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Chapter 3 Multiple Choice Questions 1. The body’s electrochemical communication circuitry is known as the _____ system. A. endocrine B. nervous C. circulatory D. respiratory Answer: B 2. Ashley, a secretary at Plato Inc., is typing on her computer, talking on the phone, and handing some papers to her colleague simultaneously. Which of the following characteristics of the nervous system is best illustrated in this scenario? A. Complexity B. Resting potential C. Polarization D. Plasticity Answer: A 3. Roy, the conductor of an orchestra, guides and coordinates other musicians during stage performances. Which of the following characteristics of the nervous system predominantly commands Roy’s behavior while conducting the orchestra? A. Resting potential B. Integration C. Polarization D. Plasticity Answer: B 4. Lolita, a nine-year-old girl, met with an accident that led to a head injury. However, a few months later, she was able to recover from this injury. Which of the following characteristics of the nervous system most likely played a predominant role in her recovery? A. Complexity B. Integrity C. Plasticity D. Complexity Answer: C 5. In the context of characteristics of the nervous system, adaptability specifically refers to the brain’s ability to: A. regulate complex systems. B. combine data from multiple sources. C. help adjust to changes in one’s environment. D. conduct electrical impulses. Answer: C 6. In the context of characteristics of the nervous system, the brain’s special physical capacity for change is referred to as its _____. A. complexity B. integrative capacity C. plasticity D. structural capacity Answer: C 7. Stand-up comedians who improvise constantly while on stage are demonstrating their ability to change according to the environment. Which of the following characteristics of the nervous system is most likely playing a predominant role in their adaptability? A. Resting potential B. Reuptake C. Polarization D. Plasticity Answer: D 8. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the human nervous system? A. Simplicity B. Adaptability C. Electrochemical transmission D. Integration Answer: A 9. In the context of pathways in the nervous system, afferent nerves carry information: A. out of the brain and spinal cord to other areas of the body. B. to the brain and spinal cord via sensory receptors. C. out of the endocrine system to muscles and glands in the body. D. to the heart and lungs from the muscles and glands. Answer: B 10. In the context of pathways in the nervous system, efferent nerves carry information: A. out of the endocrine system to other areas of the body. B. to the heart and lungs from the muscles and glands. C. out of the brain and spinal cord to other areas of the body. D. to the brain and spinal cord via sensory receptors. Answer: C 11. In the context of nervous system pathways, nerves that carry information about the external environment to the brain and spinal cord are known as _____ nerves. A. efferent B. afferent C. motor D. mirror Answer: B 12. In the context of nervous system pathways, nerves that carry information out of the brain and spinal cord to other areas of the body are known as _____ nerves. A. efferent B. afferent C. sensory D. mirror Answer: A 13. In the context of divisions of the nervous system, the central nervous system consists of the _____. A. brain and spinal cord B. somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system C. heart and lungs D. parasympathetic nervous system and sympathetic nervous system Answer: A 14. In the context of the divisions of the nervous system, the brain is categorized within the _____ nervous system. A. peripheral B. parasympathetic C. central D. sympathetic Answer: C 15. The _____ is the network of nerves that connects the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body. A. respiratory system B. peripheral nervous system C. immune system D. central nervous system Answer: B 16. In the context of divisions of the nervous system, the autonomic nervous system consists of the _____. A. brain and spinal cord B. somatic nervous system C. peripheral nervous system and central nervous system D. parasympathetic nervous system and sympathetic nervous system Answer: D 17. Catherine is confronted by a man with a gun as she walks home from work one night. In this scenario, Catherine’s _____ nervous system will be most likely to help her escape from the situation quickly. A. parasympathetic B. central C. sympathetic D. somatic Answer: C 18. Maya burns her fingers while cooking dinner. Which of the following divisions of the nervous system will be primarily responsible for the pain she feels? A. The central nervous system B. The autonomic nervous system C. The somatic nervous system D. The parasympathetic nervous system Answer: C 19. Nancy is in her building elevator going down to the lobby when the elevator stops suddenly between floors, and the doors won’t open. Nancy’s heart starts pounding, and her palms start sweating. In this scenario, Nancy’s physiological responses can be best attributed to her _____ nervous system. A. central B. somatic C. parasympathetic D. sympathetic Answer: D 20. Lionel is preparing for his first job interview. The night before the interview, he is restless and anxious; his palms sweat and his heart beats faster than usual. In this scenario, Lionel’s physiological responses can be best attributed to his _____ nervous system. A. central B. somatic C. parasympathetic D. sympathetic Answer: D 21. If a person needs to run away from a dangerous situation, the _____ nervous system sends blood to the person’s extremities to prepare him or her for taking off. A. central B. somatic C. sympathetic D. parasympathetic Answer: C 22. In the context of the divisions of the nervous system, the somatic nervous system consists of sensory nerves, whose function is to _____. A. mobilize the body for action in a dangerous situation B. calm the body to inhibit a particular action C. take messages to the body’s internal organs from the brain D. convey information from the skin and muscles to the central nervous system Answer: D 23. Which division of the peripheral nervous system is responsible for carrying messages to and from the body’s internal organs and monitoring processes such as breathing, heart rate, and digestion? A. Somatic nervous system B. Autonomic nervous system C. Limbic system D. Circulatory system Answer: B 24. Which of the following is true about the autonomic nervous system? A. It is made up of the brain and spinal cord. B. It monitors processes such as breathing and digestion. C. It conveys information from the skin and muscles to the central nervous system. D. It consists of sensory nerves. Answer: B 25. Harry is driving on the interstate highway for the first time since he obtained his license. He is nervous and wants to get off the interstate but cannot do so; his heart and pulse are racing. In this scenario, Harry’s physiological responses can be best attributed to his _____ nervous system. A. sympathetic B. parasympathetic C. somatic D. central Answer: A 26. In the context of the divisions of the nervous system, such processes as heart rate, breathing, and digestion are monitored by the _____. A. somatic nervous system B. circulatory system C. lymphatic system D. autonomic nervous system Answer: D 27. Julie hears