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1 The Science of Psychology 1. Which of these is the most accurate definition of the discipline of psychology? a. the science of behavior b. the science of mental processes c. the science of behavior and mental processes d. the science of human behavior and mental processes Answer: c. the science of behavior and mental processes Correct. The definition of psychology includes both behavior and mental processes and doesn’t exclude animals. d. the science of human behavior and mental processes Incorrect. The definition of psychology includes also animal behavior and mental processes. 2. In the definition of psychology, the term mental processes refers to __________ . a. internal, covert activities b. outward behavior c. overt actions and reactions d. only animal behavior Answer: a. internal, covert activities Correct. Mental activities are internal. c. overt actions and reactions Incorrect. Overt means outward, not internal. 3. Which topic would NOT be investigated by a psychologist if the definition of psychology were limited to “the science of behavior”? a. relation between grade-point average and salary b. thought processes students used while trying to answer this question c. how changes in the rate of television violence influence real-life violence d. effectiveness of several treatments for people who suffer from depression Answer: b. thought processes students used while trying to answer this question Correct. This conforms to the definition of the internal, covert activity of our minds. d. effectiveness of several treatments for people who suffer from depression Incorrect. Investigation of treatments is not a mental process. 4. You are at a basketball game and the arena is packed; the crowd is evenly split between fans of the two teams. At one point, the referee makes a call. Half of the fans yell insults; the other half of the fans shout their approval. The event reminds you of the topic of today’s lecture in psychology class. What was the likely topic of the lecture? a. bias b. experiments c. psychoanalysis d. extraneous variables Answer: a. bias Correct. The fans are showing bias and this is an important issue. b. experiments Incorrect. The fans are really not part of any treatment groups. 5. Steve is a fan of the Los Angeles Lakers basketball team. With little provocation, he will engage you in a debate about whether it is the greatest team in basketball. Steve may be demonstrating ___________________. a. bias b. critical thinking c. an eclectic approach d. unconscious behavior Answer: a. bias Correct. Steve’s loyalty to his team will influence his debate. b. critical thinking Incorrect. Critical thinking requires an open mind. 6. The goals of psychology are to _____. a. explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind b. understand, compare, and analyze human behavior c. improve psychological well-being in all individuals from birth until death d. describe, explain, predict, and control behavior Answer: d. describe, explain, predict, and control behavior Correct. These adequately help uncover the mysteries of behavior. b. understand, compare, and analyze human behavior Incorrect. Human behavior is only one part of psychology. 7. Mei was sent to the school psychologist to be tested. Based on her IQ scores it was decided that she would do well in the gifted child program. This is an example of which goal of psychology? a. describing behavior b. explaining behavior c. predicting behavior d. controlling behavior Answer: c. predicting behavior Correct. Mei’s score served as a predictor (“would do well”) of performance. b. explaining behavior Incorrect. Explaining focuses on why it is happening. 8. In addition to describing and explaining mental processes and behavior, psychology also attempts to ________ these phenomena. a. predict and control b. analyze and manipulate c. categorize and organize d. synthesize and regulate Answer: a. predict and control Correct. These are two of the four goals of psychology. c. categorize and organize Incorrect. These are not mentioned by your authors as being goals of psychology. 9. A psychologist is interested in finding out why identical twins have different personalities. This psychologist is most interested in the goal of ______________. a. description b. explanation c. prediction d. control Answer: b. explanation Correct. “Why” asks for an explanation. a. description Incorrect. “Why” does not describe; it explains. 10. A teacher tells the school psychologist that Kate is late to class, does not turn in her homework, squirms around a lot in her seat, and swings her feet constantly. This is an example of which goal of psychology? a. describing behavior b. explaining behavior c. predicting behavior d. controlling behavior Answer: a. describing behavior Correct. We only know WHAT she is doing. b. explaining behavior Incorrect. Explaining focuses on why it is happening, not what is happening. 11. The question “What is happening?” refers to which of the following goals in psychology? a. description b. explanation c. prediction d. control Answer: a. description Correct. Asking “what” means asking for a description. b. explanation Incorrect. Explanation goes beyond “what.” 12. The question “Why is it happening?” refers to which of the following goals in psychology? a. description b. explanation c. prediction d. control Answer: b. explanation Correct. Asking “why” calls for an explanation. a. description Incorrect. Describing does not answer the question why. 13. The question “When will it happen again?” refers to which of the following goals in psychology? a. description b. explanation c. prediction d. control Answer: c. prediction Correct. Prediction deals with future events. b. explanation Incorrect. Explanation deals with the present. 14. Psychologists who give potential employees tests that determine what kind of job those employees might best perform are interested in the goal of _____________. a. description b. explanation c. prediction d. control Answer: c. prediction Correct. The test predicts behavior. b. explanation Incorrect. The test is predicting, not explaining. 15. Description is to assessment as _________ is to prognosis. a. prediction b. explanation c. indication d. control Answer: a. prediction Correct. A prognosis is a prediction of what will happen. b. explanation Incorrect. An explanation does not indicate future outcomes. 16. The question “How can it be changed?” refers to which of the following goals in psychology? a. description b. explanation c. prediction d. control Answer: d. control Correct. Control modifies behavior. c. prediction Incorrect. Prediction does not cause change. 17. The general curiosity about why people think, feel, and behave the way they do a. primarily happened after World War II. b. is about a century old. c. is several centuries old. d. has always probably been with us. Answer: d. has always probably been with us. Correct. As your authors note, these questions have been pondered in some way or another since we’ve been around. c. is several centuries old. Incorrect. These curiosities are probably much older than centuries, and have always been with us. 18. Which of the following most accurately reflects the authors’ views about the influence of philosophy and physiology on present day psychology? a. Only philosophy continues to influence psychology. b. Philosophy continues to influence psychology more so than physiology. c. Physiology continues to influence psychology more so than philosophy. d. Both disciplines, philosophy and physiology, continue to influence psychology. Answer: d. Both disciplines, philosophy and physiology, continue to influence psychology. Correct. As your authors point out, psychology (the child) continues to be influenced by philosophy and physiology (its parents). a. Only philosophy continues to influence psychology. Incorrect. According to your authors, both philosophy and physiology continue to influence psychology. 19. In 1879, in Leipzig, Germany, the first psychological laboratory was overseen by ______________. a. William James b. William Tell c. Wilhelm Wundt d. Sigmund Freud Answer: c. Wilhelm Wundt Correct. Wundt supervised the first psychological laboratory. d. Sigmund Freud Incorrect. Freud’s theory came later, and he had no lab. 20. At the close of the nineteenth century, Gerhard is excited to find that he has been accepted for training in the psychology laboratory of Wilhelm Wundt. It is likely that Gerhard will be trained to ________________. a. analyze how to break down his sensations into their most basic elements b. determine the function or purpose of a particular human behavior c. listen intently while individuals tell him of their depression or nervousness d. carefully feel the bumps on a person’s head in order to determine his or her character traits Answer: a. analyze how to break down his sensations into their most basic elements Correct. Wundt trained his students to detect the basic elements of human consciousness. b. determine the function or purpose of a particular human behavior Incorrect. Wundt was not a functionalist. 21. The school of psychology called structuralism used a technique called _____, which involved reporting the contents of consciousness to study a person’s experiences. a. intervention b. introspection c. insight inventory d. induction Answer: b. introspection Correct. This requires self-examination of the structure of the mind. a. intervention Incorrect. Intervention has a totally different meaning than introspection, even though it looks similar. 22. Participants in research early in psychology’s history might have been asked to view a chair and describe its color, shape, and texture and other aspects of their conscious experience. These individuals would have been using a method called _________. a. hypnosis b. objective introspection c. psychosurgery d. psychoanalysis Answer: b. objective introspection Correct. In introspection you describe your conscious thoughts. d. psychoanalysis Incorrect. Psychoanalysis was not concerned with these issues. 23. Objective introspection requires a. metaphysical experiences. b. self-skepticism about experiences. c. empiricism. d. reflection on the self. Answer: d. reflection on the self. Correct. Remember that introspection literally means "looking within." c. empiricism. Incorrect. Empiricism refers to using collected data to support a hypothesis. It is not related to the concept of introspection. 24. What is the best analogy for Wundt’s and Titchener’s mission for psychology? a. a chart listing the basic chemical elements b. a list of the courses required for graduation c. a list of the types of clothing sold at a retail outlet d. a computer program for word processing a term paper Answer: a. a chart listing the basic chemical elements Correct. They wanted to break down the mind into basic elements. d. a computer program for word processing a term paper Incorrect. A computer program does not have basic elements. 25. The structuralists were important in the history of psychology because they a. examined consciousness and the structure of mental processes. b. were the first to use brain-scanning techniques to learn about the structure of the brain. c. realized the limits of introspection and focused on the structure of behaviors. d. were strongly influenced by Charles Darwin. Answer: a. examined consciousness and the structure of mental processes. Correct. The structuralists were interested in understanding the basic structure of human consciousness. d. were strongly influenced by Charles Darwin. Incorrect. This would be a statement applicable to the functionalists, not the structuralists. 26. Which of the following terms do NOT belong together? a. structuralism; observable behavior b. Gestalt; whole c. psychoanalysis; unconscious conflict d. natural selection; functionalism Answer: a. structuralism; observable behavior Correct. Structuralism focuses on introspection, which is not observable. c. psychoanalysis; unconscious conflict Incorrect. These terms do belong together. 27. Why was the perspective followed by Wilhelm Wundt and his followers called structuralism? a. They wanted to identify the major brain structures. b. Their primary goal was to understand the physiology of the mind. c. They focused their efforts on analyzing the elements of the nervous system. d. Their primary focus was on describing the structure of conscious experience. Answer: d. Their primary focus was on describing the structure of conscious experience. Correct. Structure was key in the definition. b. Their primary goal was to understand the physiology of the mind. Incorrect. It was the structure of thought, not physiology. 28. Which early school of psychology proposed that consciousness was made up of two types of elements, sensations and thoughts? a. Functionalism b. Gestalt Psychology c. Psychodynamic Theory d. Structuralism Answer: d. Structuralism Correct. These two elements for the way that structuralism characterized human consciousness. a. Functionalism Incorrect. Functionalism focused on the purpose of consciousness, not dissecting it into its basic elements. 29. Who was an early proponent of functionalism? a. Ivan Pavlov b. William James c. Wilhelm Wundt d. Max Wertheimer Answer: b. William James Correct. James was a functionalist. c. Wilhelm Wundt Incorrect. Wundt was a structuralist. 30. How our minds help us adapt to the world around us was a primary question addressed by which early movement of psychology? a. Behaviorism b. Cognitivism c. Functionalism d. Structuralism Answer: c. Functionalism Correct. The functionalists were interested in determining the purpose of human consciousness, or how it helped us with our everyday lives. d. Structuralism Incorrect. The structuralists were interested in determining the structure, or basic makeup, of human consciousness. 31. If an individual believed that why people think and feel as they do is more important than what they think and how they think, that individual would be a proponent of the ________ approach to psychology. a. structuralist b. functionalist c. psychodynamic d. behaviorist Answer: b. functionalist Correct. The functionalists were interested in determining the purpose of human consciousness, or how it helped us with our everyday lives. a. structuralist Incorrect. The structuralists were interested in determining the structure, or basic makeup, of human consciousness. 32. If a functionalist from the 1870s were alive today, where would we most likely find him? a. in a laboratory, studying principles of perception b. in a school, working to improve teaching methods c. in a mountain retreat, contemplating the meaning of life d. in a sleep laboratory, trying to determine if our need for sleep is biologically based Answer: b. in a school, working to improve teaching methods Correct. Functionalists applied research. d. in a sleep laboratory, trying to determine if our need for sleep is biologically based Incorrect. This would be considered pure research. 33. Which psychologist was the first African-American to receive a Ph.D. in educational psychology from the University of Chicago in 1925? a. Charles Henry Thompson b. Linus Pauling c. Albert Sidney Beckham d. Inez Beverly Prosser Answer: d. Inez Beverly Prosser Correct. Inez Beverly Prosser was indeed the first African-American to earn a Ph.D. in educational psychology from the University of Chicago in 1925. Her dissertation, "The Non-Academic Development of Negro Children in Mixed and Segregated Schools," was a groundbreaking work that explored the impact of racial segregation on the psychological development of African-American children. a. Charles Henry Thompson Incorrect. This is not the correct individual. While Charles Henry Thompson was a notable African-American psychologist, he did not receive a Ph.D. in educational psychology from the University of Chicago in 1925. Therefore, he is not the correct answer to the question. 34. While Margaret Floy Washburn may have been the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology in the United States (in 1894), the first African-American woman to do so was _________ in 1934 at the University of Minnesota. a. Inez Beverly Prosser b. Ruth Howard c. Margaret Mahler d. Anna Freud Answer: b. Ruth Howard Correct. The correct answer is b. Ruth Howard was the first African-American woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology. She earned her Ph.D. in 1934 at the University of Minnesota, specializing in clinical psychology. Howard's achievement paved the way for other African-American women in the field of psychology and academia. a. Inez Beverly Prosser Incorrect. a. Inez Beverly Prosser was the first African-American woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology, but she earned her degree from the University of Cincinnati, not the University of Minnesota. 35. Which noted African-American psychologist held a post as president of Shaw University in North Carolina and then president of Virginia State College? a. Charles Henry Thompson b. Howard Hale Long c. Robert Prentiss Daniel d. Albert Sidney Beckham Answer: c. Robert Prentiss Daniel Correct. The correct answer is c. Robert Prentiss Daniel held positions as president of both Shaw University in North Carolina and Virginia State College. Daniel was a prominent African-American psychologist and educator who made significant contributions to higher education and civil rights. b. Howard Hale Long b. Howard Hale Long are not able figures in African-American history, but they did not hold the specific positions mentioned in the question. 36. Which type of early psychologist believed that “the whole is more than the sum of its parts”? a. Gestaltist b. behaviorist c. structuralist d. functionalist Answer: a. Gestaltist Correct. The Gestaltists studied the perception of wholes. c. structuralist Incorrect. Structuralists focused on the elements of consciousness. 37. “The whole is greater than the sum of the parts” is a statement associated with the perspective of ______________ . a. introspection b. functionalism c. psychoanalysis d. Gestalt psychologists Answer: d. Gestalt psychologists Correct. “The whole is greater than the sum of the parts” was the theme of the Gestaltists. c. psychoanalysis Incorrect. Psychoanalysis was concerned with unconsciousness, not “wholes.” 38. While on a visit to a large city, you observe several billboards in which a series of lights seems to move. Which perspective in psychology would most likely help you understand this phenomenon? a. Gestalt b. behavioral c. humanistic d. psychodynamic Answer: a. Gestalt Correct. Gestaltists focused on perception of wholes. d. psychodynamic Incorrect. This theory focused on the unconscious. 39. Gestalt psychology attempted to discover a. how the mind helped people adapt to the world. b. the overall patterns of perceptions and thoughts. c. the basic building blocks of consciousness. d. the unconscious motivations for human functioning. Answer: b. the overall patterns of perceptions and thoughts. Correct. Gestalt psychologists looked at larger wholes, rather than individual parts. c. the basic building blocks of consciousness. Incorrect. This would be an emphasis of structuralists, not Gestalt psychologists. 