told that you should not nap, you should set your alarm clock to wake up at the same time each day, and you should get out of bed if you cannot sleep. What sleep disorder have you been experiencing? a. enuresis b. narcolepsy c. insomnia d. REM sleep behavior disorder Answer: c. insomnia Correct. Advice such as not napping, setting the alarm clock to wake up at the same time each day, and getting out of bed if not able to sleep is given to people with insomnia. b. narcolepsy Incorrect. Narcolepsy occurs when you fall asleep without warning. 67. Sleep research supports three “helpful hints” to avoid insomnia. Which of the following statements is NOT a helpful hint? a. Don’t try too hard to get to sleep. b. Don’t take sleeping pills or drink alcohol to help you fall asleep. c. Try to nap as much as possible. d. It is better to go to bed at about the same time every night. Answer: c. Try to nap as much as possible. Correct. This is not one of the helpful hints. d. It is better to go to bed at about the same time every night. Incorrect. This actually IS one of the helpful hints. 68. Sleep research supports three of the following helpful hints. Which statement is NOT accurate? a. Don’t try too hard to get to sleep. b. Don’t do anything in your bed but sleep. c. Sleeping pills help cure insomnia. d. It is better to go to bed at about the same time every night. Answer: c. Sleeping pills help cure insomnia. Correct. This is not one of the helpful hints. a. Don’t try too hard to get to sleep. Incorrect. This actually IS one of the helpful hints. 69. Mary is having insomnia. Which piece of advice would you give to help her deal with it? a. Take sleeping pills. b. Go to bed every night at different times to “shock your sleep system. ” c. Study in bed and then go immediately to sleep. d. Don’t do anything but sleep in your bed. Answer: d. Don’t do anything but sleep in your bed. Correct. Mary should “ learn,” through classical conditioning, that her bed is a place to sleep and nothing else. c. Study in bed and then go immediately to sleep. Incorrect. This tends to lead to more insomnia. 70. Sleep research supports three helpful hints to avoid insomnia. Which of the following statements is one of them? a. Stay in bed if you cannot fall asleep so that you don’t “wake up” your brain. b. Avoid meditation or relaxation techniques, as they interfere with your circadian rhythm c. Try to nap as much as possible. d. It is better to go to bed at about the same time every night. Answer: d. It is better to go to bed at about the same time every night. Correct. This actually IS one of the helpful hints. c. Try to nap as much as possible. Incorrect. This is not one of the helpful hints. 71. The difference between insomnia and apnea is that _________. a. apnea affects primarily the elderly, whereas insomnia is characteristic of children b. insomnia is treatable but apnea is not c. insomnia is characterized by sleeplessness, whereas apnea is characterized by breathing difficulties d. apnea is a precursor to narcolepsy, whereas insomnia is not Answer: c. insomnia is characterized by sleeplessness, whereas apnea is characterized by breathing difficulties Correct. Insomnia is characterized by sleeplessness but apnea refers to breathing difficulties. b. insomnia is treatable but apnea is not Incorrect. Both of these disorders are treatable. 72. Jim is 56 years old and slightly overweight. His wife reports that he snores loudly. What sleep disorder seems to fit Jim’s symptoms? a. narcolepsy b. sleep apnea c. sleep terror d. REM sleep behavior Answer: b. sleep apnea Correct. Sleep apnea is associated with excess weight and causes loud snoring. a. narcolepsy Incorrect. This occurs when you fall asleep without warning. 73. You find it hard to sleep due to your roommate’s sleeping behavior. She snores quite a bit and at times it sounds as though she has great difficulty breathing. Your roommate may have ________. a. sleep apnea b. night terrors c. nightmares d. narcolepsy Answer: a. sleep apnea Correct. The difficulty breathing and snoring that your roommate is experiencing may be symptoms of severe sleep apnea. b. night terrors Incorrect. The night terrors are not discussed in this chapter, snoring and breathing difficulties would not be associated with this sleep disorder. 74. A sleep disorder that may require the use of a machine to force air gently into the nasal passages is called ______________. a. sleep apnea b. insomnia c. narcolepsy d. cataplexy Answer: a. sleep apnea Correct. Sleep apnea occurs when one stops breathing. c. narcolepsy Incorrect. Narcolepsy does not usually involve someone who stops breathing. a. Sleep apnea b. Insomnia c. Narcolepsy d. Non-REM sleep Answer: a. Sleep apnea Correct. Sleep apnea is defined as a disorder in which breathing briefly stops during sleep. c. Narcolepsy Incorrect. This occurs when you fall asleep without warning. 76. If your physician says you need a treatment called a CPAP device, you are suffering from ________. a. insomnia b. narcolepsy c. sleep apnea d. sleep terrors Answer: c. sleep apnea Correct. CPAP deals with airway pressure during sleep. It stands for Continuous Positive Airway Pressure. b. narcolepsy Incorrect. This occurs when you fall asleep without warning. 77. A student nurse looks at a patient’s chart and does not understand the meaning of serious sleep apnea, so she asks the head nurse for assistance. How might the head nurse describe this condition? a. The patient is mentally ill and tends to try to suffocate himself at times. b. The patient cannot sleep unless he has several pillows he uses to deaden sounds that might awaken him. c. The patient appears to awaken throughout the night and start walking, but he will not respond to commands. d. The patient has a potentially life-threatening condition in which air does not flow into or out of his nose or mouth for periods of time while he is asleep. Answer: d. The patient has a potentially life-threatening condition in which air does not flow into or out of his nose or mouth for periods of time while he is asleep. Correct. This description defines sleep apnea. c. The patient appears to awaken throughout the night and start walking, but he will not respond to commands. Incorrect. This description defines sleepwalking and has nothing to do with apnea. 78. CPAP stands for _____________. a. continuous positive airway pressure b. cancer prevention application procedure c. controlled pulmonary air pump d. correctable pointed airflow problem Answer: a. continuous positive airway pressure Correct. CPAP stands for continuous positive airway pressure. This is a device used to alleviate apnea. c. controlled pulmonary air pump Incorrect. CPAP stands for continuous positive airway pressure. This is a device used to alleviate apnea. 79. Which of these individuals has the highest risk for having sleep apnea? a. John, 62 years old, who is overweight b. Angela, 21 years old, who is depressed c. Alicia, 42 years old, who is suffering from anorexia d. Juan, 8 years old, who is experiencing episodes of enuresis Answer: a. John, 62 years old, who is overweight Correct. One of the key indicators of sleep apnea is being overweight. c. Alicia, 42 years old, who is suffering from anorexia Incorrect. Lack of weight does not seem to be related to apnea. 80. Sleep apnea is a disorder characterized by _________. a. difficulty falling or remaining asleep b. nodding off without warning in the middle of the day c. difficulty breathing while asleep d. experiencing temporary paralysis immediately after waking up from sleep Answer: c. difficulty breathing while asleep Correct. This description defines sleep apnea. b. nodding off without warning in the middle of the day Incorrect. This description defines narcolepsy and has nothing to do with apnea. 81. Surgery to which organ in the body may relieve symptoms of apnea? a. septum b. uvula c. olfactory membrane d. auditory canal Answer: b. uvula Correct. Uvula surgery can alleviate apnea. a. septum Incorrect. This will only make your nose look better. 