Preview (15 of 86 pages)

Preview Extract

15 Psychological Therapies
1. The kind of therapy that involves talking things out with a professional is
called__________________.
a. psychotherapy
b. biomedical therapy
c. physical therapy
d. electroconvulsive shock therapy
Answer: a. psychotherapy
Correct. Psychotherapy involves talking things out with a professional.
b. biomedical therapy
Incorrect. Biomedical therapy uses medical procedures and medications.
2. Lulu sees a therapist once a week. During her therapy sessions, she discusses issues and
events that have impacted her life. Her therapist helps her to understand how these events and
issues have affected her. The type of therapy Lulu is seeking is called ______________.
a. psychotherapy
b. biomedical therapy
c. physical therapy
d. electroconvulsive shock therapy
Answer: a. psychotherapy
Correct. Psychotherapy involves talking things out with a professional.
b. biomedical therapy
Incorrect. Biomedical therapy uses medical procedures and medications.
3. Therapies aimed mainly at understanding one’s motives and actions are referred to as
_________________.
a. action therapies
b. insight therapies
c. biomedical therapies
d. relationship therapies
Answer: b. insight therapies
Correct. Insight therapy emphasizes understanding one’s motives and actions.
a. action therapies
Incorrect. Action therapy emphasizes changing behavior.
4. A therapist is interested in helping her client get a clearer understanding of his motives and
actions. This therapist is most likely to be a/an ____________.

a. action therapist
b. insight therapist
c. biomedical therapist
d. relationship therapist
Answer: b. insight therapist
Correct. Insight therapy emphasizes understanding one’s motives and actions.
a. action therapist
Incorrect. Action therapy emphasizes changing behavior.
5. The major goal of insight therapies is to give people ______.
a. feedback from their biologically controlled responses
b. help in understanding perceptual processes
c. basic training in observational learning and practice
d. clearer understanding of their feelings, motivations, and actions
Answer: d. clearer understanding of their feelings, motivations, and actions
Correct. Insight therapies emphasize understanding one’s motives and actions.
b. help in understanding perceptual processes
Incorrect. Insight therapies emphasize understanding one’s motives and actions.
6. Therapies directed at changing the disordered behavior are referred to as __________.
a. action therapies
b. insight therapies
c. biomedical therapies
d. relationship therapies
Answer: a. action therapies
Correct. Action therapy emphasizes changing behavior.
b. insight therapies
Incorrect. Insight therapy emphasizes understanding one’s motives and actions.
7. Willamina is interested in helping her client get a clearer understanding of his motives and
actions. She is most likely to be a/an ____________.
a. action therapist
b. insight therapist
c. biomedical therapist
d. relationship therapist
Answer: b. insight therapist
Correct. Insight therapy emphasizes understanding one’s motives and actions.

a. action therapist
Incorrect. Action therapy emphasizes changing behavior.
8. William is interested in helping his client change his disordered behavior. He is most likely
to be a/an ____________.
a. action therapist
b. insight therapist
c. biomedical therapist
d. relationship therapist
Answer: a. action therapist
Correct. Action therapy emphasizes changing behavior.
b. insight therapist
Incorrect. Insight therapy emphasizes understanding one’s motives and actions.
9. The kind of therapy that uses biological treatments such as medication, surgical methods,
and electrical shock treatments to bring about changes in the person’s disordered behavior is
called__________________.
a. psychotherapy
b. biomedical therapy
c. physical therapy
d. electroconvulsive shock therapy
Answer: b. biomedical therapy
Correct. Biomedical therapy uses medical procedures and medications.
a. psychotherapy
Incorrect. Psychotherapy involves talking things out with a professional.
10. Lulu sees a professional once a month to manage the medication she is taking to help
alleviate the symptoms of her anxiety disorder. The type of therapy Lulu is undergoing is
called ______________.
a. psychotherapy
b. biomedical therapy
c. physical therapy
d. electroconvulsive shock therapy
Answer: b. biomedical therapy
Correct. Biomedical therapy uses medical procedures and medications.
a. psychotherapy
Incorrect. Psychotherapy involves talking things out with a professional.

11. You are a contestant on Jeopardy! and it is your turn. You say, “I’ll take History of
Therapies for $100.” The answer is, “He began the movement for humane treatment of the
mentally ill.” The smile on your face reveals the confidence you have as you
say______________.
a. “Who was Sigmund Freud?”
b. “Who was Carl Rogers?”
c. “Who was Philippe Pinel?”
d. “Who was Abraham Maslow?”
Answer: c. “Who was Philippe Pinel?”
Correct. In France Pinel began the movement of humane treatment of the mentally ill in
1793.
a. “Who was Sigmund Freud?”
Incorrect. Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis; he did not found the movement for
humane treatment for the mentally ill.
12. In the middle of the sixteenth century, a British asylum for the mentally ill had such
horrid and chaotic conditions that it gave rise to the term “bedlam.” What was this infamous
institution?
a. The Bethlehem hospital [Correct Answer]
b. The Bicetre hospital
c. The Dix hospital
d. The Pinel hospital
Answer: a. The Bethlehem hospital [Correct Answer]
Correct. option a, The Bethlehem hospital. This institution, also known as Bedlam, became
infamous for its deplorable conditions and treatment of the mentally ill during the sixteenth
century in Britain. The term "bedlam" eventually entered the English language to signify
chaos and madness.
b. The Bicetre hospital
Incorrect. refer to other hospitals or individuals not associated with the origin of the term
"bedlam."
13. The first truly organized effort to house mentally ill persons began in England in the 16th
century and was called _________________.
a. The Bicetre Asylum
Incorrect. This was an asylum in Paris in the late 1700’s.
b). Bethlehem

c). The Pinel Asylum
d). London General Hospital
Answer: b
Correct. The Bethlehem Hospital was the first to house mentally ill patients.
a. The Bicetre Asylum
Incorrect. This was an asylum in Paris in the late 1700’s.
14. ________ is a type of insight-oriented therapy.
a. Cognitive-behavioral treatment
b. Cognitive counseling
c. Transference
d. Psychoanalysis
Answer: d. Psychoanalysis
Correct. The goal of psychoanalysis is to gain insight into the conflicts in one’s own
unconscious.
c. Transference
Incorrect. The analysis of transference is a technique of psychoanalysis, not its own type of
therapy.
15. Psychoanalysis was a therapy technique designed by ______.
a. Alfred Adler
b. Carl Rogers
c. Fritz Perls
d. Sigmund Freud
Answer: d. Sigmund Freud
Correct. Freud was the founder of the therapy technique of psychoanalysis.
b. Carl Rogers
Incorrect. Rogers developed person-centered therapy.
16. Dr. Shedrika uses a form of therapy that emphasizes revealing his clients’ unconscious
conflicts, urges, and desires, which he believes are the cause of his clients’ disordered
emotions and behavior. This therapist is most likely using ________.
a. behavior therapy
b. psychoanalysis
c. Gestalt therapy
d. systematic desensitization
Answer: b. psychoanalysis

Correct. Psychoanalysis emphasizes unconscious conflicts, urges, and desires.
a. behavior therapy
Incorrect. Behavior therapy emphasizes changing learned behavior, not revealing
unconscious issues.
17. Emily is a psychologist who believes that many psychological difficulties are a result of a
conflict between the id, ego, and superego. Emily most likely endorses which type of
therapy?
a. cognitive-behavior
b. cognitive
c. psychoanalysis
d. client-centered
Answer: c. psychoanalysis
Correct. Assessing conflicts that exist between the different parts of our personality would be
a goal of psychoanalytic psychotherapy.
d. client-centered
Incorrect. The client-centered therapy of Carl Rogers would not concern itself with things
like the id, ego, and superego.
18. A client lies on a couch with the therapist sitting out of sight behind her. The therapist gets
to know the client’s problems through free association and positive and negative transference.
This is an example of ______ therapy.
a. psychoanalytic
b. behavior
c. person-centered
d. rational-emotive
Answer: a. psychoanalytic
Correct. Psychoanalysis utilizes free association and transference.
c. person-centered
Incorrect. Person-centered therapy does not utilize free association or transference.
19. _______________ formed a large part of Freud’s psychoanalytic method.
a. Reflection
b. Empathy
c. Dream interpretation
d. Unconditional positive regard
Answer: c. Dream interpretation

Correct. Freud believed repressed material surfaced in dreams.
d. Unconditional positive regard
Incorrect. Unconditional positive regard is an attribute of Carl Rogers’s theory, not Freud’s.
20. Which of the following is a key component of Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis?
a. cognition
b. empathy
c. dream interpretation
d. unconditional positive regard
Answer: c. dream interpretation
Correct. Freud believed repressed material surfaced in dreams.
d. unconditional positive regard
Incorrect. Unconditional positive regard is an attribute of Carl Rogers’s theory, not Freud’s.
21. Omar is currently undergoing psychoanalysis. His therapist asks him to keep a journal by
his bed and write down his dreams immediately upon awakening. Omar brings his journal to
therapy and discusses his dreams with his therapist. Omar’s therapist is attempting to do
which of the following?
a. uncover repressed material
b. facilitate positive transference
c. create resistance within the client
d. facilitate unconditional positive regard
Answer: a. uncover repressed material
Correct. Freud believed repressed material surfaced in dreams.
b. facilitate positive transference
Incorrect. Positive transference refers to the client’s transfer of positive feelings about his or
her parents onto the therapist.
22. According to Sigmund Freud, the ___________ of the dream refers to the client’s
memory of the things, people, and events in the dream.
a. manifest content
b. free association
c. latent content
d. resistance
Answer: a. manifest content
Correct. Manifest content refers to the client’s memory of the things, people, and events in
the dream.

c. latent content
Incorrect. Latent content refers to the underlying meaning of the dream.
23. According to Sigmund Freud, when you awaken in the morning and remember a dream,
you recall the dream’s___________.
a. latent content
b. deep meaning
c. surface meaning
d. manifest content
Answer: d. manifest content
Correct. Manifest content refers to the client’s memory of the things, people, and events in
the dream.
a. latent content
Incorrect. Latent content refers to the underlying or hidden meaning of the dream, not the
actual content of the dream.
24. In interpreting a dream, a psychoanalyst would attempt to discover the
dream’s__________.
a. latent content
b. manifest content
c. symbolic content
d. psychological content
Answer: a. latent content
Correct. Latent content refers to the underlying meaning of the dream.
b. manifest content
Incorrect. Manifest content refers to the client’s memory of the things, people, and events in
the dream, not the hidden meaning of the dream.
25. According to Freud, the ___________ of the dream refers to the hidden, symbolic
meaning of the dream, which, if correctly interpreted, reveals the unconscious conflicts that
created the nervous disorder.
a. manifest content
b. free association
c. latent content
d. resistance
Answer: c. latent content
Correct. Latent content refers to the underlying meaning of the dream.

a. manifest content
Incorrect. Manifest content refers to the client’s memory of the things, people, and events in
the dream, not the hidden meaning of the dream.
26. The psychoanalytic patient who lets her thoughts flow without interruption or fear of
negative criticism from her therapist is using ______.
a. dream interpretation
b. positive transference
c. regression
d. free association
Answer: d. free association
Correct. Free association occurs when the client talks freely about anything that comes to
mind.
b. positive transference
Incorrect. Positive transference refers to the client’s transfer of positive feelings about his or
her parents onto the therapist.
27. Free association is a technique used in ______ therapy.
a. psychoanalytic
b. rational-emotive
c. person-centered
d. Gestalt
Answer: a. psychoanalytic
Correct. Free association is a technique used in psychoanalysis.
c. person-centered
Incorrect. Free association is a technique used in psychoanalysis, not in person-centered
therapy.
28. Steve is 21 years old and has never gone on a date. His parents are concerned and take
him to see a therapist. The therapist tells Steve to lie down on the couch and relax. The
therapist sits behind Steve and asks him to say whatever comes into his head. Steve
eventually talks about his fear of women, which leads him to think about his early
experiences with women: his mother, her friends, his teachers, and so on. Steve is using
______.
a. counterconditioning
b. pole-shifting
c. free association

d. the empty chair technique
Answer: c. free association
Correct. Free association occurs when the patient talks freely about anything that comes to
mind.
a. counterconditioning
Incorrect. Steve is using free association where he is encouraged to talk about anything that
comes to mind; counterconditioning is a technique used to replace an old conditioned
response with a new one.
29. Psychodynamic and client-centered therapies are very different therapeutic approaches.
Which of the following is a major difference between the two therapies?
a. Psychodynamic focuses on impulses while client-centered focuses on potential for growth.
b. Psychodynamic is based on Rogersʹs work while client-centered is based on Freud’s work.
c. Psychodynamic uses empathy while client-centered uses interpretation
d. Psychodynamic is short-term therapy while client-centered is long-term therapy.
Answer: a. Psychodynamic focuses on impulses while client-centered focuses on potential for
growth.
Correct. Psychodynamic therapy focuses on unconscious impulses, while client-centered
therapy pays special attention to concepts like free will and growth.
c. Psychodynamic uses empathy while client-centered uses interpretation
Incorrect. This is a backwards statement, because client-centered therapy uses empathy while
psychodynamic therapy uses interpretation.
30. As Celine begins to reveal more and more of her innermost thoughts and feelings to her
therapist, she begins to feel good about him as well as accepted by him. She develops a sense
of trust, particularly because he does not criticize her. What process is occurring?
a. unconditional positive regard
b. insight
c. rationalization
d. transference
Answer: d. transference
Correct. Transference refers to the patient’s in important relationships in their life being
“transferred” onto the therapist.
a. unconditional positive regard
Incorrect. Unconditional positive regard is a concept from Rogers’s client centered therapy,
not Freud’s psychoanalysis.