40. The early perspective called Gestalt psychology has evolved into the current perspective called _______________. a. psychoanalysis b. cognitive psychology c. behavioral psychology d. social psychology Answer: b. cognitive psychology Correct. Gestalt psychology is now part of cognitive psychology, which focuses on perception as well as learning, memory, and thought processes. c. behavioral psychology Incorrect. This area of psychology only focuses on observable behavior. 41. The belief that the unconscious mind has an influence on one’s behavior is part of what early field of psychology? a. structuralism b. functionalism c. psychoanalysis d. behaviorism Answer: c. psychoanalysis Correct. The unconscious is a major component of psychoanalysis. a. structuralism Incorrect. Structuralism does not examine the unconscious. 42. What did Sigmund Freud consider as the key to understanding the nervous disorders he observed? a. free will b. brain physiology c. the unconscious mind d. external consequences Answer: c. the unconscious mind Correct. Freud’s entire theory centered on the unconscious. b. brain physiology Incorrect. There was no physical cause to the problems patients had. 43. The class is playing a game of Jeopardy! and it is your turn. “I'll take Pioneers in Psychology for $50.” The revealed answer is “Focused on unconscious factors” Just before the buzzer sounds, what will you say? a. “Who is B. F. Skinner?” b. “Who are the humanists?” c. “Who is Sigmund Freud?” d. “Who are the behaviorists?” Answer: c. “Who is Sigmund Freud?” Correct. Freud based his entire theory on the unconscious. a. “Who is B. F. Skinner?” Incorrect. Skinner rejected the unconscious. 44. Freud stressed the importance of _________________. a. early childhood experiences b. adolescence c. early adulthood d. middle adulthood Answer: a. early childhood experiences Correct. Freud believed personality was formed in the first six years of life. b. adolescence Incorrect. Freud stressed the first six years. 45. According to Freud, unconscious urges a. are able to be suppressed. b. only pertain to sex. c. attempt to surface and affect our behaviors.. d. have no impact on everyday life. Answer: c. attempt to surface and affect our behaviors.. Correct. Freud believed that unconscious urges could not stay completely unconscious indefinitely, and that they would be expressed in one way or another. b. only pertain to sex. Incorrect. Freud also felt that unconscious urges were related to aggressive impulses. 46. The work of Freud was built around __________________. a. a theory of personality that emphasizes the awareness of one’s own cognitive processes b. a theory of personality that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts c. a method of psychotherapy in which an observer carefully records and interprets behavior without interfering with the behavior d. a method of psychotherapy that emphasizes how maladaptive behaviors are learned through imitations of others and through cognitive expectations Answer: b. a theory of personality that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts Correct. Unconscious motives and conflicts are the essential elements of psychoanalysis. c. a method of psychotherapy in which an observer carefully records and interprets behavior without interfering with the behavior Incorrect. Psychoanalysts don’t necessarily refrain from directing behavior. 47. Which treatment approach did Sigmund Freud develop for treating his patients? a. drug therapy b. neuropsychology c. clinical psychology d. psychoanalysis Answer: d. psychoanalysis Correct. It fit with his assumptions about the mind. c. clinical psychology Incorrect. This was not a discipline yet. 48. Which type of psychologist would be most likely to argue that a criminal engages in unlawful behavior because he grew up around older boys who engaged in criminal activities? a. Gestaltist b. behavioralist c. psychodynamic d. functionalist Answer: b. behavioralist Correct. This theory focused on learned behavior. c. psychodynamic Incorrect. This theory focused on unconscious influences. 49. John B. Watson believed that psychology should involve the study of _________. a. behavior b. the mind c. the brain d. consciousness Answer: a. behavior Correct. He thought that was the most scientific. d. consciousness Incorrect. This was not observable. 50. Which school of psychology questioned whether psychologists should study the mind? a. psychodynamic theory b. behaviorism c. Gestalt psychology d. the cognitive revolution Answer: b. behaviorism Correct. Behaviorists believe that the science of psychology should focus only on directly observable and measurable behaviors. c. Gestalt psychology Incorrect. Gestalt psychology did not object to studying the mind, but wanted to study it as all whole rather than as a series of parts. 51. The school of behaviorism attempted to explain behavior by studying a. the reasons people give for their behaviors. b. the specific personality traits that lead to behavior. c. how a specific stimulus evokes a specific response. d. the purposes of people’s behavior. Answer: c. how a specific stimulus evokes a specific response. Correct. This relationship, called a stimulus-response association, is one of the major foundations of behaviorism. d. the purposes of people’s behavior. Incorrect. This would be the focus of functionalism, not behaviorism. 52. What advice might John B. Watson have offered to psychologists of his time? a. “Focus on observable behavior.” b. “Life is an effort to overcome inferiority.” c. “We cannot know others until we know ourselves.” d. “Remember that what we accomplish is due to the composition of our genes.” Answer: a. “Focus on observable behavior.” Correct. Behaviorism was founded on the study of observable behavior. c. “We cannot know others until we know ourselves.” Incorrect. Watson only studied what he observed. 53. The Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov discovered that ________________. a. dogs would salivate to the sound of a bell due to habituation b. dogs would salivate to the sounds of a bell due to reflexology c. dogs would salivate to the sound of a bell due to a learned reflexive response called conditioning d. dogs would salivate to the sounds of a bell due to their fear response Answer: c. dogs would salivate to the sound of a bell due to a learned reflexive response called conditioning Correct. Dogs would salivate due to conditioning. a. dogs would salivate to the sound of a bell due to habituation Incorrect. Conditioning, not habituation, is the correct answer. 54. Sallie noticed that when her alarm clock goes off in the morning her dog, Ruffles, is standing by her bed salivating. Every morning when Sallie wakes to the alarm, she immediately rolls out of bed and feeds Ruffles who very much enjoys his canned dog food. It is likely that ________________. a. Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to enjoy canned dog food b. Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to sleep next to her bed c. Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to salivate over canned dog food d. Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to salivate to the sound of her alarm clock Answer: d. Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to salivate to the sound of her alarm clock Correct. Ruffles has learned to associate the sound of the alarm clock with being fed. a. Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to enjoy canned dog food Incorrect. Ruffles enjoyment of dog food would be an unconditioned response, not a conditioned response. 55. Pavlov’s research demonstrated that ________________. a. involuntary reaction (salivation) could occur in response to an unrelated stimulus (sound of a bell) b. an unrelated stimulus (salivation) could occur in response to an involuntary reaction (sound of a bell) c. involuntary reaction (sound of a bell) could occur in response to an unrelated stimulus (food) d. an unrelated stimulus (food) could occur in response to an unrelated stimulus (barking) Answer: a. involuntary reaction (salivation) could occur in response to an unrelated stimulus (sound of a bell) Correct. This is true based on his research of conditioning. b. an unrelated stimulus (salivation) could occur in response to an involuntary reaction (sound of a bell) Incorrect. This is not true as the involuntary reaction is salivation and the unrelated stimulus is the sound of the bell. 56. Freud said phobias were ____________ whereas Watson said phobias were __________. a. learned; inherited b. repressed conflicts; learned c. sexual; unconscious d. conditioned; unconditioned Answer: b. repressed conflicts; learned Correct. Freud studied repressed conflict and Watson studied observable behavior. c. sexual; unconscious Incorrect. Watson did not believe in the unconscious. 57. Which pair of scientists shared the most similar views of behavior? a. William James and Wilhelm Wundt b. B. F. Skinner and Max Wertheimer c. Ivan Pavlov and John B. Watson d. Carl Rogers and Edward Titchener Answer: c. Ivan Pavlov and John B. Watson Correct. They used conditioning in their theories. a. William James and Wilhelm Wundt Incorrect. One was a functionalist and the other was a structuralist. 58. Which founding contributors to psychology helped develop behaviorism? a. Gestalt and Wundt b. Freud and Watson c. Watson and Pavlov d. Pavlov and Wundt Answer: c. Watson and Pavlov Correct. They contributed to behaviorism. b. Freud and Watson Incorrect. Freud was a psychoanalyst. 59. Suppose you were a graduate student studying for a Ph.D. in psychology in the 1920s. Your advisor was strongly influenced by John B. Watson. Which of the following might your advisor consider an acceptable choice for your research? a. a survey of daydreams b. an analysis of how specific behaviors are acquired c. a survey of sexual imagery in dreams of men and women d. an analysis of the thought processes students report while answering test items Answer: b. an analysis of how specific behaviors are acquired Correct. Watson believed observable behavior should be the focus of study. d. an analysis of the thought processes students report while answering test items Incorrect. You cannot observe thought processes. 60. Which pair of scientists shared the most similar views of behavior? a. William James and Wilhelm Wundt b. B. F. Skinner and Max Wertheimer c. B.F. Skinner and John B. Watson d. Carl Rogers and Edward Titchener Answer: c. B.F. Skinner and John B. Watson Correct. They were both behaviorists. a. William James and Wilhelm Wundt Incorrect. One was a functionalist and the other was a structuralist. 61. The psychodynamic perspective was based on the work of ________________. a. Watson b. Wundt c. Gestalt d. Freud Answer: d. Freud Correct. Freud developed the psychodynamic theory. a. Watson Incorrect. Watson was a behaviorist. 62. Professor Wenches approaches questions about human behavior from a perspective that emphasizes unconscious processes within the individual, such as inner forces or conflicts. It is most likely that she accepts which of the following psychological approaches? a. social-cognitive learning b. learning c. cognitive approach d. psychodynamic approach Answer: d. psychodynamic approach Correct. The psychodynamic approach emphasizes unconscious dynamics. c. cognitive approach Incorrect. The cognitive approach focuses on how people think, remember, and store information, not on the unconscious. 63. Who claimed that behavior is affected by reinforcement? a. William James b. Sigmund Freud c. B. F. Skinner d. Wilhelm Wundt Answer: c. B. F. Skinner Correct. Skinner believed that behavior that is followed by good consequences is reinforced. b. Sigmund Freud Incorrect. Freud did not emphasize positive reinforcement. 64. You attend a lecture by a psychologist who uses terms such as free will and self-actualization. Which psychological perspective is most consistent with the points the psychologist presented? a. behaviorism b. humanism c. functionalism d. psychodynamics Answer: b. humanism Correct. This perspective suggests people have many choices. a. behaviorism Incorrect. This perspective does not suggest free will or human nature. 65. Self-actualization was part of which of the following perspectives? a. behaviorism b. cognitive perspective c. functionalism d. humanism Answer: d. humanism Correct. Humanists talk about self-actualization. a. behaviorism Incorrect. Self-actualization was not part of that perspective. 66. Which perspective focuses on free will and self-actualization? a. psychoanalysis b. humanism c. cognitive perspective d. behaviorism Answer: b. humanism Correct. Humanist theory focuses on free will and self-actualization. a. psychoanalysis Incorrect. This theory does not acknowledge free will. 67. Humanist Abraham Maslow suggests that when people self-actualize they a. develop to their fullest potential. b. avoid negative consequences of behavior. c. seek maximum reward for all their behaviors. d. learn from their mistakes and move on. Answer: a. develop to their fullest potential. Correct. When a person has become everything they are capable of, they have become self-actualized according to Maslow. c. seek maximum reward for all their behaviors. Incorrect. This would be a theoretical suggestion of the behaviorist, not a humanist. 68. In the early part of the past century, psychologists who broke down thought processes into their basic elements and analyzed them were called structuralists. What term might we use to describe psychologists with similar interests today? a. Gestalt b. cognitive c. behavioral d. humanistic Answer: b. cognitive Correct. The cognitive perspective focuses on breaking down thought processes. a. Gestalt Incorrect. Gestaltists were not involved in breaking down thought processes into basic elements. 69. Cognitive neuroscientists can examine the brain with _____________ and _____________. a. electrolysis and PET b. PET and MRI c. MRI and electrolysis d. Gama images and electrolysis Answer: b. PET and MRI Correct: .Both are discussed in the book and used by cognitive neuroscientists. d. Gama images and electrolysis Incorrect. PET and MRI is the right answer. 70. Josh has been participating in a clinical study by a cognitive neuroscientist. It is likely that his brain is being studied to explore _________________. a. memory b. thinking c. other cognitive processes d. all of the above Answer: d. all of the above Correct. All options to be studied by a cognitive neuroscientist. b. thinking Incorrect. This is not the only correct answer to this question. 71. The emerging field of brain imagery in cognitive neuroscience has developed methods, such as MRI, to examine _________________. a. images of the living brain b. biopsies of the brain of a cadaver c. select biopsied portions of a brain d. acute time of death in stroke patients Answer: a. images of the living brain Correct. MRI and PET take images of a living brain for analysis. b. biopsies of the brain of a cadaver Incorrect. Biopsies are not taken by a MRI. 72. If you are interested in how patterns, beliefs, and customs influence behavior, you are interested in the __________ perspective. a. behavioral b. sociocultural c. psychodynamic d. cognitive Answer: b. sociocultural Correct. This approach focuses on social environment. d. cognitive Incorrect. This approach focuses on individual thought processes, not groups of people. 73. Samantha just had her purse stolen while walking down Fifth Avenue in New York City which is a very busy part of Manhattan. She screamed loudly, and several people looked in her direction, but nobody stopped walking or made an attempt to help. She immediately broke down in tears and trembled for 10 minutes until she could walk to her car. This is an example of _________________. a. democracy b. bystander effect c. diffusion of effects d. flaws in the judicial system Answer: b. bystander effect Correct. This example would support this concept as nobody immediately helped despite being a heavily populated area. c. diffusion of effects Incorrect. The diffusion of responsibility could also be a correct answer but not diffusion of effects. 74. Jeff’s car broke down and smoke started rising from the engine. He felt lucky to have broken down while parked in the center of town during lunch when many people were outside and could help. However, 30 minutes has passed and despite the heavily populated area, nobody has offered assistance. This is an example of the _________________. a. zeitgeist b. behaviorist effect c. bystander effect d. self-Serving Prophecy Answer: c. bystander effect Correct. This example would support the example because of the principle of diffusion of responsibility. d. self-Serving Prophecy Incorrect. Not discussed in the book. 75. In studying the bystander effect, a researcher is interested in looking at differences between prison guards in China and the United Kingdom. The researcher is taking a _________________ in this cross cultural study. a. Eurocentric perspective b. egocentric perspective c. culturio perspective d. sociocultural perspective Answer: d. sociocultural perspective Correct. The researcher is looking at cultures from a sociocultural perspective. c. culturio perspective Incorrect. Not a real term or concept discussed in the book. 76. Darley and Latané (1968) believe that the presence of other people in a distressing situation decreased the likelihood that they would receive help due to _________________. a. diffusion of anonymity b. diffusion of responsibility c. flaws in laws protecting Good Samaritans d. timeliness of onset Answer: b. diffusion of responsibility Correct. When others are around, individuals have been found to believe that help is not needed and that another person will help. a. diffusion of anonymity Incorrect. Diffusion of responsibility is the correct choice. 77. Shorey (2001) found that the brutal death of a Somolian prisoner in a Canadian military facility could have been prevented. One reason the beating was not stopped was the _________________. a. bystander effect b. Zeitgeist c. behaviorist effect d. Canadian prison policy Answer: a. bystander effect Correct. This would support the example because of the principle of diffusion of responsibility. d. Canadian prison policy Incorrect. Not discussed in the book. 78. Professor Beverly approaches questions about human behavior from a perspective that emphasizes bodily events and chemicals, such as hormones, associated with behavior. It is most likely that she accepts which of the following psychological approaches? a. biopsychological b. learning c. cognitive d. sociocultural Answer: a. biopsychological Correct. The biopsychological perspective looks at the relationship between body chemistry and behavior. d. sociocultural Incorrect. The sociocultural perspective focuses on culture and sociology, not biology. 