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3 Sensation and Perception
1. ______ are the raw data of experience, based on the activation of certain receptors located
in the various sensory organs.
a. Perceptions
b. Emotions
c. Cognitions
d. Sensations
Answer: d. Sensations
Correct. Sensations are the raw data of experience based on receptor activation.
a. Perceptions
Incorrect. Perception is the mental process of sorting, identifying, and arranging the raw data
of experience into meaningful patterns. Sensations are the raw data of experience.
2. Activation of the receptors by stimuli is called ________.
a. perception
b. sensation
c. adaptation
d. habituation
Answer: b. sensation
Correct. Sensation is the activation of the receptors by stimuli.
a. perception
Incorrect. Perception is the mental process of sorting, identifying, and arranging the raw data
of experience into meaningful patterns. Sensation is the activation of the receptors.
3. Cells that are triggered by light, vibrations, sounds, touch, or chemical substances are
called ________.
a. ganglion cells
b. bipolar cells
c. ossicles
d. sensory receptors
Answer: d. sensory receptors
Correct. Cells that are triggered by light, vibrations, sounds, touch, or chemical substances
are called sensory receptors; examples are rods, cones, and hair cells.
a. ganglion cells

Incorrect. Ganglion cells are connector neurons that come into play later in the process. They
take information from receptors and related cells and then send it on for more processing.
Receptors respond directly to stimuli.
4. Suppose Maria is painting while the sun is setting; once she notices that the room is getting
darker, she decides to call it quits for the day. This example illustrates the role of ________.
a. threshold
b. a just-noticeable difference
c. absolute threshold
d. bias
Answer: b. a just-noticeable difference
Correct. This example demonstrates a just noticeable difference, because Maria identifies that
the room is gone sufficiently dark to necessitate quitting work.
c. absolute threshold
Incorrect. The absolute threshold is the minimum amount of information must be received in
order to be detected 50% of the time. This example demonstrates a just noticeable difference.
5. Ernest Weber provided a formulation that is used to determine the ______________.
a. largest detectable stimulus
b. smallest detectable stimulus
c. largest detectable difference between two stimuli
d. change in smallest detectable difference between two stimuli
Answer: d. change in smallest detectable difference between two stimuli
Correct. Weber provided a formulation that is used to predict the smallest detectable
difference between two stimuli.
b. smallest detectable stimulus
Incorrect. Weber did not focus on the absolute threshold but is known instead for his work on
the just noticeable difference (jnd).
6. The difference threshold is defined as the degree of change in a stimulus level that is
required in order for a person to detect a change __________ of the time.
a. 25 percent
b. 75 percent
c. 50 percent
d. 100 percent
Answer: c. 50 percent

Correct. The difference threshold is defined as the degree of change in a stimulus level that is
required in order for a person to detect it 50 percent of the time.
b. 75 percent
Incorrect. The difference threshold is defined as the degree of change in a stimulus level that
is required in order for a person to detect it 50 percent of the time.
7. The principle that the just noticeable difference of any given sense is a constant fraction or
proportion of the stimulus being judged is called ______.
a. the opponent-process principle
b. the doctrine of specific nerve energies
c. the phi phenomenon
d. Weber’s law
Answer: d. Weber’s law
Correct. Weber’s law describes how change detection is based on a proportion of the stimulus
intensity.
a. the opponent-process principle
Incorrect. The opponent-process principle refers to a concept regarding color vision.
8. Ernest Weber provided a formulation that is used to determine the ______________.
a. largest detectable stimulus
b. smallest detectable stimulus
c. largest detectable difference between two stimuli
d. smallest detectable difference between two stimuli
Answer: d. smallest detectable difference between two stimuli
Correct. Weber provided a formulation that is used to predict the smallest detectable
difference between two stimuli.
b. smallest detectable stimulus
Incorrect. Weber did not focus on the absolute threshold but is known instead for his work on
the just noticeable difference (jnd).
9. The lowest stimulus intensity required for detection is the ______ and the smallest
noticeable difference between a standard stimulus intensity and another stimulus value is the
______.
a. absolute threshold; just noticeable difference
b. base value; just noticeable difference (jnd)
c. response criterion; sensory constant
d. difference threshold; absolute threshold

Answer: a. absolute threshold; just noticeable difference
Correct. The lowest stimulus intensity required for detection is the absolute threshold, and the
smallest noticeable difference between a standard stimulus intensity and another stimulus
value is the difference threshold.
d. difference threshold; absolute threshold
Incorrect. The lowest stimulus intensity required for detection is the absolute threshold,
whereas the smallest noticeable difference between a standard stimulus intensity and another
stimulus value is the difference threshold.
10. Sensation is to perception as ________ is to ________.
a. stimulation; recognition
b. awareness; interpretation
c. interpretation; awareness
d. organization; interpretation
Answer: a. stimulation; recognition
Correct. The stimulation of our sensory receptors by energy from the world around us is
sensation. The process by which that energy is interpreted into recognized patterns is
perception.
c. interpretation; awareness
Incorrect. In a general sense, this is the opposite of the correct answer.
11. The point at which a person can detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time it is presented is
called the ______.
a. absolute threshold
b. range threshold
c. difference threshold
d. noticeable threshold
Answer: a. absolute threshold
Correct. The point at which a person can detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time it is
presented is called the absolute threshold.
c. difference threshold
Incorrect. The difference threshold is the smallest difference between two stimuli that a
person can detect 50 percent of the time it is presented.
12. The term just noticeable difference is synonymous with ______.
a. separation threshold
b. response threshold

c. difference threshold
d. absolute threshold
Answer: c. difference threshold
Correct. The term just noticeable difference is synonymous with difference threshold and
refers to the detection of change.
b. response threshold
Incorrect. Response threshold is not a term used in the text. The term difference threshold is
the correct synonym.
13. The lowest intensity of a particular stimulus that enables the average person to detect that
stimulus 50 percent of the time it is presented is called the ___________.
a. absolute threshold
b. difference threshold
c. just noticeable difference
d. psychophysical threshold
Answer: a. absolute threshold
Correct. The absolute threshold is the lowest intensity of a particular stimulus that enables the
average person to consciously detect that stimulus 50 percent of the time it is presented.
d. psychophysical threshold
Incorrect. There is no such term as psychophysical threshold.
14. The smallest amount of a particular stimulus required to produce any sensation at all in
the person to whom the stimulus is presented is the __________.
a. absolute threshold
b. minimum threshold
c. difference threshold
d. noticeable threshold
Answer: a. absolute threshold
Correct. The smallest amount of a particular stimulus required to produce any sensation at all
in a person is the absolute threshold. Below that level the stimulus cannot be detected
reliably.
b. minimum threshold
Incorrect. The smallest amount of a stimulus required to produce any sensation at all in a
person is the absolute threshold. The term minimum would seem to be correct, but it is not
used.

15. When Ann went to her doctor, he gave her a hearing test. During the test, the doctor
presented tones to Ann through earphones. The tones started at a low intensity and then
became louder. The doctor asked Ann to raise her hand whenever she started to hear a sound.
The doctor was testing Ann’s ______.
a. auditory convergence
b. absolute threshold
c. refractory threshold
d. difference threshold
Answer: b. absolute threshold
Correct. The doctor was testing Ann’s absolute threshold or the softest sound she could
detect.
d. difference threshold
Incorrect. The doctor was testing Ann’s absolute threshold, not her ability to detect a
difference or change.
16. Some people believe that _______ are messages that can be sent to consumers, prompting
them to buy a product without their being aware of receiving such messages.
a. selective perceptions
b. subliminal stimuli
c. inductive perceptions
d. below threshold perceptions
Answer: b. subliminal stimuli
Correct. Subliminal stimuli are believed to operate at an unconscious level, meaning that
people would be unaware of having perceived them.
d. below threshold perceptions
Incorrect. Below threshold perceptions would refer to stimuli that are too weak to be
perceived, not necessarily to those that are perceived on an unconscious level.
17. The average threshold for human vision is a candle flame seen from ______ on a dark,
clear night.
a. 1 mile
b. 15 miles
c. 7.5 miles
d. 30 miles
Answer: d. 30 miles
Correct. The average threshold for human vision is a candle flame seen from 30 miles.

b. 15 miles
Incorrect. The average threshold for human vision is a candle flame seen from 30 miles.
18. We can see a candle flame at 30 miles on a clear, dark night, and we can hear the tick of a
watch 20 feet away in a quiet room. These two facts are examples of ____________.
a. jnds
b. difference threshold
c. adaptation
d. absolute thresholds
Answer: d. absolute thresholds
Correct. These are absolute thresholds, as they are at the lower limits of our detection.
b. difference threshold
Incorrect. Difference threshold has to do with the detection of changes, not the lowest
detectable stimulus level.
19. The average threshold for human hearing is the tick of a watch from ______ under very
quiet conditions.
a. 20 feet
b. 60 feet
c. 40 feet
d. 80 feet
Answer: a. 20 feet
Correct. The average threshold for human hearing is the tick of a watch from 20 feet under
very quiet conditions.
d. 80 feet
Incorrect. The average threshold for human hearing is the tick of a watch from 20 feet under
very quiet conditions.
20. One problem with Vicary’s study of subliminal perception is that _______________.
a. it demonstrated the validity of the concept of subliminal perception
b. it did not prove that people actually bought more colas and popcorn for several months
after seeing the movie
c. it showed that subliminal stimuli had only very small effects on consumer patterns
d. it never happened
Answer: d. it never happened
Correct. As it turned out, Vicary’s study never actually happened, and other researchers were
unable to duplicate the results Vicary claimed he got.

a. it demonstrated the validity of the concept of subliminal perception
Incorrect. Vicary’s study never happened, and subliminal perception has not been shown to be
useful.
21. Laverne goes to a movie theater to watch her favorite movie. About halfway through the
movie she becomes aware of an overpowering hunger for popcorn. What she doesn’t realize
is that throughout the first part of the movie, a message saying “Eat Popcorn!” was repeatedly
flashed on the screen at a speed too fast for her to be consciously aware of it. If her desire for
popcorn is due to that message, she is responding to ______.
a. selective perception
b. subliminal perception
c. cognitive restructuring
d. stroboscopic perception
Answer: b. subliminal perception
Correct. She is responding to subliminal perception, which is not consciously detected.
a. selective perception
Incorrect. Selective perception would refer to a choice between above threshold stimuli.
22. When you first put your hat on, you can feel it quite easily, but after a while, you forget
that you are wearing a hat at all—the sensation is gone. What happens?
a. sensory fatigue
b. subliminal perception
c. habituation
d. perceptual defense
Answer: c. habituation
Correct. Habituation is the process by which the lower centers of the brain sort through
sensory stimulation and “ignore,” or prevent conscious attention to, stimuli that do not
change.
a. sensory fatigue
Incorrect. Sensory fatigue is not the proper term, though it sounds like it could be correct.
23. The process by which unchanging information from the senses of taste, touch, smell, and
vision is “ignored” by the sensory receptor cells themselves is called __________________.
a. transformation
b. sensory adaptation
c. transmutation
d. transduction

Answer: b. sensory adaptation
Correct. The process by which unchanging information from the senses of taste, touch, smell,
and vision is “ignored” by the sensory receptors is called adaptation, and it prevents us from
being bombarded by constant sensations.
c. transmutation
Incorrect. Transmutation is the process of turning one object or element into another and is
not relevant to the sensory process described.
24. In the process known as_____________, sensory receptors become less sensitive to
repeated presentations of the same stimulus.
a. sensation
b. sensory fatigue
c. sensory adaptation
d. discrimination
Answer: c. sensory adaptation
Correct. Sensory adaptation is the process whereby receptors become less responsive to an
unchanging stimulus.
b. sensory fatigue
Incorrect. There is no such term as sensory fatigue.
25. Our eyes don’t adapt completely to a repeated visual stimulus because ______.
a. eye movements called microsaccades cause the stimulus image to vibrate slightly on the
retina
b. the optic chiasm enables fibers to carry messages to all parts of the brain
c. ganglion cells fire continuously
d. visual acuity is greatest in the fovea
Answer: a. eye movements called microsaccades cause the stimulus image to vibrate slightly
on the retina
Correct. Microsaccades cause the stimulus image to vibrate slightly on the retina and not
fade.
c. ganglion cells fire continuously
Incorrect. The fact that ganglion cells fire continuously does not explain why our eyes do not
adapt completely to a repeated visual stimulus.
26. Because of what you have learned about sensory adaptation, you might think that if you
stared at a picture for a long period of time, the image you see would eventually fade. This
would be the case if not for the tiny vibrations of your eye called ______________.

