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CHAPTER 1:
Studying Human Sexuality
TRUE-FALSE
1. Human sexuality is a complex area of study that focuses on all aspects of humans as sexual
beings.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Human sexuality encompasses a broad range of biological, psychological, social, and cultural
factors that influence individuals' sexual experiences and behaviors. This includes aspects
such as sexual orientation, gender identity, sexual health, and reproductive health, making it a
complex field of study.
2. Sexual morals are a person’s unique foundation of knowledge, attitudes, and actions
relating to who he or she is as a sexual being.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Sexual morals typically refer to the standards or principles regarding sexual conduct that are
influenced by cultural, religious, and personal beliefs rather than simply being one's
foundation of knowledge, attitudes, and actions related to sexuality as a whole.
3. From infancy through old age, human beings have the capacity to experience both physical
and emotional sexual feelings.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Human sexuality is a lifelong aspect of human development, encompassing physical,
emotional, and psychological dimensions. Individuals can experience sexual feelings and
emotions from infancy through old age, although the nature of these experiences may change
across the lifespan.
4. The term gender identity refers to a person’s self-concept as a man or as a woman.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Gender identity is a person's deeply felt internal sense of being male, female, a blend of both,
or neither. It may or may not correspond with the sex assigned at birth and includes aspects
beyond the binary categories of man and woman.
5. Sexual orientation refers to what how much a person likes sex.
Answer: False
Rationale:

Sexual orientation refers to an individual's enduring emotional, romantic, or sexual attraction
to others. It is not about how much one likes sex but rather the gender(s) to which one is
attracted.
6. The term sex refers only to heterosexual intercourse.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The term "sex" refers to the biological characteristics that define male and female organisms.
It encompasses various aspects such as chromosomes, hormones, and reproductive anatomy,
regardless of the type of sexual activity engaged in.
7. Students who complete a human sexuality course have been shown to be less likely to
believe common rape myths such as “most rapes are committed by strangers.”
Answer: True
Rationale:
Research suggests that comprehensive human sexuality education can improve students'
understanding of sexual violence, consent, and rape myths, leading to a reduction in
misconceptions such as the belief that most rapes are committed by strangers.
8. Abstinence-only sex education programs teach teens about contraception and sexually
transmitted infections.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Abstinence-only sex education programs typically promote abstinence as the sole method of
preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), often omitting information
about contraception and safer sex practices.
9. Early sexual experiences may lead to expectations and conclusions about sexual behavior
that are incorrect.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Early sexual experiences can shape individuals' beliefs, attitudes, and expectations regarding
sexuality. However, these experiences may not always align with accurate information about
sexual behavior, leading to incorrect conclusions or misconceptions.
10. China is one country that is not concerned about the growing public health issues of
sexually transmitted infections.
Answer: False
Rationale:

China, like many other countries, is concerned about the public health issues associated with
sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The Chinese government has implemented various
initiatives and public health campaigns to address STI prevention, testing, and treatment.
11. Defining a person as sexually normal or as sexually abnormal is very easy to do.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Defining what is "sexually normal" or "sexually abnormal" is highly subjective and culturally
dependent. Human sexuality is diverse, and what may be considered normal in one context or
culture could be viewed differently in another. Moreover, the concept of normality in
sexuality is fluid and constantly evolving, making it difficult to establish clear-cut definitions.
12. Sexual health refers to a wide range of physical, psychological, and emotional issues that
relate to a person’s sexuality.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Sexual health encompasses not only the absence of disease or dysfunction but also the
positive aspects of sexuality, including pleasure, intimacy, consent, and fulfillment. It
involves physical, psychological, and emotional well-being in relation to one's sexuality,
emphasizing the importance of holistic approaches to sexual health promotion and education.
13. Research reveals that parents who took a human sexuality course were more likely to use
correct terminology when discussing sexuality with their children.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Studies have shown that parents who receive education in human sexuality are more likely to
feel comfortable and confident discussing sexual topics with their children. This includes
using accurate terminology, which can contribute to open communication and better
understanding between parents and children regarding sexual health and relationships.
14. Sexuality researchers must be trained to avoid introducing their own biased attitudes into
a research study.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Like all researchers, sexuality researchers must adhere to ethical standards and strive to
minimize bias in their studies. This involves rigorous training in research methodology,
critical thinking, and awareness of personal biases that may influence the research process or
interpretation of findings. Transparency, peer review, and adherence to ethical guidelines help
mitigate bias in sexuality research.
15. According to the textbook, the most common form of sexual research is the survey.
Answer: True