31. Edward starts to worry about telling his therapist about his drinking. He is afraid that the
therapist will get mad at him like his mother used to. Edward has started relating to his
therapist as he related to his mother. Edward is experiencing ________.
a. transference
b. countertransference
c. catharsis
d. resistance
Answer: a. transference
Correct. Transference refers to the patient’s important relationships in their life being
“transferred” onto the therapist.
d. resistance
Incorrect. Resistance refers to active efforts by a patient to block the forward movement of
the psychotherapy.
32. After many sessions of psychodynamic therapy, Dan at some point experiences reluctance
to cooperate with his therapist and tends to forget to do what his therapist had suggested to
him. Dan is experiencing ________.
a. resistance
b. a Freudian slip
c. a Freudian trip
d. interpretation
Answer: a. resistance
Correct. Freud called it resistance when a client started to block the forward movement of the
therapy.
b. a Freudian slip
Incorrect. This is not a correct definition of a Freudian slip, which is when we say things that
we did not consciously intend to say.
33. During free association, a patient may become unwilling to talk about certain topics.
What term would a psychoanalyst use to describe this change in the patient’s willingness to
verbalize?
a. insight
b. reactance
c. resistance
d. transference
Answer: c. resistance

Correct. Psychoanalysts believe that when the topic of the conversation gets uncomfortably
close to disturbing repressed material, the patient may become less willing to talk in a
phenomenon called resistance.
d. transference
Incorrect. In transference patients displace their feelings about their parents onto the therapist.
34. Joe has been undergoing psychoanalysis for several months. Over the past few weeks, he
has become unwilling to talk about his relationship with his father and becomes
uncomfortable when thoughts of him enter his mind during therapy. What process would the
therapist say is occurring?
a. insight
b. reactance
c. resistance
d. transference
Answer: c. resistance
Correct. Psychoanalysts believe that when the topic of the conversation gets uncomfortably
close to disturbing repressed material, the patient may become less willing to talk in a
phenomenon called resistance.
d. transference
Incorrect. In transference, patients displace their feelings about their parents onto the
therapist.
35. Modern psychoanalysts differ from traditional Freudian psychoanalysts in that they focus
on the ______ as a motivating force of behavior, and they favor ______ their patients.
a. id; face-to-face discussions with
b. ego; face-to-face discussions with
c. id; sitting behind and passively listening to
d. ego; sitting behind and passively listening to
Answer: b. ego; face-to-face discussions with
Correct. Modern psychoanalysts focus on the ego and prefer face-to-face discussions.
a. id; face-to-face discussions with
Incorrect. Modern psychoanalysts focus on the ego.
36. Which of the following individuals would be considered a good candidate for
psychoanalysis?
a. Mary, who is extremely withdrawn
b. Kaleem, who suffers from a severe psychotic disorder

c. Pasha, who is unable to verbally express her thoughts and feelings
d. Lou, who suffers from anxiety
Answer: d. Lou, who suffers from anxiety
Correct. People who have anxiety disorders often benefit from psychoanalysis.
b. Kaleem, who suffers from a severe psychotic disorder
Incorrect. People with severe psychotic disorders are less apt to benefit from psychoanalysis.
37. Which of the following individuals would be least likely to benefit from psychoanalysis?
a. Mary, who has a somatoform disorder
b. Kaleem, who suffers from a severe psychotic disorder
c. Pasha, who has panic attacks
d. Lou, who suffers from anxiety
Answer: b. Kaleem, who suffers from a severe psychotic disorder
Correct. People with severe psychotic disorders are less likely to benefit from psychoanalysis
than are people who suffer from somatoform or anxiety disorders.
d. Lou, who suffers from anxiety
Incorrect. People who have anxiety disorders often benefit from psychoanalysis.
38. Although this type of psychotherapy has its origins in the psychodynamic school of
thought, it is not considered a true psychodynamic therapy because it combines humanistic
and cognitive-behavioral interventions.
a. Wolpian therapy
b. Gestalt therapy
c. Interpersonal therapy
d. Rational-Emotive therapy
Answer: c. Interpersonal therapy
Correct. IPT is considered a truly eclectic therapy, but is not thought of as a psychodynamic
approach.
a. Wolpian therapy
Incorrect. Joseph Wolpe developed the behavioral intervention of systematic desensitization,
but it is not called Wolpian therapy.
39. Levi’s therapist is using interpersonal therapy. What would be the goal of Levi’s therapy
sessions?
a. to help Levi understand how his moods and behaviors are impacted by his relationships.
b. to uncover Levi’s unconscious anxiety and motives
c. to assist Levi in the process of self-actualization

d. to address the bad thoughts that Levi is experiencing and replace them with good thoughts
Answer: a. to help Levi understand how his moods and behaviors are impacted by his
relationships.
Correct. The goal of IPT is to understand the relationship between one’s moods, behaviors,
and relationships.
b. to uncover Levi’s unconscious anxiety and motives
Incorrect. This statement would be applicable to psychoanalysis or psychodynamic therapy.
40. Person-centered therapy is a type of ______ therapy.
a. insight
b. behavior
c. cognitive
d. reality
Answer: a. insight
Correct. Person-centered therapy is an insight therapy.
c. cognitive
Incorrect. Person-centered therapy is an insight therapy.
41. ________ is credited with developing client-centered therapy.
a. Sigmund Freud
b. Carl Rogers [Correct Answer]
c. Albert Ellis
d. Aaron Beck
Answer: b. Carl Rogers [Correct Answer]
Correct. Carl Rogers. He is credited with developing client-centered therapy, also known as
person-centered therapy, which emphasizes the importance of the therapeutic relationship,
empathy, and unconditional positive regard.
a. Sigmund Freud
Incorrect. Options a, c, and d are incorrect as they represent other prominent figures in
psychology who developed different therapeutic approaches.
42. Which of the following is a key component of Rogers’s person-centered therapy?
a. cognition
b. resistance
c. dream interpretation
d. unconditional positive regard
Answer: d. unconditional positive regard

Correct. Unconditional positive regard is a key component of Carl Rogers’s perspective.
c. dream interpretation
Incorrect. Dream interpretation is a key component of Freud’s therapy, not Rogers’s.
43. Which of the following does humanistic therapy emphasize?
a. the unconscious
b. personal growth
c. errant thought processes
d. the empty-chair technique
Answer: b. personal growth
Correct. Humanistic therapy emphasizes concepts like personal growth, free will, and
acceptance.
c. errant thought processes
Incorrect. Errant thought processes would be a focus of cognitive therapy.
44. Person-centered therapy is a type of ______ therapy.
a. insight [Correct Answer]
b. behavior
c. cognitive
d. reality
Answer: a. insight [Correct Answer]
Correct. option a, insight therapy. Person-centered therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, falls
under the category of insight therapy as it focuses on increasing self-awareness and
understanding one's feelings, thoughts, and behaviors.
b. behavior
Incorrect. they represent other types of therapy that are distinct from person-centered therapy.
45. What did Carl Rogers view as a cause of most personal problems and unhappiness?
a. reinforcement of maladaptive behavior patterns
b. unrealistic modes of thought employed by many people
c. mismatch between an individual’s ideal self and real self
d. unresolved unconscious conflicts occurring between the id and superego
Answer: c. mismatch between an individual’s ideal self and real self
Correct. Rogers believed the closer the match between a person’s ideal and real selves, the
happier the person.
d. unresolved unconscious conflicts occurring between the id and superego

Incorrect. Freud, not Rogers, viewed unresolved unconscious conflicts between the id and
superego as the cause of personal problems.
46. Which type of therapy emphasizes people’s potential for growth and the importance of an
empathetic therapist?
a. psychoanalytic
b. client-centered [Correct Answer]
c. cognitive-behavior
d. cognitive
Answer: b. client-centered [Correct Answer]
Correct. option b, client-centered therapy. This type of therapy emphasizes the client's
potential for growth and self-actualization, with the therapist providing empathy,
unconditional positive regard, and genuineness.
d. cognitive
Incorrect: These option represent other therapeutic approaches that may not prioritize
empathy and client growth to the same extent.
47. According to Carl Rogers, the __________is how people see their actual traits and
abilities.
a. ideal self
b. real self
c. ego
d. id
Answer: b. real self
Correct. Real self is Rogers’s term for the person someone thinks he or she actually is.
a. ideal self
Incorrect. Ideal self is Rogers’s term for the person someone thinks he or she should be.
48. According to Carl Rogers, the __________is how people think they should be.
a. ideal self
b. real self
c. ego
d. id
Answer: a. ideal self
Correct. Ideal self is Rogers’s term for the person someone thinks he or she should be.
b. real self
Incorrect. Real self is Rogers’s term for the person someone thinks he or she actually is.

49. Sylvia, who is undergoing client-centered therapy has been told that she experiences a
mismatch between her ________self and her _______self.
a. conscious; unconscious
b. possible; future
c. working; current
d. real; ideal
Answer: d. real; ideal
Correct. Rogers believed that when people do not accept themselves for who they truly are,
psychological discomfort would be the result.
a. conscious; unconscious
Incorrect. Concepts like the conscious and unconscious were central to Freud’s
psychoanalysis, not Rogers’s client-centered therapy.
50. What is the primary goal of the therapist in person-centered therapy?
a. to facilitate transference
b. to eliminate the client’s undesirable behaviors
c. to provide unconditional positive regard
d. to help the client become more aware of his or her own feelings
Answer: c. to provide unconditional positive regard
Correct. The primary goal of the therapist in person-centered therapy is to provide
unconditional positive regard.
d. to help the client become more aware of his or her own feelings
Incorrect. Helping clients become more aware of their feelings is the primary goal of Gestalt
therapists, not person centered therapists.
51. Judy’s therapist listens to her without interruption and judgment. She provides Judy with
warmth and respect, without any conditions attached. Her therapist is
demonstrating______________.
a. reflection
b. genuineness
c. unconditional positive regard
d. nondirective countertransference
Answer: c. unconditional positive regard
Correct. Warmth and respect without conditions attached are key components of
unconditional positive regard.
b. genuineness

Incorrect. Genuineness is honesty and authenticity.
52. Carl Rogers’s person-centered approach is considered ________ because the client
actually does all the real work, with the therapist merely acting as a sounding board.
a. directive
b. nondirective
c. behavioral
d. cognitive
Answer: b. nondirective
Correct. The therapist acts primarily as a sounding board, while the client directs the
conversation.
a. directive
Incorrect. The person-centered approach is nondirective in that the therapist allows the client
to direct the conversation.
53. The therapist’s feeling of respect and affection for the client that exists without any
strings attached, no matter what the client may say or do, is called __________.
a. conditions of worth
b. empathy
c. catharsis
d. unconditional positive regard
Answer: d. unconditional positive regard
Correct. Unconditional positive regard is defined as having respect and affection for the client
regardless of what the client may say or do.
b. empathy
Incorrect. Empathy is defined as acknowledging and understanding clients’ feelings.
54. Imagine if Sigmund Freud were to go to Carl Rogers for therapy. Freud’s major complaint
is depression due to distress over the lack of positive response to his theories. What is Rogers
most likely to say during their session?
a. “You seem troubled by the reaction to your work.”
b. “Let’s focus on your relationship with your father.”
c. “Why do you think that everyone must appreciate your work?”
d. “Say the first thing that comes to your mind; don’t censor anything because I want to know
what is truly on your mind.”
Answer: a. “You seem troubled by the reaction to your work.”

Correct. In restating Freud’s complaint, Rogers uses his technique called reflection, which
involves repeating whatever the client says using slightly different words.
c. “Why do you think that everyone must appreciate your work?”
Incorrect. Asking someone to analyze their own thought process is an approach a cognitive
therapist would use, not one that Rogers would use.
55. Dr. Graham listens to Maria’s statements and then restates what he feels is Maria’s
message and describes her emotions. What type of therapy is Dr. Graham practicing?
a. behavior
b. cognitive
c. psychoanalytic
d. person-centered
Answer: d. person-centered
Correct. Person-centered therapists restate what their clients say.
c. psychoanalytic
Incorrect. Reflection, or restating what the client says, is not an approach typically used by
psychoanalysts.
56. The person-centered therapist has to be able to acknowledge and understand what the
client is feeling and experiencing. This process is referred to as ________________.
a. conditions of worth
b. empathy
c. catharsis
d. unconditional positive regard
Answer: b. empathy
Correct. Empathy is defined as acknowledging and understanding the client’s feelings and
experiences.
d. unconditional positive regard
Incorrect. Unconditional positive regard is defined as having respect and affection for the
client regardless of what the client may say or do.
57. The person-centered therapist must show a genuine, open, and honest response to the
client. This is called_____________.
a. empathy
b. resistance
c. authenticity
d. unconditional positive regard

Answer: c. authenticity
Correct. Showing a genuine, open, and honest response to the client is referred to as
authenticity.
d. unconditional positive regard
Incorrect. Unconditional positive regard is defined as having respect and affection for the
client regardless of what the client may say or do.
58. Expressing empathy, developing the discrepancies between a client's present behaviors
and values, rolling with resistance, and supporting a client’s self-efficacy are the four pillars
of __________.
a. motivational interviewing [Correct Answer]
b. rational-emotive therapy
c. person-centered therapy
d. contingency contracting
Answer: a. motivational interviewing [Correct Answer]
Correct. option a, motivational interviewing. These four pillars represent core techniques
used in motivational interviewing, a counseling approach designed to help clients resolve
ambivalence and motivate positive behavior change.
d. contingency contracting
Incorrect. These represent other therapeutic approaches or techniques not specifically
associated with these pillars of motivational interviewing.
59. Gestalt therapy is an outgrowth of the work of ______.
a. Lazarus
b. Wolpe
c. Rogers
d. Perls
Answer: d. Perls
Correct. Fritz Perls is the founder of Gestalt therapy.
c. Rogers
Incorrect. Rogers is the founder of person-centered therapy. Fritz Perls founded Gestalt.
60. Gestalt therapy is considered ________ because the therapist leads the client through a
number of planned exercises as well as confronts the client’s statements.
a. directive
b. nondirective
c. behavioral

d. cognitive
Answer: a. directive
Correct. The Gestalt therapist is directive by confronting the client and leading the client
through planned exercises.
b. nondirective
Incorrect. The Gestalt therapist is directive by confronting the client and leading the client
through planned exercises.
61. What is a major goal of the Gestalt therapist?
a. to facilitate transference
b. to eliminate the client’s undesirable behaviors
c. to provide unconditional positive regard
d. to help clients become more aware of their own feelings
Answer: d. to help clients become more aware of their own feelings
Correct. A major goal of Gestalt therapists is to help clients become more aware of their
feelings.
c. to provide unconditional positive regard
Incorrect. Providing unconditional positive regard is the primary goal of person-centered
therapy, not Gestalt.
62. In Gestalt therapy, the therapist is ______ and ______.
a. passive; nondirective
b. passive; directive
c. active; nondirective
d. active; directive
Answer: d. active; directive
Correct. The Gestalt therapist is both active and directive by confronting the client and
leading the client through planned exercises.
c. active; nondirective
Incorrect. The Gestalt therapist is both active and directive.
63. Your friend tells you that his therapist is a Gestalt therapist. You ask him to describe what
might happen in one of his therapy sessions. Which of the following is his most likely
answer?
a. “I am asked by the therapist to relax and meditate.”
b. “During the session I sometimes talk to an empty chair.”
c. “The therapist asks me to describe the details of the dreams I have had recently.”

d. “The therapist evaluates the factual basis of my statements to identify logical
inconsistencies.”
Answer: b. “During the session I sometimes talk to an empty chair.”
Correct. Gestalt therapists sometimes ask clients to talk to an empty chair as a way of
finishing unfinished business.
c. “The therapist asks me to describe the details of the dreams I have had recently.”
Incorrect. Psychoanalysts, not Gestalt therapists, focus on dreams.
64. ____________ therapies have been used not only to treat mental disorders but also to help
people make career choices, deal with workplace problems, and as a form of marriage
counseling.
a. Humanistic
b. Psychoanalytic
c. Biomedical
d. Biological
Answer: a. Humanistic
Correct. Humanistic therapies have been used in a wide variety of ways, including career and
marriage counseling.
b. Psychoanalytic
Incorrect. Psychoanalytic therapies are primarily used to treat nonpsychotic adjustment
disorders, not for career or marriage counseling.
65. Which of the following is an advantage of person-centered therapy?
a. Clients do not need to be verbal.
b. There is too much empirical research about it.
c. It is one of the best approaches for treating serious disorders.
d. The therapist does not run the risk of having his or her words misinterpreted by the client.
Answer: d. The therapist does not run the risk of having his or her words misinterpreted by
the client.
Correct. The therapist does not run the risk of having his or her words misinterpreted by the
client because the therapist uses reflection as the main means of communication.
c. It is one of the best approaches for treating serious disorders.
Incorrect. Although person-centered therapy is used to treat minor disorders, it is not
recommended for serious ones.
66. Which of the following is a limitation of humanistic therapy?
a. Clients do not need to be verbal.

