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12 Social Psychology
1. Social psychology is the scientific study of how a person’s behavior, thoughts, and feelings
are influenced by _______.
a. cognition
b. mental processes
c. the real, imagined, or implied presence of others
d. psychology
Answer: c. the real, imagined, or implied presence of others
Correct. Social psychology is the scientific study of how a person’s behavior, thoughts, and
feelings are influenced by a group.
d. psychology
Incorrect. Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes; social
psychology is a separate field that focuses on an individual within the social world.
2. Social psychology differs from psychology in its focus on ______.
a. people’s susceptibility to clever advertising
b. the influences of the social world in which we exist
c. abnormal behavior
d. conformity
Answer: b. the influences of the social world in which we exist
Correct. Social psychology differs from psychology in its focus on the way we are influenced
by others around us and the way we, in turn, influence others.
d. conformity
Incorrect. Conformity is one aspect of social psychology, but social psychology’s main
distinction from psychology is its focus on the individual within a group.
3. “Look! Up in the sky! It’s a bird. It’s a plane. It’s Superman!” If you looked up, would you
be conforming?
a. Yes. You would be looking up because you were told to do so.
b. No. Conformity requires that you base your behavior on what other people are doing, not
being told to do so.
c. Yes. Conformity means doing what you are told or else.
d. No. Looking up only means you are curious.
Answer: b. No. Conformity requires that you base your behavior on what other people are
doing, not being told to do so.

Correct. Conformity requires that you base your behavior on what other people are doing, not
being told what to do.
a. Yes. You would be looking up because you were told to do so.
Incorrect. Looking up because you are being told to look up is more like compliance. You
have to look up because everyone else is if it is to be considered conformity.
4. Which of the following is NOT a form of social influence?
a. conformity
b. compliance
c. obedience
d. altruism
Answer: d
Correct. Altruism, option d, is not a form of social influence. Altruism refers to selfless
concern for the well-being of others, driven by a desire to help others without expecting
anything in return. It is not about influencing others' behaviors or attitudes but rather about
acting in a way that benefits others.
a. conformity
Incorrect. Conformity refers to adjusting one's behavior or beliefs to match those of a larger
group. It involves going along with the majority even if one's own beliefs or actions differ.
Conformity is a significant aspect of social influence, as individuals often conform to societal
norms, group pressure, or social expectations.
5. Vince has always believed children deserve the best prenatal care available. During a class
discussion, he hears the first of several speakers express very negative attitudes toward
spending tax money on prenatal care for the poor. When it is his turn to speak, he voices an
opinion more in keeping with the previous speakers. Vince’s behavior is an example of
_______________________.
a. compliance
b. persuasion
c. conformity
d. obedience
Answer: c. conformity
Correct. Conformity involves going along with the group despite one’s real opinion.
a. compliance

Incorrect. Compliance would be the case if someone had asked him to voice an opinion in
keeping with the previous speakers. In this case, Vince did it on his own as a result of internal
pressure to conform.
6. The main task of the Solomon Asch studies was ____________________.
a. selecting paint colors
b. judging line sizes
c. rating new fashions
d. taste-testing new candies
Answer: b. judging line sizes
Correct. Solomon Asch asked participants to rate the size of a comparison line to standard
lines.
a. selecting paint colors
Incorrect. Solomon Asch’s studies had nothing to do with paint or choosing colors.
7. It is 1951, and you are required to participate in a perception experiment. You join seven
others seated in a room. You are shown a 10-inch test line and must choose the line that
matches it in length from a choice of three lines. The experimenter, Solomon Asch, is
studying _____________________.
a. bystander apathy
b. social loafing
c. groupthink
d. conformity
Answer: d. conformity
Correct. Asch studied conformity by using a 10-inch line.
c. groupthink
Incorrect. Asch studied conformity, not groupthink, by using the 10-inch line.
8. Voluntarily yielding to social norms, even at the expense of one’s own preference, is called
______.
a. obedience
b. submission
c. conformity
d. compliance
Answer: c. conformity
Correct. Conformity involves yielding to social norms despite one’s true preference.
a. obedience

Incorrect. Obedience occurs when someone changes behavior in response to a command by
an authority figure.
9. Experiments showing the effects of group pressure on conformity were conducted by
______.
a. Asch
b. Milgram
c. Luchens
d. Singer
Answer: a. Asch
Correct. Solomon Asch first did experiments showing the effects of group pressure on
conformity.
b. Milgram
Incorrect. Milgram studied obedience.
10. In what way is compliance different from conformity?
a. Compliance is a response to a direct request, whereas conformity is a response to indirect
social pressure.
b. Conformity and compliance are very similar; the distinction depends on whether one is a
male or female.
c. Conformity involves direct group pressure for change, whereas compliance involves orders
or commands.
d. Compliance involves eliciting reaction on the part of group members, whereas conformity
involves subliminal persuasion.
Answer: a. Compliance is a response to a direct request, whereas conformity is a response to
indirect social pressure.
Correct. Compliance is a response to a direct request, whereas conformity is a response to
indirect social pressure.
c. Conformity involves direct group pressure for change, whereas compliance involves orders
or commands.
Incorrect. Conformity does not involve direct group pressure. The group pressure is always
indirect.
11. Asch’s studies showed that overall conformity to group pressure occurred about ______
of the time.
a. one-fifth
b. one-third

c. one-half
d. three-fourths
Answer: b. one-third
Correct. Asch’s studies showed that overall conformity to group pressure occurred about onethird of the time.
c. one-half
Incorrect. Asch’s studies showed that overall conformity to group pressure occurred about
one-third of the time.
12. In Solomon Asch’s study, which factor increased the rate of conformity?
a. The task difficulty was increased
b. The confederates were all adults
c. The number of confederates increased
d. The participants were given two chances at responding
Answer: c. The number of confederates increased
Correct. The more confederates, the greater was the rate of conformity.
b. The confederates were all adults
Incorrect. The factor that increased the rate of conformity was the addition of confederates.
13. Asch found that the likelihood of conformity increased with group size until ______
confederates were present.
a. three
b. four
c. five
d. six
Answer: b. four
Correct. Asch found that the likelihood of conformity increased with group size until four
confederates were present.
c. five
Incorrect. Asch found that the likelihood of conformity increased with group size until four
confederates were present.
14. In Solomon Asch’s study on conformity, the number of confederates was found to have a
significant impact on the participants’ likelihood of giving an incorrect answer. How many
confederates did Asch find maximized the likelihood of conformity occurring?
a. 2
b. 4

c. 6
d. 12
Answer: b. 4
Correct. Asch found that four confederates produced the most conformity and that any more
did not increase the effect.
d. 12
Incorrect. While a dozen jurors are needed for a decision in a court case, Asch found that only
four confederates were needed to maximize conformity in his study.
15. Which factor significantly decreased the likelihood of conformity in Solomon Asch’s
studies?
a. the task difficulty was increased
b. the confederates were all adults
c. one confederate gave a correct response
d. the participants were given two chances at responding
Answer: c. one confederate gave a correct response
Correct. If even one confederate gave a correct response, the likelihood of conformity
decreased.
b. the confederates were all adults
Incorrect. The factor that decreased the likelihood of conformity was having one confederate
who gave a correct response.
16. Recent research using the Asch paradigm has found less conformity in the United States
than the original study found in the 1950s. The reason for this decrease in conformity may be
that _____.
a. the nature of the people in the 1950s seemed to be more conforming
b. people today are more obedient
c. people in the 1950s had less money
d. people today watch more television
Answer: a. the nature of the people in the 1950s seemed to be more conforming
Correct. The culture of the 1950s was more conformist than is today’s culture.
b. people today are more obedient
Incorrect. The decrease in conformity since the 1950s is believed to be due to the change of
American culture into one that is less conformist.
17. Which aspect of culture tends to decrease rates of conformity?
a. sex-role stereotypes

b. low socioeconomic status
c. high level of individualism
d. high levels of societal dependence
Answer: c. high level of individualism
Correct. People in individualistic cultures are less likely to conform than are people in
collectivist cultures.
b. low socioeconomic status
Incorrect. Low socioeconomic status actually increases conformity.
18. Research has found support for Asch’s findings in countries including Hong Kong, Japan,
and Zimbabwe. In fact, in these locations the conformity effect was even higher than Asch
reported. What might explain this increase in conformity?
a. These three countries are all located in warmer climates, which Asch found leads to more
conformity.
b. These three countries have generally collectivist cultures.
c. These three countries have generally individualistic cultures.
d. These three countries did not have access to Asch’s work so their findings were not
influenced by the original study.
Answer: b. These three countries have generally collectivist cultures.
Correct. The collectivistic nature of these cultures is thought to lead to greater levels of
conformity.
c. These three countries have generally individualistic cultures.
Incorrect. In an individualistic culture, conformity should decrease, not increase.
19. A group of four friends, two men and two women, are out for an evening on the town.
“I’d like to go to the bookstore and get coffee,” one of the women says. “Nah, lets go over to
that club and have drinks while we listen to the band,” one of the men replies. What does
Solomon Asch’s research suggest will be the likely outcome?
a. The group will probably go to the club, as Asch found that women tend to conform more
then men when a public response is required.
b. The group will end up going in two separate ways – the women to the bookstore and the
men to the club – as Asch found that women prefer quieter environments and men prefer
louder environments.
c. The group will probably go to the bookstore, as Asch found that men are more willing to
comply to the demands of women then the demands of other men.

d. The group will probably do both tasks, as Asch found that in a group with both men and
women compromise tends to be the likely outcome.
Answer: a. The group will probably go to the club, as Asch found that women tend to
conform more then men when a public response is required.
Correct. Asch found that in private there are no gender effects for conformity, but when the
decisions are public women tend to conform more then men.
b. The group will end up going in two separate ways – the women to the bookstore and the
men to the club – as Asch found that women prefer quieter environments and men prefer
louder environments.
Incorrect. Asch’s research investigated the phenomenon of conformity, not gender differences
related to the noise level of social environments.
20. When members of a group give priority to the cohesiveness of the group over the facts of
a situation, they are engaging in what social psychologists call _____.
a. groupthink
b. mass thought
c. consumerism
d. solidarity think
Answer: a. groupthink
Correct. When members of a group give priority to the cohesiveness of the group over the
facts of a situation, they are engaging in groupthink.
b. mass thought
Incorrect. Mass thought sounds plausible but is not the term social psychologists use.
21. Close, friendly groups usually work well together, but they may face a problem involving
an extreme form of conformity called ______________.
a. fundamental attribution error
b. groupthink
c. generational identity
d. self-serving bias
Answer: b. groupthink
Correct. Members of a close, friendly group may engage in groupthink (i.e., give priority to
the cohesiveness of the group over the facts of a situation).
a. fundamental attribution error

Incorrect. A fundamental attribution error is what occurs when people overestimate the
influence of another person’s internal characteristics on behavior and underestimate the
influence of the person’s situation.
22. After a group of gang members learned that their friend had died in a seemingly random
accident, several of the friends started blaming a rival gang for the death. Even though there
was no evidence whatsoever that the death had been intentional, the more the friends talked
the more passionate they became in their belief that an act of revenge was necessary. What
concept from social psychology may contribute to an act of violent revenge in this case?
a. social influence
b. prosocial behavior
c. altruism
d. groupthink
Answer: d. groupthink
Correct. Groupthink explains why the cohesiveness of the group, in this case a gang,
overwhelmed the individuals’ ability to consider facts in the death of their friend.
b. prosocial behavior
Incorrect. Prosocial behavior refers to actions that serve the better of society. Planning a
revenge killing is not prosocial behavior.
23. The prime minister notices that her closest advisors never seem to disagree with her or
with each other on a lot of important issues, such as arms control. She worries that she is not
getting the pros and cons of different issues because her advisors are engaging in ______.
a. latent obedience
b. intrinsic reinforcement
c. latent learning
d. groupthink
Answer: d. groupthink
Correct. Members of a close, friendly group may engage in groupthink (i.e., give priority to
the cohesiveness of the group over the facts of a situation).
a. latent obedience
Incorrect. This is a fictitious term. The tendency of the advisors to give priority to the group
rather than pay attention to facts of a situation is known as groupthink.
24. An example of ________ is the decision by NASA to launch the space shuttle Challenger
despite widespread concerns about its booster rockets.
a. group polarization

b. groupthink
c. social loafing
d. social facilitation
Answer: b. groupthink
Correct. Groupthink occurs when individual group members all make the same decision, even
though they may be inclined to go in a different direction.
c. social loafing
Incorrect. This example does not demonstrate the concept of social loafing.
25. Which of the following is NOT an example of “groupthink”?
a. the Challenger disaster
b. the Titanic
c. the Boston Red Sox
d. Bay of Pigs
Answer: c. the Boston Red Sox
Correct. This is a group that works together as a team and considers facts realistically.
d. Bay of Pigs
Incorrect. The Bay of Pigs fiasco IS an example of groupthink.
26. Carlos and his work associates form a close, friendly group, and they usually work well
together. However, they may face a problem involving an extreme form of conformity called
______________.
a. fundamental attribution error
b. generational identity
c. groupthink
d. self-serving bias
Answer: c. groupthink
Correct. Members of a close, friendly group may engage in groupthink (i.e., give priority to
the cohesiveness of the group over the facts of a situation).
a. fundamental attribution error
Incorrect. A fundamental attribution error is what occurs when people overestimate the
influence of another person’s internal characteristics on behavior and underestimate the
influence of the person’s situation; it is not a form of conformity.
27. All of the following are causes for groupthink EXCEPT ____________.
a. the belief that the group can do no wrong
b. the belief that the group is invulnerable

c. the belief that those who oppose the group have no worthwhile opinions
d. openness to differing opinions
Answer: d. openness to differing opinions
Correct. Groupthink results in lack of differing opinions.
a. the belief that the group can do no wrong
Incorrect. This is a cause of groupthink.
28. In order to reduce groupthink, which of the following strategies would NOT be
employed?
a. making sure that group leaders remain impartial
b. finding holes in all arguments that go against the group’s desires
c. seeking opinions of people outside of the group
d. voting for a choice by secret ballot rather than with a show of hands
Answer: b. finding holes in all arguments that go against the group’s desires
Correct. This would actually increase groupthink rather than decrease it.
d. voting for a choice by secret ballot rather than with a show of hands
Incorrect. The chance to vote in secret reduces the groupthink effect, so this would not be a
correct answer.
29. Of the following, a ________ would probably not be viewed as a ‘compliance
professional.’
a. advertiser
b. door-to-door salesperson
c. teacher
d. fundraiser
Answer: c. teacher
Correct. Because a teacher is encouraging students to think for themselves, and not accept a
particular line of thinking without careful and critical analysis, he or she would not be viewed
as a compliance professional.
a. advertiser
Incorrect. the agenda of an advertiser is to sell products, and this makes them a compliance
professional.
30. Behavior that is initiated or changed in response to a request as opposed to a command or
direct order is an example of _______.
a. obedience
b. compliance

c. conformity
d. persuasion
Answer: b. compliance
Correct. Compliance is a response to a request.
a. obedience
Incorrect. Obedience is a response to a command or order that comes from an outside source
in a position of authority.
31. ______ is a change of behavior in response to a direct request.
a. Conformity
b. Obedience
c. Compliance
d. Deindividuation
Answer: c. Compliance
Correct. Compliance is a change of behavior in response to an explicit request.
b. Obedience
Incorrect. Obedience is a change of behavior in response to a command or direct order.
32. Many people hang up on telemarketers, but others will listen politely to their pitches even
if they are not interested in the product. Telemarketers know that anyone who agrees to listen
to a pitch is more likely to buy the product, thanks to the ________ phenomenon.
a. risky shift
b. polarization
c. foot-in-the-door
d. door-in-the-face
Answer: c. foot-in-the-door
Correct. The foot-in-the door phenomenon operates on the principle that after someone has
complied with a small request (to listen to the pitch), that person is more likely to then
comply with a larger request that follows (buying the product) because he or she wants to
behave consistently.
d. door-in-the-face
Incorrect. The door-in-the-face phenomenon operates on the principle that after someone has
turned down a large request, that person is more likely to then comply with a smaller request
that follows because he or she wants to make up for refusing the first request.