82. Your friend has experienced excessive daytime sleepiness. He is laughing with you and suddenly falls to the ground. Your friend is probably suffering from ____________. a. narcolepsy b. parasomnia c. REM rebound d. sleep apnea Answer: a. narcolepsy Correct. Narcolepsy is characterized by sudden sleep. d. sleep apnea Incorrect. Sleep apnea is when you have breathing difficulties while sleeping. 83. You are telling a joke to your friend who is laughing uproariously and then suddenly collapses to the floor. You are not surprised to later learn that he has a sleep disorder known as ¬¬¬___________. a. enuresis b. narcolepsy c. sleep terror d. daytime insomnia Answer: b. narcolepsy Correct. Narcolepsy is characterized by sudden sleep. a. enuresis Incorrect. This is bed wetting. 84. Which of the following statements might help you determine if an individual has narcolepsy? a. “I have difficulty getting to sleep. ” b. “I don’t have an adverse reaction to sleeping pills. ” c. “I sometimes suddenly fall asleep in the middle of a conversation. ” d. “When I get up in the morning, I have the feeling that I had really bad nightmares. ” Answer: c. “I sometimes suddenly fall asleep in the middle of a conversation. ” Correct. Narcolepsy is characterized by sudden sleep. a. “I have difficulty getting to sleep. ” Incorrect. This describes insomnia. 85. Narcolepsy occurs when ______________. a. REM sleep intrudes into wakefulness b. NREM sleep intrudes into wakefulness c. inadequate sleep occurs over a period of weeks d. inadequate levels of stage 4 sleep cause neurological damage Answer: a. REM sleep intrudes into wakefulness Correct. Narcolepsy is characterized by REM intrusion. b. NREM sleep intrudes into wakefulness Incorrect. This is not the cause since there is a transition to this type of sleep. 86. Which of the following conditions would you least like the pilot flying your airplane to have? a. enuresis b. narcolepsy c. sleep terror d. daytime insomnia Answer: b. narcolepsy Correct. Narcolepsy is characterized by sudden sleep, which might cause the pilot to lose control of the plane. a. enuresis Incorrect. This is bed wetting and should not interfere with flying. 87. Freud believed that dreams ______________. a. stem from unconscious conflicts, memories, and desires b. are sexual perversions c. are reflections of consciousness d. are ways to solve problems Answer: a. stem from unconscious conflicts, memories, and desires Correct. Freud said dreams were the fulfillment of wishes. b. are sexual perversions Incorrect. Freud said dreams were the fulfillment of wishes. 88. What two categories of dream content did Sigmund Freud describe? a. poetic and realistic b. literal and symbolic c. latent and manifest d. delusional and hallucinatory Answer: c. latent and manifest Correct. Freud developed these categories of latent and manifest content. d. delusional and hallucinatory Incorrect. Freud did not think dreams were delusions or hallucinations. He thought they were symbolic. 89. Interpretation of the ________ content of a dream is expected to reveal the ________ content. a. latent; manifest b. manifest; latent c. manifest; sublimated d. metaphorical; denotative Answer: b. manifest; latent Correct. Freud developed these categories of latent and manifest content. a. latent; manifest Incorrect. Freud said latent was hidden interpretation and manifest was what was dreamed. 90. Manifest content is to latent content as ________. a. obvious is to symbolic b. wish is to fulfillment c. symbolic is to obvious d. unconscious is to conscious Answer: a. obvious is to symbolic Correct. Freud believed that the manifest content of the dream is what we actually see what we’re asleep, while the latent content of a dream refers to its underlying meaning. c. symbolic is to obvious Incorrect. This is the opposite of the correct answer. 91. According to Sigmund Freud, the important underlying meaning of our dreams is found in the ________. a. deep content b. latent content c. manifest content d. subliminal content Answer: b. latent content Correct. The definition of latent is “hidden. ” c. manifest content Incorrect. This would be the surface meaning. 92. A newspaper advertisement describes a book that offers interpretations of dreams. In attempting to tell readers the meaning of the symbols of their dreams, the author intends to describe the _________. a. deep content b. latent content c. manifest content d. subliminal content Answer: b. latent content Correct. The definition of latent is “hidden. ” c. manifest content Incorrect. This would be the surface meaning. 93. A client tells his therapist about a dream in which he drives his wife to the airport where she boards a plane. As the plane takes off, he is smiling. The therapist says the dream suggests a desire for a divorce. The therapist’s interpretation represents what Sigmund Freud called the dream’s __________. a. deep content b. latent content c. manifest content d. subliminal content Answer: b. latent content Correct. Latent (hidden) content refers to the meaning of the dream. c. manifest content Incorrect. Manifest content has to do with what actually happens in a dream, not with its meaning. 94. Sigmund Freud would agree with all of the following EXCEPT _______________. a. dreams represent the unconscious b. early memories could be found in dreams c. the key to analyzing a dream will be found in the latent content d. Freud never really believed that dreams represented the unconscious Answer: d. Freud never really believed that dreams represented the unconscious Correct. Freud would not agree with this statement since he felt strongly that dreams represented the unconscious. b. early memories could be found in dreams Incorrect. Freud believed early memories were contained in dreams. 95. According to Freud, the visible, or directly observable, content of a dream is its ________ content. a. primary b. manifest c. secondary d. latent Answer: b. manifest Correct. This content would be the surface meaning, that is, directly observable. d. latent Incorrect. The definition of latent is “hidden,” that is, not observable. 96. A client tells his therapist about a dream of riding on a train with his boss. At the end of the journey, the boss gets off the train at a terminal. The content of this dream, as related by the client to the therapist, is what Freud called its ______. a. primary content b. manifest content c. secondary content d. latent content Answer: b. manifest content Correct. This content would be the surface meaning. d. latent content Incorrect. The definition of latent is “hidden,” that is, not observable. 97. A client tells his therapist about a dream of riding on a train with his boss. At the end of the journey, the boss gets off the train at a terminal. The therapist suggests that the “terminal” in the dream indicates an unconscious desire by the client to “terminate” his boss. This desire to terminate the boss, if it exists, would reflect what Freud called the ________ content of the dream. a. primary b. manifest c. secondary d. latent Answer: d. latent Correct. The definition of latent is “hidden,” that is, not observable. b. manifest Incorrect. He was interpreting the meaning and this makes it latent. 98. The activation-synthesis hypothesis resulted from using ______________. a. EEGs on college students while they were sleeping b. drugs while sleeping c. a combination of laser technology and X-ray d. PET scans Answer: d. PET scans Correct. Researchers used PET scans and found lower brain stem activity was related to dreaming. a. EEGs on college students while they were sleeping Incorrect. Researchers used PET scans and found lower brain stem activity was related to dreaming. 