b. There is not enough experimental research to support its basic ideas.
c. It cannot be used in a variety of contexts.
d. The therapist runs the risk of having his or her words misinterpreted by the client.
Answer: b. There is not enough experimental research to support its basic ideas.
Correct. There is not much experimental research to support the basic ideas of humanistic
therapy.
d. The therapist runs the risk of having his or her words misinterpreted by the client.
Incorrect. The humanistic therapist does not run the risk of having his or her words
misinterpreted by the client because the therapist uses reflection as the main means of
communication.
67. Which of the following individuals would be considered a good candidate for humanistic
therapy?
a. Mary, who is extremely withdrawn
b. Kaleem, who suffers from a severe psychotic disorder
c. Pasha, who is unable to verbally express her thoughts and feelings
d. Lou, who is seeking a career change
Answer: d. Lou, who is seeking a career change
Correct. Humanistic therapy is often used for people seeking a career change.
b. Kaleem, who suffers from a severe psychotic disorder
Incorrect. People with severe psychotic disorders are less apt to benefit from humanistic
therapy.
68. What do behavior therapists see as the cause of abnormal or undesirable behaviors?
a. learning
b. unconscious conflicts
c. distortions in thinking
d. discrepancy between the real self and ideal self
Answer: a. learning
Correct. Behavior therapists see learning as the cause of abnormal or undesirable behaviors.
c. distortions in thinking
Incorrect. Cognitive therapists see distortions in thinking as the cause of abnormal behaviors.
69. Which type of therapy is based on well-researched learning principles?
a. behavior
b. cognitive-behavior
c. psychoanalysis

d. client-centered
Answer: a. behavior
Correct. Behavioral therapists believe that abnormal behaviors are learned and can be
unlearned.
b. cognitive-behavior
Incorrect. Cognitive behavioral therapists focus largely on basic irrational assumptions as the
underlying cause of problems.
70. In behavior therapy, distressing symptoms are seen as ________.
a. the result of learning
b. the result of your unconscious impulses
c. a chemical imbalance
d. an indicator of neurophysiological abnormalities
Answer: a. the result of learning
Correct. The learning processes of operant and classical conditioning are thought to underlie
psychopathology in behavior therapy.
b. the result of your unconscious impulses
Incorrect. This would be a statement that would apply to psychoanalysis or psychodynamic
therapy.
71. Therapeutic approaches that are based on the belief that all normal and abnormal behavior
is learned are ______ therapies.
a. traditional psychodynamic
b. behavior
c. short-term psychodynamic
d. cognitive
Answer: b. behavior
Correct. Behavior therapies believe all behavior is learned.
d. cognitive
Incorrect. Cognitive therapists see distorted thinking as the cause of abnormal behaviors.
72. Craig is currently in therapy to help him stop smoking. His therapist is using learning
techniques to help him modify his smoking habit and develop more desirable behaviors.
Craig’s therapist is using________.
a. behavior modification
b. empty chair technique
c. reflection

d. selective thinking
Answer: a. behavior modification
Correct. Behavior modification includes learning techniques that help in modifying
behaviors.
d. selective thinking
Incorrect. Selective thinking is a type of cognitive distortion, not a learning technique.
73. The use of learning techniques to modify or change undesirable behavior and increase
desirable behaviors is called_______.
a. behavior modification
b. empty chair technique
c. reflection
d. selective thinking
Answer: a. behavior modification
Correct. Behavior modification includes learning techniques that help in modifying
behaviors.
d. selective thinking
Incorrect. Selective thinking is a type of cognitive distortion, not a type of treatment.
74. Which of the following is a therapy based on the principles of classical conditioning?
a. systematic desensitization
b. contingency contract
c. token economy
d. reinforcement
Answer: a. systematic desensitization
Correct. Systematic desensitization is based on counterconditioning, which is a form of
classical conditioning.
d. reinforcement
Incorrect. Reinforcement is based on the principles of operant conditioning.
75. The basic goal of systematic desensitization is to ________.
a. relax body muscles
b. address the causes of ones fears
c. relax individuals in the presence of a feared object or situation
d. understand what an individual is thinking when faced with a feared object or situation
Answer: c. relax individuals in the presence of a feared object or situation

Correct. By using the principles of classical conditioning, it is possible to substitute a phobic
response for a relaxation response.
a. relax body muscles
Incorrect. Progressive relaxation is a part of systematic desensitization, but it is not the actual
goal.
76. If Cheryl is engaged in progressive muscle relaxation, then she is most likely ________.
a. receiving a massage
b. relaxing her own muscles sequentially from one end of the body to the other
c. using some sort of device that will warm and massage her muscles
d. imagining how she’d feel if her muscles weren’t so tense
Answer: b. relaxing her own muscles sequentially from one end of the body to the other
Correct. This action will help Cheryl learn to replace a phobic response with one of
relaxation.
c. using some sort of device that will warm and massage her muscles
Incorrect. Such a device is simply not a part of exposure therapy.
77. Which method of treating phobias involves progressive relaxation and exposure to the
feared object?
a. extinction
b. punishment
c. token economy
d. systematic desensitization
Answer: d. systematic desensitization
Correct. Systematic desensitization involves progressive relaxation and exposure to the
feared object.
a. extinction
Incorrect. Extinction involves the removal of a reinforcer to reduce the frequency of a
particular response.
78. Julie has a fear of riding in elevators. She is seeing a therapist who asks her to construct a
hierarchy of her fears related to riding in elevators. In addition, her therapist is teaching her to
relax while imagining each fear in the hierarchy. Julie’s therapist is using__________.
a. person-centered therapy
b. rational-emotive therapy
c. systematic desensitization
d. cognitive consistency therapy

Answer: c. systematic desensitization
Correct. Systematic desensitization involves progressive relaxation and making a list of fears.
b. rational-emotive therapy
Incorrect. Rational-emotive therapy involves challenging distorted thinking.
79. For which of these problems would systematic desensitization most likely be used?
a. Joe has been depressed for two years.
b. Ken is sexually attracted to young children.
c. As a result of schizophrenia, David does not interact with members of his family.
d. A fear of heights restricts Alice’s enrollment to classes that meet on the first floor.
Answer: d. A fear of heights restricts Alice’s enrollment to classes that meet on the first floor.
Correct. Systematic desensitization is used to treat phobias, such as fear of heights.
a. Joe has been depressed for two years.
Incorrect. Systematic desensitization is used to treat phobias, not depression.
80. The form of behavioral therapy in which an undesirable behavior is paired with an
unpleasant stimulus to reduce the frequency of the behavior is called_______.
a. token economy
b. operant conditioning
c. aversion therapy
d. participant modeling
Answer: c. aversion therapy
Correct. Aversion therapy pairs an undesirable behavior with an unpleasant, or aversive,
stimulus.
b. operant conditioning
Incorrect. The pairing of an undesirable behavior with an unpleasant stimulus to reduce the
frequency of the behavior is a form of classical, not operant, conditioning.
81. Which of the following techniques would be most appropriate for treating overeating or
smoking?
a. flooding
b. systematic desensitization
c. aversion therapy
d. token economy
Answer: c. aversion therapy
Correct. Aversion therapy is the most appropriate for treating overeating or smoking.
d. token economy

Incorrect. A token economy involves awarding tokens for good behavior that can be traded
for desired things or privileges to reinforce behavior.
82. Every time Jarrad opens his cigarette case or uses his lighter, he gets a painful electric
shock. Jarrad’s friends and family have been asked not to give him any cigarettes or light any
cigarettes for him, so he must use his own lighter if he wants to smoke. Eventually, Jarrad
loses his desire to smoke, thanks to ______.
a. negative transference
b. behavioral contracting
c. systematic desensitization
d. aversion conditioning
Answer: d. aversion conditioning
Correct. Jarrad learns to associate a behavior, smoking, with an unpleasant stimulus, the
electric shock.
c. systematic desensitization
Incorrect. Systematic desensitization involves progressive relaxation and making a list of
fears, not associating a behavior with an electric shock.
83. Which behavior therapy technique is commonly used to treat anxiety disorders?
a. interpretation
b. free association
c. dream analysis
d. exposure
Answer: d. exposure
Correct. option d, exposure. Exposure therapy is a behavior therapy technique commonly
used to treat anxiety disorders. It involves exposing individuals to feared stimuli or situations
in a controlled and gradual manner, allowing them to confront and eventually overcome their
fears.
b. free association
Incorrect. It represent other therapeutic techniques that are not specifically tailored for
treating anxiety disorders, making them incorrect in this context.
84. Mary, who has a great fear of flying, has been instructed by her behavior therapist to take
a brief ride in an actual airplane. If Mary follows her therapist’s instructions, then she’ll be
engaged in ________.
a. imaginal exposure
b. aversive exposure

c. in vivo exposure
d. virtual reality exposure
Answer: c. in vivo exposure
Correct. When a client is exposed to the actual trigger of his or her fear, it is a form of in vivo
exposure.
d. virtual reality exposure
Incorrect. When a client is exposed to an artificial form of his or her phobic trigger, such as a
computer enhanced image, this is a form of virtual reality exposure.
85. A technique for treating phobias and other stress disorders in which the person is suddenly
exposed to the fear-provoking situation or object in an intense way and is prevented from
making the usual avoidance or escape response is called __________.
a. systematic desensitization
b. flooding
c. paradoxical intent
d. aversive therapy
Answer: b. flooding
Correct. Flooding exposes the client to the feared object or situation in a sudden and intense
way.
a. systematic desensitization
Incorrect. Systematic desensitization gradually exposes the client to the feared object while
using relaxation techniques to reduce anxiety, not exposing a client to the feared object in a
sudden manner.
86. Iram is afraid of snakes. In an effort to help him overcome his fear, his therapist has him
enter a room where there are dozens of snakes and has him hold them. Iram is not permitted
to leave the room until the therapy session is completed. Iram’s therapist is using______.
a. systematic desensitization
b. flooding
c. paradoxical intent
d. aversion therapy
Answer: b. flooding
Correct. Flooding exposes the client to the feared object or situation in a sudden and intense
way.
a. systematic desensitization
Incorrect. Systematic desensitization gradually exposes the client to the feared object.

87. Due to new computer technology that involves having the client wear a headset that can
project realistic anxiety-provoking images, therapists can now conduct ________ through
virtual reality exposure in their offices.
a. free association
b. transference
c. flooding
d. unconditional positive regard
Answer: c. flooding
Correct. Therapists can use the images to expose clients to things they fear in a sudden and
intense way.
a. free association
Incorrect. Free association occurs when the client discusses anything that comes to mind and
does not make use of computer technology whereas flooding can be conducted with the use
of computer technology.
88. __________ is a form of therapy in which clients are directed to move their eyes rapidly
back and forth while thinking of a disturbing memory.
a. Eye-movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR)
b. Systematic desensitization
c. Eye-memory therapy
d. Eye therapy
Answer: a. Eye-movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR)
Correct. EMDR is a form of therapy in which clients are directed to move their eyes rapidly
back and forth while thinking of a disturbing memory.
b. Systematic desensitization
Incorrect. Systematic desensitization gradually exposes the client to the feared object while
using relaxation techniques to reduce anxiety.
89. Eye-movement desensitization reprocessing is primarily used for treatment of
__________.
a. schizophrenia
b. post-traumatic stress disorder
c. depression
d. bipolar disorder
Answer: b. post-traumatic stress disorder
Correct. EMDR is primarily used for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder.

d. bipolar disorder
Incorrect. EMDR is primarily used for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder.
90. Eloise is living with post-traumatic stress disorder. During her therapy session, her
therapist asks her to move her eyes rapidly back and forth while thinking of a disturbing
memory. Eloise’s therapist is using __________.
a. eye-movement desensitization reprocessing
b. systematic desensitization
c. eye-memory therapy
d. eye therapy
Answer: a. eye-movement desensitization reprocessing
Correct. EMDR is a form of therapy in which the client is directed to move his or her eyes
rapidly back and forth while thinking of a disturbing memory.
b. systematic desensitization
Incorrect. Systematic desensitization gradually exposes the client to the feared object while
using relaxation techniques to reduce anxiety.
91. What is an advantage of using operant conditioning in treating undesirable behaviors?
a. The results are usually quickly obtained.
b. Clients can get an understanding of the underlying cause of the problem.
c. Unconscious urges are revealed.
d. Clients can change distorted thought patterns that affect behavior.
Answer: a. The results are usually quickly obtained.
Correct. Operant conditioning provides rapid change in behavior in comparison to other
therapies.
b. Clients can get an understanding of the underlying cause of the problem.
Incorrect. Operant conditioning is not concerned with the cause of the problems; rather it is
concerned with changing behavior.
92. The process of learning through the observation and imitation of others is called ______.
a. modeling
b. free association
c. voyeurism
d. flooding
Answer: a. modeling
Correct. Modeling is defined as the process of learning through the observation and imitation
of others.

d. flooding
Incorrect. Flooding is the process of exposing the client to the feared object or situation in a
sudden and intense way.
93. ________ has been used successfully in helping children who have a fear of going to the
dentist, social withdrawal, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and phobias.
a. Modeling
b. Transference
c. Voyeurism
d. Empathy
Answer: a. Modeling
Correct. Modeling has been effective in treating children who have a fear of going to the
dentist, social withdrawal, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and phobias.
b. Transference
Incorrect. Transference is a component of psychoanalysis and is not known to be effective in
helping children overcome the above-mentioned issues.
94. Hiram has learned to seek attention by engaging in inappropriate behaviors by watching
his brother receive attention for hitting and biting and then imitating his behavior. Hiram has
learned to seek attention by engaging in inappropriate behaviors by using which of the
following techniques?
a. reinforcement
b. token economy
c. modeling
d. extinction
Answer: c. modeling
Correct. Hiram is modeling his brother’s behavior through observing and imitating him.
b. token economy
Incorrect. Hiram is not being provided with tokens that can be traded in for special privileges
or treats.
95. Estella is afraid of cats. To help her overcome her fear, her mother calmly pets and strokes
a cat while Estella is watching. Her mother encourages her to imitate her behavior. Estella’s
mother is using_________.
a. reinforcement
b. token economy
c. modeling

d. extinction
Answer: c. modeling
Correct. Estella’s mother is encouraging her to imitate the behavior she is modeling.
a. reinforcement
Incorrect. Estella’s mother is using modeling, not rewarding her behavior.
96. Juan is so afraid of germs that he wears gloves when opening doors. He is encouraged by
his therapist to imitate a person in a video who demonstrates opening a door, step–by-step,
without wearing gloves. Which technique is his therapist using?
a. systematic desensitization
b. token economy
c. participant modeling
d. extinction
Answer: c. participant modeling
Correct. Modeling involves imitation, and Juan is asked to imitate the person in the video.
a. systematic desensitization
Incorrect. Systematic desensitization gradually exposes the client to the feared object while
using relaxation techniques to reduce anxiety.
97. The strengthening of a response by following it with a pleasurable consequence or
removing an unpleasant stimulus is called________.
a. reinforcement
b. modeling
c. punishment
d. extinction
Answer: a. reinforcement
Correct. Reinforcement entails the strengthening of a response by following it with a
pleasurable consequence or removing an unpleasant stimulus.
d. extinction
Incorrect. Extinction involves reducing the frequency of a response through the removal of a
reinforcer.
98. _________ strengthens a response by following it with a pleasurable consequence.
a. Positive reinforcement
b. Punishment
c. Negative reinforcement
d. Extinction