79. Dr. Mosher is a psychologist who tries to understand how people select their mates. She must be a(n) ___________________ . a. behavioral psychologist b. cognitive psychologist c. evolutionary psychologist d. biopsychological psychologist Answer: c. evolutionary psychologist Correct. Evolutionary psychologists look at how human mate selection evolved. d. biopsychological psychologist Incorrect. Mate preference is an evolutionary issue. 80. Evolutionary psychology might suggest that certain cognitive strategies and goals are built into the brain because a. they help humans adapt to their natural environment. b. human brains are similar to the brains of the higher primates. c. they are the result of learning that has taken place over many centuries. d. they are the result of memories we have inherited from our ancestors. Answer: a. they help humans adapt to their natural environment. Correct. Adaptation and survival are the basic tenets of evolutionary theory. c. they are the result of learning that has taken place over many centuries. Incorrect. In fact, evolutionary theory does not allow for the idea that learned behaviors can become genetically passed from generation to generation. 81. Dr. Jones probably agrees with the ________ theory of psychology, since he contends that humans are intelligent species due to the fact that intelligence gives us an advantage in the natural world. a. psychoanalytic b. behavioral c. cognitive d. evolutionary Answer: d. evolutionary Correct. Survival advantage is a basic premise of evolutionary psychology. c. cognitive Incorrect. Cognitive psychology does not address concepts like advantages in the natural world. The best answer to this question is evolutionary psychology. 82. Which of the following statements is correct? a. A psychologist has no medical training. b. A psychiatrist generally goes to graduate school, not medical school. c. Psychiatric social workers can prescribe medication. d. An M.D. and a Ph.D. are pretty much the same thing. Answer: a. A psychologist has no medical training. Correct. Psychologists do not go to medical school; they go to graduate school. c. Psychiatric social workers can prescribe medication. Incorrect. Although the word psychiatric is in their title, they cannot prescribe medication since they don’t go to medical school. 83. The majority of psychologists work in ________________. a. private practice b. public school c. government d. four-year colleges and universities Answer: d. four-year colleges and universities Correct. Approximately 34 percent of psychologists work in colleges and universities. a. private practice Incorrect. Approximately 22 percent work in private for-profit situations. 84. According to present research on psychologists, thirty-four percent are in the ________________ subfield of psychology. a. Counseling b. Industrial/Organizational c. Developmental d. Clinical Answer: d. Clinical Correct. Due to the information in the book. a. Counseling Incorrect. This is the second largest subfield with thirteen percent. 85. According to the present research on psychologists, the three most popular work settings are __________, __________, and __________. a. universities and four year colleges; self-employed; private for-profit b. self-employed; state and local government; non-profit c. state and local government; federal government; self-employed d. universities and four year colleges; non-profit; federal government Answer: a. universities and four year colleges; self-employed; private for-profit Correct. These are the three most popular d. universities and four year colleges; non-profit; federal government Incorrect. The present research shows that universities and four year colleges, self-employed, and private for-profit are the most popular. 86. There are several subfields of psychology according to the present research. The three largest subfields of psychology are __________, __________, and __________. a. Clinical, Counseling, and Developmental b. Cognitive, Clinical, and Developmental c. Industrial/Organizational, Counseling, and Clinical d. Social, Experimental, and School Answer: a. Clinical, Counseling, and Developmental Correct. These are the three largest d. Social, Experimental, and School Incorrect. The present research shows that Clinical, Counseling, and Developmental are the three largest subfields. 87. What is one similarity shared by clinical psychologists and psychiatrists? a. They obtain the same graduate degree. b. They have the same training experiences after college. c. They view abnormal behaviors as arising from the same causes. d. They diagnose and treat people experiencing behavioral and emotional problems. Answer: d. They diagnose and treat people experiencing behavioral and emotional problems. Correct. Clinical psychologists and psychiatrists both diagnose and treat problems. c. They view abnormal behaviors as arising from the same causes. Incorrect. There are many different approaches to both specialties. 88. Dr. Braunz has been treating a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. She decides to write a prescription for Ritalin. Given this information, it is most likely that Dr. Braunz is a _________________. a. psychiatrist b. psychoanalyst c. humanistic psychologist d. school psychologist Answer: a. psychiatrist Correct. Psychiatrists are medical doctors and can write prescriptions. c. humanistic psychologist Incorrect. This type of psychologist would never write a prescription for Ritalin. 89. A person who has suffered a major stroke and is now experiencing severe personality problems because of the damage would BEST be advised to see a _____________. a. psychiatrist b. cognitive psychologist c. psychiatric social worker d. psychologist Answer: a. psychiatrist Correct. A psychiatrist has a medical degree, and the problem appears to be a medical one. c. psychiatric social worker Incorrect. Social workers have no medical training. 90. Vido has a master’s degree and is interested in working on the causes of poverty. What type of professional is Vido most likely to become? a. educational psychologist b. psychiatrist c. school psychologist d. psychiatric social worker Answer: d. psychiatric social worker Correct. A psychiatric social worker usually has a master’s in social work and focuses on social issues, such as poverty. c. school psychologist Incorrect. A school psychologist would focus on educational issues, not on poverty. 91. Sandi is a single mother living in a project in a poor section of the city. She has addiction issues and just lost custody of her three children. What type of psychologist is most likely to get involved in Sandi’s situation? a. educational psychologist b. psychiatrist c. psychiatric social worker d. counselor Answer: c. psychiatric social worker Correct. A psychiatric social worker works with people in conditions of poverty or other types of environmental situations leading to mental disorder. b. psychiatrist Incorrect. A psychiatrist focuses on issues that are severe and often require medical training. 92. The class is playing a game of Jeopardy! and it is your turn. “I’ll take Specialties in Psychology for $300.” The revealed answer is “These psychological professionals work with situations in which environmental conditions may have an impact on mental health.” Just before the buzzer sounds, what will you say? a. “What is a neuropsychologist?” b. “What is a forensic psychologist?” c. “What is a psychiatric social worker?" d. “What is a developmental psychologist?” Answer: c. “What is a psychiatric social worker?" Correct. Psychiatric social workers work with people in conditions of poverty or other types of environmental situations leading to mental disorder. a. “What is a neuropsychologist?” Incorrect. These psychologists work on brain issues. 93. The term ___________________________ refers to a mental health professional who generally has at least an M.S.W. and who typically treats individual dysfunction and family problems but may also deal with other problems such as addiction or abuse. a. psychiatric social worker b. psychiatrist c. psychoanalyst d. educational psychologist Answer: a. psychiatric social worker Correct. Psychiatric social workers deal with other problems such as addiction or abuse. b. psychiatrist Incorrect. Psychiatrists have medical degrees. 94. On a television talk show an actor describes the symptoms of anxiety he has been experiencing. He reports that the severity of the symptoms has decreased since he has been taking a drug prescribed by his therapist back in Hollywood. You conclude that the actor’s therapist is probably a _________________. a. podiatrist b. psychiatrist c. clinical psychologist d. counseling psychologist Answer: b. psychiatrist Correct. Prescribing drugs is usually done by a psychiatrist (except in some states). c. clinical psychologist Incorrect. For the most part, clinical psychologists cannot write prescriptions. 95. ________________ is a system used for reducing bias and error in the measurement of data. a. Statistics b. The scientific method c. Checks and balances d. The double-blind method Answer: b. The scientific method Correct. The scientific method systematically controls variables reducing bias and error. d. The double-blind method Incorrect. This is a method for reducing bias but is not involved in measuring data. 96. The first step in any scientific investigation is _______________. a. forming the hypothesis b. perceiving the question c. coming to a conclusion d. developing an argument Answer: b. perceiving the question Correct. This is the first step in any scientific investigation. a. forming the hypothesis Incorrect. This step follows the development of a question to test. 97. “Children who watch violent cartoons will become more aggressive.” According to the scientific method, this statement is most likely a ____________. a. conclusion b. result c. hypothesis d. fact Answer: c. hypothesis Correct. This statement is an educated guess about the effects of violent cartoons. d. fact Incorrect. This is merely a testable statement about the effects of violent cartoons on children’s behavior. 98. Perceiving the question is the first step in a scientific investigation. This step is derived from which goal of psychology? a. describing b. explaining c. predicting d. changing Answer: a. describing Correct. The question comes from observing a situation and asking “What is happening?” This is a description. b. explaining Incorrect. Perceiving the question comes from an observation and description. Explaining comes after the experiment. 99. Forming a hypothesis is the second step in a scientific investigation. This step is derived from which goal of psychology? a. control b. explaining c. predicting d. changing Answer: b. explaining Correct. Forming a hypothesis attempts to explain the question you are asking. a. control Incorrect. Forming a hypothesis, or an educated guess, is not related to controlling a behavior. 100. Testing a hypothesis is the third step in a scientific investigation. This step is derived from which goal of psychology? a. describing b. explaining c. predicting d. changing Answer: b. explaining Correct. Testing a hypothesis attempts to explain the question you are asking. a. describing Incorrect. The question comes from observing a situation and asking “What is happening?” This is a description. 101. Sally proposes the idea that one’s sexual history prior to marriage may be linked to whether one ends up getting divorced. This best represents which step of the scientific method? a. testing the hypothesis b. observing events c. forming a hypothesis d. formulating a theory Answer: c. forming a hypothesis Correct. Forming a hypothesis involves making an educated guess as to the answer to a research question. b. observing events Incorrect. The speculation regarding the correct answer to this research question is called forming a hypothesis. 102. After reading about the possible causes of schizophrenia, a scientist thinks that a virus is the most likely cause. What term most accurately describes the scientist’s idea? a. hypothesis b. dependent variable c. extraneous variable d. experimental estimate Answer: a. hypothesis Correct. A hypothesis is an “educated guess” based on solid information. d. experimental estimate Incorrect. Experimental estimate is not a valid term used in science. 103. The tendency to look for information that supports one’s own belief is called _____. a. the principle of falsifiability b. confirmation bias c. criterion validity d. volunteer bias Answer: b. confirmation bias Correct. Confirmation bias is the tendency to look for information that supports one’s own belief. a. the principle of falsifiability Incorrect. The principle of falsifiability is not a principle in psychology. 104. What is one of the major reasons that psychologists report results publicly? a. to comply with legal requirements b. to identify all the extraneous variables c. to allow researchers to replicate experiments d. to explain research results so that non-psychologists can understand them Answer: c. to allow researchers to replicate experiments Correct. Public reporting of results allows others to test the conclusions. a. to comply with legal requirements Incorrect. There are no legal requirements to report results publicly. 105. Researchers must report their results completely whether the hypothesis was supported or not. Complete reporting is necessary for the purpose of ______________. a. educational knowledge b. replication c. finding a better way to support the hypothesis d. publication Answer: b. replication Correct. Others must know what was done so they can repeat the procedure and make sure everything was done correctly. c. finding a better way to support the hypothesis Incorrect. Complete reporting of methods is mainly for replication, not just finding support of the hypothesis. 106. Which of the following is an empirical question? a. Would Martin Luther King, Jr., have been a good president? b. What is the meaning of life? c. Was the Civil War necessary? d. Is there life on other planets? Answer: d. Is there life on other planets? Correct. This question can be answered through observation, experimentation, and measurements. a. Would Martin Luther King, Jr., have been a good president? Incorrect. This question cannot be answered through experimentation, observation, or measurement. 107. Which of the following is NOT an empirical question? a. Will you get an A in this class? b. Is there life on Mars? c. Did the universe start with a big bang? d. Would Martin Luther King, Jr. have been a good president? Answer: d. Would Martin Luther King, Jr. have been a good president? Correct. This question cannot be answered through observation, measurement, or experimentation. c. Did the universe start with a big bang? Incorrect. This is empirical because it can be answered through observation, measurement, and experimentation. 108. Which of the following statements is true about naturalistic observation? a. It recreates natural conditions in the laboratory as closely as possible to make an experiment more valid. b. It involves observing behavior in its natural context. c. It is basically the same process as objective introspection. d. It involves observing behavior in the lab without taking formal notes or using technological equipment to measure the experimental findings. Answer: b. It involves observing behavior in its natural context. Correct. Naturalistic observation does involve observing behavior in its natural context. a. It recreates natural conditions in the laboratory as closely as possible to make an experiment more valid. Incorrect. Naturalistic observation does not involve recreating anything. 109. Roger went to McDonald’s to observe people eating in fast-food restaurants. He brought a camera crew and bright lights, and they all wore yellow jump suits. Roger said he wanted to do a naturalistic observation but may have had some problems because of ________________. a. room crowding b. observer effects c. participant observation d. eating McDonald’s food Answer: b. observer effects Correct. Roger’s equipment and crew would have made all the people very aware that they were being observed, thus affecting their behavior. c. participant observation Incorrect. Roger was not participating in the eating behavior. 110. Observing behavior as it happens in real-life natural settings without imposing laboratory controls is known as the ______. a. naturalistic observation method b. experimental method c. survey method d. psychometric approach Answer: a. naturalistic observation method Correct. Naturalistic observation entails observing behavior as it happens in real-life settings without imposing laboratory controls. c. survey method Incorrect. Surveys involve asking questions, not observing behavior. 111. Systematically collecting data in real-world environments is the essence of which descriptive research method? a. case studies b. naturalistic observation c. surveys d. correlational research Answer: b. naturalistic observation Correct. Naturalistic observation involves observing behaviors as they take place in the real-world setting. a. case studies Incorrect. A case study is an in-depth analysis of one particular case or individual. 112. Which research method involves watching behaviors as they occur without intervening or altering the behaviors in any way? a. case study b. experiment c. correlational studies d. naturalistic observation Answer: d. naturalistic observation Correct. Naturalistic observation involves watching behaviors without intervening. a. case study Incorrect. Case studies involve interacting with subjects, not just watching them, in order to get as much information about them as possible. 113. When you watch dogs play in the park or watch how your professors conduct their classes, you are engaging in a form of ______. a. case study research b. naturalistic observation c. survey research d. psychometric study Answer: b. naturalistic observation Correct. In naturalistic observation, you are just watching—that is, observing. a. case study research Incorrect. Case study research follows one person closely for a long period of time. 114. Sam conducted a naturalistic observation as a project for a psychology class. He observed the interactions of parents and children at a restaurant. Many of the people he observed seemed to notice him. When Sam described his work to his teacher, she suggested he find out more about the _________________. a. restaurant effect b. parent effect c. butterfly effect d. observer effect Answer: d. observer effect Correct. In noticing Sam, the parents may have realized they were being observed, which might have affected their behavior due to the observer effect. c. butterfly effect Incorrect. There is no psychological concept known as the butterfly effect. 