Rationale:
Surveys are a widely used method in sexual research due to their efficiency in collecting data
from large samples and their ability to gather information on sensitive topics while
maintaining respondent anonymity. Surveys can provide valuable insights into attitudes,
behaviors, and experiences related to sexuality, making them a common choice for
researchers in the field.
16. The use of telephone interviews in human sexuality research is a good way to provide
both anonymity and flexibility in questioning.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Telephone interviews offer a convenient and flexible means of data collection in sexuality
research. They allow for anonymity, as respondents can freely discuss sensitive topics
without face-to-face interaction. Additionally, telephone interviews offer flexibility in
scheduling and conducting interviews, making them a practical choice for researchers seeking
to reach diverse populations.
17. The term sample refers to the entire group of people being studied in a survey.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The term "sample" refers to a subset of the population being studied, not the entire group.
Samples are used in research to draw inferences about the larger population from which they
are drawn. The sample should be representative of the population of interest to ensure the
generalizability of research findings.
18. The best way to ensure a representative sample would be to select respondents randomly
from the entire population of interest.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Random sampling is considered the gold standard for ensuring a representative sample in
research. By randomly selecting individuals from the population of interest, researchers can
minimize bias and increase the likelihood that the sample accurately reflects the
characteristics of the larger population. Random sampling enhances the generalizability of
research findings and strengthens the validity of study conclusions.
19. People who volunteer to participate in sexuality research projects are no different than
people who do not volunteer to participate.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Individuals who volunteer to participate in research may differ from those who do not
volunteer in terms of demographics, attitudes, behaviors, and other characteristics. This can

introduce selection bias, potentially impacting the generalizability of research findings.
Researchers must consider and address potential differences between volunteers and nonvolunteers to minimize bias and enhance the validity of study results.
20. When social scientists engage in observational research, they use methods that are
systematic and organized in order to obtain the most accurate data possible.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Observational research involves systematically observing and recording behaviors, events, or
phenomena in their natural settings. Social scientists employ structured methods and
protocols to ensure systematic and organized data collection, which enhances the reliability
and validity of observational findings. By minimizing bias and ensuring consistency in data
collection procedures, researchers can obtain accurate insights into social phenomena.
21. Surveys about people’s sexual behaviors that are published in popular magazines provide
accurate information because they are based on real scientific findings.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Surveys published in popular magazines may not necessarily provide accurate information
because they often lack rigorous scientific methodology and peer review. The validity and
reliability of survey findings depend on factors such as sample selection, survey design, and
data analysis methods, which may not be adequately addressed in popular magazine surveys.
Therefore, while they may offer insights, they should not be considered as reliable as studies
published in peer-reviewed scientific journals.
22. Masters and Johnson believed that in order to understand human sexuality, researchers
must study physical responses to sexual stimuli.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Masters and Johnson, pioneers in the study of human sexuality, emphasized the importance of
studying physiological responses to sexual stimuli to understand sexual arousal, orgasm, and
related phenomena. Their research laid the foundation for the scientific study of human
sexual response and contributed significantly to our understanding of sexual physiology and
functioning.
23. Correlational research is used to determine the extent to which two variables are related to
each other.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Correlational research examines the relationship between two or more variables to determine
whether and to what extent they are associated with each other. Correlation coefficients
quantify the strength and direction of the relationship, indicating whether variables increase

or decrease together. However, correlational research does not establish causation; it only
identifies associations between variables.
24. The relationship between the amount of time a person studies and grades earned is an
example of a positive correlation.
Answer: True
Rationale:
If there is a positive correlation between the amount of time a person studies and the grades
earned, it means that as study time increases, grades also tend to increase. This indicates a
direct relationship between the two variables, where higher levels of one variable are
associated with higher levels of the other variable.
25. Correlational research can reveal cause-and-effect relationships.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Correlational research can identify relationships between variables, but it cannot establish
causation. Correlation does not imply causation; even if two variables are strongly correlated,
it does not necessarily mean that changes in one variable cause changes in the other.
Additional research, such as experimental studies, is needed to establish cause-and-effect
relationships.
26. The experimental method of research can determine cause-and-effect relationships.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Experimental research involves manipulating one or more variables (independent variables)
to observe their effects on another variable (dependent variable) while controlling for
extraneous variables. By randomly assigning participants to experimental and control groups,
researchers can establish causal relationships between variables. This allows researchers to
determine whether changes in the independent variable cause changes in the dependent
variable.
27. The dependent variable is the action performed on or by a group in an experiment.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The dependent variable is the variable that is being measured or observed in an experiment. It
is the outcome variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent
variable(s). In contrast, the independent variable is the variable that is manipulated by the
researcher.
28. The experimental group is also known as the comparison group.
Answer: False

Rationale:
The experimental group is the group of participants in an experiment that receives the
treatment or intervention being studied. In contrast, the comparison group (or control group)
is a group that does not receive the treatment or intervention and is used for comparison
purposes to evaluate the effects of the treatment.
29. One potential drawback to the experimental method is that people are likely to behave
differently in an artificial setting.
Answer: True
Rationale:
One potential limitation of experimental research is the artificiality of laboratory settings,
which may lead to behavior that differs from real-life situations. This phenomenon, known as
the "experimental effect" or "Hawthorne effect," suggests that participants may alter their
behavior simply because they are aware of being observed or are in an experimental setting.
30. Research participants must be aware that they are free to withdraw from the study at any
time without penalty.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Ethical guidelines require that research participants be informed of their right to withdraw
from a study at any time without facing any negative consequences or penalties. This ensures
that participants can freely choose whether to continue their participation based on their
comfort level and autonomy.
31. Research participants must be guaranteed that the results of their participation will be
kept in confidence.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Maintaining participant confidentiality is essential in research ethics. Participants have the
right to expect that any information they provide during the study will be kept confidential
and will not be disclosed to unauthorized individuals. Researchers must uphold this
confidentiality promise to build trust with participants and protect their privacy.
32. During debriefing, researchers provide participants with an opportunity to ask questions
about the study.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Debriefing is a crucial component of research ethics, especially in studies involving human
participants. During debriefing, researchers provide participants with information about the
study's purpose, procedures, and findings. Participants are given the opportunity to ask
questions, express concerns, and receive clarification. Debriefing helps ensure that