Answer: a. Positive reinforcement
Correct. Positive reinforcement strengthens a response by following it with a pleasurable
consequence.
c. Negative reinforcement
Incorrect. Negative reinforcement strengthens a response by the removal of an unpleasant
stimulus.
99. _________ strengthens a response by following it with the removal of an unpleasant
stimulus.
a. Positive reinforcement
b. Punishment
c. Negative reinforcement
d. Extinction
Answer: c. Negative reinforcement
Correct. Negative reinforcement strengthens a response by the removal of an unpleasant
stimulus.
a. Positive reinforcement
Incorrect. Positive reinforcement strengthens a response by following it with a pleasurable
consequence.
100. Which of the following is a therapy based on the principles of operant conditioning?
a. systematic desensitization
b. flooding
c. aversion therapy
d. token economy
Answer: d. token economy
Correct. Token economy, which involves awarding tokens for good behavior that can be
traded for desired things or privileges to reinforce behavior, is based on the principles of
operant conditioning.
a. systematic desensitization
Incorrect. Systematic desensitization is based on the principles of classical conditioning.
101. Eileen goes to a therapist for help in losing weight. She and her therapist develop a
written agreement spelling out weekly step-by-step methods for Eileen to use in order to
reach her weight goal. The plan specifies rewards for reaching weekly goals and penalties for
not achieving them. Eileen’s therapist is using which of the following methods?
a. classical conditioning

b. desensitization
c. contingency contract
d. a token economy
Answer: c. contingency contract
Correct. A contingency contract is a formal agreement regarding rules of behavior and the
consequences of failing to follow them.
d. a token economy
Incorrect. A token economy involves awarding tokens for good behavior that can be traded
for desired items or privileges.
102. At Skinner Elementary School, teachers pass out “skinner bucks” to students who turn in
papers on time, obey the teacher, and finish their homework. The paper “bucks” can be traded
in at the end of the week for special treats or game-playing time on the classroom computer.
This system most resembles a________.
a. participant modeling technique
b. contingency contract
c. group extinction procedure
d. token economy
Answer: d. token economy
Correct. The students are being provided with tokens—the “skinner bucks”—that can be
traded for desired items or privileges.
b. contingency contract
Incorrect. A contingency contract is a formal agreement about rules of behavior and the
consequences of failing to follow them.
103. The use of objects that can be traded for food, candy, treats, or special privileges with
the purpose of reinforcing behavior is called________.
a. participant modeling technique
b. contingency contract
c. group extinction procedure
d. token economy
Answer: d. token economy
Correct. A token economy involves awarding tokens for good behavior that can be traded for
desired items or privileges.
b. contingency contract

Incorrect. A contingency contract is a formal agreement about rules of behavior and the
consequences of failing to follow them.
104. Every time Alice cleans her room properly and makes the bed she receives a marble.
When she accumulates 100 marbles, she can get the new video game she wants. What type of
behavioral program are Alice’s parents using?
a. modeling
b. negative reinforcement
c. token economy
d. systematic desensitization
Answer: c. token economy
Correct. Marbles are being used as tokens that can then traded in for a desired object—the
video game.
b. negative reinforcement
Incorrect. Negative reinforcement involves the removal of an unpleasant stimulus as a way to
reinforce good behavior.
105. The behavior of chronically schizophrenic individuals living in psychiatric institutions
has been successfully modified through the use of ______.
a. reality therapy
b. negative reinforcement
c. token economy
d. systematic desensitization
Answer: c. token economy
Correct. Token economy has been successful in modifying the behavior of schizophrenics.
b. negative reinforcement
Incorrect. Negative reinforcement has not been as successful in modifying the behavior of
schizophrenics as has token economy.
106. A client at a mental institution is rewarded for improved grooming habits with coupons
he can exchange for special foods or weekend passes. This technique is called ______.
a. modeling
b. negative reinforcement
c. token economy
d. systematic desensitization
Answer: c. token economy
Correct. The coupons are tokens that can be traded in for desired objects or privileges.

b. negative reinforcement
Incorrect. Negative reinforcement involves the removal of an unpleasant stimulus as a way to
reinforce good behavior.
107. A _________ is a method of reinforcement that uses a formal written agreement in
which the goals for behavioral change, reinforcements, and penalties are clearly stated.
a. contingency contract
b. transactional analysis
c. reciprocal inhibition
d. token economy
Answer: a. contingency contract
Correct. A contingency contract is a formal agreement regarding rules of behavior and the
consequences of failing to follow them.
d. token economy
Incorrect. A token economy involves awarding tokens for good behavior that can be traded
for desired items or privileges.
108. Which of the following statements is true regarding the effectiveness of contingency
contracts when used with children?
a. They are consistent and there is no room for reinterpretation of the rules.
b. They are flexible and are regularly subject to change on an as-needed basis.
c. Parents can back down on a promised privilege.
d. Children can change the rules as needed, at any time.
Answer: a. They are consistent and there is no room for reinterpretation of the rules.
Correct. This statement is true because when implementing contingency contracts rules are in
writing; therefore, there is no room for reinterpretation.
b. They are flexible and are regularly subject to change on an as-needed basis.
Incorrect. This statement is false because for a contingency contract to be effective, it needs
to be consistent.
109. Which technique removes a reinforcer to reduce the frequency of a behavior?
a. extinction
b. punishment
c. negative reinforcement
d. systematic desensitization
Answer: a. extinction

Correct. Extinction involves the removal of a reinforcer to reduce the frequency of a
behavior.
c. negative reinforcement
Incorrect. Negative reinforcement strengthens a response by the removal of an unpleasant
stimulus.
110. A parent wishes to stop her young son from throwing temper tantrums. You suggest she
use extinction and advise her to___________.
a. spank her son whenever he throws a tantrum
b. physically restrain her son when he throws a tantrum
c. give her son a gold star and a hug whenever he is calm
d. ignore the tantrums and pay attention to her son only when he is calm
Answer: d. ignore the tantrums and pay attention to her son only when he is calm
Correct. Extinction involves the removal of a reinforcer (her attention) to reduce the
frequency of a behavior (tantrums).
c. give her son a gold star and a hug whenever he is calm
Incorrect. Giving a child something positive is reinforcement, not extinction.
111. ____________ therapies have had considerable success in treating bedwetting,
overeating, drug addictions, and phobic reactions.
a. Behavior
b. Psychoanalytic
c. Biomedical
d. Humanistic
Answer: a. Behavior
Correct. Behavior therapies have had considerable success in treating bedwetting, overeating,
drug addictions, and phobic reactions.
d. Humanistic
Incorrect. Humanistic therapies are successful in treating mental disorders, helping people
make career choices and deal with workplace problems, and as a form of marriage
counseling.
112. Allen, who has a drug abuse problem, is MOST likely to be successfully treated by
______.
a. psychoanalysis
b. family therapy
c. behavior therapy

d. Gestalt therapy
Answer: c. behavior therapy
Correct. Behavior therapies have had considerable success in treating addictions.
a. psychoanalysis
Incorrect. Psychoanalysis does not have as good a record in treating addictions as do behavior
therapies.
113. Which of the following is an advantage of behavior therapy?
a. It is very effective in treating serious psychological disorders.
b. It treats the underlying cause of the problem.
c. It is a relatively quick and efficient way to reduce symptoms.
d. The therapist decides which of the client’s thoughts are rational and which are irrational.
Answer: c. It is a relatively quick and efficient way to reduce symptoms.
Correct. Behavior therapy is a relatively quick and efficient way to reduce symptoms.
a. It is very effective in treating serious psychological disorders.
Incorrect. Serious disorders do not respond well overall to behavior therapies.
114. Which of the following is one of the criticisms of behavior therapy?
a. It focuses on the underlying cause of behavior and not the symptoms.
b. Therapy typically lasts for several years and is very expensive.
c. It focuses too much on the past.
d. It only relieves some symptoms of schizophrenia but does not treat the overall disorder.
Answer: d. It only relieves some symptoms of schizophrenia but does not treat the overall
disorder.
Correct. Behavior therapy may help relieve some symptoms but does not treat the overall
disorder of schizophrenia.
c. It focuses too much on the past.
Incorrect. Behavior therapy focuses on the present.
115. Therapy that depends on identifying and changing distorted thinking and unrealistic
beliefs is ______ therapy.
a. cognitive
b. psychoanalytic
c. behavior
d. person-centered
Answer: a. cognitive

Correct. Cognitive therapy focuses on identifying and changing distorted thinking and
unrealistic beliefs.
c. behavior
Incorrect. Behavior therapy focuses on behavior, not thinking.
116. Beck’s cognitive therapy is particularly effective in the treatment of ______.
a. anxiety disorders
b. somatoform disorders
c. schizophrenia
d. depression
Answer: d. depression
Correct. Beck’s cognitive therapy is especially effective in treating distortions related to
depression.
c. schizophrenia
Incorrect. Beck’s cognitive therapy is especially effective in treating distortions related to
depression, not schizophrenia.
117. Dr. Stevenson, a therapist, states “I promote rational thinking to alleviate distressing
feelings and behaviors.” Dr. Stevenson is probably a ________ therapist.
a. client-centered
b. psychodynamic
c. behavior
d. cognitive
Answer: d. cognitive
Correct. Dr. Stevenson is focusing on the relationship between one’s cognitions and their
psychological experiences.
b. psychodynamic
Incorrect. If Dr. Stevenson focused on things like the unconscious motives that drive
behaviors, then she might be considered a psychodynamic therapist.
118. Therapy that depends on identifying and changing distorted thinking and unrealistic
beliefs is ______ therapy.
a. cognitive
b. psychoanalytic
c. behavior
d. client-centered
Answer: a. cognitive

Correct. Cognitive therapy focuses on identifying and changing distorted thinking and
unrealistic beliefs.
c. behavior
Incorrect. Behavior therapy focuses on behavior, not thinking.
119. Which of these clients is the most likely candidate for Aaron Beck’s form of cognitive
therapy?
a. Albert who suffers from mania
b. Barbara, who suffers from depression
c. Robert, who suffers from schizophrenia
d. Virginia, who has been diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder
Answer: b. Barbara, who suffers from depression
Correct. Beck’s cognitive therapy is especially effective in treating distortions related to
depression.
a. Albert who suffers from mania
Incorrect. Beck’s cognitive therapy is especially effective in treating distortions related to
depression, not mania.
120. According to Aaron Beck, ________ are irrational thoughts that arise from a systematic
bias in the way a person thinks about reality.
a. catastrophic beliefs
b. cognitive errors
c. cognitive distortions
d. self-monitoring tendencies
Answer: c. cognitive distortions
Correct. option c, cognitive distortions. According to Aaron Beck's cognitive theory,
cognitive distortions are irrational thoughts or patterns of thinking that stem from a
systematic bias in an individual's perception of reality.
b. cognitive errors
Incorrect. B represent other concepts related to cognition or perception but do not specifically
address the systematic bias described by Beck.
121. Which of the following is one of the cognitive distortions proposed by Aaron Beck?
a. selective thinking
b. low frustration tolerance
c. hostility and rage
d. self-downing

Answer: a. selective thinking
Correct. option a, selective thinking. Selective thinking is one of the cognitive distortions
proposed by Aaron Beck. It involves focusing only on certain aspects of a situation while
ignoring others, often leading to biased or distorted perceptions.
d. self-downing
Incorrect. d represent other cognitive phenomena but are not among the specific cognitive
distortions identified by Beck.
122. Your friend has applied to several medical schools. After receiving several rejection
letters, she concludes that she will not be admitted to any school and will have no future with
a real career. Your friend is engaging in___________.
a. arbitrary inference
b. magnification
c. minimization
d. selective thinking
Answer: b. magnification
Correct. Your friend is drawing a sweeping conclusion that her worst nightmare is going to
come true and that it will be intolerable.
a. arbitrary inference
Incorrect. Arbitrary inference involves jumping to a conclusion as to the reason something
happened.
123. When someone “jumps to conclusions,” Beck would say that he or she is suffering from
a distortion in thought called ______________.
a. selective thinking
b. arbitrary inference
c. overgeneralization
d. personalization
Answer: b. arbitrary inference
Correct. Arbitrary means to decide something based on no evidence.
c. overgeneralization
Incorrect. This is a case of arbitrary inference.
124. DeMario’s wife, Marta, asks him if he wants some help cutting the grass and weeding
the garden. He declines the offer and feels “blue” for the rest of the day because he keeps
thinking, “Marta thinks I am getting older and losing my physical abilities.” What type of
cognitive distortion is involved here?

a. minimization
b. overgeneralization
c. selective abstraction
d. arbitrary inference
Answer: d. arbitrary inference
Correct. DeMario jumps to a conclusion as to the reason for Marta’s offer without evidence
that he is correct.
b. overgeneralization
Incorrect. Overgeneralization occurs when one draws a sweeping conclusion based on one
incident and then assumes the conclusion applies to areas of life that have nothing to do with
the incident.
125. Your friend has applied to several medical schools. After receiving one rejection letter,
she concludes that she will not be admitted to any school and feels depressed. Your friend is
engaging in___________.
a. arbitrary inference
b. overgeneralization
c. minimization
d. selective thinking
Answer: b. overgeneralization
Correct. Your friend is drawing a sweeping conclusion about what will happen in the future
based on one letter.
a. arbitrary inference
Incorrect. Arbitrary inference involves jumping to a conclusion as to the reason something
happened.
126. Azdah’s teenage son fails his mathematics exam due to lack of studying. She
immediately assumes that it is her fault. Azdah is engaging in___________.
a. arbitrary inference
b. selective thinking
c. personalization
d. minimization
Answer: c. personalization
Correct. Azdah is personalizing, or taking responsibility for, something that is not her fault—
her son’s behavior.
b. selective thinking

Incorrect. Selective thinking occurs when someone focuses on only one negative aspect of a
situation, ignoring more positive aspects.
127. Therapies that focus on the present and assume that people observe the world and the
people around them, make assumptions and inferences based on these observations, and then
decide how to respond is called___________.
a. person-centered therapy
b. cognitive-behavioral therapy
c. behavior therapy
d. Gestalt therapy
Answer: b. cognitive-behavioral therapy
Correct. Cognitive-behavioral therapy focuses on the present and assumes that people make
assumptions based on their observations.
c. behavior therapy
Incorrect. Behavior therapy focuses on actual, overt behavior.
128. A therapist challenges what she sees as her client’s irrational and self-defeating thoughts.
Her goal is to help her client change these thoughts into more rational, helpful, positive
thoughts. In addition, she wants to help her client develop strategies that can be used to cope
with future problems. She is probably a ______________ therapist.
a. cognitive-behavioral
b. person-centered
c. psychoanalytic
d. Gestalt
Answer: a. cognitive-behavioral
Correct. Cognitive-behavioral therapists are concerned with helping clients change their
irrational thoughts into more rational and positive thoughts.
b. person-centered
Incorrect. Person-centered therapists do not challenge their clients.
129. Dinah, a therapist, works with her clients to help them change their problematic
behaviors and irrational thoughts and provide new, more adaptive behaviors and beliefs to
replace old, maladaptive ones. Dinah uses what type of therapy?
a. behavior therapy
b. cognitive-behavior therapy
c. psychoanalysis
d. client-centered therapy