99. According to the activation-synthesis theory of dreaming, the source of a dream is neuronal firing in the ________________. a. Broca’s area b. cortex c. pons d. optical lobe Answer: c. pons Correct. Activation-synthesis hypothesis suggests that dreams are the result of the cortex making sense of signals from the pons. b. cortex Incorrect. Activation-synthesis hypothesis suggests that dreams are the result of the cortex making sense of signals from the lower brain stem. 100. How does the activation-synthesis hypothesis explain dreaming? a. the surfacing of repressed sexual urges b. biological attempts to make recent memories more permanent c. the cortex making sense of signals from the brain stem d. the use of elaborate symbolism to disguise “unthinkable” topics Answer: c. the cortex making sense of signals from the brain stem Correct. The activation-synthesis hypothesis suggests that dreams are the result of the cortex making sense of signals from the brain stem. b. biological attempts to make recent memories more permanent Incorrect. Although biology is involved, there is no suggestion that memory will be more permanent. 101. The best adjectives associated with the activation-synthesis hypothesis are ______________. a. bizarre, meaningless, and random b. unconscious, symbolic, and meaningful c. meaningful, problem oriented, and historical d. intelligent, free, and neurotic Answer: a. bizarre, meaningless, and random Correct. Bizarre, meaningless, and random reflect the nature of the activation-synthesis hypothesis since dreams are totally the result of brain activity. b. unconscious, symbolic, and meaningful Incorrect. These adjectives would be associated with Freud’s theory. 102. The activation-synthesis hypothesis of dreaming states that _______________. a. the purpose of dreaming is to express unconscious wishes, thoughts, and conflicts b. dreams are merely another kind of thinking; dreams occur because of random brain stem signals c. the purpose of dreaming is to resolve current concerns and problems d. dreaming is a by-product of a process of eliminating or strengthening neural connections Answer: b. dreams are merely another kind of thinking; dreams occur because of random brain stem signals Correct. Activation-synthesis hypothesis suggests that dreams are the result of the cortex making sense of signals from the lower brain stem. a. the purpose of dreaming is to express unconscious wishes, thoughts, and conflicts Incorrect. This was Freud’s theory. 103. The activation-information-mode model suggests _______________. a. events that occur during waking hours may influence dreams b. nothing influences dreams c. the activation-synthesis hypothesis is all wrong d. dreams have more latent content than once thought Answer: a. events that occur during waking hours may influence dreams Correct. This model suggests that events that occur during waking hours may influence dreams. b. nothing influences dreams Incorrect. This model suggests that events that occur during waking hours may influence dreams. 104. Calvin Hall found that most dreams are about _________________. a. animals b. everyday life c. bizarre events d. strangers Answer: b. everyday life Correct. Hall examined over 10,000 dreams and found that most were about everyday life. c. bizarre events Incorrect. Hall examined over 10,000 dreams and found that most were about everyday life. 105. Which of the following statements is CORRECT concerning the concept of gender and dreams? a. Men and women typically dream about similar things. b. Men dream more each night than women. c. Research reports that men and women differ in the things they dream about. d. Women tend to dream twice as much as men. Answer: c. Research reports that men and women differ in the things they dream about. Correct. Studies show that men and women tend to dream about different things. a. Men and women typically dream about similar things. Incorrect. Research supports the idea that there are gender differences in dream content. 106. In comparing the dreams of men and women, researchers have found that generally ___________. a. there is no difference between them b. men dream more about home and family than women do c. women dream more often about strangers than men do d. Men’s dreams more often involve cars, weapons, tools, and sex Answer: d. Men’s dreams more often involve cars, weapons, tools, and sex Correct. Men’s dreams often involve cars, weapons, tools, and sex. c. women dream more often about strangers than men do Incorrect. Girls and women tend to dream about people they know. 107. Which of the following elements is NOT present during hypnotic induction? a. The person is told to hum quietly while being hypnotized. b. The person is told to relax and feel tired. c. The person is told to let go and accept suggestions. d. The person is told to focus on what is being said. Answer: a. The person is told to hum quietly while being hypnotized. Correct. This would distract the subject and interfere with hypnotic induction. b. The person is told to relax and feel tired. Incorrect. This is a key element in hypnotic induction. 108. The key to hypnotic induction seems to be related to ________________. a. the gender of the person doing the hypnotizing b. education c. state of suggestibility d. time of day Answer: c. state of suggestibility Correct. The key to hypnosis is the level of suggestibility of the person being hypnotized. a. the gender of the person doing the hypnotizing Incorrect. Gender of the hypnotist is unrelated to hypnotic induction. 109. Who among the following people might be a likely candidate for hypnosis? a. Anthony, a hyperactive 9-year-old boy b. Glenn, a 32-year-old man who opposes all suggestions directed at him c. Dan, a 40-year-old man who fantasizes frequently and owns a waterbed store d. Carrie, a 29-year-old woman who is a copy editor for a newspaper and unwilling to allow anyone to hypnotize her Answer: c. Dan, a 40-year-old man who fantasizes frequently and owns a waterbed store Correct. People who fantasize a lot are good subjects for hypnosis. d. Carrie, a 29-year-old woman who is a copy editor for a newspaper and unwilling to allow anyone to hypnotize her Incorrect. Willingness to be hypnotized is necessary for hypnosis to take place. 110. You are listening to a person who keeps telling you to relax, attempting to create a situation in which you are likely to follow suggestions. What treatment are you undergoing? a. psychotherapy b. reprogramming c. autosuggestion d. hypnosis Answer: d. hypnosis Correct. Hypnosis is a state of suggestibility and relaxation. a. psychotherapy Incorrect. Psychotherapy does not necessarily include relaxation or suggestions. 111. Which of the following statements is correct concerning hypnosis? a. The hypnotist is always in control. b. A hypnotized person is in an involuntary condition of suggestion. c. People will do things they would not ordinarily do when under hypnosis. d. A person who is under hypnosis is really in control of his or her behavior. Answer: d. A person who is under hypnosis is really in control of his or her behavior. Correct. People who are hypnotized are in control of their actions. a. The hypnotist is always in control. Incorrect. Actually, the person under hypnosis is the one really in control. 112. Which of the following statements is correct concerning what hypnosis can do? a. Hypnosis can create amnesia. b. Hypnosis can give a person superhuman strength. c. Hypnosis can improve intelligence. d. Hypnosis can improve memory. Answer: a. Hypnosis can create amnesia. Correct. Hypnosis has been shown to create amnesia for short periods of time. b. Hypnosis can give a person superhuman strength. Incorrect. Hypnosis cannot give a person superhuman strength. 