33. After agreeing to Nat’s request to share her lecture notes from one class, Maria now
agrees to Nat’s request to share her notes from three classes. This example illustrates the
________technique.
a. lowball
b. foot-in-the-mouth
c. door-in-the-face
d. foot-in-the-door
Answer: d. foot-in-the-door
Correct. The foot-in-the door phenomenon operates on the principle that after someone has
complied with a small request, that person is more likely to then comply with a larger request
that follows because he or she wants to behave consistently
c. door-in-the-face
Incorrect. The door-in-the-face phenomenon operates on the principle that after someone has
turned down a large request, that person is more likely to then comply with a smaller request
that follows because he or she wants to make up for refusing the first request.
34. “Jeremy, can you possibly give me a ride to the airport this Sunday,” your friend Ben
asks. Not thinking that this is a big deal, you agree to do this favor for Ben. “Oh, that’s great!
Thanks so much. And by the way, I forgot that the plane leaves at 8:30 am so I’ll have to be
be at the airport by 6:30 am. Pick me up at 6:00. See you then,” Ben adds. You are still likely
to do the favor for Ben because you have just been a victim of the _____________ technique.
a. lowball
b. norm of reciprocity
c. door-in-the-face
d. obedience
Answer: a. lowball
Correct. Once Ben got you to agree to a deal, he changed the request at the last minute and
increased your commitment. That makes this an example of lowballing.
b. norm of reciprocity
Incorrect. In order for the norm of reciprocity to apply, Ben would have to give you
something first and then try to call in the favor by asking for the ride.
35. What term is used to describe compliance with an initial small request followed by
compliance with a larger request?
a. risky shift
b. foot-in-the-door effect

c. door-in-the-face effect
d. polarization phenomenon
Answer: b. foot-in-the-door effect
Correct. The foot-in-the door effect occurs when someone complies with a small request and
then with a larger request that follows.
c. door-in-the-face effect
Incorrect. The door-in-the-face effect occurs when someone complies with a small request
after having refused an initial large request.
36. The tendency of people to comply with a second, larger request after complying with a
small request is called the ______ technique.
a. lowball
b. door-in-the-face
c. foot-in-the-door
d. response cue
Answer: c. foot-in-the-door
Correct. The tendency of people to comply with a second, larger request after complying with
a small request is called the foot-in-the-door effect.
b. door-in-the-face
Incorrect. The door-in-the-face effect occurs when someone complies with a small request
after having refused an initial large request.
37. You are in the market for a new car. You go from dealer to dealer and find they all follow
the same procedure: every salesperson offers you a soda and asks you to take a test drive.
Which two psychological techniques are behind the offer of the soda and the test drive?
a. that’s-not-all and foot-in-the-door
b. norm of reciprocity and foot-in-the-door
c. social facilitation and norm of reciprocity
d. groupthink and social facilitation
Answer: b. norm of reciprocity and foot-in-the-door
Correct. The soda is an example of the norm of reciprocity, as you are supposed to feel as
though you owe the salesperson something in return; the test drive is an example of the footin-the-door technique because you agree to a small request that the salesperson hopes will be
followed by an agreement to buy the car.
c. social facilitation and norm of reciprocity

Incorrect. Social facilitation refers to a positive effect on one’s performance due to the
presence of others. There is no social facilitation in the car dealership example.
38. The tendency of people to comply with a second, lesser request after refusing a larger one
is called the ______ technique.
a. lowball
b. door-in-the-face
c. foot-in-the-door
d. bait-and-switch
Answer: b. door-in-the-face
Correct. The tendency of people to comply with a second, lesser request after refusing a
larger one is called the door-in-the-face effect.
c. foot-in-the-door
Incorrect. The tendency of people to comply with a second, larger request after complying
with a small one is called the foot-in-the-door effect.
39. “Mommy, mommy, mommy,” your young son asks frantically. “Can we please buy a new
PlayStation®3 console with all of the games and the wireless controllers so that we don’t
have to sit near the television?” “No,” you reply, “we can’t afford to buy all of that!”
Seemingly unperturbed by your rejection, your son comes back with “Then can we just buy
one new game for our PlayStation®2?” “Okay, I guess so,” you answer, not realizing that
your precocious son has taken a social psychology class and has just used the
_____________ technique to get what he wanted.
a. door-in-the-face
b. foot-in-the-door
c. that’s-not-all
d. lowball
Answer: a. door-in-the-face
Correct. Your savvy child knows that by asking for a large request first, he was more likely to
get his smaller request approved.
c. that’s-not-all
Incorrect. Your child has not offered you an extra incentive before making his own request.
Therefore it is not the that’s-not-all technique.
40. A person asks you if you would volunteer to counsel delinquent youths at a detention
center for two years. When you refuse, she asks you if you could supervise the youths during
a trip to the zoo. She is using the ______ technique.

a. lowball
b. door-in-the-face
c. foot-in-the-door
d. bait-and-switch
Answer: b. door-in-the-face
Correct. The door-in-the-face effect occurs when someone complies with a small request (the
zoo trip) after having refused an initial large request (two years of volunteer work).
c. foot-in-the-door
Incorrect. The foot-in-the-door effect would occur if you were first asked to supervise the zoo
trip and said yes and then were asked to do the two years of volunteer work and said yes.
41. Hannah asks Jin to babysit her daughter for five hours each on both Saturday and then
Sunday. Once Jin declines, Hannah asks Jin to babysit for four hours on Saturday only and
Jin agrees to do it. This example demonstrates the ________ technique.
a. foot-in-the-door
b. foot-in-the-mouth
c. door-in-the-face
d. lowball
Answer: c. door-in-the-face
Correct. The door-in-the-face phenomenon operates on the principle that after someone has
turned down a large request, that person is more likely to then comply with a smaller request
that follows because he or she wants to make up for refusing the first request.
a. foot-in-the-door
Incorrect. The foot-in-the door phenomenon operates on the principle that after someone has
complied with a small request, that person is more likely to then comply with a larger request
that follows because he or she wants to behave consistently
42. You get a free sample of a new cereal in the mail. The company hopes you will try the
cereal and then feel obligated to buy it. What term do psychologists use to describe this
phenomenon?
a. norm of reciprocity
b. indebtedness
c. augmented return
d. social facilitation
Answer: a. norm of reciprocity

Correct. The norm of reciprocity involves the tendency of people to feel obligated to give
something in return after they have received something.
d. social facilitation
Incorrect. Social facilitation is an increase in performance caused by greater arousal.
43. While walking through an airport, a well-dressed lady walks up to you and pins a flower
on your shirt, saying “I’d like you to have this flower on behalf of the Brotherhood of
Friends. Would you like to make a donation to our cause?” This lady is attempting to use the
_____________ to get your money.
a. foot-in-the-door technique
b. that’s-not-all technique
c. norm of reciprocity
d. lowball technique
Answer: c. norm of reciprocity
Correct. The lady has given you a favor first and then asked you to repay that favor. This is
the norm of reciprocity.
b. that’s-not-all technique
Incorrect. The lady has not asked for a small task followed by a larger task. Therefore this is
not the that’s-not-all technique.
44. At the supermarket, a demonstrator gives away free samples of a new pizza. He also gives
each taster a coupon worth $1 off his or her grocery bill. This manufacturer is depending on
the social process of ________ to increase sales.
a. the norm of reciprocity
b. deindividuation
c. group polarization
d. social facilitation
Answer: a. the norm of reciprocity
Correct. The norm of reciprocity involves the tendency of people to feel obligated to give
something in return after they have received something.
d. social facilitation
Incorrect. Social facilitation is an increase in performance caused by greater arousal.
45. A consultant was telling newly hired salespeople about techniques they can use to
increase sales. At one point he was talking about increasing compliance by creating a sense of
obligation. Because one of the last classes you took before you graduated was Social
Psychology, you recognize the concept as ________________.

a. the norm of reciprocity
b. indebtedness
c. foot-in-the-door effect
d. returning a favor
Answer: a. the norm of reciprocity
Correct. The norm of reciprocity involves the tendency of people to feel obligated to give
something in return after they have received something.
c. foot-in-the-door effect
Incorrect. Foot-in-the-door effect occurs when you comply with a lesser request first and then
feel obligated to comply with a larger one that follows.
46. A dealer persuades a customer to buy a new car by reducing the price to well below that
of his competitors. Once the customer has agreed to buy the car, the terms of the sale are
shifted by lowering the value of the trade-in and requiring the purchase of expensive extra
equipment. Now the car costs well above the current market rate. This is an example of the
______ technique.
a. lowball
b. foot-in-the-door
c. primacy
d. bait-and-switch
Answer: a. lowball
Correct. Lowball occurs when the cost of something increases after the commitment to buy
has been made.
b. foot-in-the-door
Incorrect. Foot-in-the-door effect occurs when you comply with a lesser request before
complying with a greater one.
47. Car salespersons are notorious for using the ________ technique, which involves
changing terms after an agreement has been made.
a. foot-in-the-door
b. foot-in-the-mouth
c. door-in-the-face
d. lowball
Answer: d. lowball
Correct. As pointed out by your authors, car salespersons often change the rules of the sale
after you have set down to sign the final papers.

a. foot-in-the-door
Incorrect. While car salespeople may use the foot in the door techniques to get you to their
lot, their primary method for gaining compliance is the lowball technique.
48. One form of the norm of reciprocity is when the merchant offers more than the consumer
asks for. This is called the ___________ technique.
a. that’s-all-folks
b. one-mo’-time
c. that’s-not-all
d. there’s-still-more
Answer: c. that’s-not-all
Correct. The that’s-not-all technique occurs when the merchant throws in something extra
that the consumer did not even ask for to make the consumer feel obligated to buy the
product.
d. there’s-still-more
Incorrect. There’s-still-more sounds like it could mean the same thing as that’s-not-all, but it
is not a term social psychologists use.
49. When watching an infomercial offering the latest and greatest in laundry soap products
the pitchman continually asks how much you’d be willing to pay, but immediately after
telling you the price he yells, “plus, if you act now, we’ll double your order absolutely free!”
This is a classic example of the _____________ technique.
a. lowballing
b. that’s-not-all
c. order-now
d. door-in-the-face
Answer: b. that’s-not-all
Correct. The strategy of offering a person more of a product for the same price to entice the
consumer into making a purchase is the that’s-not-all technique.
c. order-now
Incorrect. There is no such thing as the order-now technique discussed in social psychology.
50. Which of the strategies for gaining compliance discussed by your textbook is least likely
to influence an individual from a collectivist culture, such as Japan?
a. That’s-not-all technique
b. Lowballing technique
c. Norm of reciprocity

d. Foot-in-the-door technique
Answer: d. Foot-in-the-door technique
Correct. Because people from collectivist cultures do not focus as much on their own
motivations, the need to be consistent in behaviors is less present. Therefore the foot-in-thedoor technique is less effective.
b. Lowballing technique
Incorrect. No research regarding the effectiveness of the lowballing technique in collectivist
cultures is discussed in the textbook.
51. The study of obedience took on a renewed importance in the wake of ________.
a. the September 11, 2001 attacks
b. President Clinton’s impeachment
c. President Kennedy’s assassination
d. the Holocaust during World War II
Answer: d. the Holocaust during World War II
Correct. After the war, many Nazi soldiers tried for war atrocities claimed that they were only
“following orders,” and thus were not responsible for their actions.
b. President Clinton’s impeachment
Incorrect. This very important historical event did not have a particular impact on the study of
obedience.
52. What is a difference between obedience and conformity?
a. In obedience there is a difference in status between the one who obeys and the one who
makes the request.
b. Conformity requires strict adherence to the rules whereas obedience does not.
c. Obedience is an indirect request whereas conformity is a direct request.
d. In conformity there is a perceived difference in status between the one who conforms and
the group.
Answer: a. In obedience there is a difference in status between the one who obeys and the one
who makes the request.
Correct. Obedience occurs when one individual has some sort of status or authority that
allows them to compel the actions of a second individual.
d. In conformity there is a perceived difference in status between the one who conforms and
the group.
Incorrect. Conformity refers to a person’s decision to alter their behavior to be like others
when there has been no direct request for such a behavioral change.

53. Which statement correctly characterizes one aspect of Stanley Milgram’s study of
obedience?
a. Subjects were shown an ominous-looking shock machine that was marked 0 to 450 volts.
b. Participants in the study were randomly assigned to be teachers or learners.
c. Participants were shocked when they made errors in reciting word pairs.
d. A learner and the teacher sat side by side across from the shock machine.
Answer: a. Subjects were shown an ominous-looking shock machine that was marked 0 to
450 volts.
Correct. Subjects were shown an ominous-looking shock machine that was marked 0 to 450
volts; they were told it was real.
b. Participants in the study were randomly assigned to be teachers or learners.
Incorrect. The assignments were not random: The learner was always a confederate.
54. A social psychologist has been invited to give a community lecture on the importance of
Milgram’s research. He asks a social psychology class for suggested titles. Which of the
following titles might they suggest as the most appropriate?
a. “Obedience and Aggression Are Inborn”
b. “Do Not Underestimate the Power of Perceived Authority”
c. “Training in Ethics Can Overcome the Pull of Obedience”
d. “Make a Small Request First and the World Can Be Yours”
Answer: b. “Do Not Underestimate the Power of Perceived Authority”
Correct. Milgram found that more people obeyed than he expected.
a. “Obedience and Aggression Are Inborn”
Incorrect. Milgram did not find that obedience and aggression are inborn.
55. In the Stanley Milgram obedience experiment, the teachers were given a “sample shock”
of _______ volts.
a. 10
b. 25
c. 30
d. 45
Answer: d. 45
Correct. Each teacher got a sample shock of 45 volts on their arm.
a. 10
Incorrect. The smallest shock that could be produced by the shock box was 15 volts, so a
sample shock of 10 volts would be impossible.

56. Naïve subjects in the Stanley Milgram experiment were given the opportunity to
administer shocks to helpless victims. What was the maximum voltage that could be
administered in one shock?
a. 100 volts
b. 450 volts
c. 625 volts
d. 999 volts
Answer: b. 450 volts
Correct. The shock box went up to 450 volts, which was labeled with the letters “X X X”
a. 100 volts
Incorrect. A shock of 100 volts would fall into the category of “moderate shock” on the shock
box, while the most severe shock, labeled “X X X” was 450 volts.
57. Which statement best describes an important finding of Milgram’s classic research?
a. Individuals easily conform to group norms.
b. The presence of other people makes aggression more likely.
c. People will easily obey an authority figure and do harm to others.
d. Agreeing to a small request makes it more likely you will agree to a big request.
Answer: c. People will easily obey an authority figure and do harm to others.
Correct. Milgram did find that people will easily obey authority and do harm to others.
a. Individuals easily conform to group norms.
Incorrect. Milgram’s study focused on obedience, not conformity.
58. Imagine 100 individuals are asked to take part in a replication of Milgram’s famous study
on obedience. How are these 100 people likely to respond?
a. The majority would administer 450 volts as instructed.
b. The majority would immediately realize the use of deception and leave.
c. Most of the women would refuse to obey, whereas almost all of the men would obey.
d. Most of the participants would work together to force the experimenter to end the
experiment.
Answer: a. The majority would administer 450 volts as instructed.
Correct. The Milgram experiment has been repeated at various times, in the United States and
in other countries, and the percentage of participants who went all the way consistently
remained between 61 and 66 percent.
c. Most of the women would refuse to obey, whereas almost all of the men would obey.
Incorrect. The Milgram study showed few sex differences.

59. Analysis of the participants in Milgram’s obedience study has indicated that which
personality trait was highly related to the willingness to be obedient?
a. Hostility
b. Submissiveness
c. Aggressiveness
d. No one single personality trait has been found to be associated with high levels of
obedience.
Answer: d. No one single personality trait has been found to be associated with high levels of
obedience.
Correct. No one trait or group of traits has been found to predict obedience in Milgram’s
study.
b. Submissiveness
Incorrect. While one might assume that a person with a submissive nature would be more
likely to obey, Milgram’s study did not demonstrate this phenomenon.
60. Some have suggested that the results of Milgram’s obedience study may have been due to
the __________ effect.
a. reciprocity
b. indebtedness
c. foot-in-the-door
d. returning-a-favor
Answer: c. foot-in-the-door
Correct. Some thought the participants felt obliged to continue with each level of shock
because they had already complied with the previous ones.
a. reciprocity
Incorrect. The situation was not one in which the participant was made to feel he or she owed
anyone anything.
61. What is the term for an improvement in performance caused by the perception that others
are watching?
a. social loafing
b. social idleness
c. social facilitation
d. social productivity
Answer: c. social facilitation

Correct. Social facilitation is the term for the positive effect on one’s performance caused by
the perception that others are watching.
d. social productivity
Incorrect. There is no such term as social productivity to refer to the positive effect on
performance caused by the perception that others are watching.
62. Marco accepts a request to play the piano at his church’s Sunday services even though he
is still learning how to play the piano. He plays a well-learned, simple piece. Happily, he
performs very well in front of his congregation. Marco’s behavior illustrates ________.
a. social facilitation
b. social compensation
c. social loafing
d. the bystander effect
Answer: a. social facilitation
Correct. Social facilitation is the term for the positive effect on one’s performance caused by
the perception that others are watching.
c. social loafing
Incorrect. Social loafing is what occurs when someone slacks off of a task to let others carry
the workload.
63. Kwan really doesn’t feel like riding the stationary bicycle today, but he doesn’t want the
people around him to think he is a slacker. If he decides to continue exercising, what concept
might explain his actions?
a. social loafing
b. social idleness
c. social facilitation
d. social productivity
Answer: c. social facilitation
Correct. Social facilitation is the term for the positive effect on one’s performance caused by
the perception that others are watching. Kwan does more exercise because of this perception.
a. social loafing
Incorrect. Social loafing is what occurs when someone slacks off of a task to let others carry
the workload.
64. John has practiced his difficult trumpet solo over and over before his performance. He has
played it perfectly in his practice room. However, when he performs in public he makes
mistakes due to his anxiety. John is a victim of ______.

a. performance-in-public syndrome
b. social impairment
c. social facilitation
d. social loafing
Answer: b. social impairment
Correct. Social impairment occurs when a task is not as well performed due to arousal caused
by the perception that others are watching.
c. social facilitation
Incorrect. Social facilitation is the term for the positive effect on performance caused by the
perception that others are watching.
65. On the 72nd hole of the U.S. Open golf tournament, Phil Mickelson misses a one-foot
putt that would have won the championship. During an interview afterward, he stated, “I’ve
made that putt a thousand times on the practice green. I can’t believe that I missed it!” Based
on your knowledge of social psychology, which phenomenon may have contributed to the
errant putt?
a. social impairment
b. social loafing
c. social facilitation
d. diffusion of ability
Answer: a. social impairment
Correct. Social impairment explains why an action that was so simple in private may become
more difficult in the public setting of a major golf tournament.
d. diffusion of ability
Incorrect. Diffusion of ability is not a term that is studied by social psychologists.
66. During the finals of the National Basketball Association (NBA) LeBron James misses a
foul shot to give his team the lead with 10 seconds left in the game. Even though LeBron
usually makes those shots during practice, he missed it at a crucial time. Why do you think
this might have happened?
a. social loafing
b. diffusion of responsibility
c. social facilitation
d. social impairment
Answer: d. social impairment