Answer: b. cognitive-behavior therapy
Correct. These are several of the foundational tenets of cognitive-behavioral therapy.
d. client-centered therapy
Incorrect. Client-centered therapy focuses more on identifying incongruence between a
person’s real and ideal self.
130. Which approach assumes that disorders come from illogical, irrational cognitions and
that changing the thinking patterns to more rational, logical ones will relieve the symptoms of
the disorder?
a. cognitive-behavioral
b. person-centered
c. psychoanalytic
d. Gestalt
Answer: a. cognitive-behavioral
Correct. Cognitive-behavioral therapists are concerned with helping clients change their
irrational thoughts to more rational and positive thoughts.
b. person-centered
Incorrect. A person-centered therapist believes disorders come from a mismatch between the
ideal self and the real self and a lack of unconditional positive regard.
131. Which of the following is a basic goal of cognitive-behavioral therapy?
a. to help clients uncover unconscious conflicts and sexual urges
b. to help clients develop a closer match between real and ideal selves
c. to help clients change irrational thoughts to rational thoughts
d. to help clients complete unfinished business and become whole
Answer: c. to help clients change irrational thoughts to rational thoughts
Correct. A goal of cognitive-behavior therapy is to help clients change irrational thoughts to
rational thoughts.
b. to help clients develop a closer match between real and ideal selves
Incorrect. Helping clients develop a closer match between real and ideal selves is a goal of
person-centered therapy.
132. Rational-emotive therapy is a type of ______ therapy.
a. insight
b. cognitive-behavioral
c. psychoanalytic
d. humanistic

Answer: b. cognitive-behavioral
Correct. Rational-emotive therapy is a type of cognitive-behavioral therapy.
a. insight
Incorrect. Rational-emotive therapy is an action therapy, which aims to help clients change
their thinking and behavior, not an insight therapy, which aims to help clients understand
their motives and feelings.
133. According to Albert Ellis, we become unhappy and depressed about events because of
_______.
a. our behaviors
b. our irrational beliefs
c. the events that happen to us
d. other people’s irrational beliefs
Answer: b. our irrational beliefs
Correct. Ellis believes irrational beliefs cause dissatisfaction and depression.
d. other people’s irrational beliefs
Incorrect. Ellis believes the individual’s irrational beliefs cause dissatisfaction and
depression.
134. ________ is credited with developing rational-emotive behavioral therapy.
a. Sigmund Freud
b. Aaron Beck
c. Albert Ellis
d. Joseph Wolpe
Answer: c. Albert Ellis
Correct. option c, Albert Ellis. He is credited with developing rational-emotive behavioral
therapy (REBT), a form of cognitive-behavioral therapy that focuses on identifying and
challenging irrational beliefs and thought patterns to promote emotional well-being.
Incorrect. d represent other prominent figures in psychology who contributed to different
therapeutic approaches, making them incorrect in this context.
135. Rational-emotive behavior therapy is a type of ______ therapy.
a. insight
b. cognitive
c. psychoanalytic
d. humanistic
Answer: b. cognitive

Correct. option b, cognitive therapy. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) is a type of
cognitive therapy that emphasizes identifying and challenging irrational beliefs and cognitive
distortions to facilitate emotional and behavioral change.
d. humanistic
Incorrect. d represent other therapeutic approaches that are distinct from cognitive therapy,
making them incorrect in this context.
136. Rational-emotive behavior therapy presumes that the ultimate cause for distressing
feelings or symptoms is due to ________.
a. an unhappy childhood
b. dysfunctional behavioral patterns
c. faulty or illogical thoughts
d. one’s negative feelings about life
Answer: c. faulty or illogical thoughts
Correct. The goal of rational emotive behavioral therapy is to identify and then challenge
these unhealthy thought processes.
a. an unhappy childhood
Incorrect. This would be an explanation from psychoanalysis, not rational-emotive behavior
therapy.
137. In which form of therapy does the therapist take a directive role, challenging clients
when they make “my way or nothing” statements?
a. psychoanalysis
b. behavior therapy
c. person-centered therapy
d. rational-emotive behavior therapy
Answer: d. rational-emotive behavior therapy
Correct. Rational-emotive therapists are directive and challenge their clients’ belief systems.
b. behavior therapy
Incorrect. Behavior therapy focuses on changing behavior through the use of conditioning
techniques, not by challenging clients’ statements.
138. Sigmund Freud arrives for a therapy session with Albert Ellis. Freud’s main complaint is
depression; it seems that Freud’s writings have not received the kind of response he had
hoped for and expected. What is Ellis most likely to say during the therapy session?
a. “Let’s explore your dreams in search of the real reason for your depression.”
b. “You are upset about the reaction that your work has been receiving.”

c. “I want to do some tests to find the neurological cause of your distress.”
d. “Why do you expect all your work to be well received, and what difference does it make if
some people don’t like your ideas?"
Answer: d. “Why do you expect all your work to be well received, and what difference does
it make if some people don’t like your ideas?"
Correct. Rational-emotive therapists challenge their clients’ belief systems.
b. “You are upset about the reaction that your work has been receiving.”
Incorrect. Reflection is the type of response Rogers, not Ellis, would provide.
139. A therapist challenges what she sees as her client’s irrational and self-defeating beliefs.
She uses persuasion, confrontation, arguments, and even homework assignments to challenge
those beliefs. She is probably a ______ therapist.
a. biomedical
b. person-centered
c. psychoanalytic
d. rational-emotive
Answer: d. rational-emotive
Correct. Rational-emotive therapists challenge their clients’ belief systems and assign
homework.
b. person-centered
Incorrect. Person-centered therapists do not challenge their clients’ belief systems.
140. ____________ therapies have had considerable success in treating many types of
disorders, including depression, stress disorders, anxiety disorders, and even some of the
behavioral symptoms of schizophrenia.
a. Humanistic
b. Psychoanalytic
c. Biomedical
d. Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral
Answer: d. Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral
Correct. Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies have had considerable success in
treating depression, stress disorders, anxiety disorders, and some behavioral symptoms of
schizophrenia.
a. Humanistic
Incorrect. Humanistic therapies are not recommended for serious psychological disorders
such as schizophrenia.

141. Which of the following is one of the criticisms of cognitive and cognitive-behavioral
therapies?
a. They are too expensive.
b. Therapy typically lasts for several years.
c. They focus too much on the past.
d. They treat the symptom not the cause of the problem.
Answer: d. They treat the symptom not the cause of the problem.
Correct. Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies focus on symptoms.
c. They focus too much on the past.
Incorrect. Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies focus on the present and are symptom
oriented.
142. Which of the following is an advantage of cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies?
a. Clients do not need to be verbal.
b. They treat the underlying cause of the problem.
c. They are less expensive and short term than typical insight therapies.
d. The therapist decides which of the client’s beliefs are rational and which are irrational.
Answer: c. They are less expensive and short term than typical insight therapies.
Correct. Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies are relatively inexpensive and are short
term.
d. The therapist decides which of the client’s beliefs are rational and which are irrational.
Incorrect. The fact that the therapist decides which of the client’s beliefs are irrational is a
criticism, not an advantage, of cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies.
143. Kaleem wants to see a therapist because he feels he has negative thoughts and would
like to change his way of thinking. Because he is on a limited budget, he would like to choose
a type of therapy that is relatively short term and inexpensive. Which of the following
therapies would best meet Kaleem’s needs?
a. psychoanalysis
b. biomedical therapy
c. cognitive-behavioral
d. person-centered
Answer: c. cognitive-behavioral
Correct. Cognitive-behavioral therapy focuses on changing irrational thinking and is shorter
term and less expensive than the other forms of therapy.
a. psychoanalysis

Incorrect. Psychoanalysis lasts several years, is an insight therapy rather than an action
therapy, and is expensive.
144. A type of therapy in which clients meet regularly in a group setting and discuss problems
under the guidance of a single therapist is called ______ therapy.
a. social
b. informal
c. group
d. Gestalt
Answer: c. group
Correct. Group therapy is a type of therapy in which a group of clients meets together with a
specific therapist.
a. social
Incorrect. Group therapy is a type of therapy in which a group of clients meets together with a
specific therapist.
145. Family counseling is a form of ______ therapy.
a. organic
b. group
c. self-help
d. informal
Answer: b. group
Correct. Family counseling is a form of group therapy that focuses on the family unit.
c. self-help
Incorrect. Self-help groups are not facilitated by a counselor.
146. John and his wife are having trouble communicating and getting along with one another.
Which type of therapy is most likely to help them with their problems?
a. family
b. individual
c. self-help group
d. systematic desensitization
Answer: a. family
Correct. The goal of family therapy is to improve interaction among family members.
b. individual
Incorrect. Individual therapy would not help John and his wife communicate with each other
as much as would family therapy, which focuses on communication.

147. Saleem has been seeing a therapist because she cannot adjust to her new husband’s
children from a previous marriage. Although she dearly loves her husband, she feels awkward
and embarrassed in front of the children. The therapist suggests that she bring her husband
and his children with her to the next session so she can see them interact. Saleem is probably
seeing a ______.
a. behavior therapist
b. psychoanalyst
c. Gestalt therapist
d. family therapist
Answer: d. family therapist
Correct. Family therapists are interested in treating the whole family.
c. Gestalt therapist
Incorrect. Family therapists treat the whole family.
148. A goal of family therapy is to ______.
a. change the needs of individual family members
b. improve family communication and interaction
c. identify and treat the person in the family who is the source of the majority of the family’s
problems
d. teach family members to remain neutral on sensitive issues
Answer: b. improve family communication and interaction
Correct. The goal of family therapy is to improve interaction among family members.
c. identify and treat the person in the family who is the source of the majority of the family’s
problems
Incorrect. In family therapy no one person is seen as the problem.
149. Most family therapists who work with couples concentrate on ______.
a. exploring the marital partners’ childhoods to understand the source of the current conflicts
b. desensitization techniques to help the marital partners become more tolerant of each other
c. changing the behavior of the person in the marriage who is the source of the couple’s
problems
d. improving the couple’s patterns of communication so they can find better ways of solving
their problems
Answer: d. improving the couple’s patterns of communication so they can find better ways of
solving their problems

Correct. The goal of family therapy is to improve interactions and communication between
people.
c. changing the behavior of the person in the marriage who is the source of the couple’s
problems
Incorrect. In family therapy no one person is seen as the problem.
150. A group composed of people who have similar problems and who meet together without
a therapist or counselor for the purpose of discussion, problem solving, and social and
emotional support is called______.
a. family therapy
b. individual therapy
c. a self-help group
d. a systematic desensitization group
Answer: c. a self-help group
Correct. Self-help groups provide social and emotional support without the guidance of a
counselor.
a. family therapy
Incorrect. Family therapy is facilitated by a therapist.
151. Alcoholics Anonymous is a particularly well-known ______.
a. psychoanalytic therapy group
b. desensitization group
c. self-help group
d. structured behavior therapy group
Answer: c. self-help group
Correct. Alcoholics Anonymous is run by the people experiencing the problem, not by a
therapist.
d. structured behavior therapy group
Incorrect. Alcoholics Anonymous is a self-help group.
152. Which of the following is an advantage of self-help groups?
a. They provide access to needed medications.
b. They are free.
c. They are facilitated by an experienced therapist who is familiar with the group members’
problems.
d. They are facilitated by a person who is not familiar with the members’ problems.
Answer: b. They are free.

Correct. Self-help groups are free.
c. They are facilitated by an experienced therapist who is familiar with the group members’
problems.
Incorrect. Self-help groups are not led by therapists but by individuals who are experiencing
the problem.
153. Lydia is a divorced mother who attends meetings with peers who share the same
problems and stressful situations. There is no professional facilitating these meetings. What
type of sessions is Lydia attending?
a. individual therapy
b. family therapy
c. self-help group
d. assertiveness training
Answer: c. self-help group
Correct. Self-help groups are not facilitated by professionals but by individuals who are
experiencing the problem.
b. family therapy
Incorrect. Family therapy groups are led by professionals.
154. An advantage to group therapy is that groups ______.
a. are a source of social support
b. allow countertransference to occur
c. bestow unconditional approval on group members
d. allow an extremely shy person to feel more comfortable speaking up
Answer: a. are a source of social support
Correct. Group therapy provides social support from people who have similar problems.
d. allow an extremely shy person to feel more comfortable speaking up
Incorrect. An extremely shy person is not likely to do as well in group therapy.
155. Which of the following is a disadvantage of group therapy?
a. The therapist is the only person to whom secrets are revealed.
b. It allows the therapist to see how the client interacts with others.
c. It often allows group members to help one another learn new social skills.
d. The client must share the therapist’s time.
Answer: d. The client must share the therapist’s time.
Correct. During group therapy, the therapist must give time to all members.
a. The therapist is the only person to whom secrets are revealed.

Incorrect. In group therapy, secrets are revealed to the entire group.
156. Which person might benefit the MOST from a group therapy environment?
a. Suzanne, who has schizophrenia
b. Richard, who is withdrawn
c. Jasmine, who is uncomfortable in social settings
d. Elena, who is very sociable
Answer: d. Elena, who is very sociable
Correct. People who are sociable seem to find self-help groups beneficial.
c. Jasmine, who is uncomfortable in social settings
Incorrect. Group therapy is not as helpful to those who are uncomfortable in social settings.
157. An advantage of group therapy is that it ___________.
a. can provide help to individuals who may be unable to afford individual psychotherapy
b. can be helpful to individuals who are uncomfortable in social situations
c. can only be used alone and not in combination with any other form of therapy
d. can be helpful to those who have difficulty speaking in public
Answer: a. can provide help to individuals who may be unable to afford individual
psychotherapy
Correct. Group therapy can provide help to those who may be unable to afford individual
psychotherapy.
c. can only be used alone and not in combination with any other form of therapy
Incorrect. Group therapy can be used in combination with other therapies.
158. Which of the following is one of the top four complaints that students bring to college or
university counseling centers?
a. symptoms of an eating disorder
b. symptoms of drug abuse or dependence
c. difficulties deciding on a career path
d. symptoms of anxiety disorders [Correct Answer]
Answer: d. symptoms of anxiety disorders [Correct Answer]
Correct. d, symptoms of anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders are among the top four
complaints reported by students seeking counseling services at college or university
counseling centers, reflecting the prevalence of anxiety-related issues among this
demographic.
a. symptoms of an eating disorder

Incorrect. A represent other potential concerns that students may bring to counseling centers
but do not specifically fall within the top four complaints as indicated in the question.
159. In a recent survey of college students receiving services in a college counseling center,
____% of those students surveyed were taking psychiatric medication.
a. 5
b. 15
c. 25 [Correct Answer]
d. 45
Answer: c. 25
Correct. option c, 25%. This indicates that a significant portion of college students seeking
counseling services are on psychiatric medication, highlighting the prevalence of mental
health issues among this demographic.
a. 5
Incorrect. It represent other percentages that are not supported by the survey data provided.
160. Researchers have found that about ______ percent of people feel that psychotherapy has
helped them.
a. 10 to 20
b. 30 to 50
c. 55 to 65
d. 75 to 90
Answer: d. 75 to 90
Correct. Seventy-five to 90 percent of people reported that psychotherapy has helped them.
c. 55 to 65
Incorrect. Seventy-five to 90 percent of people reported that psychotherapy has helped them.
161. According to the Consumer Reports survey, which of the following is accurate?
a. Individual psychotherapy works best for every type of disorder.
b. The longer a person stays in therapy, the greater the improvement.
c. Overall psychotherapy without drugs is not as effective as psychotherapy with drugs.
d. Group therapy is more effective than individual therapy in treating a wide range of
disorders.
Answer: b. The longer a person stays in therapy, the greater the improvement.
Correct. The Consumer Reports survey found that the longer a person stays in therapy, the
greater the improvement.
c. Overall psychotherapy without drugs is not as effective as psychotherapy with drugs.