113. Which of the following statements is correct concerning what hypnosis can NOT do? a. Hypnosis cannot create amnesia. b. Hypnosis cannot give a person superhuman strength. c. Hypnosis cannot relieve pain. d. Hypnosis cannot improve memory. Answer: b. Hypnosis cannot give a person superhuman strength. Correct. Hypnosis cannot give a person superhuman strength. a. Hypnosis cannot create amnesia. Incorrect. Hypnosis has been shown to create amnesia for short periods of time. 114. Which of the following statements is correct concerning what hypnosis can NOT do? a. Hypnosis cannot create amnesia. b. Hypnosis cannot regress people back to childhood. c. Hypnosis cannot alter sensory perceptions. d. Hypnosis cannot improve memory. Answer: b. Hypnosis cannot regress people back to childhood. Correct. Hypnosis cannot regress people back to childhood. a. Hypnosis cannot create amnesia. Incorrect. Hypnosis has been shown to create amnesia for short periods of time. 115. Which of the following people will be helped by hypnosis? a. Jeff, who would like to run faster. b. Celia, who wants a better memory. c. Kiesha, who wants to remember what happened to her when she was 4 years old. d. Carlos, who wants to stop thinking about his foot pain. Answer: d. Carlos, who wants to stop thinking about his foot pain. Correct. Hypnosis has been shown to relieve pain. b. Celia, who wants a better memory. Incorrect. Hypnosis cannot reliably enhance accuracy of memory. 116. How does Ernest Hilgard explain pain reduction through hypnosis? a. Hypnosis increases dopamine levels in the body. b. People merely play the role of the hypnotized person and attempt to ignore the pain. c. Hypnotized individuals dissociate the experience so part of the mind is unaware of the pain. d. Hypnosis results in an altered state of consciousness that alters brain waves in regions of the brain responsible for the perception of pain. Answer: c. Hypnotized individuals dissociate the experience so part of the mind is unaware of the pain. Correct. Hilgard believed that we make this dissociation when we are hypnotized. b. People merely play the role of the hypnotized person and attempt to ignore the pain. Incorrect. Hilgard did not believe this and there is no evidence that it happens. 117. How does Ernest Hilgard explain hypnosis? a. Hypnosis increases dopamine levels in the body. b. People merely fake being hypnotized. c. Hypnotized individuals dissociate the conscious mind into an “immediate” part and a “hidden observer” part. d. Hypnosis results in an altered state of consciousness that alters brain waves in regions of the brain. Answer: c. Hypnotized individuals dissociate the conscious mind into an “immediate” part and a “hidden observer” part. Correct. Hilgard believed that we make this dissociation when we are hypnotized. d. Hypnosis results in an altered state of consciousness that alters brain waves in regions of the brain. Incorrect. Hilgard did not believe this and there is no evidence that it happens. 118. The idea of a “hidden observer” part of the mind was suggested by __________________. a. Freud b. Watson c. Hilgard d. Kirsch Answer: c. Hilgard Correct. Hilgard developed the “hidden observer” idea. a. Freud Incorrect. Although Freud used hypnosis, he did not suggest there was a “hidden observer. ” 119. You meet a psychologist who says she views hypnosis from the social-cognitive perspective. Which of the following is the best description of what her view of hypnosis would be? a. There is no hypnotized person role; hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness. b. There is no hypnotized person role; hypnosis is not an altered state of consciousness. c. People play the role of a hypnotized person; hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness. d. People play the role of a hypnotized person; hypnosis is not an altered state of consciousness. Answer: d. People play the role of a hypnotized person; hypnosis is not an altered state of consciousness. Correct. The social-cognitive view suggests we play a role. c. People play the role of a hypnotized person; hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness. Incorrect. Although this position says we play a role, it also says there is no altered state. 120. Social-cognitive theory of hypnosis suggests that _______________. a. hypnosis increases dopamine levels in the body b. people merely are playing a role c. hypnotized individuals dissociate the conscious mind into an “immediate” part and a “hidden observer” part d. hypnosis results in an altered state of consciousness that alters brain waves in regions of the brain Answer: b. people merely are playing a role Correct. The social-cognitive view suggests we play a role. c. hypnotized individuals dissociate the conscious mind into an “immediate” part and a “hidden observer” part Incorrect. This is the view of Hilgard who was not a social-cognitive psychologist. 121. Psychoactive drugs are ________________. a. drugs that speed up activity in the central nervous system b. drugs capable of influencing thinking, perception, and memory. c. drugs that slow down activity in the central nervous system d. drugs derived from the opium poppy that relieve pain and produce euphoria Answer: b. drugs capable of influencing thinking, perception, and memory. Correct. Chemicals that can alter thinking, perception, and memory are called psychoactive. c. drugs that slow down activity in the central nervous system Incorrect. Psychoactive drugs do not necessarily slow down the CNS. They alter perception. 122. Chemicals that can alter thinking, perception, and memory are called ___________. a. legal drugs b. illegal drugs c. hallucinogens d. psychoactive drugs Answer: d. psychoactive drugs Correct. Chemicals that can alter thinking, perception, and memory are called psychoactive. b. illegal drugs Incorrect. Most psychoactive drugs are not illegal. 123. The two most important symptoms of substance dependence are: a. tolerance and failing to attend important occasions due substance use. b. withdrawal and substance abuse. c. tolerance and withdrawal. d. intolerance of most anything and withdrawal. Answer: c. tolerance and withdrawal. Correct. These two physiological symptoms indicate that a problem has gone beyond substance abuse and enter the realm of substance dependence. a. tolerance and failing to attend important occasions due substance use. Incorrect. These are both symptoms of substance dependence, but the second most important substance that accompanies tolerance is withdrawal. 124. Russell needs more of the drug he has been using to get the normal high he got when he first started. Russell is experiencing _______________. a. drug tolerance b. drug detoxification c. withdrawal d. overdrawal Answer: a. drug tolerance Correct. The phenomenon of needing more and more of a drug as time goes on is called drug tolerance. c. withdrawal Incorrect. Withdrawal occurs when you stop getting the drug you have been using. 125. After taking a drug for several years, Bruce decides to quit taking the drug. He begins to experience a variety of physical symptoms, psychological symptoms such as irritability, and a strong craving for the substance. What term is used to describe what Bruce is experiencing? a. tolerance b. physical dependence c. withdrawal d. drug intoxication Answer: c. withdrawal Correct. Withdrawal occurs when one stops using a drug and is characterized by irritability, nausea, and other symptoms. a. tolerance Incorrect. Drug tolerance occurs when, over time, one needs more and more of a drug to get high. 126. Which of the following indicators reflects the possibility of physical dependence? a. obsessing about a drug b. getting caught with a drug c. abusing a drug d. drug tolerance Answer: d. drug tolerance Correct. Tolerance is one indicator of physical dependence. c. abusing a drug Incorrect. Abuse is defined by overuse, not necessarily physical dependence. 127. The need to take a drug in order to avoid withdrawal symptoms is called _________. a. a craving b. tolerance c. obsessive compulsion d. physical dependence Answer: d. physical dependence Correct. Withdrawal is an indicator of physical dependence. b. tolerance Incorrect. Tolerance is defined as needing more and more of a drug over time to achieve a high. 128. Selma notices that as her supply of marijuana decreases she starts thinking more and more about where she can get another supply as well as feeling nervous and anxious. This is an example of ____________. a. withdrawal b. tolerance c. physiological dependence d. psychological dependence Answer: d. psychological dependence Correct. She is thinking and feeling things about his drug. These are psychological issues. c. physiological dependence Incorrect. Physical dependence causes physical symptoms. 