participants are fully informed about their participation and have a positive research
experience.
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. ______ refers to a person’s unique foundation of knowledge, attitudes, and actions relating
to what the person wants and who he or she is as a sexual being.
a. Human sexuality
b. Personal sexual philosophy
c. Sexual orientation
d. Gender identity
Answer: B
Rationale:
A personal sexual philosophy encompasses many aspects of an individual’s emotional and
intellectual makeup, and can influence his/her beliefs and behaviors.
2. Professor Awajadi has dedicated her career to an area of study that focuses on all aspects of
humans as sexual beings. This area of study is referred to as _______.
a. human sexuality
b. sexual health
c. sexual orientation
d. gender identity
Answer: A
Rationale:
Human sexuality is a broad concept, and encompasses the emotional, psychological, and
behavioral components of human beings, and can influence and in turn be influenced by, their
attitudes and beliefs.
3. The term morals refers to _______.
a. a study focusing on all aspects of humans as sexual beings
b. a person’s unique foundation of knowledge and attitudes as a sexual being
c. a person’s individual, unique attitude about what constitutes right and wrong
d. the sex that a person identifies himself or herself to be
Answer: C
Rationale:
One of the ways in which people differ from one another is in their beliefs about what is right
and what is wrong. Such beliefs, or morals, contribute to what makes each person unique.

4. Before the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case of _______, abortion was illegal in this
country.
a. the American Psychiatric Association
b. Kinsey
c. Louise Brown
d. Roe vs. Wade
Answer: D
Rationale:
The 1973 the U.S. Supreme Court case of Roe vs. Wade legalized abortion in the United
States.
5. Which of the following describes a person’s view of himself or herself as a man or
woman?
a. gender stereotype
b. sexual health
c. sexual orientation
d. gender identity
Answer: D
Rationale:
The concept of identity refers to what an individual believes him/herself to be, and can be
based on a number of factors, one of which is gender.
6. The term sexual orientation most accurately refers to what kind of attraction with respect to
gender?
a. sexual
b. romantic, religious, and political
c. sexual and romantic
d. romantic, emotional, and sexual
Answer: D
Rationale:
Human beings are multifaceted, and their capacity to feel attracted to another person can be
sexual, emotional, and/or romantic.
7. According to the text, having a clear sense of _______ are factors that contribute to making
responsible sexual choices throughout life.
a. political beliefs

b. morals and values
c. gender identity
d. sexual orientation
Answer: B
Rationale:
The term morals refers to an individual’s personal sense of right and wrong; the term values
refers to his/her beliefs. People who have clear-cut views about what they believe is right and
wrong usually make more responsible sexual choices.
8. In Western cultures, people think that the term sex refers only to intercourse; this belief
_______.
a. can lead to an increase in rates of teen pregnancy
b. ignores the full range of sexual experiences and pleasure that human beings can have
c. is usually held by people with low levels of education
d. is almost impossible to change
Answer: B
Rationale:
There are a wide variety of pleasurable activities and experiences that human beings can have
that can be termed sexual. Sexual intercourse is only one of them.
9. According to the textbook, most of today’s sexual problems, such as unwanted pregnancy
and transmission of sexually transmitted infections, stem from _______.
a. insertive sexual practices such as vaginal, oral, and anal sex
b. sexual contact with strangers
c. sexual contact with many partners
d. engaging in sexual intercourse before the age of 14
Answer: A
Rationale:
Due to human anatomy and physiology, an insertive sexual practice such as those mentioned
above are more likely to lead to pregnancy and/or to the transmission of an STI than sexual
contact with strangers, sexual contact with many partners, or sexual intercourse before a
certain age.
10. College students who take a course that focuses on sexual health are more likely to
_______.
a. feel they know everything there is to know about sex
b. use condoms and other forms of contraception