a. glissades
b. microsaccades
c. habituation movements
d. light wave responses
Answer: b. microsaccades
Correct. Microsaccades cause the stimulus image to drift slightly on the retina and not fade.
a. glissades
Incorrect. Glissades are slow, tracking eye movements. Saccades cause the stimulus image to
drift slightly on the retina and not fade.
27. Microsaccades are _______________.
a. tiny vibrations of the eye that prevent images from fading
b. the tiny bones in the ear that transmit sound waves to the cochlea
c. the photoreceptors in the eye responsible for night vision
d. pain receptors in the limbs
Answer: a. tiny vibrations of the eye that prevent images from fading
Correct. Microsaccades are the tiny vibrations of the eye that prevent images from fading by
avoiding image stabilization.
b. the tiny bones in the ear that transmit sound waves to the cochlea
Incorrect. The tiny bones in the ear are called the hammer, anvil, and stirrup.
28. The term photon refers to _______________.
a. a tiny packet of light waves.
b. a torpedo used by the USS Enterprise
c. the smallest unit of sound
d. the property of light that gives us the perception of color
Answer: a. a tiny packet of light waves.
Correct. Tiny packets of light waves are called photons.
d. the property of light that gives us the perception of color
Incorrect. The smallest possible unit of light is known as a photon.
29. Which pairing of name and property of light is correct?
a. Helmholtz; particle nature (photon)
b. Holstein; wave nature
c. Newton; wave nature
d. Einstein; wave packet (photon)
Answer: d. Einstein; wave packet (photon)

Correct. Einstein’s work was central to our understanding of the dual nature of light.
a. Helmholtz; particle nature (photon)
Incorrect. At Helmholtz’s time, the true dual nature of light (waves and particle) was not yet
understood.
30. Light is said to have a dual nature, meaning it can be thought of in two different ways.
These two ways are _________________.
a. particles and photons
b. waves and frequencies
c. waves and particles
d. dark light, daylight
Answer: c. waves and particles
Correct. Light comes in indivisible particles called photons but does demonstrate the
properties of waves.
a. particles and photons
Incorrect. Light comes in indivisible particles called photons but does demonstrate the
properties of waves. Because particles and photons mean the same thing in this answer, they
do not indicate a dual nature.
31. The shortest wavelengths that we can see are experienced as ______ colors.
a. red
b. blue
c. green
d. yellow
Answer: b. blue
Correct. Blue has the shortest wavelength.
a. red
Incorrect. Red is associated with the longest wavelengths, not the shortest.
32. The longest wavelengths we can see are experienced as ______ colors.
a. red
b. blue-violet
c. green
d. yellow
Answer: a. red
Correct. Red has the longest wavelength of light that we can perceive.
d. yellow

Incorrect. Wavelengths that appear yellow are toward the middle of the visible spectrum.
33. What color would you report seeing if a researcher projects the longest wavelength in the
visible spectrum onto a screen?
a. red
b. blue
c. yellow
d. violet
Answer: a. red
Correct. The human eye sees the longest wavelengths as the color red.
b. blue
Incorrect. The human eye sees the shortest, not the longest, wavelengths as the color blue.
The longest wavelengths appear red.
34. The visible spectrum refers to the _______________________.
a. portion of the whole spectrum of light that is visible to the human eye
b. effect of intensity on how we see dark to grey to white
c. effect of the sound density on the perceptions of those with synesthesia
d. well-known fact that colors are less visible to some men’s eyes
Answer: a. portion of the whole spectrum of light that is visible to the human eye
Correct. The visible spectrum refers to the portion of the whole spectrum of light that is
visible to the human eye. Wavelengths outside the visible spectrum of approximately 400 to
700 nanometers are not visible to humans.
d. well-known fact that colors are less visible to some men’s eyes
Incorrect. The visible spectrum refers to the portion of the whole spectrum of light that is
visible to the human eye.
35. Joachim and Maricella are going for a romantic walk in the park after an afternoon storm.
Maricella looks up in the sky and sees a rainbow. She exclaims, “How beautiful!” Joachim,
being something of a science buff, might correctly say ______________________
a. “You are just seeing the visible spectrum.”
b. “That’s because you are seeing all the wavelengths of light we can see from short to long.”
c. “That’s because different wavelengths lead to the perception of different colors.”
d. All of these things would be true if Joachim said them.
Answer: d. All of these things would be true if Joachim said them.

Correct. All of these statements are correct. In viewing a rainbow, we see the visible spectrum
with all the wavelengths of light, and the different wavelengths lead to the perception of
different colors.
a. “You are just seeing the visible spectrum.”
Incorrect. Joachim would be correct to say she is seeing the visible spectrum, but statements
b and c are also correct.
36. Erin has learned to create a “truly red” light by focusing on only one wavelength of the
visible spectrum. She is most likely to be concerned with which property of light?
a. intensity
b. decibels
c. accommodation
d. saturation
Answer: d. saturation
Correct. Saturation, also known as purity, is the correct property of light. A single wavelength
usually looks highly saturated.
a. intensity
Incorrect. Intensity determines how bright the light will seem. Saturation, also known as
purity, is the correct property of light. A single wavelength usually looks highly saturated.
37. When light waves enter the eye, they first pass through the _________________.
a. iris
b. lens
c. pupil
d. cornea
Answer: d. cornea
Correct. When light waves enter the eye, they first pass through the cornea.
b. lens
Incorrect. The lens is transparent but is located inside the eye. The cornea is the outer
covering.
38. The clear, transparent protective coating over the front part of the eye is the ______.
a. fovea
b. sclera
c. cornea
d. iris
Answer: c. cornea

Correct. The clear, transparent protective coating over the front part of the eye is the cornea.
It focuses most of the light entering the eye.
d. iris
Incorrect. The iris is the colored part of the eye that controls the opening of the pupil. The
clear, transparent protective coating over the front part of the eye is the cornea.
39. The aspect of color that corresponds to names such as red, green, and blue is ______.
a. brightness
b. saturation
c. hue
d. fine detail
Answer: c. hue
Correct. Hue refers to the names we give to various colors.
a. brightness
Incorrect. Brightness refers to our perception of light’s intensity. The aspect of color that
corresponds to names such as red, green, and blue is hue.
40. Why do you see a lemon as yellow?
a. The lemon absorbs yellow wavelengths in the yellow region of the spectrum.
b. The lemon might reflect only yellow wavelengths in the yellow region of the spectrum.
c. The lemon absorbs red and blue wavelengths.
d. The lemon reflects all wavelengths of light other than yellow.
Answer: b. The lemon might reflect only yellow wavelengths in the yellow region of the
spectrum.
Correct. The lemon reflects only yellow wavelengths in the yellow region of the spectrum.
a. The lemon absorbs yellow wavelengths in the yellow region of the spectrum.
Incorrect. If the lemon absorbed wavelengths, it wouldn’t look yellow. The light must be
reflected in order for it to reach the eye.
41. The wavelength of the light reaching your eyes determines in part what ______ you see.
a. brightness
b. saturation
c. hue
d. fine detail
Answer: c. hue
Correct. Wavelength determines hue.
a. brightness

Incorrect. Brightness is determined in part by stimulus intensity. Wavelength determines hue.
42. Jamie, a toddler, is making distinctions about various aspects of color in terms of whether
it looks red, blue, and so on. In doing so, she is referring to its ________.
a. amplitude
b. lightness
c. hue
d. reflection
Answer: c. hue
Correct. The specific type of color that we see is a reference to the hue of the light that is
being received by our eyes.
b. lightness
Incorrect. The likeness of a particular light wave refers to the intensity of brightness that we
see.
43. Which part of the eye is a muscle that regulates the size of the pupil?
a. iris
b. lens
c. retina
d. sclera
Answer: a. iris
Correct. The iris is a muscle that controls pupil size.
b. lens
Incorrect. The lens changes shape in order to focus on near or far objects. The iris controls the
pupil size, thereby allowing varying amounts of light to enter.
44. What is the pupil of the eye?
a. It is the white part of the eye.
b. It is the colored part of the eye.
c. It is the location of the visual receptors.
d. It is the small opening in the center of the eye.
Answer: d. It is the small opening in the center of the eye.
Correct. The pupil is the small opening in the center of the eye.
b. It is the colored part of the eye.
Incorrect. The colored part of the eye is the iris.
45. When we describe someone’s eyes as blue, technically we are referring to his or her blue
________.

a. pupils
b. irises
c. corneas
d. scleras
Answer: b. irises
Correct. The iris is the colored part of the eye.
a. pupils
Incorrect. The pupil is the hole formed by the iris.
46. The pupil is the ______.
a. opening in the center of the iris
b. white of the eye
c. colored part of the eye
d. lining in the back of the eyeball
Answer: a. opening in the center of the iris
Correct. The pupil is the opening in the center of the iris and controls the amount of light
entering the eye.
c. colored part of the eye
Incorrect. The iris is the colored part of the eye that controls pupil size. The pupil is the
opening in the center of the iris.
47. The colored part of the eye that contains muscles to contract or expand the pupil is the
______.
a. lens
b. iris
c. fovea
d. cornea
Answer: b. iris
Correct. The colored part of the eye that contains muscles to contract or expand the pupil is
the iris.
d. cornea
Incorrect. The cornea is the clear, transparent covering of the eye. The colored part of the eye
is the iris.
48. The amount of light entering the eye is controlled by the ______.
a. cornea
b. lens

c. pupil
d. retina
Answer: c. pupil
Correct. The amount of light entering the eye is controlled by the pupil.
b. lens
Incorrect. The lens acts to focus the light, finishing the process begun by the cornea. The
amount of light entering the eye is controlled by the pupil.
49. Light is focused on the retina by the ______.
a. pupil
b. ganglion cells
c. lens
d. iris
Answer: c. lens
Correct. Light is focused on the retina by the lens.
a. pupil
Incorrect. The pupil controls the amount of light entering the eye. Light is focused on the
retina by the lens.
50. The change in the shape of the lens in order to focus on a visual image is known
as_______________.
a. fixation
b. divergence
c. convergence
d. visual accommodation
Answer: d. visual accommodation
Correct. Accommodation is the change in the shape of the lens to focus and bend the light,
which is more or less based on target distance.
c. convergence
Incorrect. Convergence is what occurs when the two eyes move in concert to coordinate
image location of the fovea of each eye.
51. Which component of the eye contains the visual receptors?
a. sclera
b. retina
c. cornea
d. posterior chamber

Answer: b. retina
Correct. The retina contains the visual receptors called rods and cones.
d. posterior chamber
Incorrect. The posterior chamber is a hollow space in the back of the eye. The retina contains
the visual receptors.
52. Bundles of axons from ganglion cells make up the ______.
a. fovea
b. optic nerve
c. optic schism
d. rods and cones
Answer: b. optic nerve
Correct. Bundles of axons from ganglion cells make up the optic nerve.
c. optic schism
Incorrect. Optic schism is not a real term.
53. Which of the following sequences correctly indicates the pathway of nerve impulses on
their way from the eye to the brain?
a. ganglion cells, bipolar cells, photoreceptor cells, optic nerve
b. bipolar cells, receptor cells, ganglion cells, optic nerve
c. photoreceptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, optic nerve
d. photoreceptor cells, bipolar cells, optic nerve, ganglion cells
Answer: c. photoreceptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, optic nerve
Correct. The correct sequence is photoreceptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, optic nerve.
The ganglion cells get information from the bipolar cells, and their axons form the optic
nerve.
d. photoreceptor cells, bipolar cells, optic nerve, ganglion cells
Incorrect. The correct sequence is receptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, optic nerve.
54. The place in the retina where the axons of all the ganglion cells come together to leave the
eye is called the __________.
a. fovea
b. blind spot
c. optic chiasm
d. optic nerve
Answer: b. blind spot

Correct. The blind spot is the place where the ganglion cell axons come together and where
there are no receptors for sight.
c. optic chiasm
Incorrect. The optic chiasm is the junction between the optic nerves from both eyes. The
blind spot is the place where the axons come together to leave the eye.
55. Which of the following is true about cones?
a. They are responsible for black and white vision.
b. They are found mainly in the center of the eye.
c. They operate mainly at night.
d. They respond only to black and white.
Answer: b. They are found mainly in the center of the eye.
Correct. Cones are found mainly in the center of the eye.
d. They respond only to black and white.
Incorrect. Cones are responsible for color.
56. Each retina of the eye has about ______ million rods.
a. 1
b. 75
c. 25
d. 120
Answer: d. 120
Correct. Each retina of the eye has about 120 million rods.
a. 1
Incorrect. Each retina of the eye has about 120 million rods and cones.
57. Which of the following phenomena is a function of the distribution of the rods and cones
in the retina?
a. The moon looks much larger near the horizon than it looks when it is higher in the sky.
b. The light from distant stars moving rapidly away from us is shifted toward the red end of
the spectrum.
c. Stars can be seen only with difficulty during the daytime.
d. A dim star viewed at night may disappear when you look directly at it but reappear when
you look to one side of it.
Answer: d. A dim star viewed at night may disappear when you look directly at it but
reappear when you look to one side of it.