some news about a bus accident on television. She believes her son was on the same bus and is overcome by anxiety which is primarily caused by her _____ nervous system. When her son phones and informs her that he was not on the bus, Julie is relieved and begins to relax. This response is primarily caused by her _____ nervous system. A. somatic; autonomic B. central; somatic C. sympathetic; parasympathetic D. parasympathetic; central Answer: C 28. Which part of the nervous system will be most active when Martin, a backpacker, acts quickly in response to a wild animal approaching him? A. Sympathetic nervous system B. Central nervous system C. Somatic nervous system D. Parasympathetic nervous system Answer: A 29. After taking her English final, Natalie attempts to relax in her chair by meditating. She is attempting to reduce her heart and respiration rates, as well as her muscular tension. In this scenario, her physiological relaxation can be best attributed to the functioning of her _____ nervous system. A. somatic B. central C. parasympathetic D. sympathetic Answer: C 30. Elizabeth feels her heart racing while she waits for her turn at a job interview. These physiological symptoms are most likely produced by her _____ nervous system. A. central B. somatic C. parasympathetic D. sympathetic Answer: D 31. Which division of the peripheral nervous system is responsible for physiological symptoms such as increased heart rate and butterflies in the stomach? A. Somatic nervous system B. Parasympathetic nervous system C. Sympathetic nervous system D. Central nervous system Answer: C 32. _____ are activated in human and nonhuman primates both when they perform an action and when they watch someone else perform that same activity. A. Mirror neurons B. Glial cells C. Motor neurons D. Afferent nerves Answer: A 33. Which of the following characteristics makes mirror neurons so fascinating? A. Mirror neurons do not respond to sensory information or motor information. B. Mirror neurons provide nutritional benefits in the nervous system. C. Mirror neurons appear to respond to both kinds of information, doing and seeing. D. Mirror neurons do not have synapses and they do not release neurotransmitters. Answer: C 34. Nine-year-old Anna learns ballet by watching her mother and imitating her mother’s movements. In the context of neurons, which of the following types of cells is most directly responsible for Anna’s method of learning? A. Mirror neurons B. Glial cells C. Schwann cells D. Astrocytes Answer: A 35. In the context of neurons, glial cells in the nervous system: A. provide support and nutritional benefits to neurons. B. single-handedly manage information processing. C. respond to motor and sensory information. D. carry information away from the cell body toward other cells. Answer: A 36. In the context of the nervous system, _____ are specifically responsible for keeping neurons running smoothly. A. glial cells B. motor nerves C. axons D. capillaries Answer: A 37. In the context of the nervous system, which of the following is NOT true of glial cells? A. They are responsible for the majority of information processing in the brain. B. They are responsible for providing support in the nervous system. C. They are responsible for providing nutritional benefits to neurons. D. They keep neurons running smoothly. Answer: A 38. In the context of the nervous system, by far, the majority of information processing in the brain is done by _____. A. neurons B. glial cells C. astrocytes D. satellite cells Answer: A 39. In the context of specialized cell structure, the nucleus of a neuron is located in the _____. A. axon hillock B. dendrites C. cell body D. synapse Answer: C 40. The cell body of a neuron contains the _____, which directs the manufacture of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenance. A. dendrites B. nucleus C. axon D. synapse Answer: B 41. Which of the following is a function of the cell body in a nerve cell? A. It encases and insulates most axons. B. It carries information away from the axon toward other cells. C. It speeds up the transmission of nerve impulses. D. It directs the manufacture of substances required for growth and maintenance of neurons. Answer: D 42. In the context of specialized cell structure, the primary function of dendrites is to _____. A. keep the cell alive B. insulate axons C. secrete hormones D. receive information Answer: D 43. Which of the following is a function of the axon in a nerve cell in the context of specialized cell structure? A. It manufactures substances required for growth and maintenance. B. It is responsible for converting acting potential to resting potential. C. It carries information away from the cell body toward other cells. D. It receives information and orients it toward the neuron’s cell body. Answer: C 44. In the context of specialized cell structure, the _____ is the part of the neuron that carries information away from the cell body toward other cells. A. axon B. dendrites C. glial cell D. nucleus Answer: A 45. Which of the following best describes the process of transmitting information within a neuron in the context of specialized cell structure? A. Cell body → dendrite → axon B. Dendrite → cell body → axon C. Axon → dendrite → nucleus D. Nucleus → dendrite → axon Answer: B 46. In the context of specialized cell structure, which of the following scenarios acts as the closest analogy to the function of the myelin sheath in the brain? A. Becky is riding her skateboard down the hill. B. Juan is rolling down the windows in his car to create resistance. C. Amber is waxing her surfboard so that it will move easily through water. D. Gerald is adding another coat of paint to the outer walls of his house. Answer: C 47. In the context of specialized cell structure, the myelin sheath is a layer of cells containing _____. A. fat B. scar tissue C. glia D. treelike fibers Answer: A 48. Which of the following is true about the myelin sheath in a nerve cell? A. It is responsible for making axons poor conductors of electricity. B. It facilitates the transmission of nerve impulses. C. It is usually found only around the dendrite of most neurons. D. It directs the manufacture of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenance. Answer: B 49. A neurobiologist explains to his students that the human nervous system is analogous to electrical circuits in homes. If the circuit wires are not insulated, they are likely to cause a short circuit. In this scenario, the insulation on the wires can be likened to the _____ in the neural system. A. terminal button B. dendrites C. cell body D. myelin sheath Answer: D 50. Walter has a degenerative condition known as multiple sclerosis (MS). In the context of specialized cell structure, his disease is most likely caused by the: A. replacement of scar tissue by the myelin sheath. B. hardening of the myelin sheath. C. duplication of mirror neurons. D. conversion of glial cells to neurons. Answer: B 51. In the context of specialized cell structure, which of the following components of a nerve cell hardens in patients with multiple sclerosis? A. Cell body B. Dendrites C. Nucleus D. Myelin sheath Answer: D 52. In the context of the neural impulse, the cell membrane of a neuron permits some substances to pass through it but not others. This is because the membrane is _____. A. negatively charged B. semipermeable