Incorrect. The Consumer Reports survey did not find that psychotherapy without drugs is less
effective than psychotherapy with drugs.
162. Studies on the effectiveness of psychotherapy have found that ________.
a. cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy is the most effective treatment for every problem
b. all psychotherapies can be used to treat any problem
c. Gestalt psychotherapy is the most effective treatment for any problem
d. no one psychotherapy worked for every type of problem
Answer: d. no one psychotherapy worked for every type of problem
Correct. Studies have found that no one type of psychotherapy has worked for every type of
problem.
b. all psychotherapies can be used to treat any problem
Incorrect. Studies have found that no one psychotherapy worked for every type of problem.
163. Most psychological professionals today take a(n) ______ view of psychotherapy.
a. group treatment
b. humanistic
c. eclectic
d. behavioral
Answer: c. eclectic
Correct. The current trend in the field is to take an eclectic perspective.
d. behavioral
Incorrect. The current trend in the field is to take an eclectic perspective and use different
approaches for different clients.
164. You let your fingers do the walking through the Yellow Pages looking for a
psychotherapist. Your attention is drawn to an advertisement for a group practice described as
eclectic. When you call the receptionist to ask for a description of the practice, what will you
be told?
a. “Our group focuses on clients’ early life experiences.”
b. “Our staff uses a combination of methods to fit the client’s needs.”
c. “All the professionals in this group have training in psychoanalysis.”
d. “The staff is trained in the biological perspective.”
Answer: b. “Our staff uses a combination of methods to fit the client’s needs.”
Correct. The eclectic view of psychotherapy uses a combination of methods.
a. “Our group focuses on clients’ early life experiences.”

Incorrect. The eclectic view of psychotherapy uses a combination of methods, not just early
life experiences.
165. The most important aspect of successful psychotherapy is the __________ between
client and therapist.
a. therapeutic alliance
b. transference
c. mindfulness
d. authenticity
Answer: a. therapeutic alliance
Correct. It is the relationship between client and therapist that is key to effective therapy.
b. transference
Incorrect. Transference is the psychoanalytic term for the client’s transfer of feelings about
his or her parents onto the therapist.
166. When selecting a therapist, it seems that white men and women who are of middle
income _________.
a. have no preference regarding the gender of the therapist
b. prefer a female therapist
c. prefer a male therapist
d. prefer male and female co-therapists
Answer: b. prefer a female therapist
Correct. Research indicates that middle-income white men and women prefer a female
therapist.
c. prefer a male therapist
Incorrect. Research indicates that middle-income white men and women prefer a female
therapist.
167. Tien is an Asian male who is in the process of selecting a therapist. Which of the
following therapists is Tien most likely to select?
a. Blair, a Caucasian female therapist
b. Kim, an Asian female therapist
c. Mason, a male Asian therapist
d. Lonnie and Lenny male and female co-therapists
Answer: c. Mason, a male Asian therapist
Correct. Research shows that male Asian clients seem to prefer a male therapist.
b. Kim, an Asian female therapist

Incorrect. Research shows that male Asian clients seem to prefer a male therapist.
168. Which of the following is a barrier to effective therapy when the cultural backgrounds of
the client and therapist are different?
a. language
b. gender
c. age
d. clothing
Answer: a. language
Correct. One barrier can be difficulties in understanding what both the client and therapist are
saying.
b. gender
Incorrect. Language is a barrier when the cultural backgrounds of the client and therapist are
different.
169. Medication, electroconvulsive shock therapy, and psychosurgery are all types of ______.
a. cognitive therapy
b. behavioral therapy
c. biomedical therapy
d. psychoanalytic therapy
Answer: c. biomedical therapy
Correct. Medication, electroconvulsive shock therapy, and psychosurgery are all types of
biomedical therapy.
a. cognitive therapy
Incorrect. Medication, electroconvulsive shock therapy, and psychosurgery are all types of
biomedical therapy.
170. Lulu sees a professional once a month to manage the medication she is taking to help
alleviate the symptoms of her anxiety disorder. The type of therapy Lulu is undergoing is
called ______________.
a. psychotherapy
b. psychopharmacology
c. physical therapy
d. electroconvulsive shock therapy
Answer: b. psychopharmacology
Correct. Psychopharmacology uses medical procedures and medications.
a. psychotherapy

Incorrect. Psychotherapy involves talking things out with a professional.
171. Medication and electroconvulsive therapy are both types of ______.
a. cognitive therapy
b. behavioral therapy
c. biomedical therapy [Correct Answer]
d. psychoanalytic therapy
Answer: c. biomedical therapy [Correct Answer]
Correct. option c, biomedical therapy. Medication and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are
both biomedical interventions aimed at treating mental health disorders through physiological
means, such as altering neurotransmitter levels or brain activity.
b. behavioral therapy
Incorrect. b represent other types of therapy that do not involve biomedical interventions.
172. ______ are specifically trained to use biomedical therapies.
a. Family therapists
b. Psychiatrists
c. Counselors
d. Social workers
Answer: b. Psychiatrists
Correct. Psychiatrists are trained in biomedical therapies.
c. Counselors
Incorrect. Counselors are not trained in biomedical therapies.
173. Antipsychotic drugs treat symptoms such as ____________.
a. hopelessness, sadness, and suicide ideations
b. excessive worry, repetitive thoughts, and compulsive behavior
c. hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behavior
d. manipulation, lying, and cheating
Answer: c. hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behavior
Correct. Antipsychotic drugs treat hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behavior.
a. hopelessness, sadness, and suicide ideations
Incorrect. Antidepressant drugs, not antipsychotic drugs, treat feelings of hopelessness,
sadness, and suicide ideations.
174. How are atypical antipsychotics different from traditional antipsychotic medications?
a. Atypical antipsychotics are older.
b. Atypical antipsychotics only treat the positive symptoms.

c. Atypical antipsychotics only treat the negative symptoms.
d. Atypical antipsychotics are less likely to cause tardive dyskinesia. [Correct Answer]
Answer: d. Atypical antipsychotics are less likely to cause tardive dyskinesia. [Correct
Answer]
Correct. option d. Atypical antipsychotics are less likely to cause tardive dyskinesia, a side
effect characterized by involuntary movements, compared to traditional antipsychotic
medications.
Incorrect. a represent incorrect statements about the differences between atypical and
traditional antipsychotics, as they do not accurately reflect the distinction between the two
types of medications.
175. In general, antipsychotic drugs work by ______.
a. inhibiting the reuptake process of serotonin
b. increasing the amount of acetylcholine in the brain
c. blocking dopamine receptors in the brain
d. inhibiting the function of the hypothalamus
Answer: c. blocking dopamine receptors in the brain
Correct. Antipsychotic drugs work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain.
a. inhibiting the reuptake process of serotonin
Incorrect. Antidepressant drugs called SSRIs work by inhibiting the reuptake process of
serotonin.
176. Gary takes antipsychotic drugs to control the symptoms of schizophrenia. After taking
the drug for some time, he begins exhibiting repetitive, involuntary jerks and movements of
his face, lips, and legs. Gary is showing signs of_________.
a. savant syndrome
b. tardive dyskinesia
c. a clozapine overdose
d. neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Answer: b. tardive dyskinesia
Correct. Symptoms of tardive dyskinesia include repetitive, involuntary jerks and movements
of his face, lips, and legs.
c. a clozapine overdose
Incorrect. Gary is exhibiting symptoms of tardive dyskinesia.

177. You are a psychiatrist who specializes in treating schizophrenia. Joe is experiencing the
negative symptoms of schizophrenia, including withdrawal, apathy, and reduced
communication. Which of the following medications are you apt to prescribe to treat Joe?
a. atypical neuroleptics
b. benzodiazepines
c. lithium
d. monoamine oxidase inhibitors
Answer: a. atypical neuroleptics
Correct. Atypical neuroleptics are effective in treating the negative symptoms of
schizophrenia.
b. benzodiazepines
Incorrect. Benzodiazepines are used in the treatment of anxiety.
178. Which of the following drugs would be the treatment of choice for schizophrenia?
a. Librium
b. aripiprazole
c. lithium
d. Prozac
Answer: b. aripiprazole
Correct. Aripiprazole is an atypical neuroleptic used to treat symptoms of schizophrenia.
c. lithium
Incorrect. Lithium is used to treat bipolar disorder, not symptoms of schizophrenia.
179. What type of drugs are the traditional antianxiety drugs, or minor tranquilizers, such as
Valium?
a. tricyclics
b. lithium family
c. chlorpromazines
d. benzodiazepines
Answer: d. benzodiazepines
Correct. The traditional antianxiety drugs, such as Valium, are benzodiazepines.
c. chlorpromazines
Incorrect. Chlorpromazine is an antipsychotic drug, not an antianxiety drug.
180. A physician prescribes a benzodiazepine drug to help alleviate your anxiety. Which drug
might you be taking?
a. Xanax

b. Prozac
c. Elavil
d. Thorazine
Answer: a. Xanax
Correct. Xanax is a benzodiazepine.
b. Prozac
Incorrect. Prozac is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, not a benzodiazepine.
181. The use of antianxiety drugs to treat anxiety disorders is gradually being phased out in
favor of treatment with _______________ drugs.
a. antidepressant
b. antimanic
c. antipsychotic
d. sedative
Answer: a. antidepressant
Correct. Use of benzodiazepines has declined in favor of antidepressant drugs.
b. antimanic
Incorrect. Antidepressant drugs are now being used to treat anxiety.
182. Bob has been under a physician’s care for bipolar disorder. Bob’s doctor is most likely to
prescribe which of the following to treat Bob’s disorder?
a. Ritalin
b. tricyclics
c. lithium
d. Prozac
Answer: c. lithium
Correct. Lithium is used in treating bipolar disorder.
b. tricyclics
Incorrect. Tricyclics are used to treat depression.
183. Alice takes lithium to control symptoms of her mental disorder. Alice is most likely
suffering from
a. schizophrenia
b. bipolar disorder
c. social phobia
d. generalized anxiety disorder
Answer: b. bipolar disorder

Correct. Lithium is used to treat bipolar disorder.
a. schizophrenia
Incorrect. Lithium is used to treat bipolar disorder.
184. Which of the following types of medications are used to treat mania?
a. anticonvulsant
b. antianxiety
c. ativan
d. antitypical
Answer: a. anticonvulsant
Correct. Anticonvulsant drugs are also used to treat mania.
b. antianxiety
Incorrect. Antianxiety drugs are used to treat anxiety.
185. The drug ______ is used to treat depression.
a. Valium
b. Prozac
c. Ritalin
d. lithium
Answer: b. Prozac
Correct. Prozac is used to treat depression.
a. Valium
Incorrect. Valium is used to treat anxiety.
186. What are two of the major classes of antidepressant drugs?
a. benzodiazepines and lithium
b. MAO inhibitors and tricyclics
c. benzodiazepines and tricyclics
d. benzodiazepines and MAOIs
Answer: b. MAO inhibitors and tricyclics
Correct. MAO inhibitors and tricyclics are two major classes of antidepressant drugs.
c. benzodiazepines and tricyclics
Incorrect. Benzodiazepines are antianxiety drugs.
187. Some drugs that combat depression work by____________.
a. increasing the amount of serotonin in the brain
b. blocking dopamine receptors in the brain
c. inhibiting the function of the medulla and the pons

d. increasing the amount of acetylcholine in the brain
Answer: a. increasing the amount of serotonin in the brain
Correct. Tricyclic antidepressants increase the activity of serotonin in the brain.
b. blocking dopamine receptors in the brain
Incorrect. Antipsychotic drugs, not antidepressant drugs, block dopamine receptors.
188. Bob has been under a physician’s care for depression. Although his symptoms have
disappeared and he has suffered no major side effects, he has had to go on a severely
restricted diet since his treatment began and be careful about eating certain smoked,
fermented, or pickled foods, and drinking certain beverages. In addition, he needs to be
careful about taking other medications due to a risk of severe high blood pressure. Bob’s
doctor has probably been treating him with ______.
a. lithium
b. MAOIs
c. Prozac
d. tricyclics
Answer: b. MAOIs
Correct. The restrictions in Bob’s diet as well as his need to be careful about taking other
medications are associated with taking MAOIs.
d. tricyclics
Incorrect. The restrictions in Bob’s diet as well as his need to be careful about taking other
medications are associated with taking MAOIs.
189. What is one of the main advantages of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) as
compared to similar drugs?
a. They have fewer side effects.
b. They only need to be taken weekly, not daily.
c. They affect several different neurotransmitters.
d. They work immediately.
Answer: a. They have fewer side effects.
Correct. SSRIs have fewer side effects than other categories of antidepressant drugs.
c. They affect several different neurotransmitters.
Incorrect. SSRIs affect only serotonin reuptake.
190. A treatment for severe depression in which an electric shock is delivered to the patient,
resulting in a seizure of the body and the release of a flood of neurotransmitters in the brain,
is called____________.

a. prefrontal lobotomy
b. electroconvulsive therapy
c. trephining
d. relaxation training and meditation
Answer: b. electroconvulsive therapy
Correct. Electroconvulsive therapy involves electric shock and is used to treat severe
depression that is not responsive to psychotherapy and medication.
a. prefrontal lobotomy
Incorrect. Prefrontal lobotomies are a form of psychosurgery.
191. For which disorder was electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) originally developed as a
treatment?
a. panic
b. schizophrenia
c. bipolar disorder
d. cyclothymia
Answer: b. schizophrenia
Correct. ECT was originally designed to induce seizures in schizophrenics.
c. bipolar disorder
Incorrect. ECT was originally designed to induce seizures in treating schizophrenia.
192. Cassie is diagnosed with severe depression. Her psychiatrist has prescribed many
medications and psychotherapy, none of which have helped to alleviate her depression. Her
psychiatrist is now recommending _________.
a. prefrontal lobotomy
b. electroconvulsive therapy
c. trephining
d. relaxation training and meditation
Answer: b. electroconvulsive therapy
Correct. ECT is used to treat severe depression that is not responsive to psychotherapy and
medication.
a. prefrontal lobotomy
Incorrect. Prefrontal lobotomies are no longer conducted.
193. Elyn was recently treated with electroconvulsive therapy. She is mostly likely
experiencing which psychological disorder?
a. a personality disorder

b. dissociative identity disorder
c. depression
d. anxiety disorder
Answer: c. depression
Correct. Severe, sometimes a psychotic, depression is treated with a electroconvulsive
therapy when other forms of treatment have proven ineffective.
a. a personality disorder
Incorrect. ECT is not used for the treatment of personality disorders.
194. Electroconvulsive therapy has been used successfully to treat ________that has not
responded to other treatments.
a. bipolar disorder
b. severe depression
c. schizophrenia
d. obsessive-compulsive disorder
Answer: b. severe depression
Correct. ECT has been successful in treating severe depression.
c. schizophrenia
Incorrect. ECT has been successful in treating severe depression, not schizophrenia.
195. Why does administration of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) often cause memory loss?
a. It disrupts the process of consolidation.
b. It increases the speed of information processing.
c. It destroys brain areas responsible for memory storage.
d. It causes a release of stress hormones that initiate a process of repression.
Answer: a. It disrupts the process of consolidation.
Correct. ECT disrupts the process of consolidation and prevents the formation of long-term
memories.
c. It destroys brain areas responsible for memory storage.
Incorrect. ECT disrupts the process of consolidation and prevents the formation of long-term
memories.
196. ECT (Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy) is used to treat ___________.
a. severe depression
b. bipolar disorder
c. schizophrenia
d. phobic disorders