Correct. Cones are at the center of the retina and do not function well at night, but rods,
located on the periphery of the retina, see well in dim light.
c. Stars can be seen only with difficulty during the daytime.
Incorrect. A dim star may disappear when you look directly at it but reappear when you look
to one side of it as it falls on the rods.
58. When you enter a darkened room (e.g., a movie theatre) you will find it hard to see at first
but shortly afterward you will be able to see much better. This phenomenon is referred to as:
a. color adaptation.
b. cone adaptation.
c. dark adaptation.
d. light adaptation.
Answer: c. dark adaptation.
Correct. Dark adaptation is the process by which our eyes adjust to a dimmer environment.
d. light adaptation.
Incorrect. Light adaptation is the process by which our eyes adjust to a brighter environment.
59. It is difficult to distinguish between colors at night because ______.
a. we are seeing primarily with the cones
b. rods do not adapt to the dark
c. we are seeing primarily with the rods
d. we are used to seeing mostly with the fovea
Answer: c. we are seeing primarily with the rods
Correct. It is difficult to distinguish between colors at night because we are seeing primarily
with the rods, and rods are not involved in color processing.
d. we are used to seeing mostly with the fovea
Incorrect. The fovea is full of cones, which do not function at night or at low light levels.
60. Which of the following is true of rods?
a. They respond to color.
b. They are found mainly in the fovea.
c. They operate mainly in the daytime.
d. They are responsible for night vision.
Answer: d. They are responsible for night vision.
Correct. Rods are responsible for night vision.
a. They respond to color.
Incorrect. Cones, not rods, respond to color.

61. Receptor cells in the retina responsible for night vision are ______.
a. bipolar cells
b. ganglion cells
c. rods
d. cones
Answer: c. rods
Correct. Receptor cells in the retina responsible for night vision are rods.
d. cones
Incorrect. Cones are for day vision. Receptor cells in the retina responsible for night vision
are rods.
62. Receptor cells in the retina responsible for color vision and fine acuity are ______.
a. bipolar cells
b. ganglion cells
c. rods
d. cones
Answer: d. cones
Correct. Receptor cells in the retina responsible for color vision are cones.
c. rods
Incorrect. Rods are for night vision and have poor acuity. Receptor cells in the retina
responsible for color vision are cones.
63. Jamie walks from a bright room into a dark room. It will take about ______ minutes for
her rods to fully adjust to the dark.
a. 10
b. 30
c. 20
d. 40
Answer: b. 30
Correct. It will take about 30 minutes for her rods to fully adjust to the dark.
d. 40
Incorrect. It will take about 30 minutes for her rods to fully adjust to the dark.
64. As it gets darker, older folks have a hard time adjusting to the light levels and seeing well.
In some cases, this can be treated with ___________________.
a. vitamin A
b. vitamin B

c. vitamin C
d. vitamin D
Answer: a. vitamin A
Correct. Vision problems can be treated with vitamin A, as this vitamin is a component of our
visual pigments.
b. vitamin B
Incorrect. Vitamin B is not at play in retinal physiology.
65. The fovea is made up of ______.
a. all rods and no cones
b. mostly cones with some rods
c. mostly rods with some cones
d. all cones and no rods
Answer: d. all cones and no rods
Correct. The fovea is made up of all cones and no rods.
b. mostly cones with some rods
Incorrect. The fovea is made up of all cones and no rods.
66. If an artist were to blend red, green, and blue lights together by focusing lights of those
three colors on one common spot, the result would look _________.
a. like nonspectral colors
b. black
c. like white light
d. complimentary
Answer: c. like white light
Correct. A mix of red, green, and blue light would look like white.
b. black
Incorrect. A mix of red, green, and blue light would look like white, whereas mixing these
same colors of paint would result in a blackish mess.
67. If an artist were to blend red, green, and blue paints together, the result would look
_________.
a. like nonspectral colors
b. black
c. like white light
d. complimentary
Answer: b. black

Correct. A mix of red, green, and blue paints would look like black.
c. like white light
Incorrect. A mix of red, green, and blue light would look like white, whereas mixing these
same colors of paint would result in a blackish mess.
68. The idea that the eye contains separate receptors for red, green, and blue is known as the
______ theory.
a. opponent-process
b. additive color mixing
c. trichromatic
d. reductive color mixing
Answer: c. trichromatic
Correct. The idea that the eye contains separate receptors for red, green, and blue is known as
the trichromatic theory.
a. opponent-process
Incorrect. The opponent-process theory is based on red versus green and yellow versus blue.
69. Helmholtz’s explanation of color vision is called the ______.
a. opponent-process theory
b. additive color mixing theory
c. trichromatic theory
d. reductive color mixing theory
Answer: c. trichromatic theory
Correct. Helmholtz’s explanation of color vision is called the trichromatic theory.
a. opponent-process theory
Incorrect. Helmholtz’s explanation of color vision is called the trichromatic theory.
70. The three types of wavelength referred to in the trichromatic theory of color vision are
________.
a. hue, lightness, and brightness
b. opponent, afterimage, and mixing
c. long, medium, and short
d. high, moderate, and low
Answer: c. long, medium, and short
Correct. According to this theory, we have three different cones, each of which is receptive to
long, medium, or short wavelengths of light.
a. hue, lightness, and brightness

Incorrect. These terms refer to aspects of color, not the wavelength of a light wave.
71. If you stare for 30 seconds at a red object and then look at a blank sheet of white paper,
you will see a greenish image of the object. This phenomenon BEST supports the ______
theory of color vision.
a. Grieco trichromatic
b. opponent-process
c. Helmholtz trichromatic
d. Hering’s vibration
Answer: b. opponent-process
Correct. The opponent-process theory sees the cones as being arranged in pairs, and red is
paired with green. The greenish afterimage demonstrates that fatiguing the eye produces
opposite, or opponent, perceptions.
c. Helmholtz trichromatic
Incorrect. The Helmholtz trichromatic theory proposed three types of cones: red cones, blue
cones, and green cones, one for each of the three primary colors of light.
72. Who actually found three types of cones in the retina?
a. Young and Helmholtz
b. Hering
c. Wald and Brown
d. Smith and Wesson
Answer: c. Wald and Brown
Correct. Wald and Brown actually found three types of cones.
a. Young and Helmholtz
Incorrect. Young and Helmholtz theorized about three types of cones; they did not actually
find them.
73. According to the opponent-process theory of color vision, the correct pairings of opposite
colors are _________________________.
a. red versus green and blue versus yellow
b. black versus gray and white versus colored
c. blue versus red and green versus yellow
d. blue versus green and red versus yellow
Answer: a. red versus green and blue versus yellow
Correct. According to the opponent-process theory of color vision, the correct pairings of
opposite colors are red versus green and blue versus yellow.

d. blue versus green and red versus yellow
Incorrect. According to the opponent-process theory of color vision, the correct pairings of
opposite colors are red versus green and blue versus yellow.
74. Which of the following pairs is considered to be an example of opponent cells?
a. green/orange
b. red/pink
c. yellow/blue
d. black/brown
Answer: c. yellow/blue
Correct. Yellow/blue is one of the opponent pairs, as well as red/green, and white/black.
a. green/orange
Incorrect. Green/orange is not one of the opponent pairs suggested in the opponent process
theory of color vision.
75. According to the opponent-process theory, if you stare at a red star for awhile (e.g., 60
seconds) and then look at a plain sheet of white paper you will see an afterimage of the star in
which hue?
a. yellow
b. blue
c. green
d. red
Answer: c. green
Correct. According to the opponent process theory of color vision, green and red are opposing
colors.
d. red
Incorrect. The negative afterimage of red is green, not red itself.
76. The trichromatic and opponent process theories of color vision are not in conflict because
each corresponds to ______.
a. a different portion of the spectrum
b. the opposite half of perceivable colors
c. one type of color blindness
d. a different stage of visual processing
Answer: d. a different stage of visual processing

Correct. The trichromatic theory is concerned with what happens when light hits the cones in
the retina, whereas the opponent-process theory concerns neural signals on their way to the
brain.
a. a different portion of the spectrum
Incorrect. The trichromatic and opponent-process theories correspond to a different stage of
color processing, and they are no longer separate theories.
77. Which neural structures show color opponent processing?
a. rods, cones
b. retinal bipolar and ganglion cells and lateral geniculate cells in the thalamus
c. rods and bipolar cells
d. optic sensors and pigment neurons
Answer: b. retinal bipolar and ganglion cells and lateral geniculate cells in the thalamus
Correct. The retinal ganglion and bipolar cells and lateral geniculate thalamic cells show
color opponent processing.
c. rods and bipolar cells
Incorrect. The retinal ganglion and bipolar cells and lateral geniculate thalamic cells show
color opponent processing.
78. Amy’s school records describe her as a monochromat. What can we assume about Amy’s
perceptual abilities?
a. She does not see color.
b. She sees only two colors.
c. She sees colors one at a time.
d. She cannot remember words used to designate colors.
Answer: a. She does not see color.
Correct. Monochromats do not see color.
b. She sees only two colors.
Incorrect. Monochromats do not see any colors.
79. A person with red–green color blindness will see the world in _____________.
a. blacks, whites, and grays
b. muted reds and greens
c. blues, yellows, and grays
d. yellows, greens, and grays
Answer: c. blues, yellows, and grays

Correct. Red–green color blindness means a person confuses reds and greens, which look
yellowish to that person.
a. blacks, whites, and grays
Incorrect. Blacks, whites, and grays are perceived through our brightness systems and would
be unaffected by color blindness.
80. All of the following are true about color blindness except:
a. People are either unable to distinguish two or more hues from each other or unable to see
hue at all.
b. Most color blindness is a result of sex-linked inheritance.
c. It seems to be more common in women than men.
d. Most people who are color blind cannot distinguish red from green.
Answer: c. It seems to be more common in women than men.
Correct. Research suggests that far more men than women experience color-blindness.
d. Most people who are color blind cannot distinguish red from green.
Incorrect. This is a true statement, so it is not the correct answer to this question.
81. John Russell has color blindness. He is most likely to have difficulty doing which of the
following?
a. distinguishing red from blue
b. distinguishing red from green
c. distinguishing blue from yellow
d. distinguishing red from yellow
Answer: b. distinguishing red from green
Correct. A majority of people who suffer from colorblindness experience difficulties
distinguishing reds and greens from each other.
c. distinguishing blue from yellow
Incorrect. Yellow-blue color blindness is one form of color blindness that is seen, but it is not
nearly as common as red-green color blindness.
82. Why do researchers believe color deficiencies often have genetic causes?
a. Dietary patterns affect color deficiencies.
b. Color perception changes somewhat as we get older.
c. Color deficiencies are more common in some cultures.
d. More males than females suffer from color deficiencies.
Answer: d. More males than females suffer from color deficiencies.

Correct. More males than females suffer from color deficiencies due to the sex-linked
inheritance of most forms of color blindness.
c. Color deficiencies are more common in some cultures.
Incorrect. Color deficiencies are about the same from one culture to another.
83. One of your mother’s siblings is always known for putting together awful-looking colors
when getting dressed. Who is this person more likely to be?
a. your aunt because women have more problems with color vision
b. your uncle because men have more problems with color vision
c. You can’t tell as men and women have an equal chance of having problems with color
vision.
d. Humans rarely have problems with color vision, so this wouldn’t happen.
Answer: b. your uncle because men have more problems with color vision
Correct. Men have more problems with color vision due to the sex-linked nature of most
forms of color blindness.
c. You can’t tell as men and women have an equal chance of having problems with color
vision.
Incorrect. Men have more problems with color vision.
84. Sound waves are simply ___________.
a. the vibration of the molecules of the air surrounding us
b. the impact of acoustrons in the air
c. a form of electronic radiation
d. none of these
Answer: a. the vibration of the molecules of the air surrounding us
Correct. Sound waves are simply the vibration of the molecules of the air surrounding us.
b. the impact of acoustrons in the air
Incorrect. There are no basic particles of sound analogous to photons. Sound does not have
the problem of a dual nature of wave and particle as does light. Thus, there are no such
particles as acoustrons. Sound waves are simply the vibration of the molecules of the air
surrounding us.
85. Which of the following is a characteristic of both light waves and sound waves?
a. hue
b. decibels
c. amplitude
d. wavelength

Answer: d. wavelength
Correct. Wavelength is the common characteristic of both light waves and sound waves.
a. hue
Incorrect. Hue is a particular descriptor of light and color. Pitch is analogous in the sound
domain. The terms are used separately.
86. Pitch is to frequency as ________.
a. frequency is to amplitude
b. high is to low
c. loudness is to amplitude
d. peak is to wave
Answer: c. loudness is to amplitude
Correct. Just as the pitch of the tone we hear is determined by the frequency of the sound
wave, the loudness (or volume) that we experience is determined by the amplitude or
intensity of a sound wave.
d. peak is to wave
Incorrect. The peak of a sound wave refers to its highest point. It does not relate to the
analogy in this question.
87. Sound is best characterized as ________.
a. a psychological and physical event
b. a nonphysical event
c. a psychological event caused by a physical event
d. a physical event caused by a psychological event
Answer: c. a psychological event caused by a physical event
Correct. Although sounds does occur as a result of the reception of a sound wave, sound is
best thought of as a psychological event.
d. a physical event caused by a psychological event
Incorrect. This is the opposite of the correct answer.
88. A sound mixer is impressed by the new equipment that was just installed in his recording
studio. He says that now he will be able to help singers and musicians produce better CDs
because he can eliminate unneeded and undesired wavelengths. What term describes the
characteristic of sound waves that the sound mixer is now able to alter?
a. volleying
b. amplitude
c. frequency

d. saturation
Answer: c. frequency
Correct. Frequency is the characteristic of sound waves associated with wavelengths.
a. volleying
Incorrect. Volleying is the term for what happens when frequencies are above 100 Hz and
auditory neurons take turns firing.
89. Which of the following properties of sound is the most similar to the brightness of light?
a. pitch
b. volume
c. purity
d. timbre
Answer: b. volume
Correct. Volume is the most similar to brightness and is based on the intensity of the stimulus.
c. purity
Incorrect. Purity is most related to saturation in the light domain. In both cases, it refers to the
total amount of different wavelengths, or frequencies, in the stimulus.
90. Which of the following properties of sound would be the most similar to the color, or hue,
of light?
a. pitch
b. loudness
c. timbre
d. purity
Answer: a. pitch
Correct. Pitch relates to sound wavelengths, and color relates to light wavelengths.
b. loudness
Incorrect. Pitch is the property of sound most similar to the color, or hue, of light.
91. An alien from outer space was just captured. Scientists take turns examining the creature.
At a press conference, one of the scientists reports that the alien can hear frequencies between
10,000 and 30,000 Hz. How does the alien’s ability to detect sound compare to a human
being’s ability?
a. The alien and humans detect the same frequencies.
b. Humans can detect higher frequencies than the alien.
c. The alien can detect higher frequencies, but its hearing is not as acute at lower frequencies.