129. Drugs that speed up the functioning of the nervous system are called _____________. a. stimulants b. depressants c. narcotics d. psychogenics Answer: a. stimulants Correct. Stimulants speed up the processes of the nervous system. c. narcotics Incorrect. Narcotics slow down the nervous system. 130. Benzedrine, methedrine, and dexedrine are all ________________. a. narcotics b. depressants c. illegal d. amphetamines Answer: d. amphetamines Correct. All three are members of the amphetamine family of drugs. c. illegal Incorrect. Dexedrine is not illegal and often prescribed in diet pills. 131. When amphetamines are abused, the resulting effects may include ______________. a. loss of appetite, nausea, high blood pressure, and vomiting b. increased appetite, sleepiness, and euphoria c. heart disease, high blood pressure, impaired circulation, and erectile problems in men d. restlessness, insomnia, muscle tension, heartbeat irregularities, and high blood pressure Answer: a. loss of appetite, nausea, high blood pressure, and vomiting Correct. Amphetamines cause nausea, high blood pressure, and vomiting. b. increased appetite, sleepiness, and euphoria Incorrect. Amphetamines rarely increase appetite. 132. Which of the following statements is true concerning cocaine use in the United States? a. During the Civil War, many Confederate soldiers bought cocaine from Union soldiers. b. At one time, cocaine was an ingredient in Coca-Cola. c. Cocaine was used by early Greek philosophers. d. One of the powerful addictive ingredients in cocaine is heroin. Answer: b. At one time, cocaine was an ingredient in Coca-Cola. Correct. During the early twentieth century, cocaine was an ingredient in Coca-Cola. d. One of the powerful addictive ingredients in cocaine is heroin. Incorrect. Heroin is not found in cocaine. 133. All of the following are signs of physical dependence related to cocaine EXCEPT __________. a. compulsivity b. loss of control c. disregard for consequences of use d. obsessing about where to buy it Answer: d. obsessing about where to buy it Correct. Obsessing is a symptom of psychological dependence. b. loss of control Incorrect. Loss of control is a symptom of physical dependence. 134. If Frank is using a drug that causes addiction in nearly 75% of those who use it, he is probably ingesting a. MDMA b. heroin c. crack d. LSD Answer: c. crack Correct. Experts estimate that crack cocaine hooks three-fourths of those who try it. . d. LSD Incorrect. The rates of addiction to LSD are not noted in your textbook. 135. Nicotine is a ______________. a. stimulant b. depressant c. narcotic d. psychogenic drug Answer: a. stimulant Correct. Nicotine causes your CNS (central nervous system) to increase firing. b. depressant Incorrect. Nicotine is just the opposite. 136. Tommy desperately wants to quit smoking. Which method has been shown to be the most effective one Tommy can use? a. cold turkey method b. alcohol replacement method c. nicotine gum method d. delayed smoking method Answer: d. delayed smoking method Correct. This method entails waiting a little longer before the first cigarette of the day and it has been shown to be effective at helping people quit. c. nicotine gum method Incorrect. Nicotine is still present. 137. Caffeine is a _______________. a. stimulant b. depressant c. narcotic d. psychogenic drug Answer: a. stimulant Correct. Caffeine causes the central nervous system to increase activity. c. narcotic Incorrect. Narcotics are depressants and also are controlled substances. 138. One major danger of barbiturates is ________________. a. overstimulation b. hyperactivity c. drug interaction d. sleepwalking Answer: c. drug interaction Correct. Using barbiturates with another drug such as alcohol has an often deadly consequence. a. overstimulation Incorrect. Barbiturates are major depressants. 139. A person will often take a barbiturate as a ________. a. sleep aid b. vitamin supplement c. means of increasing behavioral arousal d. treatment for alcoholism Answer: a. sleep aid Correct. Though it is dangerous to do so, due to the risk of dependence, many people use barbiturates for their sedative effects. b. vitamin supplement Incorrect. Barbiturates have no value in terms of supplementing vitamin intake. 140. Which of the following is classified as a depressant? a. cocaine b. alcohol c. heroin d. marijuana Answer: b. alcohol Correct. Alcohol is a depressant. c. heroin Incorrect. Heroin is a narcotic. 141. Jane is experiencing loss of equilibrium, decreased sensory and motor capabilities, and double vision. How many drinks is Jane likely to have had? a. 1–2 b. 3–5 c. 6–7 d. 8–10 Answer: d. 8–10 Correct. Eight to ten drinks will cause loss of equilibrium, decreased sensory and motor capabilities, and double vision. c. 6–7 Incorrect. Jane needs more drinks than 6–7 for those symptoms. 142. Which of the following neurotransmitters are associated with alcohol? a. GABA b. acetylcholine c. endorphins d. adrenaline Answer: a. GABA Correct. GABA is released in the brain as one drinks alcohol. c. endorphins Incorrect. There are no associations with alcohol and endorphins. 143. Drugs derived from opium are called __________________. a. stimulants b. depressants c. narcotics d. psychogenic Answer: c. narcotics Correct. Narcotics are a class of drugs that suppress pain and stimulate receptor sites for endorphins. b. depressants Incorrect. Depressants are made from many different materials and chemicals. 144. Morphine, heroin, and methadone _______________. a. are stimulants b. are derived from opium c. are often used to treat ADHD d. increase the action of the central nervous system Answer: b. are derived from opium Correct. All these drugs have the same roots. c. are often used to treat ADHD Incorrect. These drugs would never be used to treat ADHD. 145. Morphine and heroin duplicate the action of ____________. a. endorphins b. alcohol c. cigarettes d. LSD Answer: a. endorphins Correct. They help the brain deal with pain. b. alcohol Incorrect. Alcohol works a different way. 146. Heroin addiction has been treated with _____________. a. morphine b. LSD c. methadone d. amphetamines Answer: c. methadone Correct. Methadone is a cheaper version and will help the addicted person to stop using heroin. a. morphine Incorrect. Morphine is more addictive and expensive than heroin. 147. LSD is similar to which of the following drugs? a. MDMA b. methadone c. PCP d. CHT Answer: c. PCP Correct. Both LSD and PCP mimic the action of neurotransmitters. a. MDMA Incorrect. MDMA is not a neurotransmitter mimic. 148. Mescaline comes from ____________. a. weeds b. cactus buttons c. a poppy plant d. a virus Answer: b. cactus buttons Correct. Mescaline is made from buttons on the peyote cactus. a. weeds Incorrect. Mescaline does not come from weeds but rather from a cactus. 149. Which of the following pairs belong together? a. LSD; tetrahydrocannabinol b. marijuana; psilocybin c. MDMA; acetylcholine d. marijuana; tetrahydrocannabinol Answer: d. marijuana; tetrahydrocannabinol Correct. THC is the active ingredient in marijuana. c. MDMA; acetylcholine Incorrect. MDMA is ecstasy and acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that is not associated with it. 150. Which statement is correct concerning marijuana? a. There is evidence that marijuana is physically addictive. b. There is evidence that marijuana is psychologically addictive. c. There is evidence that marijuana causes cancer. d. Marijuana usage can lead to psychological dependence. Answer: d. Marijuana usage can lead to psychological dependence. Correct. There are studies that have shown that marijuana use can lead to powerful psychological dependence. a. There is evidence that marijuana is physically addictive. Incorrect. There is no evidence that marijuana is physically addictive. 