Correct. LeBron’s awareness that millions of people may have been watching live and on
television may have led to social impairment, which is a negative impact on performance
caused by the presence of other people.
c. social facilitation
Incorrect. Social facilitation suggests that the presence of others has a positive effect on
performance, while this example demonstrates a negative effect. Social impairment is the best
answer.
67. In both social facilitation and social impairment, the key factor is ___________.
a. time
b. the number of people
c. arousal
d. task difficulty
Answer: c. arousal
Correct. Arousal interferes with performance.
b. the number of people
Incorrect. The number of people is important only if it affects arousal.
68. People who exert less effort on a task when working in a group than they do when
working individually are engaging in ___________.
a. groupthink
b. social loafing
c. social conformity
d. malingering
Answer: b. social loafing
Correct. People who exert less effort on a task when working in a group than when working
individually are engaging in social loafing.
c. social conformity
Incorrect. Social conformity occurs when people behave according to group norms as
opposed to their own preferences.
69. An individual who exerts less effort when working on a group task if individual
contributions will not be evaluated is engaging in what is called _____.
a. social loafing
b. social idleness
c. social facilitation
d. the goof-off phenomenon

Answer: a. social loafing
Correct. An individual who exerts less effort when working on a group task if individual
contributions will not be evaluated is engaging in social loafing.
c. social facilitation
Incorrect. Social facilitation is the term for the positive effect on one’s performance caused by
the perception that others are watching.
70. A teacher decides against assigning group projects in which all group members get the
same grade. What social psychological phenomenon might the teacher be concerned about?
a. conformity
b. social loafing
c. social influence
d. social facilitation
Answer: b. social loafing
Correct. The teacher knows that some students will slack off if they are not being evaluated
for their individual performance due to a phenomenon known as social loafing.
d. social facilitation
Incorrect. Social facilitation is the term for the positive effect on one’s performance caused by
the perception that others are watching.
71. How can a coach get his football team to perform better if he suspects they are exhibiting
social loafing?
a. introduce new challenges
b. get the captain to apply pressure
c. grade their individual performances
d. ignore the behavior
Answer: c. grade their individual performances
Correct. Social loafers stop their loafing when they are being evaluated on their individual
performance.
b. get the captain to apply pressure
Incorrect. Getting the captain to apply pressure might help but is not the solution specifically
for the problem of social loafing.
72. Which of the following terms is associated with social cognition?
a. thinking about others
b. action
c. obedience

d. objective
Answer: a. thinking about others
Correct. The way we think about others is a central feature of social cognition.
b. action
Incorrect. Action is a part of social behavior, not social cognition.
73. A response, either positive or negative, toward a certain person, idea, object, or situation
is called _____________.
a. bystander apathy
b. an attitude
c. groupthink
d. conformity
Answer: b. an attitude
Correct. Attitude is a response, either positive or negative, toward a certain person, idea, or
object.
d. conformity
Incorrect. Conformity is indirect compliance due to group pressure.
74. What do we call judgments about people, situations, objects, or thoughts?
a. cognitions
b. stereotypes
c. attitudes
d. attributions
Answer: c. attitudes
Correct. Attitudes are responses, or judgments, either positive or negative, toward people,
ideas, or objects.
d. attributions
Incorrect. Attributions are the explanations one comes up with for one’s own or other
people’s behavior.
75. Attitudes are __________________.
a. innate
b. generally positive
c. learned
d. unchangeable
Answer: c. learned
Correct. Attitudes are learned from experience with the environment.

b. generally positive
Incorrect. Attitudes tend to be both positive and negative.
76. Which of the following is the best example of the behavioral component of an attitude?
a. Bea feels recycling is a great concept.
b. Bob is upset when he hears a corporation plans to build a polluting plant near his home.
c. Bill struggles to understand the arguments both sides present in a debate over a new
manufacturing plant.
d. Betty writes a letter to her senator asking for support of a law making corporations
responsible for the pollution they cause.
Answer: d. Betty writes a letter to her senator asking for support of a law making
corporations responsible for the pollution they cause.
Correct. Writing is an action, or behavior.
c. Bill struggles to understand the arguments both sides present in a debate over a new
manufacturing plant.
Incorrect. The fact that Bill struggles to understand indicates that what he is doing is
cognitive.
77. Roberta is trying to decide whether to vote for a political candidate. Based on what she
has read about him, she has concluded that he is not qualified for the position, but she agrees
with his political positions. Also, she trusts him and likes his decisive personality. In fact, she
likes him so much that she sent a small donation to his campaign. Her trust of the candidate
represents the ______ component of her attitude toward him.
a. affective
b. cognitive
c. behavioral
d. situational
Answer: a. affective
Correct. Trust is emotional and, therefore, is an affective component of attitude.
b. cognitive
Incorrect. Trust is emotional and, therefore, is an affective, not a cognitive, component of
attitude.
78. Roberta is trying to decide whether or not to vote for a political candidate. Based on what
she has read about him, she has concluded that he is not qualified for the position, but she
agrees with his political positions. Also, she trusts him and likes his decisive personality. In

fact, she likes him so much that she sent a small donation to his campaign. Her sending a
donation to the campaign represents the ______ component of her attitude toward him.
a. affective
b. cognitive
c. behavioral
d. situational
Answer: c. behavioral
Correct. Since sending a donation is an action, it is a behavioral component of attitude.
b. cognitive
Incorrect. Sending a donation is an action and is, therefore, a behavioral, not a cognitive,
component of attitude.
79. Attitude formation is the result of a number of influences. What they have in common is
that they are all forms of ________________.
a. learning
b. intuition
c. reinforcement
d. conformity
Answer: a. learning
Correct. You learn the components of the attitude you have.
c. reinforcement
Incorrect. Reinforcement is only one part of a learning process.
80. An attitude has ______ major components.
a. one
b. two
c. three
d. four
Answer: c. three
Correct. An attitude has three major components: thinking, feeling, and behaving.
b. two
Incorrect. An attitude has three major components: thinking, behaving, and feeling.
81. Which of the following is NOT one of the three major components of attitudes?
a. thoughts
b. feelings
c. goals

d. behaviors
Answer: c. goals
Correct. An attitude has three major components: thinking, behaving, and feeling.
a. thoughts
Incorrect. The cognitive component of attitude involves thoughts and beliefs.
82. You want to visit Argentina but your attitude about Argentina is changing as you read the
news about the kidnappings that have occurred there. Which component of attitude is being
affected?
a. affective
b. cognitive
c. behavioral
d. situational
Answer: b. cognitive
Correct. You are developing new thoughts as you read facts about Argentina.
c. behavioral
Incorrect. Reading the newspaper is changing your thinking, not behavior.
83. If Professor Jameson is most interested in studying what you believe about an object or
topic, then she is focusing on the ________ component of attitudes.
a. behavioral
b. affective
c. cognitive
d. informational
Answer: c. cognitive
Correct. The cognitive component of an attitude refers to what we know or believe about the
subject of the attitude.
b. affective
Incorrect. The affective component of an attitude refers to how we feel about the subject of
the attitude.
84. Roberta is trying to decide whether to vote for a political candidate. Based on what she
has read about him, she has concluded that he is not qualified for the position, but she agrees
with his political positions. Also, she trusts him and likes his decisive personality. In fact, she
likes him so much that she sent a small donation to his campaign. Her opinion that the
candidate is not qualified represents the ______ component of her attitude toward him.
a. cognitive

b. feeling
c. intuition
d. behavioral
Answer: a. cognitive
Correct. Roberta’s thought process in evaluating the candidate’s qualifications is a cognitive
one.
b. feeling
Incorrect. Roberta’s positive feeling about the candidate is affective, but her evaluation of his
qualifications is cognitive.
85. Your attitudes are most likely to influence specific behaviors when the attitudes are:
a. only moderately important
b. very specific
c. not relevant to the behavior
d. difficult to access from memory
Answer: b. very specific
Correct. When attitudes are very specific, they will be most likely to impact behaviors in a
consistent way.
c. not relevant to the behavior
Incorrect. As the textbook points out, only attitudes that are relevant to a particular behavior
will be effective at predicting that action.
86. “I hate Walt Disney World. Whenever I take the kids there, I realize how much I hate that
place.” Which method of attitude formation is involved in this example?
a. direct contact
b. direct instruction
c. vicarious conditioning
d. observational learning
Answer: a. direct contact
Correct. The phrase “whenever I take the kids” shows that direct contact is the cause of the
attitude.
d. observational learning
Incorrect. The attitude comes from a direct experience, not an observation of someone else’s
attitude.

87. Kerry’s positive attitude toward China, even though she has never been there, seems to be
related to the fact that her mother is Chinese and talks about China all the time with Kerry.
Which method of attitude formation is involved in this example?
a. direct contact
b. direct instruction
c. interaction with others
d. classical conditioning
Answer: c. interaction with others
Correct. The fact that Kerry’s mother talks about China all the time with Kerry and is Chinese
indicates that her attitude is the result of interaction with her mother.
d. classical conditioning
Incorrect. Classical conditioning occurs when someone learns through repetition to respond
in a certain way to a stimulus.
88. Jaquan’s parents have been talking to him about the negative aspects of drugs ever since
he was a youngster. Now that he is a teenager, he knows that some of his friends smoke
marijuana. At a party one night, a friend offers Jaquan a joint. Jaquan declines the offer,
stating that he hates drugs. Even though he has never tried drugs to form his own opinion of
them, which method of attitude formation has kept him from making a mistake?
a. direct contact
b. direct instruction
c. interaction with others
d. vicarious conditioning
Answer: b. direct instruction
Correct. Jaquan’s parents have given him direct instruction about the negative aspects and
dangers of drugs, and he has adopted an attitude based on that teaching.
a. direct contact
Incorrect. Because Jaquan has never tried drugs, his attitude is not the result of direct contact.
89. Which communicator would likely be the most persuasive?
a. an attractive person who is an expert
b. a moderately attractive person who is an expert
c. an attractive person who has moderate expertise
d. a moderately attractive person who has moderate expertise
Answer: a. an attractive person who is an expert
Correct. Attractiveness and expertise have been shown to increase persuasiveness.

d. a moderately attractive person who has moderate expertise
Incorrect. The more expertise and the more attractive someone is, the more effective he or she
can be as a persuader.
90. Which of the following statements about persuasion is correct?
a. Fast speakers are less persuasive than slow speakers.
b. Arousal of strong emotions, such as fear, is not persuasive if the message includes specific
advice about how to produce a positive outcome.
c. People with high self-esteem are more susceptible to persuasion.
d. People who are perceived as honest are more persuasive.
Answer: d. People who are perceived as honest are more persuasive.
Correct. As your textbook points out, the perception of honesty goes a long way toward
enhancing persuasiveness.
a. Fast speakers are less persuasive than slow speakers.
Incorrect. In fact, as your authors state, fast speakers tend to be more persuasive than slow
speakers.
91. What is the relationship between expertise and persuasion?
a. Expertise has no effect on persuasion.
b. Nonexperts tend to be the most persuasive.
c. Greater expertise leads to greater persuasion.
d. Communicators with moderate expertise are the most persuasive.
Answer: c. Greater expertise leads to greater persuasion.
Correct. Expertise makes the persuader credible.
d. Communicators with moderate expertise are the most persuasive.
Incorrect. The more expertise, the better for the persuader.
92. Expertise, attractiveness, and trustworthiness all relate to which factor of persuasion?
a. channel
b. message
c. source
d. audience
Answer: c. source
Correct. Attractiveness, expertise, and trustworthiness are source characteristics, that is,
characteristics of the persuader.
b. message

Incorrect. Attractiveness, expertise, and trustworthiness are aspects of the person trying to
persuade, not aspects of the message.
93. Which of the following qualities would make members of a target audience easier to
persuade?
a. highly educated members
b. experts in the field
c. younger members
d. older members
Answer: c. younger members
Correct. A younger target audience seems to be more likely to be easily persuaded.
d. older members
Incorrect. Older members of an audience seem to be harder to persuade.
94. Central route is to peripheral route as ________.
a. careful is to superficial
b. superficial is to careful
c. right is to wrong
d. error is to correct
Answer: a. careful is to superficial
Correct. When the central route processing is used, the listener pays careful attention to the
message. When peripheral route processing is used, superficial aspects of the speaker are
attended to.
b. superficial is to careful
Incorrect. This is the opposite of the correct answer.
95. A local car insurance company advertises their products with television commercials.
During those spots, there are flashy lights, attractive dancers wearing skin-tight outfits, and
local celebrities talking about how they have that company’s insurance. The advertisement
does not, however, mention any of the features or costs associated with the product. This
company is attempting to earn customers through which path of processing?
a. central-route
b. tertiary-route
c. secondary-route
d. peripheral-route
Answer: d. peripheral-route

Correct. The advertisement is using factors of the message source (dancers, celebrities) to sell
the product. This is peripheral-route processing.
a. central-route
Incorrect. Central-route processing involves getting an audience to pay attention to the
content of the message rather than the features of the message source.
96. When George Bush said, “Everything in Iraq is going as planned. Trust me, I am the
president,” he was using what form of the elaboration likelihood model?
a. under-route processing
b. peripheral route processing
c. central-route processing
d. classic-route processing
Answer: b. peripheral route processing
Correct. In peripheral-route processing one focuses on the source of the message rather than
the content.
c. central-route processing
Incorrect. In central-route processing one focuses on the content rather than the source.
97. The advice to “keep it simple stupid” suggests that political and other messages should be
simple so that the audience will understand the content without distractions. This is an
example of which type of processing suggested by the elaboration likelihood model?
a. under-route processing
b. peripheral-route processing
c. central-route processing
d. classic-route processing
Answer: c. central-route processing
Correct. In central-route processing one focuses on the content rather than the source.
b. peripheral-route processing
Incorrect. In peripheral-route processing one focuses on the source of the message rather than
the content.
98. What process describes the use of social influence to cause other people to change their
attitudes and behavior?
a. enticement
b. persuasion
c. conversion
d. affectance

Answer: b. persuasion
Correct. Persuasion is the use of social influence to cause other people to change their
attitudes and behavior.
c. conversion
Incorrect. Conversion is the actual process of changing. The use of social influence to cause
other people to change their attitudes and behavior is persuasion.
99. Which of the following is the correct definition of cognitive dissonance?
a. a state of tension that occurs when a person’s behavior does not correspond to the his or her
attitude
b. the tendency for members of a group to avoid taking responsibility for their actions
because they assume that others will do so
c. the tendency for members of a close-knit group to think alike for the sake of harmony and
to suppress disagreement
d. a belief that a statement is true just because the person has heard it repeated over and over
again
Answer: a. a state of tension that occurs when a person’s behavior does not correspond to the
his or her attitude
Correct. Cognitive dissonance is a state of tension that occurs when a person’s behavior does
not correspond to the person’s attitude.
b. the tendency for members of a group to avoid taking responsibility for their actions
because they assume that others will do so
Incorrect. The tendency for members of a group to avoid taking responsibility for their
actions because they assume that others will do so is called diffusion of responsibility.
100. A state of tension that occurs when a person’s attitudes do not match the person’s actions
is called __________.
a. cognitive dissonance
b. the validity effect
c. the fundamental attribution error
d. routinization
Answer: a. cognitive dissonance
Correct. Cognitive dissonance is a state of tension that occurs when a person’s behavior does
not correspond to the person’s attitude.
c. the fundamental attribution error

Incorrect. A fundamental attribution error occurs when people overestimate the influence of
another person’s internal characteristics on behavior and underestimate the influence of the
situation.
101. Which one of the following activities will NOT reduce cognitive dissonance?
a. changing the behavior to match the attitude
b. changing the thought to justify the behavior
c. developing new thoughts to justify the behavior
d. continuing the behavior in spite of the conflicting thoughts
Answer: d. continuing the behavior in spite of the conflicting thoughts
Correct. This activity will do nothing to reduce cognitive dissonance.
b. changing the thought to justify the behavior
Incorrect. This activity will reduce cognitive dissonance.
102. Luis picks up a pack of cigarettes and reads, “Cigarette smoking is harmful to your
health.” Which one of the following statements leads one to believe Luis is actually having
cognitive dissonance?
a. “I’ve been smoking my whole life and I don’t have health problems.”
b. “No one I know who smokes is sick.”
c. “I know these cigarettes are killing me but I just can’t stop.”
d. “That is not true. Cigarettes are not that harmful.”
Answer: c. “I know these cigarettes are killing me but I just can’t stop.”
Correct. Luis is demonstrating that there is a clear conflict between what he is doing and what
he is thinking.
a. “I’ve been smoking my whole life and I don’t have health problems.”
Incorrect. There is no conflict between what Luis is doing and how he thinks.
103. The World-Will-End-on-June-7 group got together on June 7 to pray as the world ended.
The next day the world did not end. The leader of the group said, “Our prayers saved the
world.” What process was responsible for the attitude change?
a. operant conditioning
b. cognitive dissonance
c. classical conditioning
d. positive reinforcement
Answer: b. cognitive dissonance
Correct. The dissonance of the world not ending and their original beliefs made the necessity
of reducing the dissonance. Saying that their prayers saved the world served that purpose.

a. operant conditioning
Incorrect. There was no reinforcement or punishment in effect in this situation.
104. Which of the following is an example of cognitive dissonance?
a. You are a lousy cook but you keep trying different recipes.
b. You believe that reality TV is for morons but are addicted to American Idol and watch
every episode.
c. You dislike doing exercise but do it anyway to improve your health.
d. You are polite and civil to people you dislike.
Answer: b. You believe that reality TV is for morons but are addicted to American Idol and
watch every episode.
Correct. If you believe that reality TV is for morons, then you must think that you yourself
are a moron for watching American Idol. Cognitive dissonance occurs when your actions
don’t match your attitudes.
c. You dislike doing exercise but do it anyway to improve your health.
Incorrect. There is no cognitive dissonance in doing exercise even though you don’t like to;
you know that you are doing it solely for the health benefit, not for enjoyment.
105. Which of the following would result in cognitive dissonance?
a. I believe smoking is bad for my health; I love to smoke.
b. I believe exercising is healthy; I love to exercise.
c. I believe dresses are feminine; Nicole Kidman sometimes wears pants.
d. I believe profanity is childish; my father uses profanity.
Answer: a. I believe smoking is bad for my health; I love to smoke.
Correct. These statements are dissonant.
d. I believe profanity is childish; my father uses profanity.
Incorrect. There is no conflict between attitude and actions in this example, since it is the
father who uses profanity, not the person who believes profanity is childish.
106. Which of the following would result in cognitive dissonance?
a. Wearing glasses is dignified; a respected political leader wears glasses.
b. Dresses are feminine; Britney Spears wears dresses.
c. Pink shirts are effeminate; Bruce Willis wears pink shirts.
d. Orange juice is healthy; I love orange juice.
Answer: c. Pink shirts are effeminate; Bruce Willis wears pink shirts.
Correct. Bruce Willis is not effeminate so the first statement creates dissonance.
b. Dresses are feminine; Britney Spears wears dresses.