115. Dr. Littman-Smith is conducting research in Kenya into the ways that mothers and their toddlers interact throughout the day. Given the purpose of her study, it is most likely that she is engaged in ______________________. a. naturalistic observation b. laboratory observation c. case study research d. experimental research Answer: a. naturalistic observation Correct. Naturalistic observation involves observing and describing, which is what the doctor seeks to do. c. case study research Incorrect. Case study research focuses on one subject at a time and involves more than simple observation and description. 116. Kerri wanted to study the effects of having the oldest child in a family go off to college. She decided to use her own family after her brother went off to a college in France. She took notes each day on her parents’ behavior and kept a diary on her own reactions. Kerri was using the technique called ____________________. a. participant observation b. family survey c. observer bias d. attribution effect Answer: a. participant observation Correct. Since Kerri was part of the family she was observing, she was a participant observer. c. observer bias Incorrect. Although Kerri was a family member, there was no indication in the information given that she had any opinion one way or another. 117. Sandi believes that people who eat at McDonald’s are overweight, so she decides to do a naturalistic observation of people who eat at McDonald’s. What should most concern us about Sandi’s observations? a. the observer effect b. the bystander effect c. observer bias d. subject bias Answer: c. observer bias Correct. Sandi has a bias about McDonald’s customers, which might affect her observations due to a phenomenon known as observer bias. a. the observer effect Incorrect. The observer effect would come into play only if the McDonald’s customers were to become aware of Sandi observing them. 118. A detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated is called ______________________. a. a representative sample b. a case study c. a single-blind study d. a naturalistic observation Answer: b. a case study Correct. A case study involves a detailed description of a particular individual. d. a naturalistic observation Incorrect. Naturalistic observation involves more than one individual. 119. In the 1970s, a 13-year-old girl was found locked up in a room, strapped to a potty chair. Since she had grown up in a world without human speech, researchers studied “Genie’s” ability to acquire words, grammar, and pronunciation. This type of research is called ________________________. a. a case study b. a representative sample c. a single-blind study d. a naturalistic observation Answer: a. a case study Correct. A case study looks at only one person in great detail. d. a naturalistic observation Incorrect. Naturalistic observation involves studying more than one individual. 120. A case study would be the most appropriate method to investigate which of these topics? a. The ways in which the games of boys differ from the games of girls. b. The development of a male baby raised as a female after a surgical error destroyed his penis. c. The math skills of students in Japan as compared to those of U.S. students. d. Physiological changes that occur when people watch violent movies. Answer: b. The development of a male baby raised as a female after a surgical error destroyed his penis. Correct. A case study involves investigating only one person in great detail. c. The math skills of students in Japan as compared to those of U.S. students. Incorrect. A case study involves investigating only one person and is not appropriate for comparing cultures. 121. You overhear psychology students preparing for a test. They note that one of the research methods often “fails to generalize.” Which method is the MOST likely topic of their discussion? a. correlation b. case study c. experiment d. surveys Answer: b. case study Correct. A case study focuses on one subject, and the information gained from it might not be generally true of other similar subjects. d. surveys Incorrect. Surveys typically do generalize because the samples taken are somewhat random. 122. A psychologist evaluated Tameka, an eight-year-old child who has experienced difficulty in school. The psychologist sent questionnaires to 100 teachers to determine if they had ever seen similar cases. Based on the teachers’ responses, the psychologist hypothesized that a particular diet might cause the learning problem. Following her tabulation of the responses, she designed a study that would tell her if diet were the actual cause. Which of the following lists, in order from first to last, the research methods this psychologist used? a. experiment, case study, survey b. case study, survey, experiment c. correlation, case study, experiment d. naturalistic observation, survey, experiment Answer: b. case study, survey, experiment Correct. First she evaluated Tameka (case study), then sent questionnaires (survey), and then designed a study to test a hypothesis (experiment). a. experiment, case study, survey Incorrect. First she evaluated Tameka (case study), then sent questionnaires (survey), and then designed a study to test a hypothesis (experiment). 123. In preparation for his master’s thesis, Tan spends some time in the local mall observing the behavior of shoppers. His notes reveal a tendency for people to smile when someone, even a stranger, smiles at them. Later in the semester, he designs a questionnaire that asks questions of participants concerning their typical reactions when someone smiles. He wonders if the face of a person who smiles has any influence on returned smiles, so he designs a study to answer this question. Which of the following lists in order, from first to last, the research methods Tan has used? a. experiment, case study, survey b. case study, survey, experiment c. correlation, case study, experiment d. naturalistic observation, survey, experiment Answer: d. naturalistic observation, survey, experiment Correct. First he observed at the mall (naturalistic observation), then designed questionnaires (survey), and then designed a study to test a hypothesis (experiment). a. experiment, case study, survey Incorrect. First he observed at the mall (naturalistic observation), then designed questionnaires (survey), and then designed a study to test a hypothesis (experiment). 124. Which of the following questions could be answered best by using the survey method? a. What is the effect of ingesting alcohol on problem-solving ability? b. Does wall color affect the frequency of violence in prison populations? c. Do students prefer a grading system with or without pluses and minuses? d. What is the relationship between number of hours of study per week and grade point average? Answer: c. Do students prefer a grading system with or without pluses and minuses? Correct. Student preferences are about opinions, and surveys are good at gathering the opinions of many people. a. What is the effect of ingesting alcohol on problem-solving ability? Incorrect. Surveying students about their problem-solving abilities while drunk would allow too much room for subjectivity and give results with no accurate standards for analysis or comparison. 125. Surveys, as discussed in the text, are associated most with: a. correlational research. b. descriptive research. c. inferential research. d. experimental research. Answer: b. descriptive research. Correct. A survey is a type of descriptive research, not experimental design. d. experimental research. Incorrect. There is no manipulation of variables in a survey, so it is not experimental research. 126. A researcher stops people at the mall and asks them questions about their attitudes toward gun control. Which research technique is being used? a. survey b. experiment c. case study d. naturalistic observation Answer: a. survey Correct. A survey asks the same questions of many people. d. naturalistic observation Incorrect. Naturalistic observation never involves asking questions. 127. A group of randomly selected subjects for a study that matches the population on important characteristics such as age and sex is called __________________. a. volunteer bias b. a representative sample c. the experimental group d. the control group Answer: b. a representative sample Correct. A representative sample is a randomly selected group that matches the population on important characteristics. c. the experimental group Incorrect. An experimental group is not necessarily representative of the population. 128. Dr. Wiseman wants to know about the alcohol consumption patterns among college juniors in the United States. He should ________________________. a. give the survey to every college junior in the country b. remember that sample size is the most critical factor in survey research c. require students’ names on each survey to avoid the tendency to lie d. draw a representative sample among college juniors Answer: d. draw a representative sample among college juniors Correct. A representative sample should give enough information to enable him to generalize his findings to all juniors. a. give the survey to every college junior in the country Incorrect. It is impossible to survey every college junior. 129. The editors of Scientific American are able to obtain a representative sample of their readers in order to assess their attitudes toward preservation of the rain forests in Costa Rica. When interpreting the results of their survey, the editors will be able to ______________. a. apply the results to the entire U.S. population b. apply the results to Costa Rica c. apply the results to subscribers of Scientific American d. apply the result to scientists Answer: c. apply the results to subscribers of Scientific American Correct. The editors picked a representative sample of their own readers. a. apply the results to the entire U.S. population Incorrect. Readers of Scientific American are not representative of the entire U.S. population. 130. The magazine Desperate Wives publishes a survey of its female readers called “The Sex Life of the American Wife.” It reports that 87 percent of all wives like to make love in rubber boots. The critical flaw in this research would be ______________. a. the fact that the sample is not representative of American wives b. the fact that a psychological test, rather than a survey, should have been given c. the fact that rubber boots are not equally available in all regions of the country d. the fact that making love has not been operationally defined Answer: a. the fact that the sample is not representative of American wives Correct. The survey asks only readers of the magazine, and they are not representative of all American wives. b. the fact that a psychological test, rather than a survey, should have been given Incorrect. There is no mention of the need for a psychological test in this situation. 131. The magazine Desperate Wives publishes a survey of its female readers called “The Sex Life of the American Wife.” It reports that 87 percent of all wives like to make love in rubber boots. A more accurate title for this survey would be ___________________. a. “Rubber Boot Preferences and the American Wife” b. “The New Sexuality in America: Rubber Boots in Bed!” c. “The Sex Lives of Our Readers: Desperate Wives Women Respond” d. “Sex in America: These Boots Were Made for Walking and for. . . .” Answer: c. “The Sex Lives of Our Readers: Desperate Wives Women Respond” Correct. The article, like the survey, should focus on the readers of the magazine. d. “Sex in America: These Boots Were Made for Walking and for. . . .” Incorrect. The results of the survey do not apply to all Americans, only to the readers of the magazine. 132. A(n) is a measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another. a. independent variable b. dependent variable c. experimental effect d. correlation Answer: d. correlation Correct. A correlation measures how strongly two variables are related. a. independent variable Incorrect. The independent variable is the variable that the experimenter manipulates. 133. The word correlation is often used as a synonym for _____________. a. validity b. reliability c. variable d. relationship Answer: d. relationship Correct. Correlation means relationship. a. validity Incorrect. Validity is unrelated to correlation. 134. A correlation is a numerical measure of the __________________. a. unintended changes in participants’ behavior due to cues from the experimenter b. strength of the relationship between two variables c. behaviors of participants of different ages compared at a given time d. behaviors of participants followed and periodically assessed over time Answer: b. strength of the relationship between two variables Correct. Relationship strength is determined by the numerical correlation. a. unintended changes in participants’ behavior due to cues from the experimenter Incorrect. There are no cues involved in correlation. 135. A correlation coefficient is represented by the symbol _____________. a. large letter “C” b. large letter “R” c. small letter “c” d. small letter “r” Answer: d. small letter “r” Correct. This is the correct symbol. b. large letter “R” Incorrect. The correct answer is small letter “r.” 136. Which of the following correlation coefficients represents the strongest relationship between two variables? a. .50 b. .25 c. -.25 d. -.75 Answer: d. -.75 Correct. The closer a correlation coefficient is to + 1.00, the stronger the relationship it indicates. a. .50 Incorrect. Because -.75 is closer to +1.00, it is the strongest relationship of the options. 137. Paul records data that indicate that the number of hot chocolates sold at the concession stand increases as temperature outside decreases (for example, more hot chocolates are purchased during late fall than late spring). Which of the following statements is the most accurate depiction of this finding? a. There is a correlation between the two variables. b. There is a strong, positive correlation between the two variables. c. There is a weak, positive correlation between the two variables. d. There is a negative correlation between the two variables. Answer: d. There is a negative correlation between the two variables. Correct. Remember that a negative correlation indicates that two variables move in the opposite direction. a. There is a correlation between the two variables. Incorrect. This answer is only partially accurate. The best answer is that there is a negative correlation between the two variables. 138. Julie finds that the number of hours she sleeps each night is related to the scores she receives on quizzes the next day. As her sleep approaches 8 hours, her quiz scores improve; as her sleep drops to 5 hours, her quiz scores show a similar decline. Julie realizes that ______________________. a. there is a negative correlation between the number of hours she sleeps and her quiz grades b. there is a positive correlation between the number of hours she sleeps and her quiz grades c. her low quiz scores are caused by sleep deprivation the night before a quiz d. she should sleep about 10 hours a night to ensure 100 percent quiz grades Answer: b. there is a positive correlation between the number of hours she sleeps and her quiz grades Correct. Both variables in the example move in the same direction and, therefore, have a positive correlation. a. there is a negative correlation between the number of hours she sleeps and her quiz grades Incorrect. Both variables in the example move in the same direction and, therefore, have a positive correlation. 139. Which correlation coefficient is most likely to describe the relationship between brushing one’s teeth and the number of cavities one gets? a. -.62 b. .83 c. -.08 d. .45 Answer: a. -.62 Correct. One would expect that as brushing increases, cavities tend to decrease. Thus, a negative correlation would best describe the relationship. Further, one would expect the relationship to be fairly strong and thus closer to 1.0 than to 0 in absolute value. b. .83 Incorrect. This correlation coefficient would suggest that as brushing increases the number of cavities increases. We would hope that the relationship between tooth brushing and the number of cavities one gets would be a strong negative correlation. 140. Drinking orange juice is negatively correlated with the risk of cancer. Based on this information, which of the following statements is true? a. The more orange juice you drink, the higher your risk of cancer. b. The more orange juice you drink, the lower your risk of cancer. c. The less orange juice you drink, the lower your risk of cancer. d. Drinking orange juice causes people to be cancer free. Answer: b. The more orange juice you drink, the lower your risk of cancer. Correct. When as one variable goes up (juice drinking) the other goes down (risk of cancer), that is a negative correlation. a. The more orange juice you drink, the higher your risk of cancer. Incorrect. When the two variables move up or down together, that is a positive correlation. 141. A correlation coefficient represents two things: ________________ and ________________. a. a representative sample; strength b. strength; direction of the relationship c. the experimental group; control group d. direction of the relationship; expectant functionality Answer: b. strength; direction of the relationship Correct. These are the two concepts that a correlation coefficient represents. d. direction of the relationship; expectant functionality Incorrect. Direction of the relationship is accurate but expectant functionality is a made-up term. 142. A correlation coefficient shows that smoking and life expectancy are indeed related. As a result, a researcher could predict _____________ if the direction of the relationship is known. a. if a person smokes a lot of cigarettes, he or she will have less money monthly to buy gas b. the person’s life expectancy will go up or down based on the number of cigarettes the person smokes daily c. if a person smokes cigarettes, he or she will eventually develop lung cancer d. a person’s lungs will repair themselves and he or she will live a longer life Answer: b. the person’s life expectancy will go up or down based on the number of cigarettes the person smokes daily Correct. The directionality of the correlation coefficient can predict this relationship. d. a person’s lungs will repair themselves and he or she will live a longer life Incorrect. The correlation mentioned did not include information about lungs. 