c. teach other people about sex
d. want to talk about sex more often than before they took the course
Answer: B
Rationale:
When students are exposed to information on sexual health, they tend to make more
responsible sexual choices. Specifically, such students are more likely to use condoms and
other forms of contraception than students who have not been exposed to such information.
11. Abstinence-only sex education programs teach that _______.
a. sex is not an important part of life
b. engaging in sex at a young age can cause sexual problems in later life
c. teenagers should wait until they are married to have sex and therefore, don’t need
information about contraception or sexually transmitted infections
d. it’s easier for girls to avoid sex because they have stronger personalities than boys
Answer: C
Rationale:
The material that is usually included in abstinence-only sex education courses is significantly
different from the material in information-based sex education courses. The former teaches
that young people should wait until marriage to become sexually active and therefore they
don’t need information about sex.
12. The current emphasis in sex education is away from abstinence-only programs, and
toward programs that _______.
a. contain accurate information that will help teens to make more responsible decisions about
sex
b. emphasize the importance of religion in sexual decision-making
c. use peer educators to teach teens about sex.
d. cover health issues instead of sexual issues
Answer: A
Rationale:
In comparison to other western countries, the United States has relatively high rates of
teenage pregnancy and of sexually-transmitted infections. In recognition of this, sex
education programs that contain accurate information have been found to be more useful in
helping young people to make responsible sexual choices than are abstinence-only sex
education programs.
13. For most people, a great deal of sexual knowledge probably stems from _______.
a. taking a human sexuality course

b. high school sex education class
c. informal sex education networks
d. formal, scientific sources
Answer: C
Rationale:
Many people are embarrassed to discuss sexual matters, and often turn to those individuals
with whom they feel most comfortable when they have a sexual problem or concern. While
this is understandable, such a practice is not always a source of accurate information.
14. Which of the following is a reason for China’s newfound interest in sex education?
a. Boys are reaching puberty at increasingly younger ages.
b. Openly discussing sex is now considered to be socially acceptable.
c. There is an increasing concern about sexually-transmitted infections.
d. The availability of unhealthy foods has led to a later onset of puberty.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Few countries are immune from sexually-transmitted infections. China, an increasingly
modernized society with over a billion people, is no exception.
15. In an effort to educate young people about sex, the Chinese government _______.
a. is experimenting with a sex education program aimed at middle-school boys
b. created a book for adults only entitled You and Me
c. is encouraging abstinence by prohibiting the sale of condoms
d. created a website for the country aimed at discussing a variety of sexual topics
Answer: D
Rationale:
With over a billion people, the Internet one of the best ways to reach a majority of the
Chinese population.
16. Damian has a fear of being sexually abnormal. This fear _______.
a. is a common one that is held by many people
b. may enhance his ability to experience pleasure and intimacy
c. can cause him to lose interest in sex
d. can increase his sexual desire
Answer: A

Rationale:
Many people are reluctant to discuss sexual issues due to embarrassment or to the fear that
they might be perceived as different or abnormal.
17. _______ refers to a wide range of physical, psychological, and emotional issues relating
to sexuality.
a. Gender identity
b. Sexual orientation
c. Personal sexual philosophy
d. Sexual health
Answer: D
Rationale:
The term health goes beyond the physical. In order to determine sexual health, one must take
into account not only the physical, but the psychological and emotional as well.
18. Elise is learning about a wide range of issues relating to sexuality, including problems
with sexual functioning, the sexual anatomy, sexually-transmitted infections, and sexual
violence. She is learning about _______.
a. gender identity
b. parenting
c. sexual orientation
d. sexual health
Answer: D
Rationale:
The concept of sexual health is multi faceted and includes the above aspects of an
individual’s sexual persona.
19. According to a research study, parents who had taken a human sexuality course were
found to be _______.
a. more likely to discuss aspects of sexuality with their children
b. less likely to use correct terminology when discussing sexuality with their children
c. less likely to discuss aspects of sexuality with their children
d. more likely to ask teachers to discuss sexuality with their children
Answer: A
Rationale:

People who have taken a course on human sexuality can reap the benefits of such an
experience for many years. One such benefit is that when they become parents, they are more
likely to discuss sexual matters with their children than people who have not taken a human
sexuality course.
20. According to research that explored the effects of a human sexuality course on parents’
discussions of sexuality with their children, which percentage of parents who took the course
discussed masturbation with their children?
a. 45
b. 30
c. 14
d. 2
Answer: C
Rationale:
For parents who have taken a course on human sexuality, their likelihood of discussing
specific aspects of sex, such as masturbation, is greater than for parents who have taken such
a course.
21. People who take a course in human sexuality _______.
a. have less satisfying sex lives
b. are less tolerant of others sexual preferences
c. are more likely to worry about being sexually abnormal
d. have a greater level of comfort in discussing sexual issues
Answer: D
Rationale:
Taking a human sexuality class exposes people to material that is often thought of as
embarrassing or controversial. Such exposure can alleviate their discomfort in discussing
such matters.
22. When conducting a research study, _______.
a. researchers should introduce their own biased attitudes into the study
b. information should be gathered so that it can be analyzed using statistics
c. confidentiality of participants is not necessary
d. researchers need to ensure that the study cannot be replicated
Answer: B
Rationale:

Statistical analysis of data can provide additional understanding and insight into many types
of social science research results.
23. A _______ is the process of collecting information from volunteer respondents for the
purpose of explaining, describing, or comparing people’s knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and
behaviors.
a. case study
b. correlation
c. experiment
d. survey
Answer: D
Rationale:
A survey is a very commonly-used method in social science because it affords respondents
with opportunities to provide their levels of knowledge, express their opinions, and state their
behaviors on a wide range of subjects.
24. Professor Franco is interested in collecting data from a group of individuals concerning
their sexual beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Which research method should Professor Franco
use to obtain those kinds of data?
a. a case study
b. direct observation
c. an experiment
d. a survey
Answer: D
Rationale:
A survey is the most commonly-used method to explore respondents’ beliefs, attitudes, and
behaviors about sexual issues.
25. Individuals selected to respond to a researcher’s request for information are called
_______.
a. respondents
b. volunteers
c. assistants
d. experimenters
Answer: A
Rationale:
A respondent is one who provides information in a social science survey.

26. Large-scale surveys of sexual behavior and attitudes were pioneered by _______ in the
1940s.
a. Hite
b. Kinsey
c. Janus
d. Masters and Johnson
Answer: B
for Studying Human Sexuality
Rationale:
Kinsey was the first one to do this type of research.
27. Dr. George is beginning a study in which he will ask participants to give personal and
potentially sensitive information about their sexual attitudes and behaviors. Which survey
method should he use to get the most honest replies?
a. face-to-face interview
b. telephone survey
c. Internet survey
d. self-administered written questionnaire
Answer: D
Rationale:
The survey that consists of a self-administered questionnaire affords the researcher with the
greatest potential for obtaining information as potentially sensitive as an individual’s sexual
attitudes and behaviors.
28. Researchers conducting a sex survey who are interested in establishing a trusting rapport
with participants and who wish to have more flexibility when asking planned and follow-up
questions should use which of the following?
a. written questionnaire
b. face-to-face interview
c. telephone survey
d. Internet survey
Answer: B
Rationale:
During the course of a survey, researchers may wish to ask additional questions, or he/she can
request clarification or elaboration from a respondent. This is more readily accomplished
when the researcher employs a face-to-face interview with the respondent.

29. A researcher is conducting a sex survey and would like to use a method that allows for
both anonymity and flexibility in questioning. Which type of survey should this researcher
use?
a. written questionnaire
b. face-to-face interview
c. telephone survey
d. Internet survey
Answer: C
Rationale:
If the researcher is speaking directly to the respondent, the former can ask additional
questions, or he/she can request clarification or elaboration. The anonymity of the telephone
survey allows the respondent to provide only as much personal information as he/she wishes.
30. Surveys conducted over the Internet _______.
a. can contain too many responses to be useful
b. are not used very often because they cost too much money
c. are used primarily by researchers who have degrees in computer science
d. can provide a large number of responses from a wide geographical area in a short amount
of time
Answer: D
Difficulty 1
Rationale:
The ubiquity of the Internet allows survey researchers to enjoy advantages with regard to the
number of respondents who can be accessed, as well as in their geographical distribution. The
Internet also can shorten the time it takes to complete a potentially large-scale survey.
31. Professor Jones is attempting to apply his study’s findings to all students enrolled in
sexuality classes. All students enrolled in sexuality classes are considered Professor Jones’
_______.
a. sample
b. random sample
c. target population
d. representative sample
Answer: C
Rationale:

The target population is the group on whom research is focused, and to whom findings will
be applied.
32. The term used to describe a subset of the target population selected by researchers to
represent the entire population under study is the _______.
a. sample
b. experimental group.
c. participants
d. volunteers
Answer: A
Rationale:
It is not always feasible or necessary to contact every member of the target population, so a
representative sample of that group is used.
33. Dr. Grenier is studying the sexual behaviors of American millionaires. Should Dr. Grenier
go to the local welfare office and ask people waiting in line to receive food stamps to fill out
his questionnaire?
a. Yes. In a difficult economy there are many kinds of people who need food stamps.
b. No. If he did, his sample would not represent the target population he wants to study.
c. Yes. He might get some very interesting responses.
d. No. It would take too long to get enough responses to use in his study.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Many research projects fail because their samples are not representative of their population;
this question provides a glaring example of a sample that would not be representative of the
target population. Millionaires are not usually found waiting in line in a welfare office.
34. Professor Karney’s target population consisted of several thousand people, so he decided
to select a sample in such a way that each member of the target population had an equal
chance of being selected. Which of the following terms describes the method he used to
select a sample?
a. self-selection
b. self-report
c. random sampling
d. target sampling
Answer: C
Rationale:

The term random sampling is a method of selecting the individuals who actually participate
in a research project in such a way that each member of the target population has an equal
chance of being chosen.
35. In 2002, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began a study of human
sexuality using face-to-face interviews with over 5,000 men and women in the United States.
What is the name of that study?
a. The Kaplan Global Sex Survey
b. The National Intercourse Study
c. The National Survey of Family Growth
d. The Hite Report
Answer: C
Rationale:
The National Survey of Family Growth is an example of an ongoing, large-scale longitudinal
survey.
36. Dr. Levin allowed members of his target population to volunteer to participate in his
study. As a result, the findings of Dr. Levin’s study were influenced by _______.
a. self-report bias
b. social desirability bias
c. sexual bias
d. self-selection bias
Answer: D
Rationale:
Self-selection bias occurs when members of a target population volunteer to participate in a
study. Such a bias can cause the results of a study to be called into question.
37. A research study that compared volunteer and randomly-selected participants for sexuality
research revealed that _______.
a. volunteers were younger in age
b. volunteers had a lower income level
c. non-volunteers were more sexually permissive
d. non-volunteers had more liberal political views
Answer: A
Rationale:

People who volunteer to participate in research projects often differ from randomly-selected
participants on a number of important variables. An example of a specific variable is age;
volunteers tend to be younger than those who are randomly selected.
38. Which of the following describes a flaw in the methodology used in surveys found in
magazines?
a. Too many readers may respond which may result in calculation errors.
b. The targeted audience may be too broad and therefore may not be representative of their
readers.
c. Most respondents are readers of the magazine and therefore would not represent the
general population.
d. Researchers are apt to adjust the findings so they seem acceptable to the reader.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Most magazines are geared to specific types of readers rather than to the general public. Such
a phenomenon ensures that a survey done by any given magazine will probably not be
representative of the American population as a whole.
39. A researcher conducted a study about flirting behavior among adults. She gathered data
by watching the behavior of adults in public places such as bars and nightclubs. The _______
research method was used in this study.
a. probability
b. correlational
c. experimental
d. observational
Answer: D
Rationale:
When social scientists engage in people-watching, they are doing observational research.
40. Masters and Johnson believed that to understand human sexual behavior, researchers
should _______.
a. only ask people what they do sexually
b. study actual physiological responses to sexual stimulation
c. use anecdotal evidence to draw scientific conclusions
d. explore the sexual history of adults
Answer: B
Rationale:

Masters and Johnson were innovators in many aspects of human sexuality research; their
belief that studying physiological responses was key to understanding human sexuality was
one such example.
41. The results of Masters and Johnson’s early work established a basic foundation and
language for understanding and discussing _______.
a. the human sexual response
b. flirting behavior of adults
c. female reproductive anatomy
d. the sexual history of adults
Answer: A
Rationale:
Their insistence on studying the physiology of human sexual response laid the foundation for
an enhanced understanding human sexuality.
42. In the 1970s, Dr. Helen Singer Kaplan proposed a theory of human sexuality in which she
claimed that there were three stages of sexual response. What were the three stages?
a. touching, feeling, responding
b. erection, ejaculation, loss of erection
c. desire, excitement, orgasm
d. increased heart rate, orgasm, decreased heart rate
Answer: C
Rationale:
Kaplan departed from the four-stage model proposed by Masters and Johnson, and posited
that sexual desire was the first component of human sexual response.
43. In contrast to the work of Masters and Johnson, the “new” view of sexual response
posited that the sexual responses and feelings of women are different from those of men.
According to this theory, what are some of the factors that must be taken into account in order
to better understand women’s sexual responses?
a. a woman’s age and level of education
b. a woman’s occupation and level of work-related stress
c. the relationship in which the sexual behavior takes place, as well as cultural and economic
factors
d. the number of children in the household, and their ages and genders
Answer: C
Rationale:

The proponents of the “new” view believed that Masters and Johnson’s theory did not give
sufficient consideration to gender differences in human sexual responses. They posited that
women’s sexual responses were influenced by a variety of factors and were far more complex
than men’s sexual responses.
44. The term _______ refers to methodology that determines the extent to which two
variables are systematically related to each other.
a. case study
b. correlational research
c. experiment
d. observational research
Answer: B
Rationale:
The term correlation establishes that two variables are related to each other in some way.
45. A positive correlation indicates that _______.
a. we can predict that two variables will change in the same direction
b. the variables move predictably in opposite directions
c. no consistent relationship exists between the two variables
d. one variable causes a change in the other variable
Answer: A
Rationale:
When two variables are expected to change in the same direction, they are said to be
positively correlated.
46. Which of the following describes a negative correlation?
a. two variables will predictably change in the same direction
b. two variables move predictably in opposite directions
c. no consistent relationship exists between the two variables
d. one variable causes a change in the other variable
Answer: B
Rationale:
When two variables are expected to change in opposite directions, they are said to be
negatively correlated.
47. Correlational research is used so often as a method of studying human sexuality because
_______.

a. researchers typically cannot control people’s sexual behaviors as would be necessary in an
experiment
b. it almost always allows researchers to determine if one variable causes another variable
c. it provides researchers with an easy way to test new theories of human sexuality
d. it allows researchers to take a large number of unrelated variables and figure out how to
connect them to each other
Answer: A
Rationale:
In order to establish causality between two variables, control must be exerted over as many
relevant variables as possible. Such control, as is required in an experiment, is typically not
possible when dealing with human sexual behavior. Therefore, correlational research is
commonly used in human sexuality research.
48. Which research method is used to determine cause-and-effect relationships among
variables?
a. the case study method
b. correlational research
c.the experimental method
d. observational research
Answer: C
Rationale:
Because control of key variables is a necessary component in experimentation, the
experimental method affords a greater opportunity for establishing causality than other
methods commonly used in human sexuality research.
49. The action performed on or by a group in an experiment is referred to as a _______.
a. treatment
b. dependent variable
c. positive correlation
d. negative correlation
Answer: A
Rationale:
An experiment is a research method in which the sample is divided into two evenly matched
groups, the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group receives the
treatment.