Incorrect. Britney Spears is feminine so these are consistent statements.
107. You’ve always`s disliked a particular coworker who strikes you as dishonest, but he is
nice to you and does you favors, so you become friendly with him despite your misgivings.
One day you learn that he stole personal items from your desk. You now decide to
discontinue the friendship. Your negative attitude toward this coworker is strengthened
through ___________.
a. operant conditioning
b. instrumental learning
c. classical conditioning
d. reduction of cognitive dissonance
Answer: d. reduction of cognitive dissonance
Correct. Cognitive dissonance occurred due to the conflict between your attitude (i.e.,
mistrust of this person) and your actions (i.e., being friendly). Once your suspicion about his
dishonesty is confirmed and you discontinue acting friendly, there is no longer any cognitive
dissonance.
c. classical conditioning
Incorrect. Classical conditioning applies to the kind of learning that occurs with involuntary,
reflexive behavior; befriending a coworker requires voluntary behavior.
108. In Festinger and Carlsmith’s (1959) classic study on cognitive dissonance, participants
who were paid $20 for doing a boring task, in contrast to those who were paid $1 for doing
the same task, ________.
a. liked the task more
b. liked the task less
c. liked the task equally as much
d. were more likely to tell their friends to do the task
Answer: b. liked the task less
Correct. Those who were paid $20 for doing the tasks could justify doing it, even though they
disliked it, because of the higher level of pay.
a. liked the task more
Incorrect. In fact, those who were paid one dollar for the task reported enjoying it more. This
was a very important finding in the area of cognitive dissonance.
109. Which of the following was a finding in the classic study by Festinger and Carlsmith
(1959)?

a. Those who got $1 to perform a boring task said the task was more interesting than did
those who got $20.
b. Those who got $20 to perform a boring task said the task was more interesting than did
those who got $1.
c. Paid groups said the task was less boring than did nonpaid groups.
d. Women performed the tasks for less money than men.
Answer: a. Those who got $1 to perform a boring task said the task was more interesting than
did those who got $20.
Correct. They used cognitive dissonance to justify their poor pay.
b. Those who got $20 to perform a boring task said the task was more interesting than did
those who got $1.
Incorrect. Contrary to popular belief, cognitive dissonance was supported..
110. Dr. Cirillo divided her first-period class into two groups. One group had to read 20 pages
in a boring psychology text but would get 2 extra points on the next test. The other group also
read 20 pages but were given 25 points added to the next test. The class members were then
asked to tell the second-period class how interesting the book was. According to the results of
the Festinger and Carlsmith study, what predictions could one make about the remarks of the
first-period class?
a. Both groups would say the pages were boring.
b. The first-period class would say the pages were boring but the second-period class would
not.
c. Both groups would say the pages were interesting.
d. The first-period class would say the pages were interesting but the second-period class
would say the pages were boring.
Answer: d. The first-period class would say the pages were interesting but the second-period
class would say the pages were boring.
Correct. The group that got such a small reward would reduce dissonance and say it was not
so bad reading the pages.
a. Both groups would say the pages were boring.
Incorrect. According to Festinger and Carlsmith, there would be differences in how the
groups perceived the reading.
111. Which part of the brain has been identified as being particularly active when people
experience cognitive dissonance?
a. the left frontal cortex

b. the anterior amygdala
c. the ascending pyramidal tracks
d. the dorsolateral hypothalamus
Answer: a. the left frontal cortex
Correct. The left frontal cortex, which is involved in language and decision-making, is
particularly involved in the experience of cognitive dissonance.
d. the dorsolateral hypothalamus
Incorrect. The dorsolateral hypothalamus is involved in the activation of eating and plays no
role in cognitive dissonance.
112. What is the term for the process of developing our first knowledge about another
person?
a. social interaction
b. stereotyping
c. impression formation
d. interpersonal judgment
Answer: c. impression formation
Correct. Impression formation is the term for the process of developing an opinion about
another person.
b. stereotyping
Incorrect. Although stereotyping may be a component of impression formation, it is not the
term for the process of developing an opinion about another person.
113. What is the the primacy effect, as it relates to impression formation, more commonly
known as?
a. first impression
b. negative attribution
c. situational bias
d. altruism
Answer: a. first impression
Correct. The primacy effect refers to our very first impression of a person.
d. altruism
Incorrect. Altrusim, or prosocial behavior, is not directly related to impression formation.
114. Which of the following statements concerning social categorization is correct?
a. it occurs without conscious awareness
b. it is deliberate and conscious

c. people who do it tend to be young and naïve
d. social categorization is a relatively new phenomenon
Answer: a. it occurs without conscious awareness
Correct. Social categorization does occur without conscious awareness, which is the reason
so many people don’t think they do it.
b. it is deliberate and conscious
Incorrect. Social categorization does occur without conscious awareness.
115. Which term refers to a set of characteristics believed to be shared by all members of a
particular group?
a. stereotype
b. expectation
c. classification
d. categorization
Answer: a. stereotype
Correct. The term stereotype refers to a set of characteristics believed to be shared by all
members of a particular group.
b. expectation
Incorrect. Expectation may be a component in stereotyping but it is only one part of a bigger
process.
116. “We” have all different types of personalities and lots of endearing little quirks, whereas
“they” all think and act alike. This assumption would be an example of the cognitive schema
called______________.
a. mindlessness
b. a stereotype
c. a fundamental attribution error
d. mental set
Answer: b. a stereotype
Correct. Stereotyping helps us to reduce the complexity of our perceptions.
c. a fundamental attribution error
Incorrect. A fundamental attribution error is what occurs when people overestimate the
influence of another person’s internal characteristics on behavior and underestimate the
influence of the person’s situation.
117. Dave believes all college professors are irritable, impatient, and uninterested in whether
students learn. His belief is an example of _______________.

a. consensus
b. impressions
c. an attitude
d. a stereotype
Answer: d. a stereotype
Correct. A stereotype is a set of characteristics believed to be shared by all members of a
particular group.
b. impressions
Incorrect. Dave has taken his impressions and created a stereotype, or a set of characteristics
that he believes are shared by all college professors.
118. The issue of racial profiling has been a controversial topic in the United States for many
years, and it was particularly widespread after the events of September 11, 2001. When an
individual engages in profiling and assumes that one person must possess certain qualities
because of their race or ethnicity, (s)he is engaging in _____________.
a. attributing
b. discrimination
c. stereotyping
d. social loafing
Answer: c. stereotyping
Correct. The assumption that all members of a particular group must share some common
features or attributes is stereotyping.
a. attributing
Incorrect. Attribution, which involves explanations for behaviors, is not the best answer.
119. Which of the following descriptions best defines implicit personality theory?
a. the set of assumptions people have about people, their actions, and their personality traits
b. personal insights
c. objective ideas about maladaptive behavior
d. unconscious motives for aggressive behavior
Answer: a. the set of assumptions people have about people, their actions, and their
personality traits
Correct. This is the correct definition of implicit personality theory.
d. unconscious motives for aggressive behavior
Incorrect. Implicit personality theory is the set of assumptions people have about people, their
actions, and their personality traits.

120. According to the research on implicit personality theory, who among the following is
most likely to think that personality is a changeable thing?
a. Mark, an Irish American born in Kansas
b. Yonghang, a Chinese American born in Hong Kong
c. Tony, an Italian American born in New York
d. Shireese, an African American born in New Jersey
Answer: b. Yonghang, a Chinese American born in Hong Kong
Correct. People native to Honk Kong seem to believe that personality is changeable.
d. Shireese, an African American born in New Jersey
Incorrect. American-born individuals do not seem to believe personality is changeable.
121. Attributions are __________________.
a. explanations that account for one’s own behaviors and/or the behaviors of others.
b. innate personality traits
c. genetic predispositions to behave a certain way
d. physical qualities people have such as attractiveness
Answer: a. explanations that account for one’s own behaviors and/or the behaviors of others.
Correct. Attributions are reasons people have to explain the behavior of themselves and
others.
c. genetic predispositions to behave a certain way
Incorrect. Attributions are reasons people have to explain the behavior of themselves and
others.
122. Your best friend has been acting rather cool toward you lately. As you try to figure out
why, you are engaging in the process called ________________.
a. attribution
b. causal analysis
c. ascribing values
d. nonverbal communication
Answer: a. attribution
Correct. You are coming up with explanations for your friend’s behavior.
b. causal analysis
Incorrect. Causal analysis is not a term used in social psychology.
123. A group of Ray’s friends have been waiting for Ray for an hour. One says, “He never
remembers anything.” Another says, “He’s probably caught in rush hour traffic.” What are
these friends doing that might be of interest to a social psychologist?

a. They are making attributions.
b. They are reducing dissonance levels.
c. They are conforming to the group’s norms.
d. They are forming initial impressions of Ray.
Answer: a. They are making attributions.
Correct. They are speculating about explanations for Ray’s behavior.
d. They are forming initial impressions of Ray.
Incorrect. They are making attributions for Ray’s behavior.
124. The study of the judgments people make as to whether someone else’s behavior is due to
something about that person or due to the person’s situation is called ______.
a. the primacy effect
b. cognitive dissonance
c. attribution theory
d. stereotyping
Answer: c. attribution theory
Correct. The study of the judgments people make as to whether someone else’s behavior is
due to something about that person or due to the person’s situation is called attribution theory.
b. cognitive dissonance
Incorrect. Cognitive dissonance theory focuses on how people justify their behavior.
125. “Look, Officer, I didn’t see the stop sign back there because the sun was in my eyes.”
The police officer responds, “You were not paying attention.” How would a social
psychologist describe this situation?
a. Both individuals were making fundamental attribution errors.
b. Both individuals were making situational attributions.
c. The driver was making a dispositional attribution; the officer was making a situational
attribution.
d. The driver was making a situational attribution; the officer was making a dispositional
attribution.
Answer: d. The driver was making a situational attribution; the officer was making a
dispositional attribution.
Correct. The driver attributed his error to something in his situation, that is, the sun, whereas
the officer attributed his error to something internal to him, that is, his lack of attention.
c. The driver was making a dispositional attribution; the officer was making a situational
attribution.

Incorrect. The driver attributed his error to something in his situation, that is, the sun,
whereas the officer attributed his error to something internal to him, that is, his lack of
attention.
126. Which of the following is an example of a situational attribution?
a. “I did a good job because I’m smart.”
b. “I did a good job because the task was easy.”
c. “I did a bad job because I’m inept.”
d. “She did a good job because she’s talented.”
Answer: b. “I did a good job because the task was easy.”
Correct. Recall that a situational attribution places the behavior on events outside of the actor.
c. “I did a bad job because I’m inept.”
Incorrect. This response would be an example of a dispositional attribution.
127. Alex is standing in line at Wal-Mart waiting to pay for his purchases. A man cuts in front
of the line and drops his items on the counter. Alex says to his friend, “That man is incredibly
rude.” A social psychologist who is within earshot jots down a note so she can use the
example in class. What does she write concerning Alex?
a. he made a situational attribution
b. he made a dispositional attribution
c. his remark is based on a stereotype
d. his remark is considered a collectivistic remark
Answer: b. he made a dispositional attribution
Correct. Alex’s judgment that “the man is rude” is a dispositional attribution, as it assumes
his behavior is due to his character.
a. he made a situational attribution
Incorrect. A situational attribution would be an assumption that the man had an external
reason why he had to cut the line.
128. When we make situational attributions we are identifying the cause of an action as
something _____.
a. in the environment
b. in the person’s disposition
c. that is a biological trait
d. with an unconscious motivation
Answer: a. in the environment

Correct. When we make situational attributions, we are identifying the cause of an action as
something “out there” in the environment.
b. in the person’s disposition
Incorrect. Identifying the cause of an action as something in a person’s disposition is what we
do when we make a dispositional attribution.
129. You observe a person at the grocery store get angry and yell at the cashier. Which of
these attributions illustrates the fundamental attribution error?
a. the yeller is a mean, angry person
b. the cashier is overworked
c. the yeller has had a bad day
d. the cashier has had a bad day
Answer: a. the yeller is a mean, angry person
Correct. A fundamental attribution error is what occurs when people overestimate the
influence of another person’s internal characteristics on behavior and underestimate the
influence of the person’s situation. In this case, it may be an error to assume that the person is
mean and angry and overlook the possibility that he/she has a good reason to be angry and/or
that he/she had a horrible day
c. the yeller has had a bad day
Incorrect. Making a situational attribution is not a fundamental attribution error.
130. Which statement is the best explanation of the fundamental attribution error?
a. We attribute most of what people do to the influence of situations.
b. We rely on the first information we receive to make internal attributions.
c. We are more likely to attribute another’s behavior to internal rather than to situational
causes.
d. We tend to attribute our successes to our own efforts and failures to the shortcomings of
others.
Answer: c. We are more likely to attribute another’s behavior to internal rather than to
situational causes.
Correct. A fundamental attribution error is what occurs when people overestimate the
influence of another person’s internal characteristics on behavior and underestimate the
influence of the person’s situation.
d. We tend to attribute our successes to our own efforts and failures to the shortcomings of
others.

Incorrect. A fundamental attribution error is what occurs when people overestimate the
influence of another person’s internal characteristics on behavior and underestimate the
influence of the person’s situation.
131. What do social psychologists call the tendency to rely on internal characteristics for
explanations of the behavior of others and to ignore the influence of the situation?
a. availability heuristic
b. augmenting principle
c. self-fulfilling prophecy
d. fundamental attribution error
Answer: d. fundamental attribution error
Correct. A fundamental attribution error is what occurs when people overestimate the
influence of another person’s internal characteristics on behavior and underestimate the
influence of the person’s situation.
c. self-fulfilling prophecy
Incorrect. A self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when you believe others’ expectations about you
and live up to them.
132. While watching Jeopardy, your roommate says, “Alex Trebek knows all the answers. He
must be a genius.” You tell your roommate she probably would not have said that if she had
attended class the day the instructor discussed the topic of ______.
a. social facilitation
b. stereotyping illusions
c. internal attribution biases
d. fundamental attribution errors
Answer: d. fundamental attribution errors
Correct. Your roommate attributed something that is situational (Trebek gets the answers
ahead of time) to an internal characteristic (genius).
c. internal attribution biases
Incorrect. Internal attribution bias is not a term used in social psychology.
133. Which statement is correct concerning cross-cultural research on the fundamental
attribution error?
a. Fundamental attribution error appears to be universal.
b. Most cultures attribute behavior to dispositional causes.
c. Eastern cultures like Japan seem to make more situational attributions than Western
cultures such as the United States.

d. Western cultures seem to make more situational attributions than Eastern cultures.
Answer: c. Eastern cultures like Japan seem to make more situational attributions than
Western cultures such as the United States.
Correct. There seems to be a tendency for Eastern cultures to make situational rather than
dispositional attributions.
a. Fundamental attribution error appears to be universal.
Incorrect. There does seem to be differences in the way cultures make attributions.
134. Which statement is more likely to be true concerning attributions made by Americans
versus Chinese people?
a. they both tend to make situational cause errors
b. they both tend to make dispositional cause errors
c. Americans are more likely to make the fundamental attribution error than are Chinese
people.
d. Chinese people are more likely to make dispositional errors, whereas Americans are more
likely to make situational errors.
Answer: c. Americans are more likely to make the fundamental attribution error than are
Chinese people.
Correct. People from cultures that are individualistic, such as American culture, are more
likely to make the fundamental attribution error than are people from cultures that are
collectivistic, such as Chinese culture.
b. they both tend to make dispositional cause errors
Incorrect. Americans are more likely than Chinese people to erroneously attribute behavior to
disposition.
135. Which of the following individuals is most likely to make the fundamental attribution
error?
a. Maggie, a 24-year old Caucasian woman
b. Jethro, a 18-year old Caucasian man
c. Anut, a 46-year old Pakistani woman
d. Mona, a 72-year old Hawaiian woman
Answer: d. Mona, a 72-year old Hawaiian woman
Correct. Research suggests that older adults show a stronger bias toward internal causes than
do younger people.
a. Maggie, a 24-year old Caucasian woman

Incorrect. Younger people tend to be less likely to make internal attributions, according to
research.
136. Ralph, a white student who grew up in Maine, is about to enter the University of
Southern California on an athletic scholarship. He is aware that many of his teammates will
be black and assumes that they will dislike him and ostracize him. Ralph’s attitude is BEST
described as an example of______.
a. prejudice
b. ambiguity
c. nonconformity
d. discrimination
Answer: a. prejudice
Correct. Prejudice is an unsupported, often negative attitude about members of a group.
d. discrimination
Incorrect. Discrimination is a behavior, not an attitude.
137. Prejudice is a(n) _________, whereas discrimination is a(n) ________.
a. dislike; hatred
b. hatred; dislike
c. behavior; attitude
d. attitude; behavior
Answer: d. attitude; behavior
Correct. Prejudice is a thought process, whereas discrimination is an action against a person
or group.
a. dislike; hatred
Incorrect. Prejudice is a thought process, whereas discrimination is an action against a person
or group that is often motivated by prejudice.
138. Prejudice is to discrimination as ________.
a. attitude is to behavior
b. behavior is to attitude
c. neutral is to negative
d. stereotype is to feeling
Answer: a. attitude is to behavior
Correct. A prejudice is a type of attitude, while discrimination refers to specific actions.
b. behavior is to attitude
Incorrect. This is the opposite of the correct answer.