C. polarized D. resting Answer: B 53. In the context of the neural impulse, the outer membrane of a neuron is semipermeable, which indicates that _____. A. only sodium ions can cross the membrane B. the fluid outside the membrane has no electrical charge C. fluids and ions can sometimes flow into and out of it D. depolarization of the membranes cannot occur Answer: C 54. In the context of the neural impulse, which of the following is true about the depolarization of neuron membranes? A. It is characterized by more negatively charged ions on the inside of the cell and more positively charged ions on the outside. B. It decreases the charge difference between the fluids inside and outside of the neuron. C. It is the brief wave of positive electrical charge that sweeps down the axon. D. It is the phase that allows sodium ions to move out of the neuron. Answer: B 55. In the context of the neural impulse, which of the following is the status of the charges on each side of the cell membrane during the stage of resting potential? A. A negative charge on the outside of the cell membrane and a positive charge on the inside B. A negative charge on the inside of the cell membrane and a positive charge on the outside C. A negative charge on both the outside and the inside of the cell membrane D. A positive charge on both the outside and the inside of the cell membrane Answer: B 56. Normally, when a neuron is not transmitting information and a slight negative charge is present on the inside of the cell membrane, it is said to be _____. A. depolarized B. resting C. active D. highly charged Answer: B 57. In the context of the neural impulse, another term that describes “firing” of neurons is the _____ potential. A. resting B. action C. graded D. polarized Answer: B 58. In the context of the neural impulse, the action potential in a neuron abides by the _____ principle. A. depolarizing B. all-or-nothing C. permeability D. nature-nurture Answer: B 59. According to the all-or-nothing principle, which of the following would happen if the size of the electrical charge in a neural impulse was twice the size needed for the electrical impulse? A. The neuron would go back to its resting potential. B. The intensity of the impulse would not be affected. C. The intensity of the impulse would be twice as strong. D. The action potential would have an inhibitory effect on the next neuron. Answer: B 60. Jen and Jack are seated in the same row in an airplane but across the aisle from each other. If the information they exchange across the aisle represents the neural impulse between neurons, and Jen and Jack represent the neurons, the aisle most likely represents the _____. A. nodes of Ranvier B. axon hillock C. synapse D. interneurons Answer: C 61. In the context of the neuron structure, the tiny space between two neurons is called the _____. A. node of Ranvier B. cell body C. synapse D. interneuron Answer: C 62. In the context of the neuron structure, neurotransmitters are stored in the _____. A. dendrites B. cell bodies C. terminal buttons D. nuclei Answer: C 63. Chemical substances that are stored in very tiny sacs within the terminal buttons and are involved in transmitting information across a synaptic gap to the next neuron are known as _____. A. synaptic vesicles B. glial cells C. neurotransmitters D. ions Answer: C 64. After delivering its message, some of the neurotransmitter is used up in the production of energy, and some of it is reabsorbed by the axon that released it to await the next neural impulse. In the context of synaptic transmission, this reabsorption is called _____. A. reuptake B. revision C. inhibition D. depolarization Answer: A 65. In the nervous system, which of the following is true of neurons and the neurotransmitters they secrete? A. Most neurons secrete many neurotransmitters at the same time. B. At any given time, a neuron is receiving a mixture of messages from the neurotransmitters. C. Neurotransmitters in neurons cannot be both excitatory and inhibitory. D. Neurotransmitters are located in the nuclei of the neurons. Answer: B 66. In the context of neurotransmitters, individuals with Alzheimer’s disease, a degenerative brain disorder that gradually destroys memory, most likely have a(n) _____. A. acetylcholine deficiency B. serotonin deficiency C. excess of norepinephrine D. excess of dopamine Answer: A 67. Martin’s father is experiencing memory loss related to Alzheimer disease. In the context of neurotransmitters, this is most likely due to the insufficient production of _____ in his brain. A. serotonin B. gamma aminobutyric acid C. acetylcholine D. dopamine Answer: C 68. Which of the following is true of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine? A. It is produced in excess in Alzheimer disease. B. It is responsible for the degenerative disorder called multiple sclerosis (MS). C. It is found only in the peripheral nervous system. D. It is involved in muscle action, learning, and memory. Answer: D 69. The neurotransmitter that is specifically involved in muscle action, learning, and memory is _____. A. serotonin B. gamma aminobutyric acid C. acetylcholine D. dopamine Answer: C 70. The neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is found _____. A. throughout the central nervous system B. throughout the peripheral nervous system C. in the least number of brain synapses D. in the autonomic nervous system only Answer: B 71. A neurotransmitter that plays a role in Alzheimer disease is _____. A. acetylcholine B. GABA C. dopamine D. serotonin Answer: A 72. Which of the following is an example of an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system? A. Glutamate B. Acetylcholine (ACh) C. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) D. Endorphin Answer: C 73. Which of the following is true of the neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)? A. It is an inhibitory neurotransmitter. B. It is primarily responsible for muscle action, learning, and memory. C. It is primarily responsible for controlling voluntary movement. D. It is an excitatory neurotransmitter. Answer: A 74. Melinda suffers from migraine headaches and seizures. In the context of neurotransmitter functioning, which of the following most likely plays a significant role in her symptoms? A. Too little norepinephrine B. Too much glutamate C. Too much acetylcholine D. Too little dopamine Answer: B 75. Dorothy has been suffering from epileptic seizures for the past four years. In the context of neurotransmitter functioning, her seizures can be best attributed to the _____. A. deficiency of acetylcholine B. deficiency of oxytocin C. overstimulation caused by glutamate D. overstimulation caused by endorphins Answer: C 76. Depression is associated with low levels of the neurotransmitter _____. A. acetylcholine B. gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) C. dopamine D. norepinephrine Answer: D 77. In the context of neurotransmitters, which of the following best describes the effect of norepinephrine stimulation? A. It plays a role in the human tendency to feel pleasure during orgasm. B. It plays a role in forming emotional bonds with romantic partners. C. It inhibits the heart muscle, intestines, and urogenital tract. D. It helps to control the level of alertness. Answer: D 78. Parkinson disease is specifically associated with low levels of the neurotransmitter _____. A. serotonin B. dopamine C. acetylcholine D. oxytocin Answer: B 79. Kenny has been diagnosed with Parkinson disease and has been prescribed medication to manage some of his symptoms. The medication elevates the levels of dopamine in his system. If the levels of dopamine in his system become excessive, Kenny might start to exhibit symptoms associated with _____. A. depression B. multiple sclerosis C. Alzheimer disease D. schizophrenia Answer: D 80. Which of the following is true of the neurotransmitter dopamine? A. It is deficient in patients with Alzheimer disease. B. It is deficient in patients with anxiety disorders. C. It is in excess in patients with Parkinson disease. D. It is in excess in patients with schizophrenia. Answer: D 81. Which of the following is true of the neurotransmitter serotonin? A. Its deficiency is responsible for Parkinson disease. B. Its excess is responsible for depression. C. It is involved in the regulation of mood and attention. D. It is not involved in the regulation of sleep. Answer: C 82. Dominic is a marathon runner. He admits that whenever he runs, he feels euphoric. He cannot begin his day without running for an hour. In the context of neurotransmitters, which of the following is most likely responsible for his feelings of pleasure from running? A. The action of serotonin depletion during physical exertion B. The extended “high” from GABA reuptake C. The compensatory effects of acetylcholine D. The release of endorphins Answer: D 83. Which of the following best describes the function of endorphins? A. They regulate sleep, wakefulness, mood, attention, and the process of learning. B. They control alertness. C. They control agitation. D. They shield the body from pain and elevate feelings of pleasure. Answer: D 84. Which of the following neurotransmitters is released in excess during the onset of lactation and breastfeeding in mothers who have just given birth? A. Serotonin B. Acetylcholine C. Oxytocin D. Dopamine Answer: C 85. The release of which of the following hormones and neurotransmitters plays an important role in the experience of love and social bonding? A. Dopamine B. Acetylcholine C. Serotonin D. Oxytocin Answer: D 86. Based on the provocative research that has linked oxytocin to stress, if Julia finds herself in a stressful situation she is most likely to: A. run away from the situation. B. stay and confront the stressor. C. seek support from a friend. D. react as if nothing is wrong. Answer: C 87. Which of the following is a significance of the brain lesioning process? A. It assesses the amount of glucose in the various brain regions. B. It gives a three-dimensional view of various brain regions. C. It gives a sense of the functions of the damaged brain regions. D. It assesses the amount of radioactivity in several brain regions. Answer: C 88. Harry has been diagnosed with epilepsy by his neurologist, Dr. Craig. Which of the following should Dr. Craig use to assess Harry’s epilepsy by studying his brain-wave activity? A. Electrooculography B. Electromyography C. Electroencephalography D. Electrocardiography Answer: C 89. A(n) _____ records the brain’s electrical activity by placing electrodes on the scalp. A. electroencephalograph (EEG) B. echocardiogram (ECG) C. computerized axial tomography (CAT scan) D. positron-emission tomography (PET scan) Answer: A 90. Sasha, a researcher, is working on a project on the human brain. Part of her research requires her to place electrodes on the scalps of her subjects to study their brain-wave activity. In this scenario, Sasha is most likely using _____. A. an electroencephalograph (EEG) B. positron-emission tomography (PET scan) C. functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) D. an echocardiogram (ECG) Answer: A 91. Judith has been asked to visit a well-known neurologist in her town, who will examine the levels of glucose in Judith’s brain. Which of the following techniques will the neurologist most likely use to conduct the examination? A. Positron-emission tomography (PET scan) B. Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan) C. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) D. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Answer: A 92. Meredith suspects that her mother is suffering from dementia. However, Joy, the psychiatrist, asks her to visit the neurologist to get an X ray of her mother’s brain to confirm this diagnosis. Which of the following brain imaging techniques will the neurologist most likely use to get the X ray? A. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) B. Positron-emission tomography (PET scan) C. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) D. Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan) Answer: D 93. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique that: A. measures the rate at which brain cells use glucose. B. constructs a three-dimensional image from X rays. C. transduces the electrical activity of individual neurons. D. constructs images of a person’s tissues and biochemical activities. Answer: D 94. In which of the following ways does functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) detect the functioning of the brain? A. It exploits changes in blood oxygen that occur in association with brain activity. B. It measures the amount of glucose in various areas of the brain. C. It studies the brain only when the brain is active. D. It establishes a cause-effect relationship between variables associated with brain activity. Answer: A 95. Adrian, a neurologist, is examining the brain activity of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. He observes images of their brains while they are performing a reading task and then again when they are not engaged in the activity. He compares these readings. Although he establishes a relationship between the two variables, he is not able to establish that one variable causes the other. Which of the following brain imaging techniques is he most likely to have used for his study? A. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) B. Positron-emission tomography (PET scan) C. Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan) D. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) Answer: A 96. Which of the following principles underlies the technique of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)? A. It rests on the principle that mental activity is associated with changes in glucose levels in the brain. B. It rests on the principle that mental activity is associated with changes in the oxygenated blood levels in the brain. C. It rests on the principle that mental activity is associated with changes in hydrogenated blood levels in the brain. D. It rests on the principle that mental activity is associated with changes in magnetic fields in the brain. Answer: B 97. Which brain imaging technique allows scientists to draw causal inferences between variables? A. Positron-emission tomography (PET scan) B. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) C. Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan) D. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) Answer: D 98. Michael, a researcher in the field of neuroscience, has a theory about a specific area of the brain causing difficulties in face recognition. To draw a solid causal inference, he intends to test his hypothesis on dogs by disrupting regions of their brains and examining the effects of this disruption on the dogs’ face-recognition capacity. Which of the following techniques should be used by Michael to achieve his purpose? A. Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan) B. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) C. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) D. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Answer: C 99. Which of the following is true of the brain imaging technique known as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)? A. It does not allow researchers to draw cause and effect conclusions. B. It does examine neuronal functioning following brain-injuring events. C. It is not used to treat any neurological and psychological disorders. D. It is used to examine the brain activity in rest and action states. Answer: B 100. In the context of the organization of the brain, which part of the hindbrain regulates vital functions such as breathing and heart rate? A. Hypothalamus B. Midbrain C. Medulla D. Pons Answer: C 101. In the context of the organization of the brain, the _____ is the part of the hindbrain that is involved in sleep and arousal. A. pons B. medulla C. cerebellum D. thalamus Answer: A 102. Damien has been unable to sleep for the past few weeks. He wakes up in the middle of the night and cannot go back to sleep. On certain occasions, he cannot fall asleep at all and at other times, he is unable to wake up from sleep. In the context of the organization of the brain, Damien’s problem with sleep and arousal is most likely caused by the poor functioning of the _____. A. pons B. amygdala C. medulla D. cerebellum Answer: A 103. Donny suffered a stroke a few years ago. For many months, he was unable to coordinate his movements making it impossible for him to even stand up. Since then, he has been walking in a jerky, uncoordinated manner. In this scenario, Donny’s symptoms after the stroke are most likely due to damage to his _____. A. forebrain B. cerebellum C. medulla D. midbrain Answer: B 104. Derek met with an accident that caused severe damage to his cerebellum. In the context of the organization of the brain, Derek is most likely to experience problems in _____ as a result of the damage. A. breathing and heart rate B. hearing and vision C. speech and comprehension D. balance and muscle coordination Answer: D 105. Tricia suffers a stroke at the age of 35 years. As a result, her motor functioning is severely impaired. Her movements become awkward, jerky, and uncoordinated. In this scenario, her symptoms are most likely caused by damage to the _____. A. amygdala B. medulla C. cerebellum D. hippocampus Answer: C 106. Emma just received word that her grandfather’s stroke damaged a region in his brain called the substantia nigra. As a consequence of this damage, Emma’s grandfather will most likely: A. have tremors. B. forget names. C. have vision problems. D. have speech impediments. Answer: A 107. When Sam walks into his class, he does not have to think consciously about how to walk. When he gets there, he pays attention to the lecture even though it is boring and he is tired. In this scenario, the brain structure that is most likely causing these stereotyped patterns of behavior in Sam is the _____. A. reticular formation B. substantia nigra C. hypothalamus D. amygdala Answer: A 108. Ginny was in a car accident in which her amygdala was severely damaged. Which of the following is a likely consequence of this damage? A. Ginny will now talk with a stutter. B. Ginny will try to eat the plate on which her sandwich is placed. C. Ginny will have difficulty skipping and hopping. D. Ginny will struggle to feel a feather brushed across her cheek. Answer: B 109. Joe has suffered a massive stroke. Since then, he has started repeating many of his actions through the day. He brushes his teeth many times in the morning and takes a shower many times before bedtime. This is because he is unable to retain any memories of his actions. In the context of the organization of the brain, these behavioral symptoms are most likely due to a damaged _____. A. amygdala B. thalamus C. hippocampus D. hypothalamus Answer: C 110. In the context of the organization of the brain, damage to the hippocampus impairs: A. autonomic functioning. B. motor activity. C. sexual functioning. D. memory formation. Answer: D 111. Nathan is suffering from amnesia, an illness that prevents the retrieval of new memories. In the context of the organization of the brain, which area of Nathan’s brain is most likely responsible for the amnesia? A. Basal ganglia B. Reticular formation C. Cerebellum D. Hippocampus Answer: D 112. Old-fashioned telephone systems relied on operators to take incoming calls and connect them to the appropriate persons they were intended for. Which structure of the brain functions in an analogous manner? A. Hypothalamus B. Thalamus C. Hippocampus D. Basal ganglia Answer: B 113. Ronald has a habit of vacuuming his apartment at seven in the morning. Which of the following brain regions is likely to be most active during and directly related to this routine? A. Amygdala B. Association cortex C. Basal Ganglia D. Pons Answer: C 114. In the context of the organization of the brain, one of the important functions of the hypothalamus is: A. the maintenance of body temperature. B. the regulation of heart rate. C. the coordination of voluntary movements. D. the maintenance of physical balance. Answer: A 115. Carrie suffered brain damage when she was injured in a car accident. Since then, she is unable to take pleasure in the things she used to. She has also lost interest in sexual intimacy with her husband and does not enjoy the taste of her favorite foods. In this scenario, damage to which of the following areas of the brain is most likely causing her inability to experience pleasure? A. Medulla B. Hippocampus C. Hypothalamus D. Pituitary gland Answer: C 116. In the context of the organization of the brain, body temperature, emotional states, and coping with stress are functions controlled by the _____. A. corpus callosum B. hippocampus C. hypothalamus D. amygdala Answer: C 117. In the context of the organization of the brain, one of its pleasure centers is found in the _____. A. hypothalamus B. corpus callosum C. basal ganglia D. thalamus Answer: A 118. In the context of the organization of the brain, thinking and planning are mediated by the _____ of the brain. A. hippocampus B. cerebral cortex C. amygdala D. somatosensory cortex Answer: B 119. The two halves of the cerebral cortex are called cerebral _____. A. sulci B. hemispheres C. association areas D. lobes Answer: B 120. In the context of the cerebral cortex, the area critical for processing visual information is the _____ lobe. A. parietal B. occipital C. frontal D. temporal Answer: B 121. James’s brain injury has resulted in him not being able to process information about the things he sees around him or to react to them appropriately. In the context of the cerebral cortex, which of James’s brain regions is most likely to be damaged? A. Association cortex B. Parietal Lobe C. Occipital lobe D. Somatosensory cortex Answer: C 122. Alfred is a middle-aged man whose eyes can physically see the car driving up to him but whose brain is unable to interpret the information and move away in time. In this scenario, the area of Alfred’s brain that is most likely