143. A correlation coefficient shows that alcohol consumption and driving accidents are indeed related. As a result, a researcher could predict _____________ if the direction of the relationship is known. a. the number of arrests a person has will go up or down based on the type of car an individual drives b. the number of driving accidents a person has will go up or down based on the number of alcoholic drinks consumed c. the number of arrests will increase the fewer drinks an individual consumes d. the number of driving accidents a person has will contribute to the number of days spent in jail Answer: b. the number of driving accidents a person has will go up or down based on the number of alcoholic drinks consumed Correct. The directionality of the correlation coefficient can predict this relationship. d. the number of driving accidents a person has will contribute to the number of days spent in jail Incorrect. The correlation mentioned did not include information about days spent in jail. 144. All of the following variables, except for show a positive correlation. a. height and weight b. men’s educational level and their income c. alcohol consumption and scores on a driving test d. school grades and IQ scores Answer: c. alcohol consumption and scores on a driving test Correct. In this case one goes up the other goes down. a. height and weight Incorrect. These variables go in the same direction. 145. All of the following variables, except for show a negative correlation. a. average income and the incidence of dental disease b. adult shoe size and IQ scores c. the value of a car and the age of a car d. hours spent watching TV and grade-point average Answer: b. adult shoe size and IQ scores Correct. There is NO correlation (i.e., relationship) here. d. hours spent watching TV and grade-point average Incorrect. As one goes up, the other goes down, and that is a negative correlation. 146. Professor Holden gives a psychology exam on the origins of intelligence. She gives a short answer question based on the IQ scores of a parent–child pair. In order to answer the question correctly, her students need to remember that ________________. a. a parent’s high IQ does not necessarily cause a child to have a high IQ b. given these variables, the correlation will be positive c. given these variables, the correlation will be negative d. given these variables, the correlation will be uncorrelated Answer: a. a parent’s high IQ does not necessarily cause a child to have a high IQ Correct. Correlation does not prove causation. b. given these variables, the correlation will be positive Incorrect. The fact that a parent has a high IQ is not necessarily related to his or her child’s IQ. 147. A negative correlation means that _________________. a. high values of one variable are associated with low values of the other b. high values of one variable are associated with high values of the other c. low values of one variable are associated with low values of the other d. there is no relationship between the two variables Answer: a. high values of one variable are associated with low values of the other Correct. A negative correlation means that high values of one variable are associated with low values of the other. b. high values of one variable are associated with high values of the other Incorrect. A negative correlation means that high values of one variable are associated with low values of the other. 148. Which of the following statements is correct concerning correlation coefficients? a. A correlation of +.89 is strong and –.89 is weak. b. A correlation of +.89 and –.89 are both strong and equally so. c. Correlation coefficients are indicators of cause and effect. d. A correlation of +1.5 is very strong Answer: b. A correlation of +.89 and –.89 are both strong and equally so. Correct. Both +.89 and –.89 are the same distance from 0. a. A correlation of +.89 is strong and –.89 is weak. Incorrect. Both +.89 and –.89 are equally strong since they are the same distance from 0. 149. A perfect correlation, whether positive or negative, is _____________ in the real world. a. expected b. imperfect c. common d. rare Answer: d. rare Correct. Perfect correlations are not common in actual life examples. b. imperfect Incorrect. The correct answer is rare. 150. As a project for a psychology course, a student correlated weight and intelligence scores for 250 students. The computed correlation coefficient was .00. What did the scatter plot look like? a. a random distribution of points b. a line with a positive slope. c. a straight line from the lower left to the upper right-hand corner d. a straight line from the upper left to the lower right-hand corner Answer: a. a random distribution of points Correct. When there is no correlation, the points are distributed all over the scatter plot with no particular shape or direction. b. a line with a positive slope. Incorrect. A line with a positive slope indicates a correlation. 151. An operational definition is ___________________. a. a statement that attempts to predict a set of phenomena and specifies relationships among variables that can be empirically tested b. an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships c. the precise meaning of a term used to describe a variable, such as a type of behavior, that researchers want to measure d. the principle that a scientific theory must make predictions that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation Answer: c. the precise meaning of a term used to describe a variable, such as a type of behavior, that researchers want to measure Correct. Preciseness is essential for the scientific method. b. an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships Incorrect. Operational definitions are not assumptions. 152. As part of a psychology experiment, Brett decides to measure a person’s “anxiety” by noting the number of blinks a person makes in a twenty minute social interaction with a stranger. Brett appears to have offered a(n) ________ of anxiety. a. variable b. operational definition c. theory d. hypothesis Answer: b. operational definition Correct. An operational definition specifies how a particular concept is to be measured or manipulated. d. hypothesis Incorrect. An hypothesis is an educated guess about a sequence of events. 153. The steps or procedures an experimenter must use to control or measure the variables in a study is called the ________________. a. hypothesis b. operational definition c. double-blind study d. theory Answer: b. operational definition Correct. This is the term used for the procedure experimenters use to control or measure variables in a study. a. hypothesis Incorrect. A hypothesis is an educated guess. 154. Marcy is trying to define anxiety in a way that can be empirically tested. She is attempting to find an appropriate __________________. a. hypothesis b. operational definition c. double-blind study d. theory Answer: b. operational definition Correct. Operational definitions define responses in terms that allow them to be measured. a. hypothesis Incorrect. A hypothesis is an educated guess, not a definition. 155. Adaris has always been drawn to the saying “Absence makes the heart grow fonder,” and she decides to incorporate this saying into her research project. Adaris is trying to define absence in a way that can be empirically tested. She is attempting to find an appropriate __________________. a. hypothesis b. operational definition c. double-blind study d. theory Answer: b. operational definition Correct. Operational definitions define terms in ways that render them measurable. a. hypothesis Incorrect. A hypothesis is an educated guess, not a definition. 156. The administration of Midwest State University wants to know if arrangement of chairs affects student participation in classrooms. What would be a good operational definition of the dependent variable in an experiment designed to measure this relationship? a. class size: under 50 or over 50 b. number of students enrolled in each class c. chair arrangement: theater style or circular d. frequency with which students ask questions Answer: d. frequency with which students ask questions Correct. Counting the number of questions students ask is one measurable way to define the dependent variable, which is student participation. c. chair arrangement: theater style or circular Incorrect. Chair arrangement is controlled by the experimenter and is, therefore, the independent variable. 157. What is one of the major reasons that psychologists use operational definitions? a. to comply with legal requirements b. to identify all the extraneous variables c. so that effects can be measured d. to explain research results so that nonpsychologists can understand Answer: c. so that effects can be measured Correct. Psychologists use operational definitions so that effects can be measured. d. to explain research results so that nonpsychologists can understand Incorrect. Operational definitions might help in this area but that is not the main reason we have them. 158. A researcher is investigating the effects of exercise on weight. What are the independent and dependent variables in this experiment? a. The dependent variable is weight; the independent variable is exercise. b. The independent variable is calories consumed; the dependent variable is diet. c. The independent variable is weight; the dependent variable is calories consumed. d. The dependent variable is amount of exercise; the independent variable is calories consumed. Answer: a. The dependent variable is weight; the independent variable is exercise. Correct. The exercise is controlled by the experimenter and is, therefore, independent of anything the participants do, whereas the participants’ weight is expected to be dependent on the amount of exercise. d. The dependent variable is amount of exercise; the independent variable is calories consumed. Incorrect. The exercise is controlled by the experimenter and is, therefore, the independent variable. 159. In order to increase typing speed Minisoft has redesigned its keyboard and provided a chime that is related to typing speed. The company wants to know if its innovations affect typing speed. Identify the independent and dependent variables in this proposed study. a. The dependent variable is the chime; the independent variables are the chime and typing speed. b. The dependent variable is speed of typing; the independent variables are the keyboard design and the chime. c. The dependent variable is keyboard design; the independent variables are the speed of typing and the chime. d. The dependent variable is the number of errors made; the independent variables are the chime and the speed of typing. Answer: b. The dependent variable is speed of typing; the independent variables are the keyboard design and the chime. Correct. The speed of typing is expected to be dependent on the keyboard design and chime, which are independent variables controlled by the experimenter. c. The dependent variable is keyboard design; the independent variables are the speed of typing and the chime. Incorrect. Both the keyboard design and the chime are independent variables controlled by Minisoft. 160. A variable that the experimenter manipulates is called a(n) _____________. a. coefficient of correlation b. dependent variable c. control condition d. independent variable Answer: d. independent variable Correct. Independent variables are controlled by the experimenter. b. dependent variable Incorrect. The dependent variable is what is measured. 161. Independent variable is to dependent variable as ________. a. effect is to confound b. experimental is to correlation c. measure is to manipulate d. manipulate is to measure Answer: d. manipulate is to measure Correct. Independent variables are manipulated, while deepening variables were measured. c. measure is to manipulate Incorrect. This is the opposite of the correct answer. 162. In a laboratory, smokers are asked to “drive” using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver’s seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the independent variable is _____________________. a. the use of nicotine b. the use of a driving simulator c. the number of collisions d. the driving skills of each driver Answer: a. the use of nicotine Correct. The nicotine is controlled by the experimenter and is, therefore, the independent variable. c. the number of collisions Incorrect. The number of collisions is believed to be dependent on the consumption of nicotine and is, therefore, the dependent variable. 163. In a laboratory, smokers are asked to “drive” using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver’s seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the dependent variable is ____________________. a. the use of nicotine b. the use of a driving simulator c. the number of collisions d. the driving skills of each driver Answer: c. the number of collisions Correct. The number of collisions is believed to be dependent on the consumption of nicotine and is, therefore, the dependent variable. a. the use of nicotine Incorrect. The nicotine is controlled by the experimenter and is, therefore, the independent variable 164. Ken is planning on studying the influence of intelligence on the ability to recall events from the 1960s. If Ken does not account for variables such as age that could also influence one’s ability to recall these events, age could be considered a(n) __________________. a. random variable b. dependent variable c. confounding variable d. independent variable Answer: c. confounding variable Correct. Any variable that may influence outcome and is not controlled is called a confounding variable. d. independent variable Incorrect. This variable is accounted for and controlled. 165. Dr. Keller has individuals run on a treadmill for 0, 15, or 30 minutes and then measures their self-reported mood. In this hypothetical study, the independent variable is a. the self-reported mood. b. the individuals who run for 15 or 30 minutes. c. the individuals who run for 0 minutes. d. the number of minutes individuals run on the treadmill. Answer: d. the number of minutes individuals run on the treadmill. Correct. This is the variable that is manipulated by the researcher, so it is the independent variable. a. the self-reported mood. Incorrect. This is the variable that is measured, so is the dependent variable. 166. Dr. Proverse has individuals cycle on stationary bikes for 0, 10, 20, or 30 minutes after which he measures their self-reported mood. In this hypothetical study, the dependent variable is a. the self-reported mood. b. the individuals who do not ride on the stationary bike. c. the number of minutes individuals ride the bike. d. the riding of bikes. Answer: a. the self-reported mood. Correct. This is the variable that is measured, so it is the dependent variable. c. the number of minutes individuals ride the bike. Incorrect. This is the variable that is manipulated, so it is the independent variable. 167. In a laboratory, smokers are asked to “drive” using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver’s seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the cigarette without nicotine is ___________. a. the control group b. the driving simulator c. the experimental group d. the no-control group Answer: a. the control group Correct. A control group gets either no treatment or treatment with no effect; in this case, experimenters are controlling for the possibility that the cigarette itself (not the nicotine) might cause people to get into collisions. c. the experimental group Incorrect. The experimental group does get treatment that is expected to have an effect, whereas the control group gets either no treatment or treatment without effect. 168. Ideally, everything in the experimental situation except the __________ is held constant. a. inferential statistics b. placebos c. independent variables d. hypotheses Answer: c. independent variables Correct. Independent variables are manipulated by the experimenter; thus, they cannot be held constant. b. placebos Incorrect. Placebos do not vary in ways that will affect outcomes. 169. A good control group ________. a. contains at least one confound b. has a limited number of dependent variables c. has a limited number of research participants d. holds constant all variables in the experiment Answer: d. holds constant all variables in the experiment Correct. A control group is used as a baseline of comparison, so all variables should be held as constant as possible to avoid any compound. c. has a limited number of research participants Incorrect. In fact, a good control group would have the same number of participants as an experimental group. 170. All of the following are accurate statements regarding random assignment EXCEPT __________. a. it is a procedure for assigning people to experimental and control groups b. it is a procedure in which each subject has the same possibility of being assigned to a given group c. it is a procedure in which subjects are assigned to a positive correlation or a negative correlation condition d. it is a procedure that allows individual characteristics to be roughly balanced between groups Answer: c. it is a procedure in which subjects are assigned to a positive correlation or a negative correlation condition Correct. Subjects can never be assigned to a type of correlation. d. it is a procedure that allows individual characteristics to be roughly balanced between groups Incorrect. Random assignment does allow individual characteristics to be roughly balanced between groups. 171. Which of the following is CORRECT concerning random assignment? a. In random assignment each participant has an equal chance for each condition. b. In random assignment each participant is assigned alphabetically to each condition. c. Random assignment can only be determined after an experiment is over. d. The best formula for random assignment is birth dates. Answer: a. In random assignment each participant has an equal chance for each condition. Correct. In random assignment each participant has an equal chance of being assigned. d. The best formula for random assignment is birth dates. Incorrect. Birth dates are not random because many people are born on the same day. 172. Which of the following situations best illustrates the placebo effect? a. You sleep because you are tired. b. You throw up after eating bad meat. c. You have surgery to repair a defective heart valve. d. You drink a nonalcoholic drink and become “intoxicated” because you think it contains alcohol. Answer: d. You drink a nonalcoholic drink and become “intoxicated” because you think it contains alcohol. Correct. The placebo effect is brought on by expectations, and in this case you felt drunk only because you believed you were drinking alcohol. b. You throw up after eating bad meat. Incorrect. Throwing up after eating bad food is caused by a physiological reflex, not by expectations, as would be the case in a placebo effect. 173. The placebo effect means __________. a. all conditions in an experiment are the same b. that there is no control group c. the expectations of the participants influence their behavior d. experimenter bias causes the subjects to act strangely Answer: c. the expectations of the participants influence their behavior Correct. The placebo effect occurs when the expectations of the participants influence their behavior. b. that there is no control group Incorrect. The placebo effect is one reason why it’s necessary to have a control group. 