Answer: a. severe depression
Correct. This form of electroconvulsive therapy is used to treat severe depression.
b. bipolar disorder
Incorrect. This form of electroconvulsive therapy is used to treat severe depression.
197. Which of the following is the appropriate definition of psychosurgery?
a. information given to a patient about a surgical procedure before the surgery in order to
prevent anxiety
b. surgery that is performed on brain tissue to relieve or control severe psychological
disorders
c. surgery that severs the spinal cord of the patient
d. a procedure in which a brief current of electricity is used to trigger a seizure that typically
lasts one minute, causing the body to convulse.
Answer: b. surgery that is performed on brain tissue to relieve or control severe psychological
disorders
Correct. Psychosurgery is defined as surgery that is performed on brain tissue to relieve or
control severe psychological disorders.
c. surgery that severs the spinal cord of the patient
Incorrect. One would never want to sever the spinal cord. Psychosurgery is performed on
brain tissue.
198. Prefrontal lobotomy is one form of ______.
a. shock treatment
b. drug therapy
c. psychosurgery
d. EST
Answer: c. psychosurgery
Correct. Prefrontal lobotomy is a form of psychosurgery.
a. shock treatment
Incorrect. Shock treatment does not entail surgery.
199. A patient scheduled to have an operation called a bilateral anterior cingulotomy may
have which of the following diagnoses?
a. panic disorder
b. bipolar disorder
c. catatonic schizophrenia
d. antisocial personality disorder

Answer: b. bipolar disorder
Correct. Bilateral cingulotomies are performed on people with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder.
c. catatonic schizophrenia
Incorrect. Bilateral cingulotomies are performed on people with a diagnosis of bipolar
disorder, not catatonic schizophrenia.
200. Bilateral anterior cingulotomy has been performed in cases of ________ that have not
responded to other therapy techniques.
a. antisocial personality disorder
b. major depression
c. schizophrenia
d. panic disorder
Answer: b. major depression
Correct. Bilateral cingulotomy has been performed in cases of major depression.
c. schizophrenia
Incorrect. Bilateral cingulotomy has been performed in cases of major depression, not
schizophrenia.
201. In the wake of the recent BP oil spill disaster in the Gulf of Mexico, there have been an
increase in reported cases of _________. Some researchers are finding that virtual reality
exposure therapy has helped with the treatment of these problems.
a. posttraumatic stress disorder
b. major depression
c. schizophrenia
d. panic disorder
Answer: a. posttraumatic stress disorder
Correct. A posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Following the BP oil spill disaster, an
increase in reported cases of PTSD was observed among individuals affected by the event.
Virtual reality exposure therapy has been studied as a potential treatment for PTSD, as it
allows individuals to confront and process traumatic memories in a controlled environment.
b. major depression
Incorrect. It represent other mental health disorders that may arise in response to traumatic
events but are not specifically mentioned in the context of the BP oil spill disaster or virtual
reality exposure therapy for treatment.
TRUE OR FALSE
1. Psychotherapy involves talking things out with a professional.

Answer: True
Rationale:
Psychotherapy typically involves talking with a trained therapist or counselor to address
psychological issues, emotional challenges, and behavioral problems. This process aims to
help individuals understand their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, and develop coping
strategies or make changes to improve their well-being.
2. Free association occurs during psychoanalysis, when the patient talks freely about anything
that comes to mind.
Answer: True
Rationale:
In psychoanalysis, free association is a technique where patients are encouraged to say
whatever comes to their mind without censoring themselves. This process allows unconscious
thoughts and feelings to surface, providing insights into underlying psychological conflicts or
issues.
3. The primary goal of the person-centered therapist is to facilitate transference.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The primary goal of person-centered therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, is to provide a
supportive environment where clients can explore and develop their own solutions to their
problems. Facilitating transference, which involves projecting feelings onto the therapist
based on past relationships, is not a goal of person-centered therapy.
4. Systematic desensitization is a therapy method used in treating phobias that involves
progressive relaxation and exposure to the feared object.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Systematic desensitization is a behavioral therapy technique commonly used to treat phobias
and anxiety disorders. It involves gradually exposing the individual to the feared stimulus
while teaching relaxation techniques to manage anxiety. This process helps the individual
overcome their fear response through repeated exposure and relaxation.
5. Eye-movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR) is used to treat post-traumatic stress
disorder.
Answer: True
Rationale:

EMDR is a therapeutic approach primarily used to alleviate symptoms of post-traumatic
stress disorder (PTSD). It involves a structured protocol that incorporates bilateral
stimulation, such as eye movements, to help individuals process traumatic memories and
reduce associated distress.
6. Modeling has been used successfully in helping children overcome their fear of going to
the dentist, social withdrawal, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and phobias.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Modeling, a technique based on observational learning, has been effectively used in
behavioral therapy to help individuals, including children, overcome various psychological
issues such as fears, social withdrawal, and phobias. By observing and imitating positive
behaviors, individuals can learn new coping strategies and reduce anxiety or avoidance
behaviors.
7. A contingency contract is a formal written agreement in which the goals for behavioral
change, reinforcements, and penalties are clearly stated.
Answer: True
Rationale:
A contingency contract is indeed a formal written agreement commonly used in behavioral
therapy. It outlines specific behavioral goals, the reinforcements or rewards for meeting those
goals, and the consequences or penalties for not meeting them. This structured approach
helps individuals clarify expectations and motivations for behavior change.
8. In rational-emotive therapy the therapist takes a directive role challenging clients when
they make “my way or nothing” statements.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT), developed by Albert Ellis, is a form of cognitivebehavioral therapy where the therapist plays an active and directive role. Therapists using
REBT challenge irrational beliefs and self-defeating thoughts, including absolutist statements
like "my way or nothing," to help clients develop more adaptive beliefs and coping strategies.
9. Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies have considerable success in treating many
types of disorders, including depression, stress disorders, anxiety disorders, and even some
types of schizophrenia.
Answer: True
Rationale:

Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies have been extensively researched and found to
be effective in treating various mental health disorders, including depression, anxiety
disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and certain types of schizophrenia. These
therapies focus on identifying and modifying dysfunctional thought patterns and behaviors to
alleviate symptoms and improve overall functioning.
10. A disadvantage of group therapy is that it can only be used alone and not in combination
with any other form of therapy.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Group therapy can be used alone as a standalone treatment, but it can also be effectively
combined with other forms of therapy, such as individual therapy or medication management.
Integrating different therapeutic approaches can enhance the overall effectiveness of
treatment by addressing individual needs within the group setting.
11. Most psychological professionals today take a psychoanalytic view of psychotherapy.
Answer: False
Rationale:
While psychoanalytic therapy has contributed significantly to the field of psychology, it is not
the dominant approach in contemporary psychotherapy. Instead, various other approaches,
such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, humanistic therapy, and mindfulness-based therapy, are
more commonly practiced today.
12. Language can be a barrier to effective psychotherapy, particularly when the cultural
backgrounds of the client and therapist are different.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Language barriers can indeed hinder effective communication and understanding in
psychotherapy, especially when the client and therapist come from different cultural
backgrounds. Differences in language, idiomatic expressions, and cultural nuances may
impede the therapeutic process, emphasizing the importance of cultural competence and the
use of interpreters or bilingual therapists when necessary.
13. Someone who practices psychotherapy on the internet is called a cybertherapist.
Answer: True
Rationale:
A professional who provides psychotherapy services online, either through video
conferencing, messaging, or other digital platforms, is commonly referred to as a

cybertherapist. Online therapy has become increasingly popular due to its convenience and
accessibility, especially for individuals who may have difficulty accessing traditional inperson therapy.
14. Antipsychotic drugs are used to treat symptoms such as hopelessness, sadness, and
thoughts of suicide.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Antipsychotic drugs are primarily used to manage symptoms associated with psychotic
disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. These medications are not typically
prescribed for symptoms of hopelessness, sadness, or suicidal thoughts, which are more
commonly addressed with antidepressants or psychotherapy.
15. The drug Lithium is used to treat bipolar disorder and episodes of mania, even though it is
not clear exactly why it is effective in affecting mood.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Lithium is a mood-stabilizing medication commonly used to treat bipolar disorder,
particularly to prevent or reduce the frequency and severity of manic episodes. While the
exact mechanism of lithium's action is not fully understood, it is believed to modulate
neurotransmitter activity and influence the brain's signaling pathways related to mood
regulation.
16. Electroconvulsive therapy is still used to treat severe depression.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains a viable treatment option for severe depression,
particularly when other interventions, such as medication and therapy, have not been effective
or when rapid symptom relief is needed. ECT involves administering controlled electrical
currents to the brain to induce a brief seizure, which can lead to changes in brain chemistry
and alleviate depressive symptoms.
17. Electroconvulsive therapy causes memory loss because it disrupts the process of
consolidation and prevents the formation of long-term memories.
Answer: True
Rationale:
ECT is associated with cognitive side effects, including memory loss, particularly retrograde
amnesia (loss of memory for events before the treatment) and sometimes anterograde

amnesia (difficulty forming new memories). The exact mechanism of ECT-induced memory
loss is not fully understood but is believed to involve disruption of memory consolidation
processes in the brain.
18. ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) has no effect on memory.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is known to have an impact on memory function. While the
extent and duration of memory impairment may vary among individuals and depending on
the treatment protocol used, cognitive side effects, including memory loss, are commonly
reported following ECT sessions.
19. The most common form of psychosurgery practiced today is the prefrontal lobotomy.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Prefrontal lobotomy, once a common form of psychosurgery, is no longer widely practiced
due to its associated risks and ethical concerns. Today, if psychosurgery is considered as a
treatment option, more precise and targeted procedures, such as deep brain stimulation
(DBS), are preferred over the crude techniques of lobotomy. DBS involves implanting
electrodes in specific brain regions to modulate neural activity and has shown promise in
treating certain psychiatric conditions like severe obsessive-compulsive disorder and
treatment-resistant depression.
SHORT ANSWER
1. Define psychotherapy and biomedical therapy and explain the differences between them.
Answer: Psychotherapy is a psychological treatment that involves talking with a trained
therapist or counselor to address emotional, behavioral, or psychological issues. It aims to
help individuals understand their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and develop coping
strategies or make changes to improve their well-being. Biomedical therapy, on the other
hand, involves the use of medications or medical procedures to treat psychological disorders.
The main difference between psychotherapy and biomedical therapy lies in their approaches:
psychotherapy focuses on psychological and emotional processes, while biomedical therapy
targets biological factors, such as neurotransmitter imbalances or brain abnormalities.
2. Define transference and resistance as discussed by Freud. Explain the therapeutic purpose
of these two concepts.
Answer: Transference, as discussed by Freud, refers to the unconscious redirection of feelings
and desires from one person to another, often onto the therapist. This phenomenon occurs

when unresolved conflicts or emotions from past relationships are unconsciously transferred
onto the therapist in the therapeutic relationship. Resistance, on the other hand, involves the
unconscious defense mechanisms that clients employ to avoid or block discussions of painful
or threatening material during therapy. The therapeutic purpose of transference and resistance
is to provide valuable insights into the client's unconscious thoughts, emotions, and relational
patterns. By exploring and understanding transference and resistance, therapists can help
clients gain insight into unresolved conflicts and work through them to achieve therapeutic
goals.
3. List and define two key elements that Rogers believed to be necessary in any successful
client–therapist relationship.
Answer: Carl Rogers, the founder of person-centered therapy, emphasized the importance of
two key elements in a successful client-therapist relationship: empathy and unconditional
positive regard. Empathy refers to the therapist's ability to understand and share the client's
feelings and experiences from their perspective, without judgment or interpretation.
Unconditional positive regard involves the therapist's acceptance and support of the client as
a valued individual, regardless of their thoughts, feelings, or behaviors. These two elements
create a safe and supportive environment where clients can explore their thoughts and
emotions openly, leading to personal growth and self-discovery.
4. Define the behavior therapy technique called flooding.
Answer: Flooding is a behavior therapy technique used to treat phobias and anxiety disorders
by exposing individuals to their feared stimulus or situation in a prolonged and intense
manner until the anxiety response diminishes. Unlike systematic desensitization, which
involves gradual exposure, flooding exposes individuals to the most feared aspect of the
phobia all at once, overwhelming the fear response and eventually leading to habituation.
Through repeated exposure without the opportunity to escape or avoid the feared stimulus,
individuals learn that the feared outcome does not occur, leading to a reduction in anxiety
over time.
5. Provide examples of two different cognitive distortions.
Answer: Cognitive distortions are irrational and exaggerated thought patterns that contribute
to negative emotions and behaviors. Two examples of cognitive distortions are:
1. All-or-nothing thinking: Seeing things in black-and-white terms without considering any
gray areas. For example, believing that making one mistake makes you a total failure.

2. Catastrophizing: Magnifying or exaggerating the significance of negative events or
outcomes. For example, assuming that failing a test will lead to catastrophic consequences
like never getting into college or never finding a job.
6. List the three basic goals of any cognitive-behavioral therapy.
Answer: The three basic goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are:
1. Cognitive restructuring: Identifying and challenging irrational or negative thought patterns
(cognitive distortions) to develop more balanced and realistic ways of thinking.
2. Behavior modification: Changing maladaptive behaviors by implementing specific
strategies, such as exposure techniques, behavioral experiments, and skill-building exercises.
3. Symptom reduction: Alleviating distressing symptoms associated with mental health
disorders, such as anxiety, depression, or obsessive-compulsive behaviors, through cognitive
and behavioral interventions aimed at improving coping skills and functioning.
7. Murray is convinced that his term paper just isn’t good enough, and so it would be better to
take an incomplete. His therapist, Albert Ellis, suggests that he try a different approach. What
might Murray end up doing as a client of Dr. Ellis?
Answer: As a client of Dr. Ellis, Murray might engage in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
(REBT), a form of cognitive-behavioral therapy developed by Ellis. In this approach, Ellis
would help Murray identify and challenge his irrational beliefs about the quality of his term
paper. Murray might learn to recognize and dispute thoughts such as "my paper is not good
enough" and replace them with more realistic and adaptive beliefs, leading to increased
motivation and productivity in completing the assignment.
8. What are two advantages and two disadvantages of group therapy?
Answer: Advantages:
1. Social Support: Group therapy provides a supportive environment where individuals can
connect with others facing similar challenges, fostering a sense of belonging and reducing
feelings of isolation.
2. Diverse Perspectives: Group therapy exposes individuals to diverse perspectives and
experiences, allowing for greater insight, empathy, and learning from others' experiences.
Disadvantages:
1. Lack of Individual Attention: In group therapy, each member may not receive the same
level of individual attention and focus as in individual therapy, potentially limiting the depth
of exploration and personalized treatment.