damaged is the _____. A. association cortex B. parietal lobe C. occipital lobe D. somatosensory cortex Answer: C 123. Zeus was injured in a mining accident and suffered severe brain damage. In time, his brain healed and he was back to working in the mines. The only change was in his personality. From being a highly aggressive and temperamental individual, he became mild-mannered and calm, almost to the extent of being placid. In this scenario, the region of the cerebral cortex that was most likely damaged in the accident was the _____ lobe. A. frontal B. occipital C. temporal D. parietal Answer: A 124. Which of the following regions of the cerebral cortex is involved in higher cognitive functions such as planning, reasoning, and self-control? A. Amygdala B. Hippocampus C. Prefrontal cortex D. Somatosensory cortex Answer: C 125. Gregory is an excellent basketball player. He is always able to gauge the distance between himself and the basket correctly, and he never misses a shot. Which of the following regions of the cerebral cortex should function most efficiently to help him use this spatial location skill? A. Parietal lobe B. Temporal lobe C. Somatosensory cortex D. Prefrontal cortex Answer: A 126. The somatosensory cortex in the human brain processes information about _____. A. facial recognition B. body sensations C. voluntary movement D. spatial dimensions Answer: B 127. The area of the cerebral cortex in the human brain which controls voluntary muscle movement is the _____. A. motor cortex B. sensory cortex C. neocortex D. somatosensory cortex Answer: A 128. While Professor Travis is on the phone, he notices a glass vase sliding off the top shelf of his bookcase and about to fall on his dog. He moves quickly to catch the vase and prevent it from falling on his dog. In the context of the cerebral cortex, the quick movement of his hand is most likely a result of a process in the: A. Wernicke’s area. B. motor cortex. C. somatosensory cortex. D. temporal lobe. Answer: B 129. David damaged a part of his brain in a ski accident. Once he was out of his coma, the doctors noticed that even though he could produce words in speech, he couldn’t seem to understand the meanings of the words spoken by others. In this scenario, damage to which of the following areas of David’s brain is most likely causing this symptom? A. Broca’s area B. Wernicke’s area C. Fusiform gyrus D. Motor cortex Answer: B 130. Which of the following scenarios correctly illustrates the effect of damage to Broca’s area in the brain? A. Janine is unable to produce any words. B. Franchesca is unable to comprehend words spoken by others. C. Darrel is unable to remember what he ate in the morning or what he did the previous day. D. Stanley is unable to taste the food that he eats. Answer: A 131. In the context of the cerebral hemispheres, a split brain occurs due to _____. A. loss of the myelin sheath B. pressure on the frontal lobe C. severance of the corpus callosum D. damage to the amygdala Answer: C 132. What is the name of the large bundle of axons that connects the two halves of the brain? A. Basal ganglia B. Cingulate gyrus C. Angular gyrus D. Corpus callosum Answer: D 133. Neurosurgeons can reduce the unbearable seizures some epileptics experience by severing the _____. A. hypothalamus B. cerebellum C. cingulate gyrus D. corpus callosum Answer: D 134. In the context of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain, the corpus callosum is: A. a region of the cerebral cortex that integrates sensory and motor information. B. a part of the limbic system. C. a bundle of axons that connects the right hemisphere with the left hemisphere. D. a part of the hindbrain. Answer: C 135. Which of the following scenarios illustrates the effective functioning of the right hemisphere of the human brain? A. Joan sings a song to her daughter. B. Josh recognizes the alphabets on the blackboard. C. Terrence solves a puzzle in class. D. Melissa recognizes that Norah is sad by looking at her face. Answer: D 136. Which of the following is a function of the right hemisphere of the brain? A. Recognition of words B. Comprehension of grammar C. Singing songs D. Interpreting emotions Answer: D 137. In the context of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain, the brain region associated with face recognition is located in the _____. A. amygdala B. pons C. fusiform gyrus D. post central gyrus Answer: C 138. The set of glands that regulates the activities of certain organs in the body is called the _____ system. A. autonomic B. reticular C. endocrine D. somatic Answer: C 139. In the context of the endocrine system, the _____ gland regulates all the other glands. A. pituitary B. adrenal C. pancreatic D. thyroid Answer: A 140. In the context of the endocrine system, a function of the adrenal glands is to _____. A. produce insulin B. help regulate mood C. perform digestive functions D. control growth Answer: B 141. In the context of the endocrine system, which of the following neurotransmitters is secreted by the adrenal glands? A. Epinephrine B. Serotonin C. Dopamine D. Acetylcholine Answer: A 142. Wanda has a particular type of diabetes that requires her to inject herself with insulin every few hours. In the context of the endocrine system, which gland is most likely responsible for Wanda’s diabetes? A. Adrenal gland B. Pituitary gland C. Pancreas D. Gonads Answer: C 143. In the context of the human brain’s plasticity, research has found which of the following brain regions to be responsible for neurogenesis? A. Amygdala B. Hippocampus C. Cerebellum D. Medulla Answer: B 144. In the context of brain tissue implants, what is unique about stem cells? A. They survive for extended periods outside of the body. B. They can develop into most types of human cells. C. They are not susceptible to the effects of plasticity. D. They transfer genetic information into human cells. Answer: B 145. The field of _____ involves the manipulation of genes using technology to determine their effect on behavior. A. polygenic inheritance B. molecular genetics C. selective breeding D. eugenics Answer: B 146. In the context of genetics, the technique of selective breeding: A. is used to choose organisms for reproduction based on how much of a particular trait they display. B. is used primarily to study the influence of the degree of heredity on behavior. C. is used primarily to identify genetic variations linked to a particular disease. D. is used to identify the location of certain genes by referring to those genes whose position is already known. Answer: A 147. In the context of genes and the environment, an individual’s phenotype refers to his or her _____. A. biological code B. genetic material C. social environment D. observable characteristics Answer: D 148. Molly’s natural hair color is brown but she dyes it blonde. In the context of genes and the environment, Molly has changed her _____. A. phenotype B. genotype C. genetic code D. phylogeny Answer: A 149. Which of the following scenarios accurately illustrates acute stress? A. Jenny has to take care of her mother who is suffering from dementia. B. Robert has to work hard to make ends meet. C. Edward has to rush to the hospital to perform heart surgery. D. Melvin, a paraplegic, has to cope with demands of daily living. Answer: C 150. Which of the following is true of chronic stress in human beings? A. It