d. Humans can detect higher frequencies; however, the alien detects lower frequencies better
than humans.
Answer: c. The alien can detect higher frequencies, but its hearing is not as acute at lower
frequencies.
Correct. Although the alien can hear frequencies 10,000 Hz above what humans can hear, it
cannot hear frequencies below 10,000 Hz, while humans can.
a. The alien and humans detect the same frequencies.
Incorrect. Although the alien can detect higher frequencies, its hearing is not as acute at lower
frequencies. Humans can hear a range between 20 to 20,000 Hz.
92. Which of the following are the auditory receptors where sound waves finally become
neural impulses?
a. hair cells
b. organs of Corti
c. basilar membranes
d. tectorial membranes
Answer: a. hair cells
Correct. The hair cells are the receptors where sound waves finally become neural impulses.
d. tectorial membranes
Incorrect. The tectorial membranes are support structures. The hair cells are the receptors.
93. What is the basic function of the outer ear?
a. to protect the hair cells
b. to concentrate and funnel sound waves to the eardrum
c. to amplify low-intensity sounds to detectable levels
d. to filter out high-intensity sound waves that can be harmful
Answer: b. to concentrate and funnel sound waves to the eardrum
Correct. The basic function of the outer ear is to concentrate and funnel sound waves to the
eardrum. Enough energy must be collected to eventually move the liquid in the cochlea and
stimulate the hair cells.
a. to protect the hair cells
Incorrect. The hair cells are in the inner ear and, thus, do not need protection from the outer
ear. The basic function of the outer ear is to concentrate and funnel sound waves to the
eardrum.
94. The eardrum is also called the ____________________.
a. bass fiddler membrane

b. oval window
c. tympanic membrane
d. cochlea
Answer: c. tympanic membrane
Correct. The eardrum is also called the tympanic membrane. It transmits vibrations through
the bones of the middle ear to the oval window.
b. oval window
Incorrect. The oval window is later in the system and is attached to the cochlea. The eardrum
is also called the tympanic membrane.
95. The outermost part of the ear is called the _______________.
a. pinna
b. oval window
c. tympanic membrane
d. cochlea
Answer: a. pinna
Correct. The pinna is what you might think of as an earlobe.
d. cochlea
Incorrect. The cochlea is the snail-like organ in the inner ear. The outer ear is called the pinna.
96. Which of the following describes what happens if you trace an auditory stimulus from the
time it first reaches the ear until it arrives at the brain?
a. The outermost part of the ear (pinna) gathers sound waves and funnels them down the
auditory canal striking the eardrum.
b. The basilar membrane causes the hammer, anvil, and stirrup to vibrate striking the oval
window.
c. The auditory cones respond to the various tonal frequencies, which lead the auditory nerve
to send a message to the brain.
d. The auditory nerve joins with the nasal nerve to produce an input to the olfactory lobe.
Answer: a. The outermost part of the ear (pinna) gathers sound waves and funnels them down
the auditory canal striking the eardrum.
Correct. The outermost part of the ear serves as a sort of funnel to concentrate sound energy.
b. The basilar membrane causes the hammer, anvil, and stirrup to vibrate striking the oval
window.
Incorrect. The basilar membrane is inside the inner ear, and the bones cause it to vibrate, not
vice versa. The outer ear serves as a sort of funnel to concentrate sound energy.

97. What are the hammer, anvil, and stirrup?
a. tiny bones located in the middle ear
b. types of cones on the retina
c. types of sound that most people can detect
d. words often used by audiologists in testing for hearing difficulties
Answer: a. tiny bones located in the middle ear
Correct. The hammer, anvil, and stirrup are tiny bones in the middle ear.
c. types of sound that most people can detect
Incorrect. The hammer, anvil, and stirrup are tiny bones in the middle ear.
98. The bone that is attached to the eardrum is called the _______; the bone that is connected
to the oval window is called the ________.
a. anvil (incus); stirrup (stapes)
b. hammer (malleus); anvil (incus)
c. stirrup (stapes); hammer (malleus)
d. hammer (malleus); stirrup (stapes)
Answer: d. hammer (malleus); stirrup (stapes)
Correct. The bone that is attached to the eardrum is called the hammer; the bone that is
connected to the oval window is called the stirrup.
b. hammer (malleus); anvil (incus)
Incorrect. The bone that is attached to the eardrum is called the hammer; the bone that is
connected to the oval window is called the stirrup.
99. Fluid located in the cochlea is set in motion and causes vibration in the _________.
a. ossicles
b. bipolar cells
c. basilar membrane
d. semicircular canals
Answer: c. basilar membrane
Correct. Fluid from the cochlea causes vibrations in the basilar membrane.
a. ossicles
Incorrect. The ossicles are the bones of the middle ear that cause the vibrations in the basilar
membrane. Fluid from the cochlea causes vibrations in the basilar membrane.
100. The place theory of pitch was suggested by __________.
a. Helmholtz
b. Hering

c. Wald
d. Rutherford
Answer: a. Helmholtz
Correct. Helmholtz suggested the theory of pitch.
d. Rutherford
Incorrect. Rutherford suggested the frequency theory. Helmholtz suggested the theory of
pitch.
101. The place theory of pitch suggests that pitch is determined by the __________.
a. specific location where hair cells are stimulated
b. number of hair cells that are stimulated
c. size of the hair cells that are stimulated
d. degree of bend in the stimulated hair cells
Answer: a. specific location where hair cells are stimulated
Correct. The place theory of pitch suggests that pitch is determined by the specific location
where hair cells are stimulated.
b. number of hair cells that are stimulated
Incorrect. The place theory of pitch suggests that pitch is determined by the specific hair cells
that are stimulated.
102. If a person hears a tone of 300 Hz, three groups of neurons take turns sending the
message to the brain—the first group for the first 100 Hz, the second group for the next 100
Hz, and a third for the next 100 Hz. This principle is known as the _________________.
a. place theory
b. volley theory
c. frequency theory
d. rotational theory
Answer: b. volley theory
Correct. The volley theory proposes that three groups of neurons take turns sending the
message to the brain.
a. place theory
Incorrect. The place theory proposes that the pitch a person hears depends on where the
stimulated hair cells are located.
103. Which theory proposes that below 1,000 Hz auditory neurons do not fire all at once but
in rotation?
a. place theory

b. volley principle
c. frequency theory
d. rotational theory
Answer: b. volley principle
Correct. The volley principle proposes that 1,000 Hz auditory neurons do not fire all at once
but in rotation.
a. place theory
Incorrect. The place theory proposes that the pitch a person hears depends on where the
stimulated hair cells are located.
104. Conduction hearing impairment refers to hearing problems that originate in the
____________.
a. outer ear
b. inner ear
c. eardrum and middle ear
d. auditory pathways and brain
Answer: c. eardrum and middle ear
Correct. Conduction deafness refers to hearing problems that originate in the eardrum and
middle ear.
a. outer ear
Incorrect. Conduction deafness refers to hearing problems that originate in the eardrum and
middle ear.
105. Which type of hearing problem can be reduced with ordinary hearing aids?
a. central deafness
b. conduction deafness
c. sensory-neural deafness
d. auditory pathway deafness
Answer: b. conduction deafness
Correct. Conduction deafness can be reduced with ordinary hearing aids.
d. auditory pathway deafness
Incorrect. There is no such term as auditory pathway deafness. Conduction deafness can be
reduced with ordinary hearing aids.
106. In nerve hearing impairment, the problem lies in______________.
a. either the inner ear or the auditory pathways and cortical areas of the brain
b. the outer or middle ear

c. the pontine nucleus
d. the occipital lobe
Answer: a. either the inner ear or the auditory pathways and cortical areas of the brain
Correct. In nerve hearing impairment, the problem lies either in the inner ear or in the
auditory pathways and cortical areas of the brain.
b. the outer or middle ear
Incorrect. In nerve hearing impairment, the problem lies either in the inner ear or in the
auditory pathways and cortical areas of the brain.
107. Larry has been told by his doctor that he is experiencing ________ due to hair cells that
were destroyed as a result of loud sounds.
a. nerve hearing impairment
b. tinnitus
c. conduction hearing impairment
d. a speech segmentation problem
Answer: a. nerve hearing impairment
Correct. Nerve hearing impairment occurs when the hair cells of the ear are destroyed by loud
sounds.
c. conduction hearing impairment
Incorrect. Conduction hearing impairment occurs when there is a physical impairment of the
outer or middle ear.
108. Nerve hearing impairment can be best treated with _______________.
a. normal sound-amplifying hearings aids
b. drug treatments that regrow hair cells
c. classical conditioning to very low sounds
d. cochlear implants
Answer: d. cochlear implants
Correct. Cochlear implants would best help nerve hearing impairment because they allow
sound to bypass the outer and middle ear and send signals from a microphone worn behind
the ear to electrodes implanted directly into the brain.
a. normal sound-amplifying hearings aids
Incorrect. Cochlear implants would best help nerve hearing impairment.
109. Cochlear implants bypass the ______________.
a. outer ear
b. outer and middle ear

c. outer, middle, and inner ear
d. none of the above
Answer: b. outer and middle ear
Correct. Cochlear implants bypass the outer and middle ear as they hook into the auditory
nerve after the cochlea in the inner ear.
c. outer, middle, and inner ear
Incorrect. They work in the inner ear.
110. Laverne looks at the tongue of her friend and sees all kinds of bumps on her tongue.
“Girl,” she says, “you sure have a lot of _____________.”
a. olfactory receptors
b. taste buds
c. papillae
d. taste receptors
Answer: c. papillae
Correct. The “bumps” on the tongue that are visible to the eye are the papillae.
b. taste buds
Incorrect. The “bumps” on the tongue that are visible to the eye are the papillae.
111. A person can have between ____________ taste buds in his or her mouth.
a. 100 to 1,000
b. 20,000 to 50,000
c. 6,000,000 to 120,000,000
d. 500 to 10,000
Answer: d. 500 to 10,000
Correct. The average person has between 500 to 10,000 taste buds.
a. 100 to 1,000
Incorrect. This estimate is too low. A person might have between 500 to 10,000 taste buds in
his or her mouth.
112. Our sense of taste works when food molecules are _________.
a. dissolved in saliva in our mouths
b. chewed in the absence of saliva
c. combined so that four basic tastes are present
d. presented in pure form so that only one basic taste is involved
Answer: a. dissolved in saliva in our mouths
Correct. Our sense of taste works best when food molecules are dissolved in a liquid solution.

b. chewed in the absence of saliva
Incorrect. Our sense of taste works best when food molecules are dissolved in a liquid
solution.
113. Maricella always uses less seasoning on her food than do the other members of her
family. Her sister has just taken an introductory psychology course and says to Maricella,
________
a. “I know what you are – you are a taster pro.”
b. “I know what you are – you are a taster queen.”
c. “I know what you are – you are a supertaster.”
d. “I know what you are – you are a Gustavus Adolphus.”
Answer: c. “I know what you are – you are a supertaster.”
Correct. Someone who is more sensitive to taste than others is called a supertaster.
d. “I know what you are – you are a Gustavus Adolphus.”
Incorrect. Someone who is more sensitive to taste than others is called a supertaster.
114. Approximately how many taste receptors are located on each taste bud?
a. 2
b. 20
c. 50
d. 500
Answer: b. 20
Correct. There are about 20 taste receptors located on each taste bud.
a. 2
Incorrect. There are about 20 taste receptors located on each taste bud.
115. Where are the taste receptors located?
a. on the papillae
b. on the taste buds
c. on the microvilli
d. in the gustatory bulb
Answer: b. on the taste buds
Correct. The taste receptors are located on the taste buds.
a. on the papillae
Incorrect. The taste buds are found on the papillae. The taste receptors are located on the taste
buds.
116. What is the approximate life expectancy of individual taste receptor cells?