174. Sandy Sue was participating in an experiment in which she was given a pill that was supposed to cause her to get drowsy. Five minutes after taking the pill, Sandy Sue reported that she felt drowsy and wanted to lie down. The pill was actually made of sugar and had no ingredients to cause drowsiness. How do you explain Sandy Sue’s drowsy feeling? a. experimenter effect b. placebo effect c. subject bias d. treatment effect Answer: b. placebo effect Correct. The placebo effect occurs when the expectations of participants influence their behavior; in this case Sandy Sue expected the pill to make her drowsy, and that expectation, not the pill itself, made her feel drowsy. c. subject bias Incorrect. Sandy Sue is not biased, as she had no knowledge of the hypothesis. 175. Two groups of graduate students were given rats and were told to teach them how to run mazes. Group 1 was told that they had “very smart” rats that should learn quickly. Group 2 was told that they had “very stupid” rats that should learn slowly. In actuality, neither group was any different and the rats were randomly assigned. In spite of that, when the experiment concluded, Group 1 rats had learned the maze much more quickly. How can that be explained? a. experimenter effect b. placebo effect c. subject bias d. treatment effect Answer: a. experimenter effect Correct. The experimenter effect occurs when the participant’s performance is affected by the behavior of the experimenter. In this case, the experimenters who believed they had smart rats must have behaved in some way that boosted their rats’ performance. c. subject bias Incorrect. The rats were the subjects and they do not have bias. 176. Unintended changes in participants’ behavior due to cues inadvertently given by the experimenter are called __________. a. replications b. experimenter effects c. volunteer biases d. single-blind studies Answer: b. experimenter effects Correct. The experimenter effect occurs when the participant’s performance is affected by the behavior of the experimenter. c. volunteer biases Incorrect. There is no such thing as volunteer bias. 177. __________ is an experiment in which participants do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group but the experimenters do know which participants are part of which group. a. The double-blind study b. Field research c. The single-blind study d. Correlational research Answer: c. The single-blind study Correct. The single-blind study is an experiment in which participants do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group, but the experimenters do know which participants are part of which group. a. The double-blind study Incorrect. In a double-blind study, the experimenters would also be “blind,” meaning they would not know which participants are part of which group. 178. Double-blind studies control for __________. a. only the placebo effect b. only the experimenter effect c. both the placebo effect and the experimenter effect d. extrinsic motivation Answer: c. both the placebo effect and the experimenter effect Correct. In double-blind studies, neither the participants nor the individuals running the experiment know which participants are in the experimental group. b. only the experimenter effect Incorrect. Double-blind studies also control for placebo effects. 179. __________ is an experiment in which neither the participants nor the individuals running the experiment know if participants are in the experimental or the control group until after the results are tallied. a. The double-blind study b. Field research c. The single-blind study d. Correlational research Answer: a. The double-blind study Correct. The double-blind study is an experiment in which neither the participants nor the individuals running the experiment know if participants are in the experimental or the control group. c. The single-blind study Incorrect. In a single-blind study, only the participants are “blind.” 180. The key difference between an experimental and a quasi-experimental study is that the quasi-experimental study ________. a. does not appear to be an experimental study, but it has all of the characteristics of one b. contains an independent variable c. has multiple dependent variables d. does not involve random assignment Answer: d. does not involve random assignment Correct. Quasi-experimental studies do not involve random assignment because they often explore variables that cannot be easily manipulated. c. has multiple dependent variables Incorrect. Multiple dependent variables can be seen in either experimental or quasi-experimental studies. 181. Brock is the star quarterback on his college football team. When scoring his first test, his anatomy professor was surprised that he earned an “A+” because ________________. a. research suggests that athletes have poorer performance on tests than non-athletes b. research suggests that athletes do not spend as much time studying than non-athletes c. research suggests that football stars often cheat to find academic success d. research suggests that athletes have higher performance on tests than non-athletes Answer: a. research suggests that athletes have poorer performance on tests than non-athletes Correct. Research by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (2002) supports this statement. d. research suggests that athletes have higher performance on tests than non-athletes Incorrect. Research states that college athletes have lower test performance than non-athletes. 182. Rob was named to the first team all-American basketball team last year. However, he is academically ineligible to play this year due to failing several classes. As a result, he is ________________. a. supporting the idea that collegiate student athletes are not as smart as non-athletes b. supporting the idea that professors are bias in grading assignments of collegiate student athletes c. supporting the idea that negative stereotypes exist for collegiate student athletes that they are likely to perform poorly in academics compared to non-athletes d. supporting the idea that athletes have higher GPAs than non-athletes Answer: c. supporting the idea that negative stereotypes exist for collegiate student athletes that they are likely to perform poorly in academics compared to non-athletes Correct. This statement supports this concept shared in the book about collegiate student athletes. d. supporting the idea that athletes have higher GPAs than non-athletes Incorrect. Research states that college athletes have lower test performance than non-athletes. 183. Wesleyan University researchers Jamison and colleagues conducted a study to explore the negative stereotypes of collegiate athletes as “dumb jocks.” In their study, the researchers found ________________. a. a correlation between collegiate athletes exposure to the negative stereotypes, the better they performed on an intelligence tests b. negative stereotypes in higher education may contribute to collegiate student athletes underperforming in academics c. collegiate student athletes performed better in the classroom if they were made aware of the impact of negative stereotypes d. professors often excuse absences by collegiate student athletes who miss class due to attending practices Answer: b. negative stereotypes in higher education may contribute to collegiate student athletes underperforming in academics Correct. If students believe the negative stereotypes, they are more likely to perform poorly in their academics. c. collegiate student athletes performed better in the classroom if they were made aware of the impact of negative stereotypes Incorrect. This was not discussed in the research. 184. Each of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association EXCEPT ______. a. participants must be informed of the nature of the research in clearly understandable language b. participants cannot be deceived or have information concealed from them at any time during an experiment c. risks, possible adverse effects, and limitations on confidentiality must be spelled out in advance d. informed consent must be documented Answer: b. participants cannot be deceived or have information concealed from them at any time during an experiment Correct. Participants may be deceived or have information concealed from them at any time during an experiment. a. participants must be informed of the nature of the research in clearly understandable language Incorrect. It’s true that participants must be informed of the nature of the research in clearly understandable language. 185. Each of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association EXCEPT __________________. a. participants may withdraw at any time b. investigators must debrief participants c. parents of infant participants must be informed about the study d. debriefing may be omitted when young children are involved Answer: d. debriefing may be omitted when young children are involved Correct. It’s not true that debriefing may be omitted when young children are involved. b. investigators must debrief participants Incorrect. It’s true that investigators must debrief participants. 186. Each of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association EXCEPT ___________________. a. data remain confidential b. participants cannot be deceived about aspects of the research that would affect their willingness to participate, such as risks of unpleasant emotional experiences c. participants cannot be subjected to any physically or emotionally painful stimuli d. deception must be justified Answer: c. participants cannot be subjected to any physically or emotionally painful stimuli Correct. It is not a basic principle that participants cannot be subjected to any physically or emotionally painful stimuli. d. deception must be justified Incorrect. This is one of the principles and the question asks for exceptions. 187. Which of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association? a. Participants may not withdraw once they start. b. Participants cannot be deceived about aspects of the research. c. Participants cannot be subjected to any physically or emotionally painful stimuli. d. Deception must be justified. Answer: d. Deception must be justified. Correct. It is a basic principle that deception must be justified. c. Participants cannot be subjected to any physically or emotionally painful stimuli. Incorrect. It is not a basic principle that participants cannot be subjected to any physically or emotionally painful stimuli. 188. Which of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association? a. Participants may not withdraw once they start. b. Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision. c. Participants cannot be subjected to shock of any kind. d. Participants cannot be deceived about aspects of the research. Answer: b. Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision. Correct. It is a basic principle that participants must be allowed to make an informed decision. c. Participants cannot be subjected to shock of any kind. Incorrect. It is not a basic principle that participants cannot be subjected to shock of any kind. 189. Experimenters can justify the use of deception because ___________. a. there is informed consent b. research is more important than people c. it may be necessary for the experiment to work d. it is not that harmful Answer: c. it may be necessary for the experiment to work Correct. Deception is justified if the study wouldn’t work any other way. b. research is more important than people Incorrect. It is a basic principle that people come first, research second. 190. Which of the following statements about research with animals is incorrect? a. Animals are no longer allowed to be used in research in which it would be clearly unethical to use humans. b. Scientists who oppose animal rights activists argue that the goals of scientific research justify some animal suffering, although they agree it should be minimized. c. Animals are only used in about 7 percent of psychological research. d. Animal researchers do not use anesthesia in surgery, causing some concern about pain. Answer: a. Animals are no longer allowed to be used in research in which it would be clearly unethical to use humans. Correct. It is not true that animals are no longer allowed to be used in research in which it would be clearly unethical to use humans. d. Animal researchers do not use anesthesia in surgery, causing some concern about pain. Incorrect. Animal researchers use anesthesia in all surgery studies. 191. Which of the following statements concerning using animals in research is correct? a. There are no ethical guidelines when it comes to animals. b. There are rules that prevent the killing of animals. c. Pain and suffering of animals are allowed but only when necessary. d. New ethical guidelines prevent the use of primates in psychological research. Answer: c. Pain and suffering of animals are allowed but only when necessary. Correct. Pain and suffering of animals are allowed under scientific guidelines. b. There are rules that prevent the killing of animals. Incorrect. Animals are destroyed, and there are no rules for preventing this. 192. In the statement “Critical thinking requires reasoned judgments,” the word reasoned means __________________. a. giving it a lot of thought b. logical and well thought out c. seeing one side of an argument very clearly d. focusing on opinion Answer: b. logical and well thought out Correct. Critical thinking requires logic as well as organized thinking. a. giving it a lot of thought Incorrect. Quantity is only part of the characteristics of critical thinking. 193. Critical thinking means making judgments based on ________________. a. emotion b. keeping a closed mind c. reason and logical evaluation d. authority and expertise Answer: c. reason and logical evaluation Correct. Reason and logic are necessary to think critically. d. authority and expertise Incorrect. Authorities are often wrong. 194. Which of the following statements concerning critical thinking is incorrect? a. There are few truths that need not be tested. b. All evidence is not equal in quality. c. Some authorities should not be questioned. d. Critical thinking requires an open mind. Answer: c. Some authorities should not be questioned. Correct. It is not true that some authorities should not be questioned; evidence is more important than expertise. b. All evidence is not equal in quality. Incorrect. This is an important criterion for critical thinking.. 195. Several years ago two scientists announced that they had evidence of “cold fusion” in the laboratory, but further studies failed to replicate their findings and it was later found that the original scientists had used sloppy methods. This highlights which of the following critical thinking principles? a. Few “truths” do not need to be tested. b. All evidence is not equal in quality. c. Authority or expertise does not make the claims of the authority or expert true. d. Critical thinking requires an open mind. Answer: b. All evidence is not equal in quality. Correct. The “so-called” evidence of cold fusion was not very solid, due to sloppy methodology. d. Critical thinking requires an open mind. Incorrect. The cold fusion issue was about evidence, not open-mindedness. 196. The CEO of a large automobile company says the cars the company makes are safe regardless of the fact that they lead the country in accidents due to faulty equipment. This discrepancy highlights which of the following critical thinking principles? a. Few “truths” do not need to be tested. b. All evidence is not equal in quality. c. Authority or expertise does not make the claims of the authority or expert true. d. Critical thinking requires an open mind. Answer: c. Authority or expertise does not make the claims of the authority or expert true. Correct. In this case, the authority has a motivation to lie or mislead and cannot be trusted, especially if the evidence belies his statement. a. Few “truths” do not need to be tested. Incorrect. The question is focusing on the CEO’s authority rather than what he is saying. 197. “There is no life outside this solar system and nothing you can say will change that fact!” Which criterion of critical thinking does this person lack? a. Evidence is only necessary if it can be tested. b. All evidence is not equal in quality. c. Authority or expertise does not make the claims of the authority or expert true. d. Critical thinking requires an open mind. Answer: d. Critical thinking requires an open mind. Correct. The statement implies narrowness of thinking and, thus, the lack of an open mind. a. Evidence is only necessary if it can be tested. Incorrect. The statement is not a criterion for critical thinking. TRUE OR FALSE 1. The most accurate definition of the discipline of psychology today is that it is the science of behavior. Answer: False Rationale: While behavior is a significant aspect of psychology, it is not the sole focus. Psychology encompasses the study of behavior, mental processes, emotions, cognition, development, and various other aspects of human experience and behavior. Therefore, defining psychology solely as the science of behavior would be too narrow and does not encompass the entire scope of the discipline. 2. The goals of psychology are to describe, explain, predict, and control behavior. Answer: True Rationale: This statement accurately reflects the goals of psychology, which include describing behavior, understanding its underlying causes, predicting future behavior, and applying this knowledge to control or influence behavior when necessary. These four goals—description, explanation, prediction, and control—are commonly cited as the primary objectives of psychological research and practice. 3. Wilhelm Wundt used the method of objective introspection. Answer: True Rationale: Wilhelm Wundt, often considered the founder of psychology, indeed utilized the method of objective introspection in his experiments. Objective introspection involved participants describing their thoughts and feelings in response to stimuli in a controlled laboratory setting. Wundt believed that through careful observation and analysis of subjective experiences, researchers could gain insights into the structure of the human mind. 4. Sigmund Freud was the father of psychology. Answer: False Rationale: While Sigmund Freud made significant contributions to psychology, particularly in the development of psychoanalytic theory, he is not considered the "father of psychology." This title is more commonly attributed to Wilhelm Wundt, who established the first psychology laboratory in 1879. Freud's contributions are notable but do not encompass the entirety of psychology's history and development. 5. Pavlov found that dogs would salivate to the sound of a bell before food was presented, demonstrating the process of conditioning. Answer: True Rationale: This statement accurately describes Pavlov's classical conditioning experiment, where dogs learned to associate the sound of a bell (a neutral stimulus) with the presentation of food, leading to the conditioned response of salivation even when the food was not present. This discovery was pivotal in understanding the principles of associative learning. 