151. Louisa has just drifted off to sleep on the sofa, and is almost immediately awakened by her mother who urges her to go to bed. Louisa insists that she was not sleeping, but is now terrified by the ghost that she is sure she has seen. Louisa is probably experiencing a(n): a. hypnogogic hallucination b. hypnic jerk c. hypnopompic illusion d. nightmare Answer: a. hypnogogic hallucination Correct. Images that we experience as being very real just as we fall asleep are called hypnogogic hallucinations. d. nightmare Incorrect. Because a nightmare is a dream, it would have to occur in REM sleep. It is unlikely that Louisa would experience REM sleep immediately after drifting off. 152. What is the primary difference between a hypnogogic and hypnopompic hallucination? a. Hypnogogic hallucinations occur just after we’ve fallen asleep, while hypnopompic hallucinations occur between REM-sleep and waking up. b. Hypnogogic hallucinations occur in REM sleep, while hypnopompic hallucinations occur in NREM sleep. c. Hypnogogic hallucinations occur in NREM sleep, while hypnopompic hallucinations occur in REM sleep. d. Hypnopompic hallucinations occur just after we’ve fallen asleep, while hypnogogic hallucinations occur between REM-sleep and waking up. Answer: a. Hypnogogic hallucinations occur just after we’ve fallen asleep, while hypnopompic hallucinations occur between REM-sleep and waking up. Correct. When we experience very realistic images in our consciousness after a REM stage and before we’re awake, it is a hypnopompic hallucination. d. Hypnopompic hallucinations occur just after we’ve fallen asleep, while hypnogogic hallucinations occur between REM-sleep and waking up. Incorrect. This is the opposite of the correct answer. TRUE OR FALSE 1. Consciousness is the key difference between humans and lower animals. Answer: True Rationale: Consciousness, including self-awareness, introspection, and subjective experiences, is considered a defining characteristic of human cognition. While some animals exhibit behaviors suggestive of consciousness, the level and complexity of human consciousness are thought to be distinct. 2. We spend about one-fifth of our lives in sleep. Answer: False Rationale: On average, humans spend about one-third of their lives sleeping, not one-fifth. This proportion varies depending on individual sleep patterns and habits but typically amounts to approximately eight hours of sleep per night. 3. There have been cases in which sleepwalking was a successful murder defense. Answer: True Rationale: There have been documented cases where individuals have successfully used sleepwalking as a defense in criminal trials, although such cases are rare. Sleepwalking, also known as somnambulism, is a parasomnia characterized by complex behaviors performed during sleep, often without the individual's awareness or memory. 4. Neither nightmares nor night terrors are evidence of psychological problems. Answer: True Rationale: Nightmares and night terrors are common experiences during sleep and do not necessarily indicate underlying psychological problems. Nightmares are vivid and disturbing dreams that can cause fear or anxiety upon waking, while night terrors are episodes of intense fear or agitation during sleep, often accompanied by screaming or thrashing. While these experiences can be distressing, they are not always indicative of psychological disorders and are often considered normal variations of sleep. 5. Most sleepwalking occurs during REM sleep. Answer: False Rationale: Sleepwalking typically occurs during non-REM (NREM) sleep, particularly during the deeper stages of NREM sleep. REM sleep is associated with vivid dreaming and muscle atonia (loss of muscle tone), which usually prevents complex motor behaviors like sleepwalking. 6. A sleep disorder characterized by difficulty in falling asleep or remaining asleep throughout the night is called sleep apnea. Answer: False Rationale: Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or shallow breaths during sleep, leading to disrupted sleep patterns and daytime fatigue. Difficulty in falling asleep or staying asleep throughout the night is characteristic of insomnia, not sleep apnea. 7. To treat your sleep problem you are told that you should not nap, you should set your alarm clock to wake up at the same time each day, and you should get out of bed if you cannot sleep. You have insomnia. Answer: True Rationale: The described treatment recommendations, such as avoiding napping, maintaining a consistent wake-up time, and getting out of bed if unable to sleep, are common strategies for managing insomnia. Insomnia is a sleep disorder characterized by difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or experiencing non-restorative sleep, often resulting in daytime impairment. 8. Sigmund Freud was interested in how dreams affected the stages of sleep. Answer: False Rationale: Sigmund Freud was primarily interested in the interpretation of dreams as manifestations of unconscious desires and conflicts, rather than their effects on the stages of sleep. Freud's psychoanalytic theory posited that dreams serve as symbolic expressions of unconscious wishes, fears, and repressed thoughts. 9. Sigmund Freud said that the key to analyzing a dream will be found in the manifest content. Answer: False Rationale: Sigmund Freud distinguished between manifest content (the literal elements and events of a dream) and latent content (the underlying symbolic meaning of a dream). According to Freudian theory, the key to analyzing a dream lies in uncovering its latent content, which represents unconscious wishes, conflicts, or desires. 10. The idea of a “hidden observer” part of the mind was suggested by Ernest Hilgard. Answer: True Rationale: Ernest Hilgard, a prominent psychologist known for his work on hypnosis and dissociation, proposed the concept of the "hidden observer" as part of his theory of dissociation. According to Hilgard, during hypnosis, a dissociated part of the mind, the "hidden observer," remains aware of events and experiences even as other aspects of consciousness are altered or focused elsewhere. 11. Russell needs more of the drug he has been using to get the normal high he used to get when he first started. Russell is experiencing flashbacks. Answer: False Rationale: Russell's need for increasing doses of a drug to achieve the same effect he experienced initially is indicative of tolerance, not flashbacks. Tolerance occurs when the body becomes accustomed to the drug's presence and requires higher doses to achieve the desired effect. Flashbacks, on the other hand, are recurrent and intrusive recollections of past drug experiences that occur during periods of sobriety, often associated with hallucinogenic drugs like LSD or psilocybin. 12. Nicotine is a stimulant. Answer: True Rationale: Nicotine, found in tobacco products such as cigarettes, cigars, and e-cigarettes, is a potent stimulant drug that acts on the central nervous system. It increases alertness, attention, and arousal while also elevating heart rate and blood pressure. These effects contribute to the addictive properties of nicotine and its widespread use in tobacco products. 13. Mescaline is made from cactus buttons. Answer: True Rationale: Mescaline is a naturally occurring hallucinogenic alkaloid found in certain species of cacti, particularly the Peyote cactus (Lophophora williamsii) and the San Pedro cactus (Echinopsis pachanoi). Mescaline is derived from the small, button-shaped structures (also known as "cactus buttons") found on these cacti. It is known for its hallucinogenic effects, altering perception, mood, and consciousness when ingested. 14. Marijuana and alcohol both cause physical and psychological dependence. Answer: False Rationale: While both marijuana and alcohol can lead to psychological dependence, characterized by cravings and compulsive drug-seeking behavior, only alcohol causes significant physical dependence. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome, characterized by symptoms such as tremors, sweating, nausea, and seizures, can occur in individuals with alcohol dependence who abruptly stop or reduce their alcohol consumption. Marijuana withdrawal, in contrast, is generally less severe and primarily involves psychological symptoms such as irritability, insomnia, and anxiety. SHORT ANSWER 1. What does it mean to be conscious? Answer: Consciousness refers to the state of awareness of oneself and the surrounding environment, including perceptions, thoughts, sensations, and feelings. It involves the ability to process information, make decisions, and experience subjective phenomena. 2. Why do people sleep? Answer: Sleep serves several vital functions for the body and mind. It helps in physical restoration, allowing tissues to repair and muscles to grow. Sleep also plays a crucial role in cognitive processes such as memory consolidation and learning. Additionally, it helps regulate mood, metabolism, and immune function. 3. What happens in stage 4 sleep? Answer: Stage 4 sleep, also known as delta or slow-wave sleep, is characterized by deep sleep. During this stage, brain waves slow down significantly, and the body experiences minimal movement. Stage 4 sleep is essential for physical rest and recovery, as well as for promoting overall well-being. It is particularly associated with the secretion of growth hormone, which is crucial for growth and development, especially in children and adolescents. 4. What is REM behavior disorder? Answer: REM behavior disorder (RBD) is a sleep disorder characterized by the absence of normal paralysis during REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, resulting in individuals acting out their dreams physically. 5. Describe the symptoms of insomnia. Answer: Insomnia is characterized by difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or both. Symptoms include difficulty initiating sleep, waking up frequently during the night, waking up too early in the morning, and experiencing non-restorative sleep. 6. Describe the concept of manifest content. Answer: Manifest content refers to the literal content or storyline of dreams as recalled by the dreamer. It represents the surface-level content of dreams, including events, actions, people, and objects experienced during dreaming. 7. How does the activation-synthesis hypothesis work? Answer: The activation-synthesis hypothesis suggests that dreams are a result of random neural activity in the brainstem during REM sleep. According to this theory, the brain attempts to make sense of this random activity by synthesizing it into coherent narratives, leading to the experience of dreaming. 8. What does it mean to be hypnotized? Answer: Being hypnotized involves entering a trance-like state of focused attention, heightened suggestibility, and deep relaxation. In this state, individuals may be more open to suggestions and may experience alterations in perception, memory, and behavior. 9. Describe some dangers associated with stimulants. Answer: Stimulants, such as amphetamines and cocaine, can lead to various health risks and dangers. These include increased heart rate and blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, heart attacks, strokes, seizures, paranoia, anxiety, insomnia, and addiction. Long-term use can also result in tolerance, dependence, and severe withdrawal symptoms. 10. What are the key reasons that narcotics are so addictive? Answer: Narcotics, such as heroin and prescription opioids, are highly addictive due to their ability to produce intense euphoria and relieve pain by binding to opioid receptors in the brain. Continued use leads to tolerance, requiring higher doses to achieve the same effect, and physical dependence, causing withdrawal symptoms upon cessation. Additionally, the reinforcing nature of the drug's effects contributes to addiction, as individuals may compulsively seek and use narcotics despite negative consequences. ESSAY 1. If you were a behaviorist, would you agree with the idea that consciousness is an area of serious psychological research? Please explain why you agree or disagree. Answer: As a behaviorist, I might hold the view that consciousness is not directly observable and therefore not suitable for scientific inquiry within the framework of behaviorism. Behaviorism typically focuses on observable behavior and the environmental factors that influence it, rather than subjective experiences like consciousness. However, I would still acknowledge that consciousness is an area of serious psychological research, as it is a central aspect of human experience and plays a crucial role in influencing behavior. While behaviorism may not directly study consciousness, other psychological approaches, such as cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and phenomenology, do investigate consciousness and its various aspects. Therefore, while behaviorism may not prioritize the study of consciousness, I would recognize its importance and legitimacy as a topic of inquiry within psychology. 2. List and describe the different stages of sleep. What position do you hold regarding the purpose of sleep and its stages? Answer: There are typically five stages of sleep: 1. Stage 1: This is the transition stage between wakefulness and sleep. Brain waves begin to slow down, and muscle activity decreases. It is a light sleep stage. 2. Stage 2: Characterized by a further decrease in muscle activity and the onset of specific sleep spindles and K-complexes in brain wave activity. 3. Stage 3: Deep sleep begins in this stage, marked by the appearance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) or delta waves in brain activity. 4. Stage 4: Also part of deep sleep, this stage is characterized by an increase in delta wave activity. 5. REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep: REM sleep is associated with rapid eye movements, increased brain activity resembling wakefulness, and vivid dreaming. Regarding the purpose of sleep and its stages, I believe that sleep serves multiple functions, including physical restoration, memory consolidation, and emotional regulation. Each stage of sleep likely contributes to these functions in different ways, with REM sleep being particularly important for cognitive processes such as memory consolidation and emotional processing. 3. Compare and contrast two theories of dreams. Which one do you believe makes more sense and why? What is your theory of dreams? Answer: Two prominent theories of dreams are the Freudian psychoanalytic theory and the activation-synthesis theory: Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory: Freud proposed that dreams are a reflection of unconscious desires, conflicts, and motivations. Dreams serve as a means of wish fulfillment and provide a disguised outlet for repressed impulses. Activation-Synthesis Theory: This theory suggests that dreams result from the brain's attempts to make sense of random neural activity during REM sleep. The brain synthesizes these random signals into coherent narratives, creating the content of dreams. While both theories offer insights into the nature of dreams, I find the activation-synthesis theory to be more compelling. It aligns well with empirical evidence regarding brain activity during sleep and does not rely on unfalsifiable concepts such as unconscious desires. The activation-synthesis theory also accounts for the randomness and bizarreness often observed in dreams. As for my theory of dreams, I lean towards a combination of the activation-synthesis theory and the cognitive theory of dreams. I believe that dreams result from the brain's attempts to process and consolidate information from waking experiences, as well as from spontaneous neural activity during sleep. Dreams may serve adaptive functions such as memory consolidation, problem-solving, and emotional regulation. 