a. 1–2 days
b. 10–14 days
c. 1–2 months
d. 1 year
Answer: b. 10–14 days
Correct. The approximate life expectancy of individual taste receptor cells is 10–14 days.
d. 1 year
Incorrect. The approximate life expectancy of individual taste receptor cells is 10–14 days.
117. What are the five primary tastes?
a. hot, sour, spicy, sweet, origami
b. salty, sour, spicy, sweet, tart
c. bitter, salty, sour, sweet, umami
d. peppery, salty, sour, sweet, acidic
Answer: c. bitter, salty, sour, sweet, umami
Correct. The five primary tastes are bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and umami.
b. salty, sour, spicy, sweet, tart
Incorrect. Tart is not one of the five primary tastes. The five are bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and
umami.
118. All of the following are considered “traditional” tastes except:
a. spicy
b. salty.
c. sour.
d. sweet.
Answer: a. spicy
Correct. Spicy is not one of the basic taste sensations, traditional or otherwise.
c. sour.
Incorrect. Sour is considered one of the original, traditional basic tastes.
119. Which of the following tastes is not directly related to taste buds?
a. sweet
b. bitter
c. spicy
d. umami
Answer: c. spicy
Correct. We do not have a specific case but for detecting spicy flavors.

b. bitter
Incorrect. We do have specific taste buds designed to detect bitter flavors.
120. Flavor arises from:
a. taste only.
b. taste and sight.
c. taste and texture.
d. taste and smell.
Answer: d. taste and smell.
Correct. Taste and smell are both components of our experience of flavor.
a. taste only.
Incorrect. The very strong relationship between our sense of taste and our sense of smell give
rise to flavor experiences.
121. Which is the newest of the five basic tastes to be discovered?
a. bitter
b. sour
c. sweet
d. umami or brothy
Answer: d. umami or brothy
Correct. Umami, or brothy, is the newest taste to be discovered.
b. sour
Incorrect. Umami is the newest taste to be discovered.
122. The human olfactory system contains about ______________ olfactory receptors.
a. 100,000
b. 1,000,000
c. 10,000,000
d. 100,000,000
Answer: c. 10,000,000
Correct. The human olfactory system contains about 10,000,000 receptors.
d. 100,000,000
Incorrect. The human olfactory system contains about 10,000,000 receptors.
123. Each olfactory receptor cell has a half dozen to a dozen little hairs that project out. These
are called ______________.
a. olfactory cones
b. olfactory rods

c. olfactory buds
d. cilia
Answer: d. cilia
Correct. The hairs that project out of olfactory cells are called cilia.
c. olfactory buds
Incorrect. The hairs that project out of olfactory cells are called cilia.
124. The cilia in the nasal cavity act in a manner similar to taste buds in that
they______________.
a. respond to various wavelengths of smell
b. contain pressure-sensitive elements that detect certain molecules
c. contain receptor sites that are stimulated by different molecules
d. only respond to five basic smells
Answer: c. contain receptor sites that are stimulated by different molecules
Correct. The cilia in the nasal cavity act in a manner similar to taste buds as they contain
receptor sites that are stimulated by different molecules.
d. only respond to five basic smells
Incorrect. The cilia in the nasal cavity act in a manner similar to taste buds as they contain
receptor sites that are stimulated by different molecules.
125. The sense of smell is also known as __________.
a. olfaction
b. the salivary sense
c. chemical infarctation
d. gustation
Answer: a. olfaction
Correct. The sense of smell is also known as olfaction.
d. gustation
Incorrect. Gustation is the word for the sense of taste.
126. An olfactory stimulus travels from receptor to _____________.
a. olfactory bulb
b. thalamus
c. amygdala
d. pons
Answer: a. olfactory bulb
Correct. An olfactory stimulus travels from receptor to the olfactory bulb.

d. pons
Incorrect. An olfactory stimulus travels from the receptor to the olfactory bulb.
127. Which is the best description of the kinesthetic sense?
a. It has to do with touch, pressure, temperature, and pain.
b. It has to do with the location of body parts in relation to the ground and to each other.
c. It has to do with movement and body position.
d. It has to do with your location as compared to the position of the sun.
Answer: b. It has to do with the location of body parts in relation to the ground and to each
other.
Correct. The kinesthetic sense has to do with the location of body parts in relation to the
ground and to each other.
c. It has to do with movement and body position.
Incorrect. The kinesthetic sense has to do with the location of body parts in relation to the
ground and to each other.
128. Which is the best description of the skin senses?
a. They have to do with touch, pressure, temperature, and pain.
b. They have to do with the location of body parts in relation to the ground and to each other.
c. They have to do with movement and body position.
d. They have to do with your location as compared to the position of the sun.
Answer: a. They have to do with touch, pressure, temperature, and pain.
Correct. Skin senses have to do with touch, pressure, temperature, and pain.
b. They have to do with the location of body parts in relation to the ground and to each other.
Incorrect. The kinesthetic senses are concerned with the location of body parts in relation to
the ground and to each other. Skin senses have to do with touch, pressure, temperature, and
pain.
129. Somasthetic senses involve all of the following except ________.
a. touch
b. pain
c. temperature sensitivity
d. taste
Answer: d. taste
Correct. Taste is a chemical sense, not a somasthetic sense
a. touch
Incorrect. Touch is, in fact, one of the somasthetic senses

130. There is (are) _____________ somesthetic sense system(s).
a. one
b. two
c. three
d. four
Answer: c. three
Correct. There are three somesthetic sense systems.
d. four
Incorrect. There are only three somesthetic sense systems.
131. The skin senses are concerned with ______________.
a. touch, pressure, temperature, and pain
b. the location of body parts in relation to the ground and to each other
c. movement and body position
d. your location as compared to the position of the sun
Answer: a. touch, pressure, temperature, and pain
Correct. The skin senses are concerned with touch, pressure, temperature, and pain.
d. your location as compared to the position of the sun
Incorrect. There is no sense that compares your location to the position of the sun. The skin
senses are concerned with touch, pressure, temperature, and pain.
132. The kinesthetic senses are concerned with ______________.
a. touch, pressure, temperature, and pain
b. the location of body parts in relation to each other
c. movement and body position
d. your location as compared to the position of the sun
Answer: b. the location of body parts in relation to each other
Correct. The kinesthetic senses are concerned with the location of body parts in relation to
each other.
a. touch, pressure, temperature, and pain
Incorrect. Skin senses have to do with touch, pressure, temperature, and pain. The kinesthetic
senses are concerned with the location of body parts in relation to the ground and to each
other.
133. The vestibular senses are concerned with ________________.
a. touch, pressure, temperature, and pain
b. the location of body parts in relation to the ground and to each other

c. movement and body position
d. your location as compared to the position of the sun
Answer: c. movement and body position
Correct. The vestibular senses are concerned with movement and body position.
b. the location of body parts in relation to the ground and to each other
Incorrect. The kinesthetic senses are concerned with the location of body parts in relation to
the ground and to each other. The vestibular senses are concerned with movement and body
position.
134. The average person’s skin is about ________.
a. 10 square feet in size
b. 20 square feet in size
c. 30 square feet in size
d. 40 square feet in size
Answer: b. 20 square feet in size
Correct. The average person’s skin is about 20 square feet in size.
d. 40 square feet in size
Incorrect. The average person’s skin is about 20 square feet in size.
135. Hair follicle nerve endings respond to _____________.
a. temperature alone
b. pain and touch
c. only pain
d. temperature and pain
Answer: b. pain and touch
Correct. Hair follicle nerve endings respond to pain and touch.
c. only pain
Incorrect. Hair follicle nerve endings respond to both pain and touch.
136. Which is the best description of the vestibular senses?
a. They have to do with touch, pressure, temperature, and pain.
b. They have to do with the location of body parts in relation to the ground and to each other.
c. They have to do with movement and body position.
d. They have to do with your location as compared to the position of the sun.
Answer: c. They have to do with movement and body position.
Correct. Vestibular senses have to do with movement and body position.
b. They have to do with the location of body parts in relation to the ground and to each other.

Incorrect. The kinesthetic senses are concerned with the location of body parts in relation to
the ground and to each other. Vestibular senses have to do with movement and body position.
137. Which skin receptors respond only to pressure?
a. Pacinian corpuscles
b. hair follicle nerve endings
c. free nerve endings
d. visceral corpuscles
Answer: a. Pacinian corpuscles
Correct. Pacinian corpuscles respond only to pressure.
c. free nerve endings
Incorrect. Free nerve endings respond to pain and temperature as well as pressure. Pacinian
corpuscles respond only to pressure.
138. You hit yourself with a hammer and later suffer a deep ache. This is an example of
______________.
a. somatic pain
b. visceral pain
c. pressure pain
d. free-standing pain
Answer: a. somatic pain
Correct. Somatic pain can be sharp and fast, but it can also be an ongoing general ache that
keeps people from further injury by reminding them that the body has already been damaged.
c. pressure pain
Incorrect. There is no such term as pressure pain.
139. Pain sensations in the skin, muscles, tendons, and joints that are carried on large nerve
fibers are called ______________.
a. visceral pain
b. somatic pain
c. referred pain
d. indigenous pain
Answer: b. somatic pain
Correct. Pain sensations in the skin, muscles, tendons, and joints that are carried on large
nerve fibers are called somatic pain.
a. visceral pain

Incorrect. Visceral pain is the pain one feels in the organs. Pain sensations in the skin,
muscles, tendons, and joints that are carried on large nerve fibers are called somatic pain.
140. The idea that pain signals must pass through a type of “doorway” in the spinal cord is
referred to as the ______________.
a. opponent-process theory of pain
b. revolving door theory of pain
c. substance P theory of pain
d. gate-control theory of pain
Answer: d. gate-control theory of pain
Correct. The gate-control theory is based on the concept of a doorway in the spinal cord.
b. revolving door theory of pain
Incorrect. There is no such thing as the revolving door theory of pain. The gate-control theory
is based on the concept of a doorway in the spinal cord.
141. The gate-control theory of pain suggests that ___________.
a. the pain signals must pass through a kind of “gate” located in the spinal cord
b. the skin receptors act as a gate for the pain sensation
c. the cortex blocks pain unless released by substance P
d. the gate is a physical structure that blocks pain signals
Answer: a. the pain signals must pass through a kind of “gate” located in the spinal cord
Correct. The gate-control theory is based on the idea that the pain signals must pass through a
kind of “gate” located in the spinal cord.
d. the gate is a physical structure that blocks pain signals
Incorrect. The gate-control theory is based on the idea that the pain signals must pass through
a kind of “gate” in the spinal cord that is not an actual physical structure.
142. Psychological aspects of pain perception can influence the release of the
neurotransmitters called ____________, the body’s natural version of morphine.
a. endorphins
b. substance P
c. serotonin
d. acetyl choline
Answer: a. endorphins
Correct. Psychological aspects of pain perception can influence the release of the
neurotransmitters called endorphins.
b. substance P

Incorrect. Substance P is a chemical released into the spinal cord as a result of stimulation of
the pain receptor cells. Psychological aspects of pain perception can influence the release of
the neurotransmitters called endorphins.
143. Endorphins are the neural transmitters that _____________.
a. control your muscles
b. generate pain sensations
c. act as a natural version of morphine
d. excite the ventral horn of the spinal cord
Answer: c. act as a natural version of morphine
Correct. Endorphins act as a natural version of morphine.
b. generate pain sensations
Incorrect. Endorphins act as a natural version of morphine.
144. Proprioceptors signal ________________.
a. somatic pain
b. skin sensations
c. olfactory sensations
d. the location of our body parts in space
Answer: d. the location of our body parts in space
Correct. Proprioceptors signal to the brain the location of our body parts in space.
a. somatic pain
Incorrect. Somatic pain is carried on nerve fibers. Proprioceptors signal visceral pain (from
the organs) as well as the location of our body parts in space.
145. Closing your eyes and then touching your nose with your forefinger most accurately
illustrates which of the following?
a. vestibular sense
b. kinesthetic sense
c. somasthetic sense
d. anomalous cognition
Answer: b. kinesthetic sense
Correct. The knowledge of the position of your limbs is controlled by the kinesthetic system.
c. somasthetic sense
Incorrect. The kinesthetic system is one of the somasthetic senses, so it would be the better
answer.