is temporary. B. It may lead to persistent autonomic nervous system arousal. C. It involves excessive activity of the parasympathetic nervous system. D. It is adaptive. Answer: B Short Answer Questions 151. Briefly describe the somatic division of the peripheral nervous system in humans. Answer: The somatic division of the peripheral nervous system consists of sensory nerves and motor nerves. The sensory nerves convey information from the skin and muscle to the central nervous system about conditions such as pain and temperature. The motor nerves tell muscles what to do. 152. Briefly describe the autonomic division of the peripheral nervous system in humans. Answer: The function of the autonomic nervous system is to take messages to and from the body’s internal organs, monitoring such processes as breathing, heart rate, and digestion. The autonomic nervous system is divided into two parts. • The first part, the sympathetic nervous system, arouses the body to mobilize it for action. The sympathetic nervous system is involved in the “fight or flight” response, the body’s reaction to a threat (incidents from which people can either stay and fight or flee). When a person feels his or her heart pounding and his or her hands sweating under stress, those experiences reveal the sympathetic nervous system in action. If a person needs to run away from a dangerous situation, the sympathetic nervous system sends blood out to his or her extremities to prepare the person for taking off. • The second part, the parasympathetic nervous system, calms the body. It is responsible for the ways in which a person calms down once he or she has escaped the danger. While the sympathetic nervous system is associated with “fight or flight,” the parasympathetic nervous system might be thought of as the system that “rests and digests.” 153. Briefly explain how a neuron at resting potential becomes activated. Answer: A neuron becomes activated when an incoming impulse—a reaction to, say, a pinprick or the sight of someone’s face—raises the neuron’s voltage, and the sodium gates at the base of the axon open briefly. This action allows positively charged sodium ions to flow into the neuron, creating a more positively charged neuron and depolarizing the membrane by decreasing the charge difference between the fluids inside and outside of the neuron. Then potassium channels open, and positively charged potassium ions move out through the neuron’s semipermeable membrane. This outflow returns the neuron to a negative charge. Then the same process occurs as the next group of channels flips open briefly. So, it goes all the way down the axon, like a long row of cabinet doors opening and closing in sequence. It is hard to imagine, but this system of opening and closing tiny doors is responsible for the beautiful fluid movements of a ballet dancer and the flying fingers of a pianist playing a concerto. The term action potential describes the brief wave of positive electrical charge that sweeps down the axon. An action potential lasts only about 1/1000th of a second, because the sodium channels can stay open for only a very brief time. They quickly close again and become reset for the next action potential. When a neuron sends an action potential, it is commonly said to be “firing.” 154. Discuss the key function of the neurotransmitter that is deficient in patients with anxiety disorders. Answer: The neurotransmitter that is deficient in patients with anxiety disorders is gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABA plays a key function in the brain by inhibiting many neurons from firing. Thus, antianxiety drugs increase the inhibiting effects of GABA, thereby reducing the levels of anxiety among these patients. 155. Discuss the key function of the neurotransmitter that is responsible for triggering seizures. Answer: The neurotransmitter that is responsible for triggering seizures is glutamate. Its key function is to excite many neurons to fire and is especially involved in learning and memory. 156. Discuss the functions of the neurotransmitter that is present in excess in patients with schizophrenia. Answer: The neurotransmitter that is present in excess in patients with schizophrenia is dopamine. Dopamine helps to control voluntary movement and affects sleep, mood, attention, and learning. It also facilitates the recognition of opportunities for rewarding experiences in the environment. 157. Discuss the process of brain lesioning. Answer: Brain lesioning is an abnormal disruption in the tissue of the brain resulting from injury or disease. It is a process of creating lesions by surgically removing brain tissue, destroying tissue with a laser, or eliminating tissue by injecting it with a drug. Examining the person or animal that has the lesion gives the researchers a sense of the function of the part of the brain that has been damaged. 158. Describe the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique. Discuss one advantage and one disadvantage of the fMRI technique. Answer: Although MRI scans can reveal considerable information about brain structure, they cannot portray brain function. Other techniques, however, can serve as a window on the brain in action. One such method, fMRI, allows scientists literally to see what is happening in the brain while it is working. The use of fMRI in psychological studies has increased dramatically in the twenty-first century. The field of cognitive neuroscience, which involves linking cognitive processes and their underlying neural bases, has especially benefited from progress in fMRI. Like the PET scan, fMRI rests on the idea that mental activity is associated with changes in the brain. Although PET relies on the use of glucose as fuel for thinking, fMRI exploits changes in blood oxygen that occur in association with brain activity. When part of the brain is working, oxygenated blood rushes into the area. This oxygen, however, is more than is needed. During these procedures, pictures of the brain are taken, both while the brain is at rest and while it is engaging in an activity such as listening to music, looking at a picture, or making a decision. By comparing the at-rest picture to the activity picture, fMRI tells researchers what specific brain activity is associated with the mental experience being studied. Note that saying that fMRI tells researchers about the brain activity associated with a mental experience is a correlational statement. Correlations point to the association between variables, not to the potential causal link between them. 159. Briefly describe the location and major functions of the occipital and frontal lobes. Also, identify how an individual’s behavior is affected by damage to these lobes. Answer: • The occipital lobes, located at the back of the head, respond to visual stimuli. Connections among various areas of the occipital lobes allow for the processing of information about aspects of visual stimuli such as their color, shape, and motion. A person can have perfectly functioning eyes, but the eyes only detect and transport information. That information must be interpreted in the occipital lobes in order for the viewer to “see it.” A stroke or a wound in an occipital lobe can cause blindness or, at a minimum, can wipe out a portion of the person’s visual field. • The frontal lobes, the portion of the cerebral cortex behind the forehead, are involved in personality, intelligence, and the control of voluntary muscles. Damage to the frontal lobes causes dramatic alterations in personality. An important part of the frontal lobes is the prefrontal cortex, which is at the front of the motor cortex. The prefrontal cortex is involved in higher cognitive functions such as planning, reasoning, and self-control. Some neuroscientists refer to the prefrontal cortex as an executive control system because of its role in monitoring and organizing thinking. 