139. Luther operates a small nightclub that specializes in soul music and features up-andcoming African American singing groups. He actively discourages white couples from
coming in and always gives them the worst seats if they insist on being admitted. Luther’s
behavior is BEST described as an example of ______.
a. prejudice
b. ambiguity
c. discrimination
d. oppression
Answer: c. discrimination
Correct. Discrimination is a behavior toward an entire group of people.
a. prejudice
Incorrect. Prejudice is an attitude, not a behavior.
140. A bank loan officer thinks people who speak with an accent are lazy; consequently, he
refuses to grant them loans. The loan officer’s belief is an example of _____ . His refusal to
grant them loans is an example of _____.
a. discrimination; prejudice
b. stereotyping; attribution
c. attribution; stereotyping
d. prejudice; discrimination
Answer: d. prejudice; discrimination
Correct. Prejudice is an unsupported, often negative belief about all people in a particular
group, whereas discrimination is an action taken that is based on this belief. In this case, the
action is the refusal to grant loans.
a. discrimination; prejudice
Incorrect. Prejudice is an unsupported, often negative belief about all people in a particular
group, whereas discrimination is an action taken that is based on this belief.
141. A social group of people viewed as competitors, enemies, or different and unworthy of
respect is a(n) ______.
a. pariah
b. in-group
c. threat-group
d. out-group
Answer: d. out-group

Correct. A social group of people viewed as competitors, enemies, or different and unworthy
of respect is an out-group.
b. in-group
Incorrect. An in-group is a social group viewed as friends who are worthy of respect.
142. The social group viewed as the one a person identifies with is called a (an) ________.
a. pariah
b. in-group
c. threat-group
d. out-group
Answer: b. in-group
Correct. The social group with which a person identifies is an in-group.
d. out-group
Incorrect. An out-group is a social group with which one does not identify.
143. Realistic conflict theory suggests that prejudice arises from ________.
a. learned behavior
b. competition over scarce resources
c. social categorization
d. self-fulfilling prophecies
Answer: b. competition over scarce resources
Correct. Good housing, schools, and jobs would be examples of the scarce resources that
leads to prejudice according to the realistic conflict theory.
a. learned behavior
Incorrect. This theory suggests that prejudice comes from competition for scarce resources.
144. The realistic conflict theory focuses on conflict ______.
a. within an in-group
b. between two groups
c. within an out-group
d. between two members of an in-group
Answer: b. between two groups
Correct. Most conflict occurs between different groups.
a. within an in-group
Incorrect. Most conflict occurs between different groups.
145. There is currently a long history of fighting between the Israelis and Palestinians, and
many attempts to resolve these conflicts have failed. According to the ____________ theory,

the prejudice and discrimination that exists between the two groups will continue to rise as
the conflict over limited land in Israel continues.
a. realistic conflict
b. social diffusion
c. prosocial inhibition
d. genesis of bias
Answer: a. realistic conflict
Correct. The realistic conflict theory states that prejudice and discrimination increase when
two groups fight over limited resources.
c. prosocial inhibition
Incorrect. This is a fictitious term that is not studied in social psychology.
146. What was the grade level of the students with whom Jane Elliott performed her famous
blue eye-brown eye demonstration?
a. kindergarten
b. first grade
c. second grade
d. third grade
Answer: c. second grade
Correct. The second-grade students spent two days learning about the dangers of racism,
prejudice, and discrimination.
a. kindergarten
Incorrect. The project was conducted with children in the second grade.
147. What historical event prompted Jane Elliott to begin the blue eye-brown eye project with
her students?
a. The Vietnam War
b. The assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
c. The assassination of President John F. Kennedy
d. The assassination of John Lennon
Answer: b. The assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Correct. Jane Elliott wanted to teach her children about racism, prejudice, and discrimination
in the aftermath of the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
d. The assassination of John Lennon
Incorrect. The shooting of John Lennon was not related to Jane Elliott’s project with her
students.

148. What term do social psychologists use for the process of making people in an out-group
responsible for the problems of people in the in-group?
a. groupthink
b. pariah formation
c. deindividuation
d. scapegoating
Answer: d. scapegoating
Correct. The term social psychologists use for the process of making a people in an out-group
responsible for the problems of people in the in-group is scapegoating.
b. pariah formation
Incorrect. The term social psychologists use for the process of making people in an out-group
responsible for the problems of people in the in-group is scapegoating.
149. Scapegoats are usually the group of people with _________.
a. the most annoying customs
b. the most unusual appearance
c. the most money
d. the least power
Answer: d. the least power
Correct. Groups with the least power are typically used as scapegoats.
a. the most annoying customs
Incorrect. Groups can get away with having annoying customs as long as they have power.
150. Which social psychology theory best explains the fact that the majority of the riots that
took place following the trial of the police officers accused of beating Rodney King did not
take place in white neighborhoods, but rather in the neighborhoods of Asian Americans and
Asians who had recently immigrated to the United States?
a. scapegoating
b. social diffusion
c. the bystander effect
d. prejudice
Answer: a. scapegoating
Correct. Scapegoating is a term that refers to targeting one person or group of people for the
release of frustrations.
d. prejudice

Incorrect. Prejudice may have been a factor in this phenomenon, but scapegoating is the best
answer.
151. Which of the following is NOT one of the processes associated with social identity
theory?
a. social categorization
b. identification
c. authoritarianism
d. social comparison
Answer: c. authoritarianism
Correct. Authoritarianism is not a process in social identity theory.
b. identification
Incorrect. This is a process in social identity theory.
152. According to social identity theory, individuals view their own group favorably so as to
________.
a. create prejudice toward members of the other group.
b. think of themselves more favorably
c. promote their outgroup
d. expand the boundaries of social categorization
Answer: b. think of themselves more favorably
Correct. One of the values of an ingroup suggests that it helps people think of themselves
more favorably.
c. promote their outgroup
Incorrect. In this theory, one would promote the ingroup, not the outgroup.
153. Social comparison occurs when _______________.
a. someone asks you to give them directions
b. two people order food in a restaurant
c. two people enter a beauty contest
d. playing solitaire
Answer: c. two people enter a beauty contest
Correct. A beauty contest would be a good example of a situation in which people compare
themselves to others.
b. two people order food in a restaurant

Incorrect. Social comparison involves comparing oneself to another to improve one’s own
self-esteem. Ordering food does not create this comparison; a beauty contest is a more
accurate example.
154. Which of the following statements supports the idea of social identity?
a. My name is Dan and I play the trumpet.
b. My name is Mario and I like tuna fish.
c. My name is Antonio and I belong to the best fraternity on campus.
d. I am Sam and I own a car.
Answer: c. My name is Antonio and I belong to the best fraternity on campus.
Correct. Tony is expressing social identity and being a part of an in-group.
a. My name is Dan and I play the trumpet.
Incorrect. Playing the trumpet does not tell us about Dan’s social identity and group.
155. The part of a person’s self-concept that is based on his or her identification with a
nation, culture, or ethnic group or with gender or other roles in society is called
_____________.
a. the fundamental attribution error
b. self-serving bias
c. ethnocentrism
d. social identity
Answer: d. social identity
Correct. Social identity is the part of a person’s self-concept that is based on his or her
identification with a nation, culture, or ethnic group or with gender or other roles in society.
c. ethnocentrism
Incorrect. Ethnocentrism is an overidentification with people who share one’s ethnic
background or nationality to the exclusion of others.
156. All of the following terms are used in social identity theory EXCEPT
_______________.
a. in-group
b. control group
c. identification
d. social comparison
Answer: b. control group
Correct. Control group is a term used in the area of experimentation, not in social identity
theory.

a. in-group
Incorrect. One’s perception of an in-group is essential to identification, a key process of
social identity theory.
157. A college instructor’s schedule has her teaching an honors section of psychology.
Halfway through the semester, she is told that her class was NOT an honors section after all.
She responds, “This is the best class I have ever taught and the grades prove it.” What
concept might a social psychologist use to explain the high grades this class obtained and the
teacher’s high opinion of the class?
a. subject bias
b. self-fulfilling prophecy
c. covert sensitization
d. collectivism
Answer: b. self-fulfilling prophecy
Correct. Her expectations set a high standard that caused the class members to perform better
than they would have otherwise.
a. subject bias
Incorrect. Subject bias refers to the tendency of subjects in an experiment to behave a certain
way.
158. When the expectations of one person bring about the expected behavior in another
person, the expectation has become a(n) ______.
a. attribution
b. response characteristic
c. self-fulfilling prophecy
d. primary drive
Answer: c. self-fulfilling prophecy
Correct. When the expectations of one person bring about the expected behavior in another
person, the expectation has become a self-fulfilling prophecy.
a. attribution
Incorrect. An attribution is an explanation a person comes up with about the motivations
behind someone else’s behavior.
159. Stereotype threat is anxiety related to the phenomenon known as _____.
a. attribution
b. response characteristic
c. primary drive

d. self-fulfilling prophecy
Answer: d. self-fulfilling prophecy
Correct. People worry that they may bring about a self-fulfilling prophecy by behaving in
ways that confirm the stereotype about their group.
b. response characteristic
Incorrect. Stereotype threat occurs when you believe the stereotype about your group.
160. The Robber’s Cave experiment showed that _____________.
a. playing athletic games, such as football and baseball, reduces us–them hostility
b. watching movies together, and similar quiet interactions, reduces us–them hostility
c. engaging in mutually exciting activities, such as tug-of-war, reduces us–them hostility
d. interdependence in solving crises together reduces us–them hostility
Answer: d. interdependence in solving crises together reduces us–them hostility
Correct. The Robber’s Cave experiment showed that interdependence in solving crises
together reduces us–them hostility.
a. playing athletic games, such as football and baseball, reduces us–them hostility
Incorrect. Playing athletic games tends to increase us–them hostility.
161. The classic Robber’s Cave study showed that prejudice can be reduced by ________.
a. mere exposure
b. relearning social norms
c. cooperating to meet a mutually beneficial goal
d. rethinking one’s stereotypes
Answer: c. cooperating to meet a mutually beneficial goal
Correct. In the Robber’s Cave study, two different groups had to work cooperatively in order
to solve their common problem.
a. mere exposure
Incorrect. The two groups involved in this study did not have mere exposure, but rather
extensive exposure to each other.
162. All of the following are ways to reduce prejudice EXCEPT ______________.
a. mutual interdependence
b. equal status contact
c. scapegoating
d. intergroup contact
Answer: c. scapegoating

Correct. Scapegoating, which involves taking out one’s hostility on an entire group that is not
necessarily the source of one’s anger, only increases prejudice.
a. mutual interdependence
Incorrect. Mutual interdependence is a great way to decrease prejudice.
163. Increased contact between two warring groups has a tendency to ________.
a. reinforce the belief that the outgroup is homogenous
b. solidify preexisting stereotypes
c. showcase similarities between the groups
d. prevent prejudicial beliefs from worsening at best
Answer: c. showcase similarities between the groups
Correct. This was the basic premise of the jigsaw classroom.
b. solidify preexisting stereotypes
Incorrect. In fact, increased contact helps to break through stereotypes.
164. How does the jigsaw classroom operate?
a. Students compete to win a top award.
b. Students are each given a piece of information that must be shared to solve a problem.
c. Students are told that one student holds the key to solving a problem and they must find out
who it is.
d. Students are all given separate puzzles to solve.
Answer: b. Students are each given a piece of information that must be shared to solve a
problem.
Correct. In the jigsaw classroom, students are each given a piece of information that must be
shared to solve a problem.
c. Students are told that one student holds the key to solving a problem and they must find out
who it is.
Incorrect. In the jigsaw classroom, students are each given a piece of information that must
be shared to solve a problem.
165. What term do psychologists use to describe our liking of other people?
a. love
b. appeal
c. interpersonal attraction
d. cognitive dissonance
Answer: c. interpersonal attraction

Correct. Psychologists use the term interpersonal attraction to describe our liking of other
people.
a. love
Incorrect. This is a strong emotional affection for another person.
166. We tend to _________ attractive people more than we do less attractive people.
a. like
b. dislike
c. ignore
d. hate
Answer: a. like
Correct. Social psychologists have found that we tend to like attractive people more than
unattractive people.
b. dislike
Incorrect. Social psychologists have found that we tend to like attractive people more than
unattractive people.
167. How are proximity to others and attraction correlated?
a. not correlated
b. positively correlated
c. negatively correlated
d. inversely correlated
Answer: b. positively correlated
Correct. We tend to like those who are nearby.
c. negatively correlated
Incorrect. We tend to like those who are nearby.
168. The term psychologists use for how close two people live to each other is ______.
a. similarity
b. proximity
c. propinquity
d. complimentarity
Answer: b. proximity
Correct. Proximity means physical nearness.
a. similarity
Incorrect. Similarity has to do with how people are alike. The term psychologists use for how
close people live to each other is proximity.

169. Upon arriving at college and meeting your roommate, you sigh mightily as you listen to
his endless droning on about how wonderful his girlfriend back home is. “I miss her so much
and I can’t wait to see her during Thanksgiving break,” he comments. Knowing a bit about
social psychology and the rules of interpersonal attraction, what are you most likely to think
to yourself?
a. This relationship is doomed, because the rule of proximity says that people are most
attracted to those who are nearby, not far away.
b. I’m going to have to listen to this all year, because relationships that have some distance
usually get stronger in the long run.
c. I wish he’d realize that everything he’s saying makes it sound like they are too similar for
each other, and people who date others with whom they share a lot of similarities usually end
up breaking up.
d. This relationship will never work out because research suggests that students going away
to college change so much that they become unrecognizable to those with whom they
formerly had relationships.
Answer: a. This relationship is doomed, because the rule of proximity says that people are
most attracted to those who are nearby, not far away.
Correct. The rule of proximity suggests that distance between people in a relationship does
not facilitate attraction.
b. I’m going to have to listen to this all year, because relationships that have some distance
usually get stronger in the long run.
Incorrect. The distance between the roommate and his girlfriend do not make it likely that
their relationship will last, according to the rule of proximity.
170. “I adore the girl next door.” This phrase refers to what rule of attraction?
a. saturation effect
b. proximity
c. birds-of-a-feather effect
d. foot-in-the-door effect
Answer: b. proximity
Correct. Proximity refers to being near someone else.
c. birds-of-a-feather effect
Incorrect. This refers to similarity, not proximity.
171. “Out of sight, out of mind” is a cliché that is consistent with the _____________ rule of
interpersonal attraction.

a. physical attractiveness
b. similarity
c. proximity
d. reciprocal liking
Answer: c. proximity
Correct. The proximity rule states that we tend to like people who are physically close to us,
so one who is away, or out of sight, may lose favor in our eyes.
a. physical attractiveness
Incorrect. This cliché is not related to the concept of physical attractiveness.
172. The cliché “familiarity breeds contempt” contradicts which of the rules of interpersonal
attraction?
a. reciprocal liking
b. physical attractiveness
c. similarity
d. proximity
Answer: d
Correct. The proximity theory states that we are most attracted to people who are close to us,
not that being close causes us to dislike each other.
b. physical attractiveness
Incorrect. This cliché is unrelated to the topic of physical attractiveness. c. similarity d.
proximity
173. “Birds of a feather” is a phrase that refers to __________.
a. similarity
b. reinforcement
c. self-disclosure
d. emotional expression
Answer: a. similarity
Correct. “Birds of a feather” refers to similarity, as birds with the same kinds of feathers are
likely to be of the same species.
c. self-disclosure
Incorrect. “Birds of a feather” refers to similarity, as birds with the same kinds of feathers are
likely to be of the same species.
174. When opposites attract, it is said that they have __________ characteristics.
a. proximal

b. complementary
c. rewarding
d. reciprocal
Answer: b. complementary
Correct. Things that “complement” each other tend to be opposites.
a. proximal
Incorrect. Proximity means nearness.
175. Which of the following illustrates the power of complementary traits?
a. A dominant woman marries a submissive man.
b. A girl marries the boy next door.
c. Two tennis players become good friends.
d. A girl and a boy who both like jogging fall in love.
Answer: a. A dominant woman marries a submissive man.
Correct. Dominance and submissiveness are opposite qualities.
b. A girl marries the boy next door.
Incorrect. Marrying the person next door illustrates the power of proximity, not
complementary traits.
176. Which of the following examples describes the rule of attraction called reciprocity of
liking?
a. Mary likes Julio because he is so different from her.
b. Sabrina loves Clark because he lives next door to her.
c. Tameka likes Raphael because he likes her.
d. Marcia likes Donald because he is rich.
Answer: c. Tameka likes Raphael because he likes her.
Correct. Reciprocity of liking means that we like those who like us.
b. Sabrina loves Clark because he lives next door to her.
Incorrect. Liking someone who lives close to you is the proximity rule.
177. All of the following are Sternberg’s components of love EXCEPT ________________.
a. passion
b. intimacy
c. loyalty
d. commitment
Answer: c. loyalty

Correct. According to Sternberg, the three components of love are passion, intimacy, and
commitment.
d. commitment
Incorrect. According to Sternberg, the three components of love are passion, intimacy, and
commitment.
178. Which type of love is defined as passion only?
a. seduction
b. infatuation
c. romantic
d. companionate
Answer: b. infatuation
Correct. Infatuation is passion without intimacy or commitment.
c. romantic
Incorrect. Romantic love is passion and intimacy but no commitment.
179. Which type of love is defined as commitment only?
a. infatuation
b. consummate love
c. companionate love
d. empty love
Answer: d. empty love
Correct. Empty love involves commitment alone.
c. companionate love
Incorrect. Companionate love includes intimacy as well as commitment.
180. Herbie and Irene have been married for almost 55 years. Through it all they have
remained committed to each other and have been as close as two people can be. Over the
years the passion has waned but they still stayed together. Sternberg would call this type of
love ________________.
a. consummate
b. romantic
c. intimate
d. companionate
Answer: d. companionate
Correct. Companionate love has the components of intimacy and commitment but not
passion.

a. consummate
Incorrect. Consummate love has intimacy, commitment, AND passion.
181. Which type of love is defined as having only intimacy and commitment?
a. seduction
b. empty
c. infatuation
d. companionate
Answer: d. companionate
Correct. Companionate love has commitment and intimacy but no passion.
b. empty
Incorrect. In empty love there is only commitment, no intimacy.
182. Which of the following parts of the brain are related to aggression?
a. the amygdala
b. the limbic system
c. neither A nor B
d. both A and B
Answer: d. both A and B
Correct. The amygdala and certain parts of the limbic system trigger aggressive responses in
humans and other animals.
a. the amygdala
Incorrect. The amygdala is responsible for aggressive responding, but the limbic system also
plays a role, so d is the best answer.
183. The hormone associated with aggression seems to be ___________.
a. testosterone
b. estrogen
c. MDH
d. peptone
Answer: a. testosterone
Correct. The hormone associated with aggression seems to be testosterone, and it’s the one
males have the most of.
b. estrogen
Incorrect. Estrogen, the hormone found in higher amounts among females, is not associated
with aggression.