4. What are the main differences between physical dependence and psychological dependence? Give examples of both types of dependence. Answer: Physical Dependence: Physical dependence involves the body's adaptation to a substance, leading to withdrawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued. Examples include: Opioid dependence: Withdrawal symptoms such as nausea, muscle aches, and sweating when opioids are stopped after prolonged use. Nicotine dependence: Withdrawal symptoms such as irritability, anxiety, and cravings when quitting smoking. Psychological Dependence: Psychological dependence involves a reliance on a substance for emotional or psychological well-being, without necessarily experiencing physical withdrawal symptoms. Examples include: Cannabis dependence: Continued use of marijuana to cope with stress or anxiety, despite negative consequences. Gambling addiction: Compulsive gambling behavior driven by the need for excitement or to escape negative emotions, without physical withdrawal symptoms. The main difference between physical and psychological dependence lies in the presence or absence of physical withdrawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued. Physical dependence involves physiological changes in the body, while psychological dependence revolves around emotional and behavioral factors. 5. Should marijuana be legalized? What are the pros and cons of this issue? Include research cited in your text to support your position. Answer: Pros of Legalization: Medical Benefits: Research suggests that marijuana has potential medical benefits, including pain relief, management of certain medical conditions (e. g. , epilepsy, chronic pain), and alleviation of symptoms associated with chemotherapy. Economic Opportunities: Legalization can create new industries, generate tax revenue, and reduce law enforcement costs associated with prohibition. Reduced Crime: Legalization may lead to a decrease in drug-related crime and violence associated with illegal drug markets. Cons of Legalization: Health Risks: Marijuana use has been linked to adverse health effects, including respiratory issues, cognitive impairment (especially in adolescents), and addiction. Safety Concerns: Driving under the influence of marijuana can impair cognitive and motor functions, leading to an increased risk of accidents. Potential for Abuse: Legalization may lead to increased accessibility and normalization of marijuana use, potentially contributing to higher rates of misuse and addiction. Research supports both the potential benefits and risks of marijuana legalization. Studies have shown evidence of its therapeutic effects, but also highlight the importance of regulation and education to mitigate potential negative consequences. Ultimately, the decision to legalize marijuana should consider a careful weighing of these factors and implementation of effective policies to maximize benefits while minimizing harms. Chapter 4 - Quick Quiz 1 1. Our awareness of various mental processes, such as making decisions, daydreaming, reflecting, and concentrating, is called ______. a) consciousness b) creativity c) intelligence d) self-awareness Answer: a Explanation: Consciousness is defined as awareness. 2. All of the following result from sleep deprivation EXCEPT ________________. a) droopy eyelids b) irritability c) hyperalertness d) cognitive impairment Answer: c Explanation: This is not listed as a symptom of sleep deprivation. 3. Sleep spindles appear during ______ sleep. a) stage 1 b) REM c) stage 2 d) stage 4 Answer: c Explanation: Spindles occur during stage 2. 4. Each of the following is a sleep disorder EXCEPT ______. a) narcolepsy b) REM rebound c) insomnia d) night terrors Answer: b Explanation: REM rebound is related to lack of dreaming. 5. Sleepwalking occurs _________. a) primarily during REM sleep b) primarily during NREM Stage 4 sleep c) equally as often in REM and NREM sleep d) only in REM sleep Answer: b Explanation: This event occurs in stage 4, which is NREM sleep. 6. A sleep disorder that may require the use of a machine to force air gently into the nasal passages is called ________________. a) sleep apnea b) insomnia c) narcolepsy d) cataplexy Answer: a Explanation: Sleep apnea occurs when one stops breathing. 7. The key to hypnotic induction seems to be related to ________________. a) the gender of the person doing the hypnotizing b) education c) state of suggestibility d) time of day Answer: c Explanation: The key to hypnosis is the level of suggestibility of the person being hypnotized. 8. Russell needs more of the drug he has been using to get the normal high he got when he first started. Russell is experiencing _______________. a) drug tolerance b) drug detoxification c) withdrawal d) overdrawal Answer: a Explanation: The phenomenon of needing more and more of a drug as time goes on is called drug tolerance. 9. Morphine and heroin duplicate the action of ____________. a) endorphins b) alcohol c) cigarettes d) LSD Answer: a Explanation: Endorphins help the brain deal with pain. 10. Mescaline comes from ____________. a) weeds b) cactus buttons c) a poppy plant d) a virus Answer: b Explanation: Mescaline is made from buttons on the peyote cactus. Chapter 4 - Quick Quiz 2 1. Mental activities that differ noticeably from normal waking consciousness are known as ______. a) hyperconsciousness b) unconscious states c) relaxed wakefulness d) altered states of consciousness Answer: d Explanation: Altered states differ noticeably from normal waking consciousness. 2. Melatonin is a _______________. a) hormone b) sleeping pill c) depressant d) stimulant Answer: a Explanation: Melatonin is a hormone. 3. This early researcher did a study that seemed to suggest that people deprived of REM sleep would become paranoid, seemingly mentally ill, from lack of this one stage of sleep. a) Freud b) Dement c) Jung d) James Answer: b Explanation: Dement did this study. 4. Your friend has experienced excessive daytime sleepiness. He is laughing with you and suddenly falls to the ground. Your friend is probably suffering from ____________. a) narcolepsy b) parasomnia c) REM rebound d) sleep apnea Answer: a Explanation: Narcolepsy is characterized by sudden sleep. 5. Interpretation of the ________ content of a dream is expected to reveal the ________ content. a) latent; manifest b) manifest; latent c) manifest; sublimated d) metaphorical; denotative Answer: b Explanation: Freud developed these categories of latent and manifest content. 6. Which of the following statements is true concerning cocaine use in the United States? a) During the Civil War, many Confederate soldiers bought cocaine from Union soldiers. b) At one time, cocaine was an ingredient in Coca-Cola. c) Cocaine was used by early Greek philosophers. d) One of the powerful addictive ingredients in cocaine is heroin. Answer: b Explanation: During the early twentieth century, cocaine was an ingredient in Coca-Cola 7. One major danger of barbiturates is ________________. a) overstimulation b) hyperactivity c) drug interaction d) sleepwalking Answer: c Explanation: Using barbiturates with another drug such as alcohol has an often deadly consequence. 8. Which of the following neurotransmitters are associated with alcohol? a) GABA b) acetylcholine c) endorphins d) adrenalin Answer: a Explanation: GABA is released in the brain as one drinks alcohol. 9. Heroin addiction has been treated with _____________. a) morphine b) LSD c) methadone d) amphetamines Answer: c Explanation: Methadone is a cheaper version and will help the addicted person to stop using heroin. 10. Which of the following pairs belong together? a) LSD; tetrahydrocannabinol b) marijuana; psilocybin c) MDMA; acetylcholine d) marijuana; tetrahydrocannabinol Answer: d Explanation: THC is the active ingredient in marijuana. Test Bank for Psychology: Dsm 5 Saundra K. Ciccarelli, J. Noland White 9780205986378

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