146: Which of the following is the primary structure that allows one to maintain his or her
balance?
a. cochlea
b. middle ear
c. semicircular canals
d. circular canals
Answer: c. semicircular canals
Correct. The correct answer is c. semicircular canals. The semicircular canals are part of the
inner ear and are responsible for detecting rotational movements of the head, which helps in
maintaining balance. They contain fluid and sensory hair cells that detect changes in the
movement of this fluid as the head moves, providing crucial information to the brain about
the body's position in space and aiding in balance control.
b. middle ear
Incorrect. b. middle ear: The middle ear contains the eardrum and ossicles, which are
involved in transmitting sound vibrations from the outer ear to the inner ear. It does not play a
primary role in maintaining balance.
147. The reason that there are three semicircular canals is so that ______________.
a. we have one canal to sense motion in each of the three planes
b. we can see the world in three dimensions
c. we can detect sound locations in the three-dimensional world
d. we have an extra if one is broken
Answer: a. we have one canal to sense motion in each of the three planes
Correct. The reason is that we have one canal to sense motion in each of the three planes.
d. we have an extra if one is broken
Incorrect. The reason is that we have one canal to sense motion in each of the three planes.
148. Dizziness, nausea, and disorientation may result if the information from the eyes
conflicts a little too much with that from the vestibular organs, according to the _________ of
motion sickness.
a. sensory conflict theory
b. motor conflict theory
c. vestibular conflict theory
d. semicircular canal conflict theory
Answer: a. sensory conflict theory
Correct. The sensory conflict theory says there may be conflict between the eyes and
vestibular system.

c. vestibular conflict theory
Incorrect. There is no such theory as the vestibular conflict theory. The sensory conflict
theory says there may be conflict between the eyes and vestibular system.
149. Which is the BEST explanation of why we tend to get nauseated when riding in a
moving vehicle?
a. the conflict between vision and the vestibular organs
b. fluid circulating in the semicircular canals
c. vomiting to expel poison
d. none of these
Answer: c. vomiting to expel poison
Correct. The evolutionary theory is seen as the best one. Throughout human evolutionary
history, because poisons have tended to make us dizzy, we try to expel the poison through
vomiting.
a. the conflict between vision and the vestibular organs
Incorrect. The evolutionary theory is seen as the best one. The conflict causes the dizziness
but doesn’t explain why we feel nauseated.
150. Natasha is learning ballet and is just starting on high-speed spins. Her teacher tells her
that to avoid motion sickness, she should ___________.
a. avoid poisons that mimic dizziness
b. try plugging her ears when she spins so that sounds don’t distract her
c. try to focus on some distant point
d. hold her arms over her head
Answer: c. try to focus on some distant point
Correct. Because the distant point won’t seem to move as much as the objects closer to her as
she spins, there is less conflict between her eyes and vestibular organs.
b. try plugging her ears when she spins so that sounds don’t distract her
Incorrect. Audition is not related to the problem. It is a visual problem.
151. ______ is the mental process of making meaning of sensory information.
a. Abstraction
b. Sensation
c. Perception
d. Consciousness
Answer: c. Perception
Correct. Perception is the mental process of making sense of sensory information.

b. Sensation
Incorrect. Sensation is the activation of the receptors. Perception is the mental process of
making sense of sensory information.
152. Perception is the ___________.
a. process by which people take all the sensations they experience at any given moment and
interpret them in some meaningful fashion
b. action of physical stimuli on receptors leading to sensations
c. interpretation of memory based on selective attention
d. act of selective attention from sensory storage
Answer: a. process by which people take all the sensations they experience at any given
moment and interpret them in some meaningful fashion
Correct. Perception is the process by which people take all the sensations they experience at
any given moment and interpret them in some meaningful fashion.
d. act of selective attention from sensory storage
Incorrect. Perception is the process by which people take all the sensations they experience at
any given moment and interpret them in some meaningful fashion.
153. The tendency to interpret an object as always being the same physical dimensions,
regardless of its distance from the viewer, is known as _____________.
a. size constancy
b. shape constancy
c. brightness constancy
d. color constancy
Answer: a. size constancy
Correct. The tendency to interpret an object as always being the same physical dimensions,
regardless of its distance from the viewer, is known as size constancy.
b. shape constancy
Incorrect. Shape constancy has to do with the shapes of objects, not with their physical
dimensions.
154. A student takes a drug that distorts perception. He holds up his hand right in front of his
face. Horrified he yells, “I have a giant hand!” Most likely the drug interfered with
_________________.
a. size constancy
b. shape constancy
c. brightness constancy

d. color constancy
Answer: a. size constancy
Correct. The tendency to interpret an object as always being the same physical dimensions,
regardless of its distance from the viewer, is known as size constancy.
b. shape constancy
Incorrect. Shape constancy has to do with the shapes of objects, not with their physical
dimensions.
155. A piece of paper looks white in both the noonday sun and under moonlight, even though
there is less light being reflected off the paper under moonlight. This form of perceptual
constancy is called _________.
a. size constancy
b. shape constancy
c. brightness constancy
d. color constancy
Answer: c. brightness constancy
Correct. The fact that a piece of paper looks white in both the noonday sun and under
moonlight is a perceptual phenomenon called brightness constancy.
d. color constancy
Incorrect. The fact that a piece of paper looks white in both the noonday sun and under
moonlight is a perceptual phenomenon called brightness constancy.
156. Suppose your town is located in a valley. Obviously, you’ll realize that the size of your
town doesn’t change regardless of whether you look at it up-close or from a hilltop. This is
primarily due to ________.
a. size constancy
b. color constancy
c. retinal disparity
d. stereopsis
Answer: a. size constancy
Correct. Size constancy is the perception that the actual size of an object remains the same
even when it is viewed at different distances.
b. color constancy
Incorrect. Color constancy is the perception that the color of an object remains the same even
when it is seen in different lighting conditions.
157. Figure is to ground as ________.

a. light is to dark
b. obvious is to hidden
c. characteristics are to background
d. shape is to texture
Answer: c. characteristics are to background
Correct. The figure is that which we look and focus on, while the background refers to the
ground against which the figure is set.
b. obvious is to hidden
Incorrect. This is not correct because there are ambiguous figure ground relationships where
it is difficult to distinguish one from the other.
158. Figure–ground relationships concern _________________.
a. the tendency to perceive objects, or figures, on some background
b. the tendency to complete figures that are incomplete
c. the tendency to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping
d. the tendency to perceive things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex,
broken-up pattern
Answer: a. the tendency to perceive objects, or figures, on some background
Correct. Figure–ground relationships have to do with the tendency to perceive objects, or
figures, on some background.
d. the tendency to perceive things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex,
broken-up pattern
Incorrect. Figure–ground relationships refer to the tendency to perceive objects, or figures, on
some background.
159. Suppose you look at a given figure and decide that, depending on how you look at it, it
can be perceived as either an old woman or a young lady. Such a figure would be said to be
________.
a. mixed
b. confused
c. reversible
d. inconsistent
Answer: c. reversible
Correct. When the figure is reversible, it is difficult to distinguish from the ground.
b. confused

Incorrect. The visual stimulus may be confusing, but the correct terminology for such a
stimulus is ambiguous.
160. Similarity is the tendency to perceive _________________.
a. objects, or figures, on some background
b. things that look similar as being part of the same group
c. objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping
d. things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern
Answer: b. things that look similar as being part of the same group
Correct. Similarity refers to the tendency to perceive things that look similar as being part of
the same group.
d. things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern
Incorrect. Similarity refers to the tendency to perceive things that look similar as being part of
the same group.
161. An example of a group or organization that tries to maximize the similarity between
figure and ground would be a(n) ________.
a. business
b. legal office
c. hospital
d. army
Answer: d. army
Correct. The army would use camouflage to try to hide the figure of a soldier from the
background of the surrounding brush.
c. hospital
Incorrect. There would be no reason to reduce the difference between the figure and ground a
hospital setting.
162. Proximity is the tendency _________________.
a. to perceive objects, or figures, on some background
b. to complete figures that are incomplete
c. to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping
d. to perceive things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern
Answer: c. to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping
Correct. Proximity is the tendency to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of
the same grouping.
a. to perceive objects, or figures, on some background

Incorrect. Proximity is the tendency to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of
the same grouping.
163. You will more than likely see “XXX XXX XXX” as three groups of “X” rather than one
group of nine “X”s. This example illustrates which of the following Gestalt Laws?
a. proximity
b. similarity
c. closure
d. continuity
Answer: a. proximity
Correct. The Gestalt law of proximity suggests that objects appear close together would be
perceived as having a relationship.
c. closure
Incorrect. There is no reason to think that your mind would automatically close the gaps
between the three sets of Xs in this example.
164. The tendency to perceive objects, or figures, on some background is known as
___________.
a. figure–ground relationships
b. closure
c. similarity
d. proximity
Answer: a. figure–ground relationships
Correct. Figure–ground relationships refer to the tendency to perceive objects, or figures, on
some background.
c. similarity
Incorrect. Figure–ground relationships refer to the tendency to perceive objects, or figures, on
some background.
165. The tendency to perceive things that look similar as being part of the same group is
known as ___________.
a. figure–ground relationship
b. closure
c. similarity
d. proximity
Answer: c. similarity

Correct. Similarity is the tendency to perceive things that look similar as being part of the
same group.
d. proximity
Incorrect. Similarity is the tendency to perceive things that look similar as being part of the
same group.
166. The tendency to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same
grouping is known as ___________.
a. figure–ground relationship
b. closure
c. similarity
d. proximity
Answer: d. proximity
Correct. Proximity is the tendency to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of
the same grouping.
b. closure
Incorrect. Proximity is the tendency to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of
the same grouping.
167. Closure is the tendency _________________.
a. to perceive objects, or figures, on some background
b. to complete figures that are incomplete
c. to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping
d. to perceive things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern
Answer: b. to complete figures that are incomplete
Correct. Closure is the tendency to complete figures that are incomplete.
d. to perceive things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern
Incorrect. Closure is the tendency to complete figures that are incomplete.
168. The tendency to complete figures that are incomplete is known as ___________.
a. figure–ground relationship
b. closure
c. similarity
d. continuity
Answer: b. closure
Correct. Closure is the tendency to complete figures that are incomplete.
d. continuity

Incorrect. Closure is the tendency to complete figures that are incomplete.
169. Continuity is the tendency _________________.
a. to perceive objects, or figures, on some background
b. to complete figures that are incomplete
c. to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping
d. to perceive things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern
Answer: d. to perceive things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, brokenup pattern
Correct. Continuity refers to the tendency to perceive things with a continuous pattern rather
than with a complex, broken-up pattern.
c. to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping
Incorrect. Continuity refers to the tendency to perceive things with a continuous pattern rather
than with a complex, broken-up pattern.
170. Contiguity is the tendency to perceive _____________.
a. objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping
b. things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern
c. two things that happen close together in time as being related
d. objects that are in a common area or region as being in a group
Answer: c. two things that happen close together in time as being related
Correct. Contiguity is the tendency to perceive two things that happen close together in time
as being related.
b. things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern
Incorrect. Contiguity is the tendency to perceive two things that happen close together in time
as being related.
171. The tendency to perceive things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex,
broken-up pattern is known as ___________.
a. proximity
b. continuity
c. contiguity
d. common region
Answer: b. continuity
Correct. Continuity refers to the tendency to perceive things with a continuous pattern rather
than with a complex, broken-up pattern.
a. proximity

Incorrect. Continuity refers to the tendency to perceive things with a continuous pattern rather
than with a complex, broken-up pattern.
172. The tendency to perceive two things that happen close together in time as being related
is known as ___________.
a. similarity
b. proximity
c. continuity
d. contiguity
Answer: d. contiguity
Correct. Contiguity is the tendency to perceive two things that happen close together in time
as being related.
a. similarity
Incorrect. Contiguity is the tendency to perceive two things that happen close together in time
as being related.
173. Common region is the tendency to perceive ______________.
a. objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping
b. things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern
c. two things that happen close together in time as being related
d. objects that are in a common area or region as being in a group
Answer: d. objects that are in a common area or region as being in a group
Correct. Common region is the tendency to perceive objects that are in a common area or
region as being in a group.
a. objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping
Incorrect. Common region the tendency is to perceive objects that are in a common area or
region as being in a group.
174. The tendency to perceive objects that are in a common area or region as being in a group
is known as ___________.
a. similarity
b. proximity
c. continuity
d. common region
Answer: d. common region
Correct. Common region is the tendency to perceive objects that are in a common area or
region as being in a group.

c. continuity
Incorrect. Common region is the tendency to perceive objects that are in a common area or
region as being in a group.
175. In people who have been blind since birth and who then have had their sight restored,
depth perception _____________.
a. is absent or severely limited
b. is fully present
c. takes a while to recover
d. is slightly limited
Answer: a. is absent or severely limited
Correct. In people who have been blind since birth and who then have had their sight
restored, depth perception is absent or severely limited.
c. takes a while to recover
Incorrect. In people who have been blind since birth and who then have had their sight
restored, depth perception is absent or severely limited.
176. The ability to see the world in three dimensions is called ________.
a. depth perception
b. similarity
c. top-down processing
d. closure
Answer: a. depth perception
Correct. The ability to see the world in three dimensions is called depth perception.
c. top-down processing
Incorrect. The ability to see the world in three dimensions is called depth perception.
177. The distance cue in which two parallel lines extend into the distance and seem to come
together at one point is called ______.
a. linear perspective
b. shadowing
c. aerial perspective
d. motion parallax
Answer: a. linear perspective
Correct. The distance cue in which two parallel lines extend into the distance and seem to
come together at one point is called linear perspective.
c. aerial perspective