184. In Zimbardo’s prison study, male college students agreed to participate in a two-week
experiment to discover what would happen when they took on the roles of prisoners and
guards. After the prisoners staged a revolt, the researchers found that _______________.
a. the guards became more aggressive
b. all of the guards decided to quit the experiment
c. the guards tried to be “tough but fair”
d. the experimenters had everyone switch roles
Answer: a. the guards became more aggressive
Correct. After the prisoners staged a revolt, the researchers found that the guards became
more aggressive, and the study had to be stopped.
d. the experimenters had everyone switch roles
Incorrect. The participants never switched roles.
185. What actual event could have been predicted based on the results of Zimbardo’s classic
prisoner study at Stanford University?
a. the prison break at Attica prison in New York
b. the events in Waco, Texas, in which followers of a cult were killed by government agents
c. the events at Abu Gharib prison in Iraq
d. the attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001
Answer: c. the events at Abu Gharib prison in Iraq
Correct. These events seem to mirror Zimbardo’s examination of social roles.
a. the prison break at Attica prison in New York
Incorrect. The impact of social roles was not as evident in the prison break.
186. One conclusion of much of the research on media and violence is that ____________.
a. TV causes violence
b. aggressive children tend to watch violent TV more than nonaggressive children
c. TV tends to make nonaggressive children become aggressive
d. violent TV programs are responsible for over 75 percent of aggression among children
Answer: b. aggressive children tend to watch violent TV more than nonaggressive children
Correct. This makes sense because there is a predisposition to be aggressive.
c. TV tends to make nonaggressive children become aggressive
Incorrect. This popular misconception has been proven unreliable many times.
187. Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding research into the relationship
between violent video games and aggression in children?

a. Short-term exposure to violent video games increases the likelihood that children will
engage in physical aggression.
b. Short-term exposure to violent video games increases the likelihood that children will
engage in verbal aggression.
c. Short-term exposure to violent video games increases the likelihood that children will have
aggressive thoughts and emotions.
d. Playing violent video games causes increased aggression.
Answer: d. Playing violent video games causes increased aggression.
Correct. The relationship between violent video games and aggression is correlational, and
therefore a causal relationship has not been established.
a. Short-term exposure to violent video games increases the likelihood that children will
engage in physical aggression.
Incorrect. Researchers have found such a relationship.
188. In March of 1964, Kitty Genovese was the victim of a brutal assault that led to her death
in the entryway of her apartment complex. Police reports indicate that out of the 38 people
who observed the attack happening, ________ called 911 to request assistance.
a. 0
b. 10
c. 19
d. 38
Answer: a. 0
Correct. Option a (0) is the correct answer. Despite the attack being witnessed by 38
individuals, none of them called 911 for assistance, as per police reports. This incident
became a prominent case in psychology, illustrating the bystander effect, where individuals
are less likely to intervene in an emergency situation when others are present.
b. 10
Incorrect. This option implies that 10 out of the 38 witnesses called 911 for assistance.
However, according to police reports, none of the witnesses called for help, which highlights
the bystander effect, where individuals are less likely to intervene in an emergency situation
when others are present.
189. What term refers to helping behavior that is performed voluntarily for the benefit of
another person, with no anticipation of reward?
a. altruism
b. collectivism

c. interdependence
d. humanitarianism
Answer: a. altruism
Correct. Altruism is defined as helping others for no personal benefit.
d. humanitarianism
Incorrect. Humanitarianism means almost the same thing as altruism but is not the term social
psychologists use for the helping behavior described by the term altruism.
190. The Kitty Genovese case depicts ________.
a. social loafing
b. group polarization
c. the bystander effect
d. obedience to authority
Answer: c. the bystander effect
Correct. The bystander effect is the phenomenon that occurs when people don’t help because
they think others will do so.
a. social loafing
Incorrect. Social loafing is what occurs when someone slacks off on a task to let others carry
the workload.
191. What term do psychologists use for the phenomenon that occurs when people are less
likely to aid a person in trouble if there are other people around who are also potential
helpers?
a. bystander effect
b. sole-witness effect
c. subtle aggressive effect
d. antisocial behavior effect
Answer: a. bystander effect
Correct. The bystander effect is the phenomenon that occurs when people don’t help because
they think others will do so.
d. antisocial behavior effect
Incorrect. There is no such term as antisocial behavior effect in social psychology.
192. A car crash woke John from his afternoon nap. When he looked out his apartment
window, he saw several people milling around two smashed cars. He decided not to dial 911
because he assumed someone had already called. John’s reaction is an example of ______.
a. the bystander effect

b. pluralistic compliance
c. obedience to authority
d. conformity to social norms
Answer: a. the bystander effect
Correct. The bystander effect is the phenomenon that occurs when people don’t help because
they think others will do so.
d. conformity to social norms
Incorrect. Conformity to social norms does not explain John’s inaction, as it would be
considered normal to call for help.
193. In a crowded mall parking lot, dozens of people hear a female voice yell, “He’s killing
me!” Yet no one calls the police. What is the reason for the lack of action, according to
Darley and Latané?
a. People are too busy to respond.
b. Most people “do not want to become involved.”
c. The fight-or-flight response is not activated when others are in danger.
d. Diffusion of responsibility is the reason most people do not respond.
Answer: d. Diffusion of responsibility is the reason most people do not respond.
Correct. Diffusion of responsibility is what happens because each person thinks someone else
will take responsibility (e.g., call for help)
b. Most people “do not want to become involved.”
Incorrect. According to Latané and Darley, very few people say they do not want to become
involved.
194. According to the research of Latané and Darley, which of the following situations would
be the most likely in which someone would offer to help?
a. person on the side of the road with a flat tire during rush hour
b. person asking for help in a crowded stadium parking lot
c. person falling down coming out of an elevator with only one other person in it
d. a student falling off a ladder outside a full classroom
Answer: c. person falling down coming out of an elevator with only one other person in it
Correct. Latané and Darley predict that the fewer number of people present the more likely
someone will help.
d. a student falling off a ladder outside a full classroom
Incorrect. Latané and Darley predict that the fewer number of people present the more likely
someone will help. The full classroom would lower the chance of someone helping.

195. Which of the following individuals would be the LEAST likely to help?
a. Carrie, who sees Carl’s car is on fire
b. Leah, who while walking alone sees a young boy caught in a sewer drain pipe
c. Susanna, who is in a bad mood and sees a car flip over on a crowded intersection
d. Jessica, who is a nurse and sees a man having a heart attack in his car in a deserted parking
lot
Answer: c. Susanna, who is in a bad mood and sees a car flip over on a crowded intersection
Correct. Bad mood and crowds lower the chances that someone will help.
d. Jessica, who is a nurse and sees a man having a heart attack in his car in a deserted parking
lot
Incorrect. Being alone as well as noticing the event and having the skills to help would
increase the likelihood of helping.
196. All of the following are decision points in helping behavior EXCEPT ____________.
a. noticing
b. defining an emergency
c. taking responsibility
d. diffusion of responsibility
Answer: d. diffusion of responsibility
Correct. Diffusion of responsibility stops a person from helping.
a. noticing
Incorrect. Noticing is a decision point.
197. In Darley and Latane’s (1970) five step model of bystander intervention, help will be
offered if the answer is “yes” to ________ of the five steps.
a. one
b. two
c. three
d. all
Answer: d. all
Correct. Darley and Latane’s five steps all must be answered “yes” if an individual is to offer
assistance.
c. three
Incorrect. Three steps are not enough. If help is to be offered, all five steps must be answered
“yes.”

198. Judy, alone, sees a person who appears to be drowning in the ocean. She wants to help
but questions whether her swimming ability will allow her to rescue the individual. It appears
that Judy is stuck at the ________ step of Darley and Latane’s (1970) model of bystander
intervention.
a. first
b. second
c. third
d. fourth
Answer: d. fourth
Correct. The fourth step of this model suggests that the bystander must know what to do and
have the skills to be helpful
c. third
Incorrect. The third step of this model suggests that the bystander is willing to assume some
responsibility to intervene.
199. Which of the following individuals is the most likely candidate to join a cult?
a. Dan who just got a job, has a great marriage but is unhappy with his religion
b. Jane who is a straight A student and has a great relationship with her parents but just broke
up with her boyfriend
c. Glenn who lives with his strict parents, never fights back when people call him names, and
builds Star Trek symbols out of wood
d. Brenda who is disappointed with the president, lives with her sister, and has a great job
Answer: c. Glenn who lives with his strict parents, never fights back when people call him
names, and builds Star Trek symbols out of wood
Correct. Unassertive and stressed individuals who are idealistic are great candidates for cults.
a. Dan who just got a job, has a great marriage but is unhappy with his religion
Incorrect. Being dissatisfied with religion is not enough. Dan is also in a good relationship
and has a job, making him an unlikely candidate for a cult.
TRUE OR FALSE
1. Sociology and social psychology are basically the same disciplines, since they mostly
study identical things.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Sociology and social psychology are distinct disciplines within the field of social sciences,
although they may overlap in some areas of study. Sociology focuses on the study of society,

social institutions, and social structures, while social psychology examines individual
behavior within social contexts, including topics such as attitudes, group dynamics, and
interpersonal relationships.
2. Giving in to pressure to change your behavior and thoughts to be like others is called
obedience.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Obedience refers specifically to following the commands or orders of someone perceived as
having authority or power. Giving in to pressure to change one's behavior or thoughts to be
like others is actually a form of conformity, where individuals adjust their actions or beliefs to
align with those of a larger group.
3. Research has found a substantial difference in the tendency of men and women to show
conformity, with women being far more likely to demonstrate conformity in all situations.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Research does not consistently support the idea that one gender is significantly more likely to
demonstrate conformity than the other in all situations. While there may be some differences
in conformity between genders depending on various factors such as cultural norms or
context, it is not accurate to generalize that women are far more likely to conform in all
situations.
4. Collectivist cultures seem to be more conducive to conformity than individualistic cultures.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Collectivist cultures place a strong emphasis on group harmony, social cohesion, and fitting
in with the collective norms. As a result, individuals in collectivist cultures are more likely to
conform to group expectations and norms. In contrast, individualistic cultures value
independence, autonomy, and personal choice, which may lead to lower levels of conformity
compared to collectivist cultures.
5. Invulnerability, rationalization, and insularity are three characteristics of groupthink.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Groupthink is a phenomenon where group members prioritize harmony and consensus over
critical thinking and decision-making, leading to flawed or irrational outcomes.
Invulnerability, rationalization, and insularity are indeed three characteristics commonly

associated with groupthink. Invulnerability refers to the group's belief in its inherent
correctness and invincibility, rationalization involves justifying decisions despite evidence to
the contrary, and insularity refers to the group's isolation from external viewpoints or
criticism.
6. You receive a call at home from a telemarketer who wants you to listen to a pitch for
aluminum siding. If you agree to listen, you are more likely to buy siding—a phenomenon
known as the foot-in-the-door technique.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The foot-in-the-door technique is a persuasion strategy where compliance with a small
request increases the likelihood of compliance with a larger request later on. In this scenario,
agreeing to listen to the telemarketer's pitch for aluminum siding represents the initial, small
request. By complying with this request, individuals become more inclined to agree to the
larger request of purchasing the siding during or after the pitch.
7. A common strategy for gaining compliance used by car salespeople is the door-in-the-face
technique.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The door-in-the-face technique involves making a large initial request that is likely to be
refused, followed by a smaller, more reasonable request. This technique relies on the
principle of reciprocity, where individuals feel compelled to agree to the smaller request after
having refused the larger one. While it is a common strategy for gaining compliance, it is not
typically used by car salespeople. Instead, car salespeople often utilize techniques such as
lowballing or the "limited-time offer" to persuade customers.
8. The purpose of Milgram’s study on obedience was to find out how many people would
obey an authority figure when directly ordered to violate their own ethical standards.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Stanley Milgram's study on obedience aimed to investigate the extent to which ordinary
people would obey an authority figure's commands, even when those commands conflicted
with their own conscience or ethical standards. The study revealed alarming levels of
obedience, with many participants willing to administer what they believed to be potentially
lethal electric shocks to an innocent person simply because an authority figure instructed
them to do so.

9. The participants of Milgram’s obedience study played the role of “learner” in the
experiment.
Answer: False
Rationale:
In Milgram's obedience study, the participants were assigned the role of "teacher," while a
confederate of the experimenter played the role of the "learner." The participants were
instructed to administer electric shocks to the learner whenever they answered questions
incorrectly, with the voltage increasing with each incorrect response. However, unbeknownst
to the participants, the learner was not actually receiving electric shocks, and the experiment
was designed to investigate the participants' obedience to authority.
10. Upon review of their participation in Milgram’s obedience study, 84% of the participants
reported that they regretted having been involved, and that they felt that their discovery that
they were, in fact, cruel people had lasting damage on their self-esteem.
Answer: False
Rationale:
While Milgram's obedience study did raise ethical concerns and caused distress for some
participants, the statement presented here exaggerates the reported negative effects. While
some participants expressed regret or discomfort after the study, not all participants reported
lasting damage to their self-esteem or feelings of being cruel. Additionally, the percentage
provided in the statement is not accurate and may misrepresent the actual responses of the
participants.
11. Social loafing occurs when a member of a team slows down, letting others work harder.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Social loafing refers to the tendency for individuals to exert less effort when working
collectively in a group compared to when working individually. This phenomenon can occur
due to diffusion of responsibility, where individuals feel less accountable for their
contributions in a group setting. As a result, some members may indeed slow down or exert
less effort, relying on others to pick up the slack.
12. An attitude has four major components.
Answer: False
Rationale:
An attitude typically consists of three major components: cognitive, affective, and behavioral.
The cognitive component involves beliefs or thoughts about the attitude object, the affective

component involves emotional reactions or feelings toward the attitude object, and the
behavioral component involves tendencies or actions related to the attitude object. While
some models may include additional components, such as the conative component (related to
behavioral intentions), the statement that attitudes have four major components is not
accurate.
13. Research suggests that we are more easily influenced by an attractive speaker than by an
unattractive speaker.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Research in social psychology has consistently shown that attractiveness can influence
persuasion. Generally, people tend to be more positively predisposed toward attractive
individuals and may be more likely to accept their messages or recommendations. This
phenomenon is known as the attractiveness stereotype, where attractive individuals are
perceived as more persuasive, competent, and trustworthy.
14. Research suggests that we are more easily influenced by an unattractive speaker than by
an attractive speaker, because we assume that attractive people got their status for reasons
other than being intelligent.
Answer: False
Rationale:
While attractiveness can indeed influence persuasion, the rationale provided in the statement
is inaccurate. Research suggests that attractive individuals are generally perceived as more
persuasive and competent, regardless of assumptions about the reasons for their
attractiveness. Furthermore, attributions about intelligence or other qualities may vary based
on individual perceptions and biases, but they do not necessarily override the influence of
attractiveness on persuasion.
15. The greater the level of fear in a message, the more effective it will be in changing
attitudes.
Answer: False
Rationale:
While fear appeals can be effective in changing attitudes and behaviors, the statement that the
greater the level of fear in a message, the more effective it will be, is not universally true. The
effectiveness of fear appeals depends on various factors, including the audience's
characteristics, the perceived severity and susceptibility of the threat, the efficacy of the

recommended response, and the ability of the message to evoke fear without overwhelming
or paralyzing the audience.
16. One technique that a person may use to reduce cognitive dissonance is changing their
conflicting behaviors to match their attitudes.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Cognitive dissonance theory posits that individuals experience discomfort when they hold
conflicting beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors. To reduce this discomfort, individuals may change
their attitudes or behaviors to bring them into alignment. Changing conflicting behaviors to
match attitudes is one strategy that individuals may employ to reduce cognitive dissonance
and restore consistency.
17. Following their classic study, Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) reported that those who got
$1 for a boring task said it was more interesting than those who got $20.
Answer: True
Rationale:
In Festinger and Carlsmith's classic study on cognitive dissonance, participants were asked to
complete a boring and monotonous task. Afterward, they were paid either $1 or $20 to tell
another participant (who was actually a confederate) that the task was enjoyable and
interesting. Participants who were paid $1 experienced greater cognitive dissonance because
the inadequate payment conflicted with their assertion that the task was enjoyable. To reduce
this dissonance, they adjusted their attitudes and reported finding the task more interesting
compared to those who were paid $20.
18. Social categorization occurs without conscious awareness.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Social categorization is the process of categorizing individuals into groups based on shared
characteristics, such as race, gender, age, or occupation. This process often occurs
automatically and without conscious awareness, as individuals quickly and effortlessly
categorize others based on perceptual cues. These categorizations can influence perceptions,
judgments, and behaviors toward members of different social groups.
19. Stereotypes assume that members of the same group must have distinct differences
between them.
Answer: False
Rationale:

Stereotypes are oversimplified and generalized beliefs about the characteristics, attributes, or
behaviors of members of a particular group. While stereotypes may highlight perceived
differences between groups, they do not necessarily assume that members within the same
group must have distinct differences between them. Stereotypes often involve assumptions or
exaggerations about group traits or characteristics, which may not accurately reflect the
diversity or individual variability within the group.
20. Because of the way that they lead to discrimination, stereotypes are always negative.
Answer: False
Rationale:
While stereotypes can indeed lead to discrimination in some cases, not all stereotypes are
inherently negative. Stereotypes can encompass both positive and negative attributes or traits
attributed to a particular group. Additionally, stereotypes may vary in their impact and
influence on discriminatory behaviors, depending on factors such as societal norms,
intergroup relations, and individual attitudes. Therefore, it is not accurate to assert that
stereotypes are always negative or always lead to discrimination.
21. Alex is standing in line at Wal-Mart waiting to pay for his purchases. A man cuts in front
of the line and drops his items on the counter. Alex says, “That man is incredibly rude." Alex
just made a situational attribution.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Alex's statement reflects a dispositional attribution rather than a situational one. He attributes
the man's behavior (cutting in line) to his personal disposition or character trait (being rude)
rather than considering situational factors that might have influenced his behavior, such as
being in a hurry, misunderstanding the line, or facing an emergency. Situational attributions
involve explaining behavior based on external circumstances or context rather than internal
traits or qualities.
22. People from collectivist cultures are more likely to make attributions based on
dispositions than are people in more individualistic cultures.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The statement is incorrect. In fact, individuals from collectivist cultures are more likely to
make situational attributions rather than dispositional attributions. In collectivist cultures,
where group harmony and social cohesion are prioritized, individuals tend to attribute
behavior to external factors such as social norms, roles, or situational demands, rather than

internal traits or dispositions. In contrast, individuals from individualistic cultures, which
emphasize personal autonomy and independence, may be more inclined to attribute behavior
to internal dispositions or personality traits.
23. The basis of the realistic conflict theory is that arguments that occur over genuine
problems lead to more violence than arguments that occur over petty or irrelevant issues.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The realistic conflict theory posits that intergroup conflict arises when groups compete for
scarce resources. It suggests that competition over real or perceived economic, political, or
social resources can lead to hostility and conflict between groups, regardless of the relevance
or significance of the issues involved. Therefore, the statement is false because the theory
focuses on competition for resources rather than the nature of the arguments themselves.
24. The Robber’s Cave experiment showed that playing athletic games, such as football and
baseball, reduces us–them hostility.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The Robber's Cave experiment, conducted by Muzafer Sherif and colleagues in 1954,
actually demonstrated the escalation of intergroup hostility rather than its reduction. The
study involved boys at a summer camp who were divided into two groups, and competition
between the groups led to increased hostility and conflict. While cooperative activities were
eventually introduced to reduce tension, athletic games did not necessarily decrease us-them
hostility; rather, they sometimes intensified it as competition continued between the groups.
25. The “Jigsaw Classroom” refers to an experiment aimed at reducing prejudice by forcing
people from different ethnic backgrounds to work on a jigsaw puzzle together.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The statement is false. The "Jigsaw Classroom" is not an experiment but rather a cooperative
learning technique developed by psychologist Elliot Aronson. In the jigsaw classroom,
students from diverse backgrounds work together in small groups to complete a task or
project, each contributing a unique piece of information or expertise. This cooperative
structure is aimed at reducing prejudice, promoting empathy, and fostering positive
intergroup relations by encouraging cooperation and interdependence among group members.
26. Research supports the idea that we tend to be most attracted to people who are our
opposites instead of people to whom we are very similar.

Answer: False
Rationale:
Contrary to the statement, research generally suggests that individuals are more attracted to
people who are similar to them rather than those who are their opposites. Similarity in
attitudes, values, interests, and personality traits is often associated with attraction and
relationship compatibility. While some differences may initially attract individuals, long-term
relationships tend to be based on shared values and mutual understanding, rather than stark
differences.
27. According to Sternberg, consummate love requires only passion and intimacy.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The statement is incorrect. According to Robert Sternberg's triangular theory of love,
consummate love involves the presence of all three components: passion, intimacy, and
commitment. Consummate love represents the ideal form of love characterized by intense
emotional connection (intimacy), physical attraction and desire (passion), and long-term
commitment to maintaining the relationship.
28. According to Darley and Latané, the main factor causing people to refrain from helping is
not wanting to get involved.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The statement is incorrect. Darley and Latané's bystander intervention model suggests that
the main factor causing people to refrain from helping in emergency situations is the
diffusion of responsibility. This phenomenon occurs when individuals believe that others
present in the situation will or should take responsibility for helping, leading to a decrease in
individual accountability and a reduced likelihood of intervention. While not wanting to get
involved may be a factor for some individuals, the diffusion of responsibility is considered a
more central explanation for bystander apathy.
SHORT ANSWER
1. What is the difference between sociology and social psychology?
Answer: Sociology is the study of society, social institutions, and social structures, focusing
on how groups, cultures, and societies influence individual behavior and vice versa. Social
psychology, on the other hand, is the study of how individuals think, feel, and behave in
social contexts, examining topics such as attitudes, group dynamics, interpersonal
relationships, and social influence.

2. List three factors that are related to an increased tendency to conform.
Answer: Three factors related to an increased tendency to conform include:
1. Group Size: Larger groups tend to elicit more conformity because individuals may feel a
greater pressure to conform when surrounded by more people who share a similar belief or
behavior.
2. Group Cohesion: Groups with higher levels of cohesion, where members feel a stronger
sense of belonging and identity, are more likely to generate conformity among their members.
3. Normative Influence: Norms, or socially accepted standards of behavior, can influence
conformity. Individuals may conform to avoid social rejection or to gain social approval,
especially when they perceive that deviating from the norm may result in negative
consequences.
3. What is groupthink?
Answer: Groupthink is a phenomenon that occurs within a cohesive group when the desire
for consensus and harmony overrides critical thinking and decision-making. Group members
prioritize unanimity and conformity over objective evaluation of alternatives, leading to
flawed or irrational decision-making processes. Symptoms of groupthink include
invulnerability, rationalization, stereotyping of out-groups, self-censorship, illusion of
unanimity, and direct pressure on dissenters.
4. Give an example of how you might use the foot-in-the-door technique.
Answer: An example of using the foot-in-the-door technique could be a charity organization
asking individuals to sign a petition supporting a cause they believe in (small request). Later,
the organization might follow up with those individuals and ask for a larger commitment,
such as making a donation to the cause. By agreeing to the initial, smaller request, individuals
are more likely to comply with the larger request, as they have already committed to
supporting the cause to some extent.
5. What is the difference between compliance and obedience?
Answer: Compliance refers to changing one's behavior in response to a direct request or
command from another person or group, often without necessarily agreeing with or
internalizing the request. Compliance can be influenced by factors such as authority,
reciprocity, or social norms. Obedience, on the other hand, involves following the commands
or orders of someone perceived as having authority or power, even if those commands go
against one's own morals or beliefs. Obedience often entails a higher degree of submission to
authority figures compared to compliance.
6. Give two ethical dilemmas that one might cite about Milgram’s obedience experiment.

Answer: 1. Deception: One ethical dilemma of Milgram's obedience experiment is the use of
deception. Participants were misled about the true nature of the experiment and the level of
harm inflicted on the "learner." This raises concerns about informed consent and
psychological harm, as participants may have experienced distress or trauma upon learning
the truth.
2. Psychological Harm: Another ethical dilemma is the potential for psychological harm
inflicted on participants. The intense stress and discomfort experienced by participants,
including feelings of guilt, anxiety, and confusion, raise questions about the ethical treatment
of human subjects and the long-term impact of such experiments on mental well-being.
7. Describe one of the components of attitude.
Answer: One component of attitude is the affective component, which involves emotional
reactions or feelings toward an attitude object. This component reflects an individual's likes,
dislikes, preferences, or emotional associations with the attitude object. For example,
someone's affective component of attitude toward dogs might involve feelings of warmth,
affection, and happiness when interacting with dogs.
8. What are the three factors involved in rating the effectiveness of an attempt to persuade?
Answer: The three factors involved in rating the effectiveness of an attempt to persuade
include:
1. Source Characteristics: The credibility, expertise, attractiveness, and trustworthiness of the
communicator delivering the persuasive message.
2. Message Content: The content, structure, clarity, and persuasiveness of the message itself,
including the use of evidence, logic, emotional appeals, and framing techniques.
3. Audience Characteristics: The characteristics, attitudes, beliefs, values, and predispositions
of the target audience, including their receptivity, resistance, intelligence, education level, and
cultural background.
9. What should a message accomplish to be effective?
Answer: To be effective, a message should accomplish several goals, including:
• Attracting attention: The message should capture the audience's attention and make them
receptive to its content.
• Generating interest: The message should stimulate interest and curiosity about the topic or
issue being presented.
• Creating comprehension: The message should be clear, understandable, and easy to
comprehend, ensuring that the audience grasps the intended message.

• Eliciting acceptance: The message should persuade or convince the audience to accept its
central arguments, claims, or recommendations.
• Motivating action: The message should inspire the audience to take action, whether it
involves changing attitudes, adopting new behaviors, or making decisions aligned with the
message's objectives.
10. Give an example of what happens when a person’s attitude does not match his or her
behavior.
Answer: An example of when a person's attitude does not match their behavior is when
someone expresses strong environmental values (attitude) but regularly engages in
environmentally harmful behaviors, such as excessive consumption, wastefulness, or
pollution (behavior). This inconsistency between attitude and behavior is known as attitudebehavior inconsistency or attitude-behavior discrepancy. It may occur due to various factors,
including social norms, situational constraints, lack of motivation, or cognitive dissonance.
11. Briefly describe social categorization.
Answer: Social categorization is the cognitive process by which individuals classify people
into groups based on shared characteristics such as race, gender, age, ethnicity, occupation, or
social status. This categorization helps simplify and organize the social environment,
facilitating understanding and interaction with others. However, it can also lead to
stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination when individuals perceive exaggerated differences
between groups.
12. What is a stereotype?
Answer: A stereotype is a widely held and oversimplified belief, image, or idea about a
particular group of people. Stereotypes are often based on assumptions, generalizations, or
misconceptions about the characteristics, behaviors, traits, or abilities of group members.
While stereotypes may sometimes contain kernels of truth, they tend to be overly simplistic
and can lead to biased judgments, attitudes, and behaviors toward individuals based solely on
their group membership.
13. What is the difference between a situational and a dispositional attribution?
Answer: Situational attribution involves explaining behavior based on external
circumstances, context, or environmental factors. In contrast, dispositional attribution
involves attributing behavior to internal traits, characteristics, or personality of the individual.
Situational attributions focus on factors outside the individual's control, such as the influence
of the situation, social pressure, or environmental cues. Dispositional attributions, on the

other hand, emphasize individual characteristics, traits, or tendencies as the primary
determinants of behavior.
14. What is the difference between prejudice and discrimination?
Answer: Prejudice refers to prejudgment or preconceived opinions, attitudes, or beliefs held
about individuals or groups based on their membership in a particular social category.
Prejudice involves negative feelings, stereotypes, or judgments directed toward others
without adequate knowledge, understanding, or experience. Discrimination, on the other
hand, involves the unfair treatment, exclusion, or disadvantage of individuals or groups based
on their perceived or actual group membership. Discrimination can manifest in various forms,
including unequal opportunities, harassment, exclusion, or violence, and it often reflects the
enactment of prejudiced attitudes and beliefs in behavior.
15. Give two ways in which prejudice can be stopped.
Answer: 1. Education and Awareness: Increasing awareness and understanding of diversity,
multiculturalism, and social justice issues through education and advocacy can help combat
prejudice. Promoting empathy, empathy, and perspective-taking can challenge stereotypes,
reduce prejudice, and foster positive intergroup relations.
2. Intergroup Contact: Encouraging positive interactions and cooperative experiences
between members of different social groups can help reduce prejudice and improve
intergroup relations. Contact hypothesis suggests that meaningful contact between groups
under certain conditions, such as equal status, common goals, and institutional support, can
reduce prejudice and promote empathy, cooperation, and mutual understanding.
16. List and define Sternberg’s components of love.
Answer: Sternberg's triangular theory of love proposes three components of love:
1. Passion: Passion refers to the intense physical attraction, desire, and arousal experienced in
romantic relationships. It encompasses feelings of longing, infatuation, and sexual attraction
toward one's partner.
2. Intimacy: Intimacy involves emotional closeness, connection, and sharing between
partners. It encompasses feelings of warmth, trust, openness, and bonding, as well as the
desire for emotional support, understanding, and companionship.
3. Commitment: Commitment refers to the decision to maintain a long-term, enduring
relationship with one's partner. It involves dedication, loyalty, and investment in the
relationship, as well as the willingness to overcome challenges, conflicts, and obstacles to
maintain the relationship.
17. Give one reason why televised violence may cause a child to be aggressive.

Answer: One reason why televised violence may cause a child to be aggressive is through
observational learning or social learning processes. Children often imitate behaviors they
observe in media, including aggressive actions and violence. When they see characters
engaging in violent acts without facing consequences or receiving punishment, children may
internalize and model those behaviors in real life. Exposure to repeated depictions of violence
on television can desensitize children to aggression, normalize violent behavior, and increase
the likelihood of aggressive attitudes and actions in real-world interactions.
18. Define altruism.
Answer: Altruism refers to selfless concern for the well-being, welfare, or happiness of
others, often expressed through acts of kindness, generosity, or helping behaviors without
expecting anything in return. Altruistic actions are motivated by genuine care, empathy,
compassion, or moral principles, rather than personal gain, recognition, or reward. Altruism
involves sacrificing one's own interests, resources, or comfort to benefit others or contribute
to the greater good of society.
ESSAY
1. Some may argue that the findings of the Solomon Asch experiment are not terribly
valuable because conformity is being assessed on a relatively innocuous task (i.e., choosing
line sizes). What kind of situation might you use to test conformity that would be immune to
this criticism? Can you think of a way to test conformity in the real world in a way that would
be both useful and ethical?
Answer: One situation that might be used to test conformity in a way that addresses this
criticism is a scenario involving ethical decision-making or moral judgments. For example,
researchers could present participants with a series of ethical dilemmas where they must
decide whether to follow a group consensus or adhere to their own moral principles. This
could involve scenarios such as witnessing workplace misconduct, environmental
conservation, or social justice issues.
In the real world, conformity could be tested in contexts such as jury deliberations, where
individuals must reach a unanimous decision on a legal verdict or sentencing. By observing
how jurors influence each other's opinions and conform to group norms, researchers could
gain insights into the dynamics of conformity in important decision-making processes. This
approach would be both useful and ethical as long as participants are fully informed about the
nature of the study, their rights, and the potential impact of their decisions.
2. The obedience study conducted by Stanley Milgram has become world famous. More than
1,000 people at several American universities went through replications of the study. In