160. While both hemispheres have many similar functions in the human brain, mention the predominant function associated with each hemisphere. Answer: The left hemisphere is dominant with regard to language functions, while the right hemisphere is dominant in processing nonverbal emotional content. 161. Explain how the endocrine system differs from the nervous system. Answer: The endocrine system differs significantly from the nervous system in two ways. • For one thing, the parts of the endocrine system are not all connected in the way that the parts of the nervous system are. • For another, the endocrine system works more slowly than the nervous system, because hormones are transported in the blood through the circulatory system. The heart does a mind-boggling job of pumping blood throughout the body, but blood moves far more slowly than the neural impulses do in the nervous system’s superhighway. 162. Discuss the three ways in which repair of the damaged brain might take place. Answer: There are three ways in which repair of the damaged brain might take place: • Collateral sprouting, the process by which axons of some healthy neurons adjacent to damaged cells grow new branches. • Substitution of function, the process by which the damaged region’s function is taken over by another area or areas of the brain. • Neurogenesis, the process by which new neurons are generated. 163. Define selective breeding in the context of genetics and behavior. Answer: Selective breeding is defined as a genetic method in which organisms are chosen for reproduction based on how much of a particular trait they display. 164. Explain the difference between genotype and phenotype. How are they related to the nature-nurture debate? Answer: Genotype is a person’s genetic heritage, the actual genetic material that determines characteristics; phenotype is a person’s observable characteristics, which may or may not differ from what would be predicted based on the genotypic information alone. Nature provides the genotype and nurture provides the phenotype. The environment or nurture, however, cannot influence the genotype. 165. Differentiate between acute and chronic stress. Provide an example of each type of stress. Answer: Student answers will vary. Stress is the response of individuals to stressors, which are the circumstances and events that threaten them and tax their coping abilities. • Acute stress is the stress that occurs in response to an immediate perceived threat. When the stressful situation ends, so does acute stress. Acute stress is adaptive, because it allows people to do the things they need to do in an emergency. Once the danger passes, the parasympathetic nervous system can calm people down and focus on body maintenance. However, people are not in a live-or-die situation most of the time when they experience stress. Indeed, they can even “stress themselves out” just by thinking. An example of acute stress is a mother rushing her child to the hospital in an emergency. • Chronic stress—stress that goes on continuously—may lead to persistent autonomic nervous system arousal. While the sympathetic nervous system is working to meet the demands of whatever is stressing people out, the parasympathetic nervous system is not getting a chance to do its job of maintenance and repair, of digesting food, and of keeping people’s organs in good working order. Furthermore, in chronic stress, the stress hormones adrenaline and norepinephrine, produced by the endocrine system, are constantly circulated in the body, eventually causing a breakdown of the immune system. In other words, over time, chronic autonomic nervous system activity can bring about an immune system collapse. An example of chronic stress is a person living on a long-term basis with a relative with a mental illness. True/False Questions 166. The part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body to mobilize it for action and thus is involved in the experience of stress is called the parasympathetic nervous system. Answer: False 167. The axon is the part of the neuron that contains the nucleus, which directs the manufacture of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenance. Answer: False 168. Laura has recently been diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. She appears to be functioning normally at present. However, since this disease causes scar tissue to replace the myelin sheath, it will hinder the smooth transmission of her nerve impulses. Answer: True 169. In the nervous system, neurotransmitters are stored in the dendrites. Answer: False 170. In the nervous system, the small space between two neurons is called the synaptic gap. Answer: True 171. The neurotransmitter norepinephrine excites the firing of neurons in the central nervous system, but it simultaneously inhibits the heart muscle, intestines, and urogenital tract. Answer: False 172. An electroencephalograph (EEG) is used to detect the brain’s electrical activity in sleep studies. Answer: True 173. The imaging method, positron-emission tomography (PET scan), produces a three-dimensional image obtained from X rays of the head. Answer: False 174. In the context of the organization of the brain, the medulla helps to regulate human reflexes. Answer: True 175. The amygdala and the hippocampus are part of the cerebellum in the human brain. Answer: False 176. In the context of the cerebral cortex, severing the corpus callosum reduces seizures in epileptic patients. Answer: True 177. One of the ways in which the endocrine system differs from the nervous system is that the endocrine system works more quickly than the nervous system. Answer: False 178. The pancreas is a dual-purpose gland under the stomach that performs both digestive and endocrine functions. Answer: True 179. In the context of the brain’s capacity for repair, collateral sprouting is the process by which new neurons are generated. Answer: False 180. Chromosomes, the units of hereditary information, are short gene segments composed of DNA. Answer: False 181. In the context of genetics and behavior, the dominant-recessive genes principle implies that the dominant gene prevents the recessive gene from expressing its instructions. Answer: True 182. In the context of genes and the environment, an organism’s genotype can change over the course of its lifespan. Answer: False 183. Stressors refer to those circumstances and events that threaten individuals and tax their coping abilities. Answer: True 184. Paul rushes to his office to attend an important meeting. This is an example of chronic stress. Answer: False 185. Acute stress is the stress that occurs in response to an immediate perceived threat. Answer: True Test Bank for The Science of Psychology: An Appreciative View Laura A. King 9780078035401, 9781260500523, 9780073532066, 9781259255533

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