6. John Watson studied salivation in dogs in order to examine the concept of habituation. Answer: False Rationale: John Watson was a behaviorist who famously studied classical conditioning, particularly through his experiments with Little Albert. He did not focus on habituation, which refers to a decrease in response to a repeated stimulus over time. Watson's work was more concerned with stimulus-response associations and behavior modification. 7. Cognitive neuroscience includes the use of tools such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Answer: True Rationale: Cognitive neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field that explores the biological processes underlying cognition and behavior. MRI and PET scans are commonly used tools in cognitive neuroscience research to examine brain structure and function in relation to cognitive tasks and behaviors. These imaging techniques allow researchers to observe neural activity associated with various cognitive functions. 8. Darley and Latané (1968) believe that the presence of other people in a distressing situation actually increased the likelihood that they would receive help. Answer: False Rationale: Darley and Latané's research on bystander intervention, particularly the bystander effect, demonstrated that the presence of others in an emergency situation can inhibit individuals from helping, not necessarily increase the likelihood of receiving help. This phenomenon occurs due to diffusion of responsibility and social influence factors. 9. Diffusion of effects is the tendency to feel that someone else is responsible for responding in a crisis situation. Answer: False Rationale: Diffusion of responsibility refers to the tendency for individuals to feel less responsibility to take action or help in a group setting, assuming that others will intervene instead. It does not directly relate to the perception of someone else being responsible for responding in a crisis situation. 10. The majority of psychologists are self-employed or work for private not-for-profit agencies. Answer: False Rationale: The majority of psychologists work in academic institutions, healthcare settings, government agencies, or private corporations. Only a small proportion are self-employed or work for private not-for-profit agencies. This statement misrepresents the typical employment landscape within the field of psychology. 11. Clinical psychology is the largest subfield of psychology. Answer: True Rationale: Clinical psychology is indeed one of the largest subfields of psychology in terms of both research output and employment opportunities. Clinical psychologists work in various settings, including hospitals, mental health clinics, private practice, and academic institutions, and they are involved in assessing, diagnosing, and treating mental health disorders. 12. There are fewer psychologists in the areas of educational, school, and cognitive combined than counseling psychologists. Answer: True Rationale: Counseling psychology is a specialization within psychology that focuses on helping individuals deal with various life challenges and mental health issues. Due to its broad applicability, counseling psychologists may outnumber those specializing solely in educational, school, or cognitive psychology. 13. Dr. Leland can prescribe drugs in some situations and works with depressed women. He must be a psychologist. Answer: False Rationale: While Dr. Leland may work in a therapeutic role with depressed women, the ability to prescribe medication suggests that he is likely a psychiatrist, not a psychologist. Psychiatrists are medical doctors who can prescribe medication and provide therapy, whereas psychologists typically focus on therapy, assessment, and research but do not prescribe medication. 14. The first step in a psychological experiment is developing a method. Answer: False Rationale: The first step in a psychological experiment is typically formulating a research question or hypothesis, not developing a method. Developing a method comes later in the experimental process after the research question has been established. 15. Roger conducted a naturalistic observation as a project for a psychology class. He observed the interactions of parents and children at a football game. Many of the people he observed seemed to have noticed him. Roger forgot about the observer effect. Answer: True Rationale: The observer effect refers to the phenomenon where the behavior of subjects being observed is altered due to the awareness of being observed. In Roger's case, the fact that many people noticed him indicates that his presence influenced the behavior of the individuals being observed, which is an example of the observer effect. 16. The laboratory experiment always involves watching behaviors as they occur without intervening or altering the behaviors in any way. Answer: False Rationale: In a laboratory experiment, researchers often manipulate variables to observe the effect on behavior. This manipulation involves altering conditions or introducing interventions to study the impact on behavior. Therefore, the statement that laboratory experiments always involve passive observation without intervention is incorrect. 17. Dr. Samson wanted to know how college students in his state would vote during the next election. By sampling the seniors at his college, he can get a representative sample. Answer: False Rationale: Sampling seniors from Dr. Samson's college would not necessarily provide a representative sample of college students in the entire state. The sample would likely be biased and not generalize well to the broader population of college students in the state. 18. Surveys are procedures used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, abilities, and values. Answer: False Rationale: While surveys can be used to assess some of these constructs, such as personality traits and emotional states, they are not typically used to evaluate abilities and values. Surveys are more commonly used to gather self-reported data on attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and demographic information. 19. Direction and strength are important in understanding correlation coefficients. Answer: True Rationale: Correlation coefficients indicate both the direction (positive or negative) and strength (magnitude) of the relationship between two variables. Understanding both aspects is crucial for interpreting the meaning of correlation coefficients accurately. 20. A negative correlation means that high values of one variable are associated with low values of the other. Answer: True Rationale: In a negative correlation, as the value of one variable increases, the value of the other variable tends to decrease. This indicates an inverse relationship between the two variables, where high values of one variable are indeed associated with low values of the other. 21. Control groups should receive exactly the same treatment as the experimental effects when conducting a research study. Answer: False Rationale: Control groups are typically not exposed to the experimental treatment or intervention being studied. Instead, they serve as a baseline comparison group against which the effects of the experimental treatment can be evaluated. Therefore, control groups do not receive the same treatment as experimental groups in a research study. 22. Random assignment is when each participant is assigned alphabetically to each condition. Answer: False Rationale: Random assignment involves assigning participants to different experimental conditions or groups randomly, not alphabetically. This random assignment helps minimize potential biases and ensures that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any experimental condition. 23. Double-blind studies control only for the placebo effect. Answer: False Rationale: Double-blind studies are designed to control for both the placebo effect and experimenter bias. In a double-blind study, neither the participants nor the researchers involved in data collection and analysis know which participants are in the experimental group and which are in the control group. This helps prevent bias and ensures the validity of study results. 24. Athletes have been shown to have poorer performance on academic tests compared to non-athletes in college. Answer: True Rationale: Research has indicated that student-athletes often face challenges balancing their athletic commitments with academic responsibilities, which can result in lower academic performance compared to non-athletes. Factors such as time constraints, travel schedules, and physical exhaustion from training and competition may contribute to this phenomenon. 25. Student athletes who believed they were accepted to college based on their athletic performance were also found to have higher scores on tests than non-athletes. Answer: False Rationale: This statement contradicts common research findings and theories. Believing one's acceptance to college was based on athletic performance is more likely to lead to stereotype threat, anxiety, and performance decrements rather than higher test scores. Additionally, there is no established causal relationship between beliefs about college acceptance and academic test performance. 26. College student-athletes who were exposed to “high threat” stereotypes before testing were more likely to perform better than those exposed after testing. Answer: False Rationale: This statement is inconsistent with the typical effects of stereotype threat. Stereotype threat refers to the phenomenon where individuals underperform on tasks when they are made aware of negative stereotypes about their group. Exposure to "high threat" stereotypes before testing is more likely to increase anxiety and impair performance rather than enhance it. 27. One of the common guidelines for ethical research is that participants may not withdraw from a study once they start. Answer: False Rationale: Ethical guidelines for research typically include the provision that participants have the right to withdraw from a study at any time without penalty or consequence. This ensures that participants' autonomy and well-being are respected throughout the research process and aligns with principles of informed consent and voluntary participation. 28. Critical thinking requires making judgments that are well reasoned and well thought out. Answer: True Rationale: Critical thinking involves the ability to analyze, evaluate, and synthesize information in a logical and systematic manner to form well-reasoned judgments or conclusions. It entails questioning assumptions, considering alternative perspectives, and applying evidence and reasoning to make informed decisions or solve problems. Therefore, judgments in critical thinking are expected to be thoughtful, reasoned, and based on evidence. SHORT ANSWER 1. What is the definition of psychology? Answer: Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior. It encompasses various aspects of human cognition, emotion, perception, motivation, development, personality, and social interaction. 2. Pick a goal of psychology and provide a clear example of how it works. Answer: One goal of psychology is to understand and predict human behavior. For example, in the field of social psychology, researchers may investigate conformity, which is the tendency to adjust one's attitudes or behaviors to align with group norms. Through experiments such as Asch's conformity experiments, where participants were asked to match line lengths with confederates who purposely gave incorrect answers, psychologists can observe and predict how individuals may conform to group pressure in different situations. 3. Describe a method used in one of the early schools of psychology. Answer: One of the early schools of psychology, structuralism, focused on analyzing the basic elements of consciousness through introspection. Introspection involved having trained participants observe and report their own thoughts, sensations, and feelings in response to specific stimuli. For example, a structuralist might ask a participant to describe their sensory experiences when viewing a particular color or smelling a specific scent. Through introspective reports, structuralists aimed to uncover the fundamental components of conscious experience. 4. How did Ivan Pavlov discover the process of conditioning when working with dogs? Answer: Ivan Pavlov discovered the process of conditioning while studying the digestive system of dogs. During his experiments, he noticed that dogs began to salivate not only when presented with food but also when they observed the lab assistant who fed them. This observation led Pavlov to investigate further, eventually discovering classical conditioning. He found that by pairing a neutral stimulus (such as the sound of a bell) with the presentation of food, he could elicit a conditioned response (salivation) to the bell alone, even when food was not present. 5. What is the main emphasis of cognitive psychology? Answer: The main emphasis of cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as perception, memory, attention, language, problem-solving, decision-making, and reasoning. Cognitive psychologists investigate how individuals acquire, process, store, and retrieve information, as well as how cognitive processes influence behavior. This approach emphasizes understanding the underlying cognitive mechanisms that shape human thought and behavior. 6. What is cognitive neuroscience? Answer: Cognitive neuroscience is a multidisciplinary field that combines principles and methods from cognitive psychology and neuroscience to study the neural bases of mental processes. It seeks to understand how cognitive functions are implemented in the brain, exploring topics such as brain structure and function, neural pathways, neurotransmitters, and neural correlates of cognitive processes. Cognitive neuroscientists use techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG), and neuropsychological studies to investigate the relationship between brain activity and cognitive functions. 7. How does “diffusion of responsibility” contribute to the bystander effect? Answer: "Diffusion of responsibility" refers to the phenomenon where individuals are less likely to take action or help in an emergency situation when others are present. In the context of the bystander effect, the presence of multiple bystanders leads to a diffusion of responsibility, as each individual assumes that someone else will intervene or take action. Consequently, no one feels personally responsible for helping, leading to inaction or delayed response. The diffusion of responsibility exacerbates the bystander effect, making individuals less likely to provide assistance in situations where they perceive the presence of others. 8. How are psychologists and psychiatrists different? Answer: Psychologists and psychiatrists are both mental health professionals, but they differ in their training, approach, and scope of practice. Psychologists typically hold doctoral degrees (Ph.D. or Psy.D.) in psychology and specialize in the study of human behavior and mental processes. They utilize techniques such as psychotherapy, counseling, and psychological assessments to address emotional, behavioral, and cognitive issues. Psychiatrists, on the other hand, are medical doctors (M.D. or D.O.) who specialize in psychiatry after completing medical school. They can prescribe medication and provide medical treatments for mental disorders in addition to offering psychotherapy. While psychologists focus on psychotherapy and behavioral interventions, psychiatrists can diagnose and treat mental disorders using a combination of medication and therapy. 9. What are the strengths of descriptive research methods? Answer: Descriptive research methods provide valuable insights into the characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes of individuals or groups. Some strengths of descriptive research methods include: Naturalistic Observation: Allows researchers to study behavior in natural settings, providing rich and detailed information about behavior in real-life contexts. Surveys: Provide a large amount of data quickly and efficiently, allowing researchers to collect information from a diverse sample of participants. Case Studies: Offer in-depth analysis of specific individuals or groups, allowing researchers to explore rare or complex phenomena in detail. Archival Research: Utilizes existing records and data sources, enabling researchers to study historical trends, patterns, and changes over time. 10. Describe a research method used in psychology. Answer: One research method used in psychology is experimental research. Experimental research involves manipulating one or more variables to observe the effect on another variable while controlling for extraneous factors. In an experiment, researchers randomly assign participants to different experimental conditions or groups to test hypotheses and establish cause-and-effect relationships. This method allows researchers to control variables, manipulate conditions, and draw conclusions about the relationships between variables. Experimental research often takes place in laboratory settings, where researchers can carefully control and measure variables of interest. 11. What is meant by the “direction of the relationship” in a correlation coefficient? Answer: The "direction of the relationship" in a correlation coefficient refers to whether the variables being studied change in the same direction (positive correlation) or in opposite directions (negative correlation). In a positive correlation, as one variable increases, the other variable also increases, and vice versa. Conversely, in a negative correlation, as one variable increases, the other variable decreases, and vice versa. The direction of the relationship is indicated by the sign of the correlation coefficient: a positive correlation is represented by a positive (+) sign, while a negative correlation is represented by a negative (-) sign. 12. Which two important factors contribute to the formula in measuring a correlation coefficient? Answer: Two important factors that contribute to the formula for measuring a correlation coefficient are covariance and standard deviation of the variables. Covariance: Covariance measures the degree to which two variables vary together. It assesses the extent to which changes in one variable are associated with changes in another variable. Standard Deviation: Standard deviation measures the dispersion or spread of scores within each variable. It quantifies the amount of variability or dispersion in the data points around the mean of each variable. These factors are used in the formula to calculate the correlation coefficient, which is a statistical measure that indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables. 