2. Group Dynamics: Group therapy dynamics, including conflicts, personality clashes, or
dominant members, may disrupt the therapeutic process and hinder some individuals' ability
to fully engage or benefit from the sessions.
9. Describe the role of the therapeutic alliance in successful therapy.
Answer: The therapeutic alliance refers to the collaborative and trusting relationship between
the therapist and the client. It is characterized by mutual respect, empathy, trust, and shared
goals. The therapeutic alliance plays a crucial role in successful therapy by providing a safe
and supportive environment for clients to explore their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. A
strong therapeutic alliance enhances client engagement, motivation, and adherence to
treatment, leading to better outcomes. It also facilitates effective communication, empathy,
and understanding between the therapist and the client, which are essential for promoting
insight, growth, and positive change.
10. List the physical side effects associated with antidepressant drugs.
Answer: Physical side effects associated with antidepressant drugs may include:
1. Nausea and gastrointestinal disturbances
2. Weight gain or loss
3. Sexual dysfunction (such as decreased libido or erectile dysfunction)
4. Insomnia or drowsiness
5. Headaches
6. Dry mouth
7. Sweating or changes in body temperature regulation
8. Increased heart rate or blood pressure
11. Originally used to treat tuberculosis symptoms in the 1950s, what was the first modern
antidepressant drug?
Answer: The first modern antidepressant drug, originally used to treat tuberculosis symptoms
in the 1950s, is iproniazid. Iproniazid was discovered to have mood-lifting effects in
tuberculosis patients, leading to its repurposing as an antidepressant medication. However, it
was later replaced by safer and more effective antidepressants such as tricyclic
antidepressants (TCAs) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
ESSAY
1. Describe psychoanalysis. Include information about its theoretical background, how it
seeks to help people, its key concepts, and an evaluation of its effectiveness.
Answer: Psychoanalysis, developed by Sigmund Freud, is a comprehensive theory of
personality and a form of psychotherapy aimed at exploring unconscious conflicts, desires,

and motivations to alleviate psychological symptoms and promote personal growth. Its
theoretical background draws heavily from Freud's structural model of the mind, which
includes the id, ego, and superego, as well as his concepts of defense mechanisms and
psychosexual development. Psychoanalysis seeks to help people by bringing unconscious
conflicts and repressed memories into conscious awareness, allowing individuals to gain
insight into their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Key concepts include free association,
dream analysis, transference, and resistance. Despite its historical significance and
contributions to the field of psychology, psychoanalysis has faced criticism for its lengthy and
costly treatment process, lack of empirical support, and limited applicability to diverse
populations and contemporary mental health issues.
2. Describe person-centered therapy. Include information about its theoretical background,
how it seeks to help people, its key concepts, and three basic elements necessary in a
successful client–therapist relationship.
Answer: Person-centered therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, is a humanistic approach to
psychotherapy rooted in the belief that individuals possess the innate capacity for selfawareness, growth, and healing. It emphasizes the therapist's unconditional positive regard,
empathy, and genuineness to create a supportive and nonjudgmental environment where
clients can explore their thoughts, feelings, and experiences freely. The theoretical
background of person-centered therapy is based on Rogers' concept of the actualizing
tendency, which drives individuals toward self-actualization and personal fulfillment. Key
concepts include empathy, unconditional positive regard, congruence, and the self-concept.
Three basic elements necessary in a successful client-therapist relationship are empathy
(understanding and sharing the client's feelings), unconditional positive regard (acceptance
and support of the client), and congruence (genuineness and authenticity in the therapist's
interactions).
3. Describe the three step process used in systematic desensitization.
Answer: Systematic desensitization is a behavior therapy technique used to treat phobias and
anxiety disorders. The three-step process involves:
1. Relaxation training: The client learns relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing or
progressive muscle relaxation, to induce a state of calmness and reduce anxiety.
2. Fear hierarchy: Together with the therapist, the client creates a fear hierarchy, ranking
feared situations or stimuli from least to most anxiety-provoking.
3. Gradual exposure: The client is gradually exposed to the feared stimuli or situations in a
systematic manner, starting with the least anxiety-provoking item on the fear hierarchy and

progressing to more challenging ones as they become desensitized to each level. Through
repeated exposure and relaxation, the client learns to associate the feared stimuli with
relaxation rather than anxiety, leading to a reduction in phobic responses.
4. You are a licensed therapist seeing a client who is afraid of elevators. What behavioral
technique or combination of behavioral techniques might you use to treat such a person?
Defend your choices.
Answer: One behavioral technique that might be effective in treating a fear of elevators,
known as elevator phobia or claustrophobia, is systematic desensitization. In systematic
desensitization, the client would first learn relaxation techniques to manage anxiety, such as
deep breathing or progressive muscle relaxation. Then, together with the therapist, the client
would create a fear hierarchy, listing different aspects of elevators from least to most anxietyprovoking, such as looking at pictures of elevators, standing near an elevator, entering an
elevator with the door open, and eventually riding in an elevator with the door closed.
Through gradual exposure to the feared stimuli combined with relaxation, the client learns to
associate elevators with relaxation rather than fear, leading to a reduction in elevator-related
anxiety.
5. Describe one type of cognitive therapy. Include information about its theoretical
background, how it seeks to help people, and its key concepts. What are some advantages and
disadvantages of this type of therapy?
Answer: One type of cognitive therapy is cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which
combines cognitive and behavioral techniques to help individuals identify and change
maladaptive thoughts and behaviors contributing to psychological distress. The theoretical
background of CBT is rooted in the cognitive model, which posits that dysfunctional thoughts
and beliefs can lead to negative emotions and behaviors. CBT seeks to help people by
teaching them to recognize and challenge irrational or distorted thinking patterns, develop
more adaptive beliefs and coping strategies, and engage in goal-directed behaviors to
improve mood and functioning. Key concepts include cognitive restructuring, behavioral
activation, and homework assignments. Some advantages of CBT include its evidence-based
effectiveness in treating a wide range of mental health issues, its structured and time-limited
nature, and its focus on teaching practical skills for coping with symptoms. However, some
disadvantages may include the potential for oversimplifying complex psychological issues,
the emphasis on cognitive restructuring may not be suitable for all clients, and the need for
active participation and homework assignments may be challenging for some individuals.

6. Why might group therapy be more useful than individual psychotherapy? What are the
advantages and disadvantages of group therapy? Describe two types of group therapy.
Answer: Group therapy may be more useful than individual psychotherapy for several
reasons. It provides opportunities for interpersonal learning, social support, and the
normalization of experiences. Advantages of group therapy include:
1. Social Support: Group therapy offers individuals the chance to connect with others who
may share similar struggles, providing a sense of belonging and support.
2. Diverse Perspectives: Participants in group therapy can offer different perspectives and
insights, enhancing personal growth and understanding.
3. Cost-Effective: Group therapy is often more cost-effective than individual therapy, making
mental health treatment more accessible.
Disadvantages of group therapy include:
1. Lack of Privacy: Participants may feel uncomfortable sharing personal information in a
group setting, limiting the depth of disclosure.
2. Group Dynamics: Conflicts or dominant personalities within the group may disrupt the
therapeutic process or make some members feel excluded or unheard.
Two types of group therapy are:
1. Support Groups: Support groups provide a safe space for individuals facing similar
challenges, such as grief, addiction recovery, or chronic illness, to share experiences and
receive encouragement and advice from others.
2. Psychotherapy Groups: Psychotherapy groups are led by a trained therapist and focus on
exploring and addressing psychological issues, such as depression, anxiety, or interpersonal
difficulties, through group interaction and therapeutic techniques.
7. Why might a therapist ask an adult client to draw a picture about his or her concerns?
Answer: A therapist might ask an adult client to draw a picture about their concerns as a form
of art therapy or expressive therapy. Drawing can serve as a nonverbal means of
communication, allowing clients to express thoughts, feelings, and experiences that may be
difficult to articulate verbally. Drawing can also provide insight into unconscious processes,
facilitate emotional expression, and promote self-awareness and reflection. Additionally,
creating art can be therapeutic and empowering, helping clients process and cope with
difficult emotions and experiences in a creative and meaningful way.
8. Although psychotherapy is usually accomplished by the client or clients speaking face-toface with the therapist, a new type of therapy is now available to individuals who own a

computer. Identify what it is called and explain how it works. Do you think this type of
therapy is a good idea? Defend your position.
Answer: The type of therapy available to individuals who own a computer is called online
therapy or teletherapy. Online therapy involves conducting therapy sessions remotely via
video conferencing, phone calls, or messaging platforms. It allows clients to access mental
health support from the comfort of their own homes, eliminating geographical barriers and
increasing accessibility to therapy services.
Whether online therapy is a good idea depends on various factors. For some individuals,
online therapy can be a convenient and effective way to receive mental health support,
particularly for those who may have difficulty attending in-person sessions due to mobility
issues, transportation limitations, or scheduling conflicts. Online therapy also offers greater
privacy and anonymity for clients who may feel uncomfortable or stigmatized seeking
traditional therapy.
However, online therapy may not be suitable for everyone, especially those with severe
mental health issues or who require more intensive interventions. Some individuals may also
prefer the interpersonal connection and nonverbal cues available in face-to-face therapy
sessions. Additionally, concerns about the security and confidentiality of online
communication platforms may deter some individuals from seeking online therapy.
Overall, online therapy can be a valuable option for expanding access to mental health care,
but it should be considered alongside traditional in-person therapy and tailored to the
individual needs and preferences of each client.
9. Describe 3 of the 4 major categories of psychotropic medications, giving a brief
explanation for how each type of drug works.
Answer: Three major categories of psychotropic medications include:
1. Antidepressants: Antidepressants are medications used to treat depression and other mood
disorders by regulating neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine in
the brain. They work by increasing the availability of these neurotransmitters, which are
involved in regulating mood, emotions, and stress response.
2. Antipsychotics: Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics, are medications used to
manage symptoms of psychosis, such as hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking,
in conditions like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. They primarily block dopamine
receptors in the brain, helping to reduce psychotic symptoms and stabilize mood.
3. Anxiolytics (Anti-anxiety medications): Anxiolytics are medications used to alleviate
symptoms of anxiety disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder,

and social anxiety disorder. They work by enhancing the activity of gamma-aminobutyric
acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter that inhibits brain activity, leading to a calming effect on the
central nervous system and reducing anxiety symptoms.
Chapter 15 - Quick Quiz 1
1. Therapies aimed mainly at understanding one’s motives and actions are referred to as
_________________.
a) action therapies
b) insight therapies
c) biomedical therapies
d) relationship therapies
Answer: b
Explanation:
Insight therapy emphasizes understanding one’s motives and actions.
2. According to Sigmund Freud, the ___________ of the dream refers to the client’s memory
of the things, people, and events in the dream.
a) manifest content
b) free association
c) latent content
d) resistance
Answer: a
Explanation:
Manifest content refers to the client’s memory of the things, people, and events in the dream.
3. Carl Rogers’s person-centered approach is considered ________ because the client actually
does all the real work, with the therapist merely acting as a sounding board.
a) directive
b) nondirective
c) behavioral
d) cognitive
Answer: b
Explanation:
The therapist acts primarily as a sounding board, while the client directs the conversation.
4. The use of learning techniques to modify or change undesirable behavior and increase
desirable behaviors is called_______.
a) behavior modification

b) empty chair technique
c) reflection
d) selective thinking
Answer: a
Explanation:
Behavior modification includes learning techniques that help in modifying behaviors.
5. Allen, who has a drug abuse problem, is MOST likely to be successfully treated by
______.
a) psychoanalysis
b) family therapy
c) behavior therapy
d) Gestalt therapy
Answer: c
Explanation:
Behavior therapies have had considerable success in treating addictions.
6. ____________ therapies have had considerable success in treating many types of
disorders, including depression, stress disorders, anxiety disorders, and even some of the
behavioral symptoms of schizophrenia.
a) Humanistic
b) Psychoanalytic
c) Biomedical
d) Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral
Answer: d
Explanation:
Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies have had considerable success in treating
depression, stress disorders, anxiety disorders, and some behavioral symptoms of
schizophrenia.
7. A goal of family therapy is to ______.
a) change the needs of individual family members
b) improve family communication and interaction
c) identify and treat the person in the family who is the source of the majority of the family’s
problems
d) teach family members to remain neutral on sensitive issues
Answer: b

Explanation:
The goal of family therapy is to improve interaction among family members.
8. The most important aspect of successful psychotherapy is the __________ between client
and therapist.
a) therapeutic alliance
b) transference
c) mindfulness
d) authenticity
Answer: a
Explanation:
It is the relationship between client and therapist that is key to effective therapy.
9. The use of antianxiety drugs to treat anxiety disorders is gradually being phased out in
favor of treatment with _______________ drugs.
a) antidepressant
b) antimanic
c) antipsychotic
d) sedative
Answer: a
Explanation:
Use of benzodiazepines has declined in favor of antidepressant drugs.
10. Bilateral anterior cingulotomy has been performed in cases of ________ that have not
responded to other therapy techniques.
a) antisocial personality disorder
b) major depression
c) schizophrenia
d) panic disorder
Answer: b
Explanation:
Bilateral cingulotomy has been performed in cases of major depression.
Chapter 15 - Quick Quiz 2
1. Modern psychoanalysts differ from traditional Freudian psychoanalysts in that they focus
on the ______ as a motivating force of behavior, and they favor ______ their patients.
a) id; face-to-face discussions with
b) ego; face-to-face discussions with

c) id; sitting behind and passively listening to
d) ego; sitting behind and passively listening to
Answer: b
Explanation:
Modern psychoanalysts focus on the ego and prefer face-to-face discussions.
2. In Gestalt therapy, the therapist is ______ and ______.
a) passive; nondirective
b) passive; directive
c) active; nondirective
d) active; directive
Answer: d
Explanation:
The Gestalt therapist is both active and directive by confronting the client and leading the
client through planned exercises.
3. The process of learning through the observation and imitation of others is called ______.
a) modeling
b) free association
c) voyeurism
d) flooding
Answer: a
Explanation:
Modeling is defined as the process of learning through the observation and imitation of
others.
4. Eye-movement desensitization reprocessing is primarily used for treatment of __________.
a) schizophrenia
b) post-traumatic stress disorder
c) depression
d) bipolar disorder
Answer: b
Explanation:
EMDR is primarily used for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder.
5. Therapy that depends on identifying and changing distorted thinking and unrealistic beliefs
is ______ therapy.
a) cognitive

b) psychoanalytic
c) behavior
d) person-centered
Answer: a
Explanation:
Cognitive therapy focuses on identifying and changing distorted thinking and unrealistic
beliefs.
6. Rational-emotive therapy is a type of ______ therapy.
a) insight
b) cognitive-behavioral
c) psychoanalytic
d) humanistic
Answer: b
Explanation:
Rational-emotive therapy is a type of cognitive-behavioral therapy.
7. An advantage to group therapy is that groups ______.
a) are a source of social support
b) allow countertransference to occur
c) bestow unconditional approval on group members
d) allow an extremely shy person to feel more comfortable speaking up
Answer: a
Explanation:
Group therapy provides social support from people who have similar problems.
8. Which of the following is a barrier to effective therapy when the cultural backgrounds of
the client and therapist are different?
a) language
b) gender
c) age
d) clothing
Answer: a
Explanation:
One barrier can be difficulties in understanding what both the client and therapist are saying.
9. Electroconvulsive therapy has been used successfully to treat ________that has not
responded to other treatments.

a) bipolar disorder
b) severe depression
c) schizophrenia
d) obsessive-compulsive disorder
Answer: b
Explanation:
ECT has been successful in treating severe depression.
10. In the wake of the recent BP oil spill disaster in the Gulf of Mexico, there have been an
increase in reported cases of _________. Some researchers are finding that virtual reality
exposure therapy has helped with the treatment of these problems.
a) posttraumatic stress disorder
b) major depression
c) schizophrenia
d) panic disorder
Answer: a
Explanation:
Virtual reality psychotherapy allows the safe use of exposure therapy, already thought to be a
highly promising treatment for PTSD.

Test Bank for Psychology: Dsm 5
Saundra K. Ciccarelli, J. Noland White
9780205986378

Document Details

Related Documents

Close

Send listing report

highlight_off

You already reported this listing

The report is private and won't be shared with the owner

rotate_right

Select menu by going to Admin > Appearance > Menus

Close
rotate_right
Close

Send Message

image
Close

My favorites

image
Close

Application Form

image
Notifications visibility rotate_right Clear all Close close
image
image
arrow_left
arrow_right