addition, researchers in other countries, such as Spain and the Netherlands, have used
Milgram’s procedures. Explain in detail the procedures that Milgram used in his study and
then discuss his results. What conclusions did Milgram reach? How have critics reacted to his
research?
Answer: Stanley Milgram's obedience study aimed to investigate the extent to which
individuals would obey authority figures even when instructed to perform actions that
conflicted with their personal conscience. The study involved three participants: the
experimenter (authority figure), the "teacher" (participant), and the "learner" (confederate).
The "teacher" was instructed to administer increasingly intense electric shocks to the
"learner" whenever they answered incorrectly to a memory task. However, the "learner" did
not actually receive shocks, and the study focused on how far the "teacher" would go in
delivering the shocks based on the authority's commands.
Milgram's results showed that a significant proportion of participants (65%) continued to
administer shocks up to the maximum voltage level, despite the "learner" expressing distress,
pleas for mercy, and apparent signs of harm. Milgram concluded that ordinary individuals
could be easily swayed to commit harmful actions under the influence of authority,
highlighting the power of situational factors in shaping behavior.
Critics of Milgram's research have raised ethical concerns about the psychological harm
inflicted on participants, the use of deception, and the lack of fully informed consent. Some
have also questioned the generalizability of the findings to real-world situations and the
implications for understanding obedience in different cultural contexts.
3. Discuss the ethical dilemmas that resulted from Stanley Milgram’s obedience research. Do
you think that the ends justified the means, in this case? Does the fact that nobody was really
physically shocked make a difference? What if you wanted to conduct a replication of the
experiment but wanted to actually administer shocks? Do you think that the findings would
change regarding the obedience of the participants?
Answer: Stanley Milgram's obedience research raised several ethical dilemmas, particularly
regarding participant welfare, deception, and psychological harm. The study involved
significant levels of stress and emotional distress for participants, who believed they were
administering harmful electric shocks to another person. Additionally, the use of deception
compromised participants' ability to provide fully informed consent, raising concerns about
ethical conduct in research.
Whether the ends justified the means in this case remains a matter of debate. While Milgram's
research shed light on the powerful influence of authority and obedience in social behavior,

the ethical costs associated with the study's methodology have been widely criticized. The
fact that nobody was physically shocked may mitigate concerns about physical harm but does
not alleviate the psychological distress experienced by participants.
If one wanted to conduct a replication of the experiment involving actual administration of
shocks, significant ethical considerations would need to be addressed. Such a study would
likely face substantial ethical barriers due to the potential for harm to participants and
violations of ethical principles, such as beneficence and nonmaleficence. Additionally, it is
uncertain whether the findings would significantly differ from Milgram's original study, as
the power of obedience to authority figures may still exert a strong influence on behavior,
regardless of the actual physical harm inflicted. However, the ethical implications of such a
study would outweigh any potential scientific contributions.
4. Consider the way that most children feel about eating spinach. Unless the child is very
unusual, you will probably not get a favorable reaction when you put a plate of spinach in
front of that youngster. Discuss the child’s responses from all three of the components of
attitudes. Do you think a child’s attitude would change if (s)he were served spinach
immediately following a viewing of the movie Popeye?
Answer: The child's responses to eating spinach can be analyzed through all three
components of attitudes:
1. Affective Component: The child's emotional reaction to eating spinach likely involves
negative feelings or aversion, as spinach is often perceived as unpalatable or unpleasant. The
child may experience disgust, reluctance, or even fear at the prospect of consuming spinach,
reflecting the affective component of attitude.
2. Behavioral Component: The child's behavior towards spinach may include avoidance,
refusal, or reluctance to eat it. The child may express refusal verbally, physically push the
spinach away, or exhibit avoidance behaviors such as covering their mouth or expressing
disgust facially.
3. Cognitive Component: The child's cognitive beliefs or thoughts about spinach may involve
perceptions of it being unappetizing, unhealthy, or undesirable. These beliefs may stem from
social influences, personal experiences, or cultural norms surrounding spinach consumption.
It is possible that a child's attitude towards spinach could change if they were served spinach
immediately following a viewing of the movie Popeye. The movie portrays the protagonist,
Popeye, gaining superhuman strength and abilities after consuming spinach. This positive
portrayal of spinach consumption could influence the child's attitudes by associating spinach
with positive outcomes, strength, and heroism. The child may develop more positive affective

responses, behavioral inclinations, and cognitive beliefs towards spinach as a result of this
positive reinforcement.
5. How do advertisers use the principles of persuasion discussed in your chapter? Pick a
television commercial and use it as an example of the components of persuasion.
Answer: Advertisers often employ various principles of persuasion to influence consumer
behavior and attitudes. One example of persuasion techniques used in television commercials
is the Coca-Cola "Share a Coke" campaign. This campaign utilizes several components of
persuasion:
• Affective Component: The commercial evokes positive emotions such as joy, happiness,
and nostalgia by featuring people sharing personalized Coca-Cola bottles with their names or
the names of loved ones. Viewers may associate these positive emotions with the product and
feel compelled to purchase Coca-Cola to experience similar feelings.
• Behavioral Component: The commercial encourages viewers to engage in social behavior
by sharing Coca-Cola with others. By showcasing individuals sharing the product in social
settings, the commercial promotes the behavioral component of persuasion, encouraging
viewers to emulate the behavior depicted in the advertisement.
• Cognitive Component: The commercial reinforces cognitive beliefs about the product's
value and social significance. By associating Coca-Cola with personalization, connection,
and social interaction, the advertisement may influence viewers' cognitive perceptions of the
product, leading them to believe that Coca-Cola is a meaningful and enjoyable beverage to
share with others.
Overall, the "Share a Coke" campaign effectively utilizes affective, behavioral, and cognitive
components of persuasion to influence consumer attitudes and behavior towards Coca-Cola.
6. It is, perhaps, a safe assumption that most people who smoke know that it is not good for
their health. Using the principle of cognitive dissonance, describe three examples of several
things that a smoker might do to reduce their dissonance, making sure to include at least one
example from each of the three actions noted by the textbook.
Answer: Cognitive dissonance theory suggests that individuals experience discomfort or
psychological tension when their beliefs or attitudes are inconsistent with their behaviors.
Smokers may engage in various strategies to reduce cognitive dissonance:
1. Change the Behavior: A smoker may attempt to quit smoking or reduce the frequency of
smoking to align their behavior with the knowledge that smoking is harmful to their health.
By taking concrete steps to change their behavior, such as using nicotine patches or attending

smoking cessation programs, the smoker reduces the inconsistency between their behavior
and their awareness of smoking's health risks.
2. Change the Belief: Alternatively, a smoker may reinterpret or downplay the health risks
associated with smoking to justify their behavior. They may convince themselves that
smoking is not as harmful as commonly believed, rationalizing their continued smoking
behavior to alleviate cognitive dissonance. This cognitive strategy involves changing their
beliefs or attitudes to align with their behavior, minimizing the perceived inconsistency.
3. Add Consonant Beliefs: The smoker may seek out or emphasize information that supports
their smoking behavior, such as anecdotes of individuals who smoked for decades without
experiencing severe health consequences. By adding consonant beliefs that reinforce their
smoking habit, the smoker reduces cognitive dissonance by maintaining consistency between
their behavior and their beliefs about smoking's effects.
7. Do you hold any stereotypes? If so, are they positive or negative assumptions about a
group of people? Where do you think your stereotypes came from, and what factors may be
involved in maintaining these beliefs?
Answer: Yes, individuals may hold stereotypes, which are often generalized beliefs or
assumptions about a particular group of people. Stereotypes can be both positive and
negative, depending on the specific characteristics attributed to the group. My stereotypes
may come from various sources, including personal experiences, cultural influences, media
portrayals, and social interactions. Factors involved in maintaining these beliefs may include
confirmation bias, social categorization processes, cognitive shortcuts, and the influence of
societal norms and attitudes.
8. According to attribution theory, the explanations we create for our behavior and the
behavior of others generally fall into two categories. Describe these two categories. In your
essay, discuss key concepts in attribution theory, such as the fundamental attribution error.
Answer: Attribution theory proposes that individuals explain behavior through two main
categories of attributions:
1. Internal (Dispositional) Attribution: Internal attributions involve explaining behavior based
on personal characteristics, traits, or dispositions of the individual. When making internal
attributions, individuals attribute behavior to inherent qualities or characteristics of the
person, such as personality, attitudes, abilities, or intentions. For example, if someone
performs well on a test, an internal attribution may involve attributing their success to their
intelligence or effort.

2. External (Situation) Attribution: External attributions involve explaining behavior based on
situational factors, circumstances, or environmental influences. When making external
attributions, individuals attribute behavior to factors outside the individual's control, such as
the influence of the situation, social norms, peer pressure, or environmental cues. For
example, if someone performs poorly on a test, an external attribution may involve attributing
their performance to the difficulty of the test or distractions in the testing environment.
A key concept in attribution theory is the fundamental attribution error, which refers to the
tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal factors (dispositions) while
overlooking the impact of external factors (situations). This bias leads individuals to
overemphasize personality or character traits when explaining the behavior of others, while
underestimating the role of situational influences. The fundamental attribution error
highlights the importance of considering both internal and external factors in understanding
behavior.
9. If you had young children who were attending Jane Elliott’s class in the second grade,
would you want them to undergo her blue eye-brown eye project? Why or why not? Do you
think parents should have the right to prevent their children from going through such an
experience? Is the pain that the children may experience worth the lessons they may learn
from the project?
Answer: Whether I would want my children to undergo Jane Elliott's blue eye-brown eye
project would depend on various factors, including the educational objectives of the project,
the age and maturity of my children, and my personal beliefs about the effectiveness of such
interventions. While the project may offer valuable lessons about prejudice, discrimination,
and social justice, the potential emotional distress and pain experienced by children should be
carefully considered. Parents should have the right to decide whether their children
participate in such experiences, considering the potential impact on their well-being and
emotional development. While the lessons learned from the project may be valuable, it is
essential to weigh the potential benefits against the emotional toll it may take on children.
10. Using Sternberg’s triangular theory of love, describe two relationships in your life (e.g.,
your parents or your current love relationship) and discuss how these relationships fit into one
or more of Sternberg’s forms of love.
Answer: In my relationship with my parents, I would characterize the love as encompassing
all three components of Sternberg's triangular theory:

• Passion: While the romantic passion may not be the central aspect of the relationship with
my parents, there is still a sense of emotional intensity, attachment, and affection. This
passion is expressed through acts of care, support, and concern for each other's well-being.
• Intimacy: The relationship with my parents is characterized by a deep emotional connection,
trust, and mutual understanding. We share our thoughts, feelings, and experiences openly,
fostering a sense of closeness and intimacy.
• Commitment: There is a strong sense of commitment and dedication in the relationship with
my parents, built on years of shared experiences, sacrifices, and mutual support. We are
committed to each other's happiness, growth, and success, and we prioritize maintaining the
bond despite challenges or disagreements.
Similarly, in my current love relationship, Sternberg's triangular theory applies:
• Passion: The relationship is characterized by romantic passion, desire, and physical
attraction. There is a strong emotional and sexual connection between partners, expressed
through affectionate gestures, intimacy, and shared experiences.
• Intimacy: There is a deep emotional bond and closeness between partners, marked by trust,
honesty, and vulnerability. We share our innermost thoughts, dreams, and fears, fostering a
sense of emotional intimacy and connection.
• Commitment: Both partners are committed to building a future together, sharing goals, and
supporting each other's aspirations. There is a mutual dedication to the relationship, reflected
in efforts to overcome challenges, communicate effectively, and prioritize each other's wellbeing.
11. If you saw someone on the side of the road with a flat tire, would you help that person?
What factors would influence whether you would help or not? Include terminology discussed
in the Latané and Darley study discussed in your text.
Answer: Whether I would help someone on the side of the road with a flat tire would depend
on various factors, including situational cues, personal characteristics, and social influences.
Factors influencing my decision to help or not help may include:
• Bystander Effect: If I am the only person present at the scene, I may feel a stronger sense of
responsibility to help (diffusion of responsibility is reduced), increasing the likelihood of
assistance. However, if there are other bystanders present, I may experience diffusion of
responsibility, assuming that someone else will intervene, leading to a decreased likelihood of
helping.

• Pluralistic Ignorance: If other bystanders are present but do not offer assistance, I may
interpret their inaction as a signal that help is not needed or that it is inappropriate to
intervene, influencing my decision not to help.
• Evaluation Apprehension: If I am concerned about how my actions will be perceived by
others, I may hesitate to offer assistance due to fear of embarrassment, social judgment, or
negative evaluation.
• Perceived Competence: If I feel confident in my ability to help effectively (e.g., changing a
tire), I may be more likely to offer assistance. However, if I lack the necessary skills or
resources to provide meaningful help, I may be less inclined to intervene.
• Empathy and Altruism: If I feel empathy towards the person in need and possess altruistic
motivations, I may be more inclined to offer assistance, regardless of situational factors or
social influences.
Overall, my decision to help someone with a flat tire would depend on a complex interplay of
situational, social, and personal factors, including the presence of bystanders, my perceptions
of the situation, my level of competence and confidence, and my empathic concern for the
individual in need.
Chapter 12 - Quick Quiz 1
1. Social psychology differs from psychology in its focus on ______.
a) people’s susceptibility to clever advertising
b) the influences of the social world in which we exist
c) abnormal behavior
d) conformity
1. b
Explanation:
Social psychology differs from psychology in its focus on the way we are influenced by
others around us and the way we, in turn, influence others.
2. You get a free sample of a new cereal in the mail. The company hopes you will try the
cereal and then feel obligated to buy it. What term do psychologists use to describe this
phenomenon?
a) norm of reciprocity
b) indebtedness
c) augmented return
d) social facilitation
2. a

Explanation:
The norm of reciprocity involves the tendency of people to feel obligated to
give something in return after they have received something.
3. In both social facilitation and social impairment, the key factor is ___________.
a) time
b) the number of people
c) arousal
d) task difficulty
3. c
Explanation:
Arousal interferes with performance.
4. Which of the following would result in cognitive dissonance?
a) Wearing glasses is dignified; a respected political leader wears glasses.
b) Dresses are feminine; Britney Spears wears dresses.
c) Pink shirts are effeminate; Bruce Willis wears pink shirts.
d) Orange juice is healthy; I love orange juice.
4. c
Explanation:
Bruce Willis is not effeminate so the first statement creates dissonance.
5. Your best friend has been acting rather cool toward you lately. As you try to figure out why,
you are engaging in the process called ________________.
a) attribution
b) causal analysis
c) ascribing values
d) nonverbal communication
5. a
Explanation:
You are coming up with explanations for your friend’s behavior.
6. The realistic conflict theory focuses on conflict ______.
a) within an in-group
b) between two groups
c) within an out-group
d) between two members of an in-group
6. b

Explanation:
Most conflict occurs between different groups.
7. All of the following terms are used in social identity theory EXCEPT _______________.
a) in-group
b) control group
c) identification
d) social comparison
7. b
Explanation:
Control group is a term used in the area of experimentation, not in social identity theory.
8. Which type of love is defined as commitment only?
a) infatuation
b) consummate love
c) companionate love
d) empty love
8. d
Explanation:
Empty love involves commitment alone.
9. What term do psychologists use for the phenomenon that occurs when people are less
likely to aid a person in trouble if there are other people around who are also potential
helpers?
a) bystander effect
b) sole-witness effect
c) subtle aggressive effect
d) antisocial behavior effect
9. a
Explanation:
The bystander effect is the phenomenon that occurs when people don’t help because they
think others will do so.
10. According to the research of Latané and Darley, which of the following situations would
be the most likely in which someone would offer to help?
a) person on the side of the road with a flat tire during rush hour b) person asking for help in
a crowded stadium parking lot c) person falling down coming out of an elevator with only
one other person in it. d) a student falling off a ladder outside a full classroom

10. c
Explanation:
Latané and Darley predict that the fewer number of people present the more likely someone
will help.
Chapter 12 - Quick Quiz 2
1. Voluntarily yielding to social norms, even at the expense of one’s own preference, is called
______.
a) obedience
b) submission
c) conformity
d) compliance
1. c
Explanation:
Conformity involves yielding to social norms despite one’s true preference.
2. Which of the following is NOT an example of “groupthink”?
a) the Challenger disaster
b) the Titanic
c) the Boston Red Sox
d) Bay of Pigs
2. c
Explanation:
This is a group that works together as a team and considers facts realistically.
3. Some have suggested that the results of Milgram’s obedience study may have been due to
the __________ effect.
a) reciprocity
b) indebtedness
c) foot-in-the-door
d) returning-a-favor
3. c
Explanation:
Some thought the participants felt obliged to continue with each level of shock because they
had already complied with the previous ones.
4. How can a coach get his football team to perform better if he suspects they are exhibiting
social loafing?

a) introduce new challenges
b) get the captain to apply pressure
c) grade their individual performances
d) ignore the behavior
4. c
Explanation:
Social loafers stop their loafing when they are being evaluated on their individual
performance.
5. What do we call judgments about people, situations, objects, or thoughts?
a) cognitions
b) stereotypes
c) attitudes
d) attributions
5. c
Explanation:
Attitudes are responses, or judgments, either positive or negative, toward people, ideas, or
objects.
6. What process describes the use of social influence to cause other people to change their
attitudes and behavior?
a) enticement
b) persuasion
c) conversion
d) affectance
6. b
Explanation:
Persuasion is the use of social influence to cause other people to change their attitudes and
behavior.
7. Which term refers to a set of characteristics believed to be shared by all members of a
particular group?
a) stereotype
b) expectation
c) classification
d) categorization
7. a

Explanation:
The term stereotype refers to a set of characteristics believed to be shared by all members of a
particular group.
8. Attributions are __________________.
a) explanations that account for one’s own behaviors and/or the behaviors of others.
b) innate personality traits
c) genetic predispositions to behave a certain way
d) physical qualities people have such as attractiveness
8. a
Explanation:
Attributions are reasons people have to explain the behavior of themselves and others.
9. What term do psychologists use to describe our liking of other people?
a) love
b) appeal
c) interpersonal attraction
d) cognitive dissonance
9. c
Explanation:
Psychologists use the term interpersonal attraction to describe our liking of other people.
10. The hormone associated with aggression seems to be ___________.
a) testosterone
b) estrogen
c) MDH
d) peptone
10. a
Explanation:
The hormone associated with aggression seems to be testosterone, and it’s the one males have
the most of.

Test Bank for Psychology: Dsm 5
Saundra K. Ciccarelli, J. Noland White
9780205986378

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