13. What is an operational definition? Answer: An operational definition is a precise description of how a variable is measured or manipulated in a research study. It defines a concept or variable in terms of the specific procedures or operations used to measure or manipulate it. Operational definitions are essential in research because they provide clarity and consistency in the way variables are defined and used. By specifying the exact procedures or criteria for measuring a variable, researchers can ensure that their findings are reliable, replicable, and interpretable. 14. What is the difference between the control group and experimental group in a research study? Answer: In a research study, the control group and experimental group serve different purposes: Control Group: The control group in a research study is a group of participants who are treated identically to the experimental group except for the manipulation of the independent variable. The control group provides a baseline against which the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable can be compared. By not receiving the experimental treatment or intervention, the control group helps researchers determine whether any observed changes in the experimental group are due to the treatment or other factors. Experimental Group: The experimental group in a research study is a group of participants who are exposed to the independent variable or experimental treatment being investigated. The experimental group is the group in which researchers manipulate the independent variable to observe its effect on the dependent variable. Comparing the outcomes of the experimental group to those of the control group allows researchers to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment or intervention. 15. What is random assignment? Answer: Random assignment is a research method used to assign participants to different experimental groups or conditions in a way that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any group. In experimental studies, researchers use random assignment to minimize the effects of potential confounding variables and ensure that differences between groups are due to the manipulation of the independent variable rather than other factors. Random assignment helps to create comparable groups, reduces bias, and increases the internal validity of the study by controlling for extraneous variables. 16. What does the research of Jameson and colleagues say about the academic performance of college student athletes who believe that they were admitted to college based on their athletic ability? Answer: The research conducted by Jameson and colleagues suggests that college student athletes who believe they were admitted to college based on their athletic ability may experience negative effects on their academic performance. This belief, known as stereotype threat, can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and self-doubt among student athletes, which may impair their cognitive functioning and academic achievement. Jameson and colleagues found that student athletes who perceive themselves as being admitted primarily for their athletic prowess may underperform academically compared to their non-athlete peers. This highlights the importance of addressing stereotype threat and providing support for student athletes to succeed academically. 17. Describe one of the eight common ethical guidelines for conducting research. Answer: Informed consent is one of the common ethical guidelines for conducting research. Informed consent involves providing participants with comprehensive information about the study's purpose, procedures, risks, benefits, and their rights as participants before they agree to participate. Researchers must ensure that participants understand the nature of the study and voluntarily consent to participate without coercion or deception. Informed consent promotes respect for participants' autonomy, protects their rights, and ensures ethical conduct in research. 18. Describe one principle of critical thinking. Answer: Skepticism is a principle of critical thinking that involves questioning assumptions, evaluating evidence, and considering alternative viewpoints before forming conclusions or accepting claims. Skepticism encourages individuals to approach information with an open mind, critically analyze arguments and evidence, and seek reliable sources of information. By adopting a skeptical mindset, individuals can avoid accepting unsupported or biased claims and make informed decisions based on reasoned judgment and evidence. ESSAY 1. Compare and contrast two early perspectives of psychology. Be sure to include comparisons of founders, methods, and philosophies. Answer: Two early perspectives of psychology, structuralism and functionalism, offer distinct approaches to understanding the human mind: Structuralism: Founded by Wilhelm Wundt in the late 19th century, structuralism aimed to analyze the basic elements that constitute the mind. Wundt emphasized introspection, where participants would carefully observe and report their own thoughts and sensations in response to stimuli. Structuralists believed that by breaking down conscious experiences into their fundamental components, they could understand the structure of the mind. Functionalism: Introduced by William James in the late 19th century, functionalism shifted the focus from the structure to the function of mental processes. James argued that psychology should investigate how the mind functions to help individuals adapt to their environment. Unlike structuralism's reliance on introspection, functionalists employed methods such as direct observation of behavior in naturalistic settings. They were interested in how mental processes served adaptive purposes in the context of everyday life. Comparison: Both structuralism and functionalism were influential early perspectives in psychology, seeking to understand the human mind. However, while structuralism emphasized the analysis of conscious experiences into basic elements, functionalism focused on the adaptive functions of those mental processes in real-life situations. 2. How did Pavlov and Watson’s focus on scientific inquiry of behaviors differ from the earlier viewpoints of structuralists, psychoanalysts, and functionalists? Answer: Pavlov and Watson's focus on scientific inquiry of behaviors marked a departure from earlier psychological perspectives: Pavlov and Watson emphasized observable behaviors and their association with external stimuli, which represented a shift away from the introspective methods of structuralists and the theoretical emphasis of psychoanalysts. Structuralists and psychoanalysts focused more on internal mental processes and subjective experiences. Pavlov and Watson's approach aligned more closely with functionalism in its emphasis on the practical functions of behavior and its adaptability to the environment. However, unlike functionalists who focused on naturalistic observation, Pavlov and Watson employed controlled laboratory experiments to study behavior, which was a departure from the methods of functionalists. Overall, Pavlov and Watson introduced a more rigorous and scientific approach to psychology by focusing on observable behaviors and their environmental determinants, rather than subjective experiences or theoretical constructs. 3. Provide a real-life example of conditioning according to Ivan Pavlov. Be sure to label each part of your example accordingly and be very detailed. Answer: Example: Conditioning in Everyday Life Scenario: Suppose a person, let's call him John, develops a craving for pizza whenever he hears a particular song. Unconditioned Stimulus (US): The smell and taste of pizza. Unconditioned Response (UR): John's natural response to the smell and taste of pizza, such as feeling hungry or experiencing pleasure. Conditioned Stimulus (CS): A specific song that is often played in the pizza restaurant. Conditioned Response (CR): John's craving for pizza whenever he hears the song, even if he's not hungry or if pizza isn't present. Initially, the smell and taste of pizza (US) naturally evoke a response in John (UR), leading to feelings of hunger or pleasure. However, if the song (CS) is repeatedly paired with the pizza-eating experience, John begins to associate the song with the pizza. Eventually, the song alone (CS) triggers John's craving for pizza (CR), even when there's no pizza present. This demonstrates classical conditioning, as John's response to the song has been learned through association with the pizza-eating experience. 4. Darley and Latané (1968) studied a concept called the bystander effect. Provide a detailed real-life example of this concept and explain how culture might be a factor. Answer: Example: Bystander Effect in a Cultural Context Scenario: Imagine a crowded street in a bustling city where a person collapses suddenly. Bystander Effect: Despite the presence of numerous people, no one rushes to help the person who collapsed. In this scenario, the bystander effect is evident as the presence of many bystanders reduces the likelihood of any individual offering help. People may assume that someone else will intervene, leading to diffusion of responsibility. Cultural Factor: In some cultures where collectivism is emphasized, individuals may be more likely to look to others for cues on how to behave. If others are not reacting, individuals may interpret this as a signal that no action is necessary. Additionally, cultural norms regarding personal space and privacy may influence the decision to intervene in a public setting. 5. Using an example of a study you might conduct, go through all of the steps of the scientific method. Answer: Example Study: Investigating the Effect of Meditation on Stress Levels* Step 1: Observation: High stress levels are prevalent among college students. Step 2: Question: Does regular meditation practice reduce stress levels in college students? Step 3: Hypothesis: College students who practice meditation regularly will experience lower levels of stress compared to those who do not. Step 4: Experiment: Participants: Two groups of college students matched for age, gender, and stress levels. Experimental Group: Students who will engage in daily meditation practice for 30 minutes. Control Group: Students who will maintain their usual activities. Measurement: Stress levels will be assessed using a standardized stress questionnaire before and after the intervention. Step 5: Results: Analyze the data collected from both groups to determine if there is a significant difference in stress levels between the experimental and control groups. Step 6: Conclusion: Evaluate whether the results support the hypothesis that regular meditation practice reduces stress levels in college students. Step 7: Replication: Conduct additional studies with different samples to replicate the findings and strengthen the conclusions. 6. Propose three methods typically used in psychology to test a topic such as the effects of marijuana on GPA (grade-point average). Answer: 1. Experimental Study: Participants would be randomly assigned to two groups: one group consuming marijuana and one abstaining. GPA would be measured before and after a specific period, such as a semester. Statistical analysis would determine if there's a significant difference in GPA between the two groups. 2. Longitudinal Study: Follow a group of students over an extended period, measuring GPA and marijuana use at regular intervals. Analyze the correlation between changes in GPA and changes in marijuana use over time. 3. Correlational Study: Collect data on GPA and marijuana use from a large sample of students. Analyze the correlation between marijuana use and GPA to identify any relationships between the variables. 7. What are the basic principles of critical thinking and how can they be used in everyday life? Answer: Basic Principles of Critical Thinking: 1. Questioning: Being curious and asking probing questions to understand issues deeply. 2. Skepticism: Evaluating information critically and not accepting claims without evidence. 3. Objectivity: Striving to remain unbiased and considering different perspectives before forming conclusions. 4. Evidence: Relying on credible evidence to support claims and arguments. 5. Logic: Using logical reasoning to analyze and evaluate information. 6. Clarity: Expressing ideas clearly and precisely, avoiding ambiguity. 7. Consistency: Ens Chapter 1 - Quick Quiz 1 1. The goals of psychology are to _____. a) explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind b) understand, compare, and analyze human behavior c) improve psychological well-being in all individuals from birth until death d) describe, explain, predict, and control behavior Answer: d Explanation: These goals adequately help uncover the mysteries of behavior. 2. Who was an early proponent of functionalism? a) Ivan Pavlov b) William James c) Wilhelm Wundt d) Max Wertheimer Answer: b Explanation: William James was a functionalist. 3. Freud said phobias were ____________ whereas Watson said phobias were __________. a) learned; inherited b) repressed conflicts; learned c) sexual; unconscious d) conditioned; unconditioned Answer: b Explanation: Freud studied repressed conflict and Watson studied observable behavior. 4. Which perspective focuses on free will and self-actualization? a) psychoanalysis b) humanism c) cognitive perspective d) behaviorism Answer: b Explanation: Humanist theory focuses on free will and self-actualization. 5. What is one similarity shared by clinical psychologists and psychiatrists? a) They obtain the same graduate degree. b) They have the same training experiences after college. c) They view abnormal behaviors as arising from the same causes. d) They diagnose and treat people experiencing behavioral and emotional problems. Answer: d Explanation: Clinical psychologists and psychiatrists both diagnose and treat problems. 6. When you watch dogs play in the park or watch how your professors conduct their classes, you are engaging in a form of ______. a) case study research b) naturalistic observation c) survey research d) psychometric study Answer: b Explanation: In naturalistic observation, you are just watching—that is, observing. 7. A detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated is called ______________________. a) a representative sample b) a case study c) a single-blind study d) a naturalistic observation Answer: b Explanation: A case study involves a detailed description of a particular individual. 8. A negative correlation means that ______________________. a) high values of one variable are associated with low values of the other b) high values of one variable are associated with high values of the other c) low values of one variable are associated with low values of the other d) there is no relationship between the two variables Answer: a Explanation: A negative correlation means that high values of one variable are associated with low values of the other. 9. ________________ is an experiment in which participants do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group but the experimenters do know which participants are part of which group. a) The double-blind study b) Field research c) The single-blind study d) Correlational research Answer: c Explanation: The single-blind study is an experiment in which participants do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group, but the experimenters do know which participants are part of which group. 10. Experimenters can justify the use of deception because ___________. a) there is informed consent b) research is more important than people c) it may be necessary for the experiment to work d) it is not that harmful Answer: c Explanation: Deception is justified if the study wouldn’t work any other way. Chapter 1 - Quick Quiz 2 1. The question “What is happening?” refers to which of the following goals in psychology? a) description b) explanation c) prediction d) control Answer: a Explanation: Asking “what” means asking for a description. 2. Who claimed that behavior is affected by reinforcement? a) William James b) Sigmund Freud c) B. F. Skinner d) Wilhelm Wundt Answer: c Explanation: Skinner believed that behavior that is followed by good consequences is reinforced. 3. Dr. Jones probably agrees with the ________ theory of psychology, since he contends that humans are intelligent species due to the fact that intelligence gives us an advantage in the natural world. a) psychoanalytic b) behavioral c) cognitive d) evolutionary Answer: d Explanation: Survival advantage is a basic premise of evolutionary psychology. 4. “Children who watch violent cartoons will become more aggressive.” According to the scientific method, this statement is most likely a ____________. a) conclusion b) result c) hypothesis d) fact Answer: c Explanation: This statement is an educated guess about the effects of violent cartoons. 5. Which research method involves watching behaviors as they occur without intervening or altering the behaviors in any way? a) case study b) experiment c) correlational studies d) naturalistic observation Answer: d Explanation: Naturalistic observation involves watching behaviors without intervening. 6. A(n) is a measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another. a) independent variable b) dependent variable c) experimental effect d) correlation Answer: d Explanation: A correlation measures how strongly two variables are related. 7. What is one of the major reasons that psychologists use operational definitions? a) to comply with legal requirements b) to identify all the extraneous variables c) so that effects can be measured d) to explain research results so that nonpsychologists can understand Answer: c Explanation: Psychologists use operational definitions so that effects can be measured. 8. A good control group ________. a) contains at least one confound b) has a limited number of dependent variables c) has a limited number of research participants d) holds constant all variables in the experiment Answer: d Explanation: A control group is used as a baseline of comparison, so all variables should be held as constant as possible to avoid any compound. 9. Which of the following statements concerning critical thinking is incorrect? a) There are few truths that need not be tested. b) All evidence is not equal in quality. c) Some authorities should not be questioned. d) Critical thinking requires an open mind. Answer: c Explanation: It is not true that some authorities should not be questioned; evidence is more important than expertise. 10. “There is no life outside this solar system and nothing you can say will change that fact!” Which criterion of critical thinking does this person lack? a) Evidence is only necessary if it can be tested. b) All evidence is not equal in quality. c) Authority or expertise does not make the claims of the authority or expert true. d) Critical thinking requires an open mind. Answer: d Explanation: The statement implies narrowness of thinking and, thus, the lack of an open mind. Test Bank for Psychology: Dsm 5 Saundra K. Ciccarelli, J. Noland White 9780205986378

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