Incorrect. The distance cue in which two parallel lines extend into the distance and seem to
come together at one point is called linear perspective.
178. Texture gradient refers to the fact that texture appears to become ______.
a. more detailed in the distance
b. more detailed as brightness increases
c. less detailed in the distance
d. less detailed when it is brighter
Answer: c. less detailed in the distance
Correct. Texture gradient refers to the fact that texture appears to become less detailed in the
distance.
a. more detailed in the distance
Incorrect. Texture gradient refers to the fact that texture appears to become less detailed in the
distance.
179. The depth cue in which faraway objects appear to be hazy and have a blurred outline is
called ______.
a. linear perspective
b. shadowing
c. aerial atmospheric perspective
d. motion parallax
Answer: c. aerial atmospheric perspective
Correct. The depth cue in which faraway objects appear to be hazy and have a blurred outline
is called aerial perspective.
b. shadowing
Incorrect. The depth cue in which faraway objects appear to be hazy and have a blurred
outline is called aerial atmospheric perspective.
180. Which of the following occurs when because one object appears to be blocking another
object, the viewer assumes that the blocked object is farther away?
a. convergence
b. linear perspective
c. overlap
d. texture gradient
Answer: c. overlap
Correct. Overlap, or interposition, is the assumption that an object that appears to be blocking
part of another object is in front of the second object and closer to the viewer.

a. convergence
Incorrect. Overlap is the cue that occurs.
181. Visual distance and depth cues that require the use of both eyes are called ______.
a. monocular cues
b. diocular cues
c. binocular cues
d. dichromatic cues
Answer: c. binocular cues
Correct. Visual distance and depth cues that require the use of both eyes are called binocular
cues.
d. dichromatic cues
Incorrect. Dichromatic is a term used for people who see only two colors. Visual distance and
depth cues that require the use of both eyes are called binocular cues.
182. The fact that, when we look at an object, each one of our two eyes receives a slightly
different image of the object is known as ______.
a. binocular disparity
b. binocular inversion
c. convergence
d. stereophonic vision
Answer: a. binocular disparity
Correct. The fact that, when we look at an object, each one of our two eyes receives a slightly
different image of the object is known as binocular disparity.
d. stereophonic vision
Incorrect. The fact that, when we look at an object, each one of our two eyes receives a
slightly different image of the object is known as binocular disparity.
183. When Bill looks at his lamp alternately with his left eye and right eye, the image seems
to jump from one position to another. This phenomenon illustrates ______.
a. the Gestalt principle of similarity
b. binocular disparity
c. interposition
d. the Gestalt principle of proximity
Answer: b. binocular disparity
Correct. The fact that, when we look at an object, each one of our two eyes receives a slightly
different image of the object is known as binocular disparity.

c. interposition
Incorrect. Interposition, or overlap, is the assumption that an object that appears to be
blocking part of another object is in front of the second object and closer to the viewer.
184. An illusion ________________.
a. is the same thing as a vision
b. is due to the action of the rods versus the cones in the retina
c. is a perception that does not correspond to reality
d. corresponds directly to something that you dreamed
Answer: c. is a perception that does not correspond to reality
Correct. An illusion is a perception that does not correspond to reality. Objects look distorted
in some fashion or a dimension is misperceived.
a. is the same thing as a vision
Incorrect. An illusion is a perception that does not correspond to reality. A vision is more
dreamlike and does not occur as an alteration of a real stimulus.
185. The illusion based on the concept that most people live in a world with lots of buildings
and corners is the _________.
a. moon illusion
b. Poggendorf illusion
c. Ponzo illusion
d. Müller-Lyer illusion
Answer: d. Müller-Lyer illusion
Correct. The illusion based on the concept that most people live in a world with lots of
buildings and corners is the Müller-Lyer illusion.
a. moon illusion
Incorrect. The illusion based on the concept that most people live in a world with lots of
buildings and corners is the Müller-Lyer illusion.
186. The Müller-Lyer illusion exists in cultures in which there are ___________.
a. more men than women
b. more women than men
c. lots of telephone poles
d. buildings with lots of corners
Answer: d. buildings with lots of corners
Correct. The Műller-Lyer illusion exists in cultures in which there are buildings with lots of
corners, which leads to misperception of depth.

b. more women than men
Incorrect. The Müller-Lyer illusion exists in cultures in which there are buildings with lots of
corners. Gender is not a factor in the causality.
187. The best explanation of the moon illusion is ___________.
a. the apparent distance hypothesis
b. the angle world hypothesis
c. the cultural bias hypothesis
d. the top-down processing hypothesis
Answer: a. the apparent distance hypothesis
Correct. The best explanation of the moon illusion is the apparent distance hypothesis, which
states that since the moon appears behind trees and houses, it is seen as being “behind” these
objects and, therefore, farther away from the viewer. Because people know that objects that
are farther away from them but still seem large must be very large, they “magnify” the moon
in their perception.
c. the cultural bias hypothesis
Incorrect. Cultural bias has nothing to do with size perception. The best explanation of the
moon illusion is the apparent distance hypothesis.
188. People’s tendency to perceive a thing a certain way because their previous experiences
or expectations influence them is called _______________.
a. top-down processing
b. telepathy
c. bottom-up processing
d. perceptual expectancy
Answer: d. perceptual expectancy
Correct. Perceptual expectancy refers to a person’s tendency to experience things in a certain
way.
c. bottom-up processing
Incorrect. Perceptual expectancy refers to a person’s tendency to experience things in a
certain way.
189. Suppose you’re driving on a two-lane road on a very snowy night where the divider
cannot be seen. However, in your mind, you’re able to reconstruct where the divider should
be. This example illustrates ________.
a. middle-up processing
b. top-down processing

c. bottom-up processing
d. a perceptual set
Answer: b. top-down processing
Correct. In top-down processing, the expectation of what we will encounter is what initiates
the perception process.
c. bottom-up processing
Incorrect. In bottom-up processing, the stimulus is what initiates the perception process. This
example demonstrates the influence of expectancy on perception, which is an illustration of
top-down processing.
190. Analyzing smaller features and building up to a complete perception is called
________________.
a. top-down processing
b. bottom-up processing
c. perceptual construction
d. hypothesis formation
Answer: b. bottom-up processing
Correct. Bottom-up processing refers to building up a perception from smaller parts, or from
the bottom, so to speak.
d. hypothesis formation
Incorrect. Hypothesis formation is part of top-down processing.
191. Bottom-up processing is initiated by ________.
a. knowledge
b. expectation
c. the stimulus
d. belief
Answer: c. the stimulus
Correct. In bottom-up processing, the stimulus is what initiates the perception process.
b. expectation
Incorrect. In top-down processing, the expectation of what we will encounter is what initiates
the perception process.
192: Which of the following is responsible for your perception that a pencil that is waved up
and down is actually flexing and bending, even though it is made of solid wood?
a. motor neurons
b. vacilatory neurons

c. sensory neurons
d. end-stopped neurons
Answer: d. end-stopped neurons
Correct. The correct answer is d. end-stopped neurons. End-stopped neurons, also known as
Merkel cells or Merkel discs, are found in the skin and are responsible for detecting pressure
and texture. When a pencil is waved up and down, the pressure changes on the skin surface
are detected by these neurons, leading to the perception of flexing and bending, even though
the pencil itself remains rigid.
c. sensory neurons
Incorrect. Sensory neurons transmit sensory information from the body to the central nervous
system. While they are involved in perception, the specific type of neurons responsible for
detecting pressure and texture are end-stopped neurons, not all sensory neurons.
193. If you were to take a sparkler at a July 4th picnic and “draw” your name in the air, your
ability to see the light trail after the initial stimulus is facilitated by:
a. persistence of vision
b. end-stopped neurons
c. bottom-up processing
d. top-down processing
Answer: a. persistence of vision
Correct. Persistence of vision allows us to see things as continuous when they are really
discontinuous.
d. top-down processing
Incorrect. Top-Down processing would not adequately explain why we experience a "tail" of
light that does not truly exist.
TRUE OR FALSE
1. The minimum intensity of physical stimulation required to produce any sensation at all in a
person is the just noticeable threshold.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The minimum intensity of physical stimulation required to produce any sensation at all is
known as the absolute threshold, not the just noticeable threshold. The just noticeable
threshold refers to the smallest change in stimulus intensity that can be detected by an
observer.
2. When you stare at a picture for a long time, it doesn’t fade away because your eye is
making tiny eye movements that are called glissades.

Answer: False
Rationale:
The phenomenon where a static image appears to fade or disappear when stared at for an
extended period is known as visual adaptation or sensory adaptation. It occurs due to changes
in the sensitivity of the visual receptors in response to continuous stimulation, not because of
tiny eye movements known as glissades.
3. Light has two natures and can be thought of as both a wave and a particle.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Light exhibits both wave-like and particle-like properties, known as wave-particle duality.
This concept is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics, where light can behave as
both electromagnetic waves and discrete packets of energy called photons.
4. In daylight the shortest wavelengths of light in the visible spectrum will look red.
Answer: False
Rationale:
In daylight, the shortest wavelengths of light in the visible spectrum appear violet or blue, not
red. The visible spectrum ranges from shorter wavelengths (violet/blue) to longer
wavelengths (red), with red being at the longer end of the spectrum.
5. The amount of light let into the eye is controlled by the iris.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The iris is the colored part of the eye surrounding the pupil, and it controls the size of the
pupil, thereby regulating the amount of light that enters the eye. In bright conditions, the iris
contracts to make the pupil smaller, reducing the amount of light entering the eye. In dim
conditions, the iris dilates to make the pupil larger, allowing more light to enter the eye.
6. The pathway from the retina to the brain that enables us to see is rods and cones to bipolar
cells to ganglion cells to optic nerve.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Light-sensitive cells in the retina called rods and cones detect visual stimuli, which then pass
signals to bipolar cells and subsequently to ganglion cells. Axons of ganglion cells form the
optic nerve, which carries visual information from the retina to the brain for processing.

7. The problem with the trichromatic theory of color vision is that it did not adequately
explain color blindness and why staring at the reversed American flag produced an
afterimage of a flag with the correct colors.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The trichromatic theory, proposed by Thomas Young and Hermann von Helmholtz, suggests
that color vision is based on three types of cones sensitive to different wavelengths of light
(red, green, and blue). However, this theory does not fully account for color blindness, where
individuals may lack one or more types of cones. Additionally, it does not explain phenomena
such as color afterimages, where staring at a color for a prolonged period results in a
complementary color afterimage.
8. The pitch of a sound (from a low bass to a high shriek) is related to the amplitude of the
sound waves that reach the eardrum.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The pitch of a sound is primarily determined by the frequency of the sound waves, not their
amplitude. Higher frequency sound waves are perceived as higher pitch, while lower
frequency sound waves are perceived as lower pitch. Amplitude, on the other hand, primarily
affects the loudness or intensity of the sound.
9. The correct order of the three bones of the middle ear from outside to inside is the anvil,
the hammer, and the stirrup.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The correct order of the three bones of the middle ear from outside to inside is the hammer
(malleus), the anvil (incus), and the stirrup (stapes). These bones transmit vibrations from the
eardrum to the inner ear.
10. The place theory of the perception of pitch is best identified with Helmholtz.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The place theory of pitch perception, proposed by Hermann von Helmholtz, suggests that the
pitch of a sound is determined by the location along the basilar membrane in the cochlea
where the sound wave stimulates hair cells. Different frequencies of sound cause maximal
displacement of the basilar membrane at different locations, leading to the perception of
different pitches.

11. Nerve hearing impairment due to problems in the auditory cortex of the brain has been
easily corrected with hearing aids.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Nerve hearing impairment resulting from problems in the auditory cortex of the brain is not
easily corrected with hearing aids. Hearing aids primarily amplify sound vibrations to make
them easier to detect by the inner ear. However, if the impairment is related to central
auditory processing deficits or damage to the auditory cortex, hearing aids may not be
effective in improving auditory perception because the issue lies beyond the peripheral
auditory system.
12. There are seven primary tastes: hot, sour, spicy, sweet, brothy, acid, and bitter.
Answer: False
Rationale:
There are five primary tastes: sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami (savory). While individuals
may describe sensations such as "hot" or "spicy" as taste, these sensations are actually
perceived through other sensory receptors, such as pain receptors for heat and spice, rather
than taste buds on the tongue.
13. Olfactory receptor cells are located in the back of the throat.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Olfactory receptor cells, responsible for detecting odors, are located in the olfactory
epithelium, which lines the upper part of the nasal cavity. These receptor cells are specialized
neurons that detect airborne odor molecules and send signals to the brain for interpretation.
14. Substance P is related to the sense of balance.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Substance P is a neuropeptide involved in transmitting pain signals and is found throughout
the nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord. It is not directly related to the sense
of balance. The sense of balance, or equilibrium, primarily involves sensory information from
the vestibular system, located in the inner ear, which detects changes in head position and
movement.
15. The ability to see 3-D movies is an instance of using motion parallax.
Answer: False
Rationale:

The ability to perceive depth in 3-D movies is primarily based on stereopsis, which is the
ability of the brain to interpret the slight differences in the images seen by each eye
(binocular disparity) to perceive depth and three-dimensional space. Motion parallax, on the
other hand, refers to the apparent movement of objects relative to a viewer's perspective when
the viewer moves. While motion parallax contributes to depth perception in some contexts, it
is not the primary mechanism for perceiving depth in 3-D movies.
SHORT ANSWER
1. Briefly explain the concept of the absolute threshold.
Answer: The absolute threshold refers to the minimum intensity of a stimulus required to
detect its presence at least 50% of the time. It represents the lowest level of stimulation that
can be consciously detected by a sensory system.
2. What is the correct order of the parts of the eye from where light enters to where it causes a
neural response?
Answer: The correct order is: Cornea, aqueous humor, pupil, lens, vitreous humor, retina
(containing photoreceptor cells), where light stimulates neural responses.
3. Put the bones of the middle ear in the correct order from the eardrum to the oval window.
Answer: The correct order is: Malleus (hammer), Incus (anvil), Stapes (stirrup). These bones
transmit sound vibrations from the eardrum to the oval window, which leads to the inner ear.
4. Describe briefly the place theory of pitch.
Answer: The place theory of pitch suggests that different frequencies of sound activate
specific areas along the basilar membrane in the cochlea. Higher frequencies stimulate hair
cells closer to the oval window, while lower frequencies stimulate hair cells further along the
membrane. This theory explains how the brain interprets pitch based on where along the
cochlea the hair cells are activated.
5. How do cochlear implants work?
Answer: Cochlear implants work by bypassing damaged hair cells in the cochlea and directly
stimulating the auditory nerve. They consist of an external microphone and speech processor,
which capture and convert sound into electrical signals. These signals are transmitted to an
internal receiver implanted in the cochlea, which then stimulates the auditory nerve fibers,
allowing individuals with hearing loss to perceive sound.
6. What are the basic tastes?
Answer: The basic tastes are sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami. These tastes correspond to
different types of taste receptors on the tongue, each responsible for detecting specific
molecules associated with these tastes.

7. How is the way the sense of taste works similar to the way the sense of smell works?
Answer: Both the sense of taste and smell involve the detection of molecules. In taste,
molecules dissolved in saliva interact with taste receptor cells on the tongue. In smell,
molecules in the air are detected by olfactory receptor cells in the nasal cavity. Both senses
transmit sensory information to the brain, where they are processed and interpreted to
perceive flavors or odors. Additionally, both taste and smell contribute to the overall
experience of flavor perception.
8. What are the three somesthetic senses and what does each one do?
Answer: The three somesthetic senses are proprioception, kinesthesia, and tactile sensation.
• Proprioception provides information about the position and movement of body parts.
• Kinesthesia gives us a sense of movement and the position of body parts relative to each
other.
• Tactile sensation allows us to perceive touch, pressure, vibration, and temperature.
9. What’s the difference between a monocular and binocular depth cue?
Answer: Monocular depth cues are visual cues that can be perceived with one eye, such as
texture gradient, relative size, and linear perspective. Binocular depth cues, on the other hand,
require input from both eyes to perceive depth accurately. Examples include binocular
disparity and convergence.
10. What does culture have to do with the Müller-Lyer illusion?
Answer: Culture influences perception and interpretation of visual illusions like the MüllerLyer illusion. Studies have shown that people from cultures with more exposure to
carpentered environments, like those with urban settings or Western societies with
rectangular architectural structures, are more susceptible to the illusion. This suggests that
cultural experiences with perspective cues impact how individuals perceive and interpret
visual stimuli.
ESSAY
1. You decide to go to work for a presidential candidate in the next election. You think that
the way for you to get folks to vote for your candidate is to use some psychology. So, you
make a deal with a soft-drink company to insert a picture of your candidate into its
commercials for only a brief instant. It will be so quick that no one will notice the picture.
That way the candidate’s image will enter viewers’ subconscious minds and make them vote
for your candidate. What psychological processes are you trying to use and will they be likely
to work?

Answer: You are attempting to utilize the psychological process of subliminal messaging.
Subliminal messaging involves presenting stimuli below the threshold of conscious
awareness in order to influence behavior or attitudes. The idea is that although viewers may
not consciously perceive the image of the candidate, it may still affect their subconscious and
influence their voting behavior.
However, the effectiveness of subliminal messaging in this context is questionable. While
research suggests that subliminal stimuli can influence certain behaviors under controlled
laboratory conditions, the real-world effectiveness of subliminal advertising is debated. Many
studies have failed to demonstrate significant effects of subliminal messaging on consumer
behavior or decision-making. Additionally, the use of subliminal messaging raises ethical
concerns regarding manipulation and transparency in political advertising.
2. Compare and contrast the trichromatic and opponent-process theories of color vision. How
has this debate been resolved?
Answer: Trichromatic Theory: This theory suggests that color vision is based on three
primary colors—red, green, and blue—that correspond to three types of cones in the retina,
each sensitive to different wavelengths of light. All colors can be created by combining these
three primary colors in various proportions.
Opponent-Process Theory: According to this theory, color vision is based on opposing pairs
of colors, such as red-green and blue-yellow. Activation of one color in the pair inhibits the
other, leading to the perception of color afterimages. This theory also suggests the existence
of opponent neurons in the visual system.
The debate between these theories has largely been resolved by acknowledging that both
theories contribute to our understanding of color vision. The trichromatic theory explains the
initial processing of color information at the level of the cones in the retina, while the
opponent-process theory explains color processing at higher levels of the visual system,
including in the visual cortex.
3. Describe how sound waves become nerve impulses as they enter the ear. How are the
important characteristics of sound coded?
Answer: Sound waves enter the ear through the outer ear and travel through the ear canal to
the eardrum, causing it to vibrate. These vibrations are transmitted through the middle ear
bones—hammer, anvil, and stirrup—to the oval window of the cochlea in the inner ear. The
cochlea is filled with fluid, and as the oval window vibrates, it creates waves in the fluid.
These waves cause the basilar membrane within the cochlea to flex, stimulating hair cells

along the membrane. Hair cells convert the mechanical energy of the sound waves into neural
impulses, which are then transmitted via the auditory nerve to the brain.
The important characteristics of sound, such as pitch and loudness, are coded by the
frequency and amplitude of the sound waves, respectively. Higher frequencies are perceived
as higher pitches, while greater amplitudes are perceived as louder sounds.
4. List and explain two binocular cues for depth perception and two monocular cues. Why do
we have two different types of cues for depth?
Answer: Binocular Cues:
Binocular Disparity: The slight difference in the images seen by each eye, which allows the
brain to perceive depth and distance.
Convergence: The degree to which the eyes turn inward to focus on a close object, providing
information about depth and distance.
Monocular Cues:
Linear Perspective: The convergence of parallel lines as they recede into the distance,
indicating depth.
Texture Gradient: The gradual change in texture or detail as objects recede into the distance,
providing depth cues.
We have two different types of cues for depth perception because binocular cues rely on the
disparity between the images seen by each eye, which requires the use of both eyes, whereas
monocular cues can be perceived with just one eye. Binocular cues provide more precise
information about depth and distance when both eyes are available, while monocular cues
allow for depth perception in situations where binocular vision is not possible, such as
viewing distant objects.
5. Why do perceptual illusions occur? Give an example of a perceptual illusion and explain it
according to your answer to the first part of this question.
Answer: Perceptual illusions occur due to discrepancies between the sensory information
received by the brain and the interpretation of that information. These illusions highlight the
brain's tendency to make assumptions and interpretations based on incomplete or ambiguous
sensory input.
An example of a perceptual illusion is the Müller-Lyer illusion, where two lines of equal
length appear to be different due to the addition of arrowheads pointing inward or outward at
the ends of the lines. This illusion occurs because the brain interprets the converging or
diverging lines as cues for depth, leading to a misperception of the lengths of the lines.

According to the explanation provided, perceptual illusions occur because the brain processes
sensory information based on learned associations and expectations, sometimes leading to
errors in perception. In the case of the Müller-Lyer illusion, the brain misinterprets the depth
cues provided by the arrows, resulting in the perceived difference in line lengths, despite both
lines being physically equal in length.
Chapter 3 - Quick Quiz 1
1. Activation of the receptors by stimuli is called ________.
a) perception
b) sensation
c) adaptation
d) habituation
Answer: b
Explanation:
Sensation is the activation of the receptors by stimuli.
2. The shortest wavelengths that we can see are experienced as ______ colors.
a) red
b) blue
c) green
d) yellow
Answer: b
Explanation:
Blue has the shortest wave length.
3. Which part of the eye is a muscle that regulates the size of the pupil?
a) iris
b) lens
c) retina
d) sclera
Answer: a
Explanation:
The iris is a muscle that controls pupil size.
4. Which of the following is a characteristic of both light waves and sound waves?
a) hue
b) decibels
c) amplitude

d) wavelength
Answer: a
Answer: d
Explanation:
Wavelength is the common characteristic of both light waves and sound waves.
5. What are the hammer, anvil, and stirrup?
a) tiny bones located in the middle ear
b) types of cones on the retina
c) types of sound that most people can detect
d) words often used by audiologists in testing for hearing difficulties
Answer: a
Explanation:
The hammer, anvil, and stirrup are tiny bones in the middle ear.
6. Where are the taste receptors located?
a) on the papillae
b) on the taste buds
c) on the microvilli
d) in the gustatory bulb
Answer: b
Explanation:
The taste receptors are located on the taste buds.
7. The kinesthetic senses are concerned with ______________.
a) touch, pressure, temperature, and pain
b) the location of body parts in relation to the ground and to each other
c) movement and body position
d) your location as compared to the position of the sun
Answer: b
Explanation:
The kinesthetic senses are concerned with the location of body parts in relation to the ground
and to each other.
8. Similarity is the tendency to perceive _________________.
a) objects, or figures, on some background
b) things that look similar as being part of the same group
c) objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping

d) things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern
Answer: b
Explanation:
Similarity refers to the tendency to perceive things that look similar as being part of the same
group.
9. An illusion ________________.
a) is the same thing as a vision
b) is due to the action of the rods versus the cones in the retina
c) is a perception that does not correspond to reality
d) corresponds directly to something that you dreamed
Answer: c
Explanation:
An illusion is a perception that does not correspond to reality. Objects look distorted in some
fashion or a dimension is misperceived.
10. People’s tendency to perceive a thing a certain way because their previous experiences or
expectations influence them is called _______________.
a) top-down processing
b) telepathy
c) bottom-up processing
d) perceptual expectancy
Answer: d
Explanation:
Perceptual expectancy refers to a person’s tendency to experience things in a certain way.
Chapter 3 - Quick Quiz 2
1. The term just noticeable difference is synonymous with ______.
a) separation threshold
b) response threshold
c) difference threshold
d) absolute threshold
Answer: c
Explanation:
The term just noticeable difference is synonymous with difference threshold and refers to the
detection of change.

2. In the process known as_____________, sensory receptors become less sensitive to
repeated presentations of the same stimulus.
a) sensation
b) sensory fatigue
c) sensory adaptation
d) discrimination
Answer: c
Explanation:
Sensory adaptation is the process whereby receptors become less responsive to an
unchanging stimulus.
3. Receptor cells in the retina responsible for color vision and fine acuity are ______.
a) bipolar cells
b) ganglion cells
c) rods
d) cones
Answer: d
Explanation:
Receptor cells in the retina responsible for color vision are cones.
4. Which of the following properties of sound is the most similar to the brightness of light?
a) pitch
b) volume
c) purity
d) timbre
Answer: b
Explanation:
Volume is the most similar to brightness and is based on the intensity of the stimulus.
5. Conduction hearing impairment refers to hearing problems that originate in the
____________.
a) outer ear
b) inner ear
c) eardrum and middle ear
d) auditory pathways and brain
Answer: c
Explanation:

Conduction deafness refers to hearing problems that originate in the eardrum and middle ear.
6. What are the five primary tastes?
a) hot, sour, spicy, sweet, origami
b) salty, sour, spicy, sweet, tart
c) bitter, salty, sour, sweet, umami
d) peppery, salty, sour, sweet, acidic
Answer: c
Explanation:
The five primary tastes are bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and umami.
7. The reason that there are three semicircular canals is so that ______________.
a) we have one canal to sense motion in each of the three planes
b) we can see the world in three dimensions
c) we can detect sound locations in the three-dimensional world
d) we have an extra if one is broken
Answer: a
Explanation:
The reason is that we have one canal to sense motion in each of the three planes.
8. The tendency to interpret an object as always being the same physical dimensions,
regardless of its distance from the viewer, is known as _____________.
a) size constancy
b) shape constancy
c) brightness constancy
d) color constancy
Answer: a
Explanation:
The tendency to interpret an object as always being the same physical dimensions, regardless
of its distance from the viewer, is known as size constancy.
9. Texture gradient refers to the fact that texture appears to become ______.
a) more detailed in the distance
b) more detailed as brightness increases
c) less detailed in the distance
d) less detailed when it is brighter
Answer: c
Explanation:

Texture gradient refers to the fact that texture appears to become less detailed in the distance.
10. An illusion ________________.
a) is the same thing as a vision
b) is due to the action of the rods versus the cones in the retina
c) is a perception that does not correspond to reality
d) corresponds directly to something that you dreamed
Answer: c
Explanation:
An illusion is a perception that does not correspond to reality. Objects look distorted in some
fashion or a dimension is misperceived.

Test Bank for Psychology: Dsm 5
Saundra K. Ciccarelli, J. Noland White
9780205986378

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