50. Roland is a participant in an experiment and was assigned to a group that receives the
treatment. Roland is in the _______ group.
a. control
b. experimental
c. independent
d. dependent
Answer: B
Rationale:
In an experiment, the experimental group is the one that receives the treatment.
51. Deneichia is a participant in an experiment and was assigned to a group that does not
receive the treatment. Deneichia is in the _______ group.
a. control
b. experimental
c. independent
d. dependent
Answer: A
Rationale:
In an experiment, the group that does not receive the treatment is the control group.
52. The variable of interest in an experiment that is allowed to change between or among
groups while all other variables are held constant is referred to as the _______ variable.
a. control
b. experimental
c. independent
d. dependent
Answer: C
Rationale:
An experiment is a methodology that allows researchers to establish causality between
variables. In order to do this the independent variable is allowed to change and the dependent
variable remains constant.
53. In an experiment the treatment administered is the _______variable and the resulting
behavior is the _______ variable.
a. control; experimental

b. experimental; dependent
c. independent; dependent
d. dependent; independent
Answer: C
Rationale:
An experiment allows researchers to establish cause-and-effect relationships between
variables. The cause, or the independent variable, is the treatment administered, and the
effect, or the dependent variable.
54. Which of the following is an ethical safeguard in sexuality research?
a. Researchers must maintain their objectivity.
b. Researchers must treat each participant differently.
c. Researchers must never release the results of their research.
d. Researchers must protect participants from all types of harm.
Answer: D
Rationale:
It is unethical to subject participants to any type of harm during a research study.
55. Agreeing to participate in a research study only after having been provided with complete
and accurate information about what to expect in the study is referred to as _______.
a. a research contract
b. debriefing
c. a confidentiality agreement
d. informed consent
Answer: D
Rationale:
In order to conduct ethical research, participants must be provided with all information
relevant information in advance of the study. This ensures that the individual is able to make
an informed decision about whether to participate; such agreement constitutes informed
consent.
56. At the end of Lauren’s participation in a research study, the researcher explains the goals
and procedures of the study to her, and gives her an opportunity to ask questions or make
comments about her experience. This example illustrates the concept of _______.
a. informed consent
b. debriefing

c. confidentiality
d. protection from harm
Answer: B
Rationale:
The guidelines for conducting ethical research compel the researcher to explain the goals and
procedures of the study to participants at the conclusion of the project. This includes the
opportunity for participants to ask questions or make comments about their experiences.
SHORT ANSWER
1. Knowing who you are and what you want and don’t want are components of one’s
________.
Answer: personal sexual philosophy
Rationale:
A personal sexual philosophy encompasses an individual's beliefs, values, desires, and
boundaries regarding sexual matters. It reflects their understanding of themselves, their
desires, and their principles in relation to sexuality.
2. In 1942, advocates of family planning and sexual satisfaction formed a group known as
________.
Answer: Planned Parenthood Federation of America
Rationale:
The Planned Parenthood Federation of America was established in 1942, bringing together
advocates of family planning and sexual satisfaction under one organization. Planned
Parenthood has since become a prominent advocate for reproductive health and sexual
education.
3. A person’s concept of himself or herself as a man or a woman is referred to as ________.
Answer: gender identity
Rationale:
Gender identity is an individual's deeply-felt sense of being male, female, a blend of both, or
neither. It is distinct from biological sex and encompasses one's understanding of their own
gender.
4. The term ________ refers to whether an individual is romantically, emotionally, and
sexually attracted to members of the same sex or to members of the opposite sex.
Answer: sexual orientation
Rationale:

Sexual orientation refers to an individual's pattern of romantic, emotional, or sexual
attractions to others. It categorizes individuals based on the gender(s) to which they are
attracted, whether it's the same, opposite, or both genders.
5. Research has demonstrated that students who take ________ courses increase their comfort
level with various diverse groups, such as those with gay, lesbian, and bisexual orientations.
Answer: human sexuality
Rationale:
Human sexuality courses cover various aspects of sexual behavior, identity, relationships, and
health. By providing education on diverse sexual orientations and identities, these courses
help students develop understanding, empathy, and comfort with individuals from different
backgrounds.
6. In 2003, the ________ government created a website for the country called You and Me,
with the intention of engaging and informing youth on a variety of sexual topics.
Answer: Chinese
Rationale:
The Chinese government created the You and Me website in 2003 to provide sexual
education and information to youth. This initiative aimed to address sexual health issues and
promote informed decision-making among young people in China.
7. The term ________ refers to a wide range of physical, psychological, and emotional issues
relating to sexuality.
Answer: sexual health
Rationale:
Sexual health encompasses physical, emotional, mental, and social well-being in relation to
sexuality. It includes aspects such as reproductive health, sexual satisfaction, consent, and
prevention of sexually transmitted infections.
8. Large-scale ________ of sexual behavior and attitudes were pioneered by Dr. Alfred
Kinsey in the 1940s.
Answer: surveys
Rationale:
Dr. Alfred Kinsey conducted large-scale surveys on sexual behavior and attitudes in the
1940s, pioneering the scientific study of human sexuality. His research contributed
significantly to understanding the diversity and complexity of human sexual behavior.
9. The entire group of people to which the researcher is attempting to apply a study’s findings
is referred to as the ________.
Answer: target population
Rationale:

The target population refers to the entire group of individuals that the researcher aims to
generalize findings to. It is the population about which the researcher intends to draw
conclusions based on the study's results.
10. ________ is an effect that can occur when members of a target population are allowed to
volunteer to participate in a research study.
Answer: Self-selection bias
Rationale:
Self-selection bias occurs when individuals voluntarily choose to participate in a study,
potentially leading to a non-representative sample. This bias can skew study results if those
who self-select have characteristics different from the broader target population.
11. ________ believed that the only method by which human sexual behavior could be
obtained was direct systematic observation and physiological measurements of men and
women in all stages of sexual response.
Answer: Masters and Johnson
Rationale:
Masters and Johnson were pioneering researchers in the field of human sexuality. They
emphasized direct observation and physiological measurements as crucial methods for
understanding human sexual behavior, as evidenced in their landmark studies on sexual
response.
12. A ________ correlation allows researchers to predict that two variables will change
together in the same direction.
Answer: positive
Rationale:
A positive correlation indicates that as one variable increases, the other variable also
increases, or as one decreases, the other also decreases. This correlation allows researchers to
predict the direction of change in both variables.
13. The ________ research method allows researchers to determine cause-and-effect
relationships.
Answer: experimental
Rationale:
Experimental research involves manipulating one or more variables to observe the effect on
another variable. By controlling variables and randomly assigning participants to
experimental and control groups, researchers can establish cause-and-effect relationships.
14. In an experiment, the group receiving no treatment is called the ________.
Answer: control group
Rationale:

The control group in an experiment serves as a baseline for comparison against the
experimental group. It receives no intervention or treatment, allowing researchers to assess
the effect of the treatment by comparing outcomes between the control and experimental
groups.
15. Agreeing to participate in an experiment only after having been provided with complete
and accurate information about what to expect in the study is referred to as ________.
Answer: informed consent
Rationale:
Informed consent is a fundamental ethical principle in research, requiring that participants
provide voluntary agreement to participate after being fully informed about the study's
purpose, procedures, risks, and benefits. It ensures that participants make informed decisions
about their involvement in research.
ESSAY
1. Define and explain the difference between the terms gender identity and sexual orientation.
Provide examples of each.
Responses should consider:
• Perception of one’s sexuality is a major component of one’s self-identity.
• Gender identity is one’s concept of oneself as a man or a woman.
• Gender identity is one of the most important components of one’s sexual identity.
• Most people are clear about whether they are men or women.
• Sexual orientation is one component of one’s sexual self.
• Some people are confused about their sexual orientation.
• Sexual orientation refers to whether one is attracted to members of the same sex or to
members of the opposite sex.
• Sexual orientation refers to sexual, romantic, and emotional attraction.
2. Discuss two reasons why studies have shown that abstinence-only sex education programs
have failed to reduce rates of sexual activity, unintended pregnancy, or sexually-transmitted
infections among teens.
Responses should consider:
• Abstinence-only sex education has focused on instructing students not to have sex at all.
• Abstinence-only sex education teaches that young people should wait until marriage to
become sexually active.
• Such education includes the assumption that if teens wait until marriage to have sex, they
have no need for information about how to avoid unwanted pregnancy or how to prevent the
transmission of sexually transmitted infections.

• Such programs teach that the only way to avoid unwanted pregnancy or STIs is not to have
sex.
• Such programs teach that the only acceptable type of sexual relationship is a monogamous
marriage in which both partners are faithful to one another.
• Such programs teach that sexual activity outside of marriage is likely to have harmful
psychological and physical effects.
• It’s been found that when school districts attempt to implement abstinence-only sex
education programs, the outcome has been the dissemination of inaccurate information.
• Such programs fail to give young people the information they need to make responsible
choices.
• It’s likely that students taking a college course in human sexuality have not received correct
or adequate sexual information during their teenage years.
3. Discuss sex education in China. Provide two reasons that have prompted China’s
newfound interest in sex education.
Responses should consider:
• China has traditionally placed taboos on sex education.
• These taboos include discussing sex.
• Nearly half of all college students in China have received no education in school about
sexual behavior and health.
• As China modernizes, more adolescents are becoming sexually active at earlier ages.
• This has led to a dramatic rise in unplanned pregnancy and the spread of STIs.
• In acknowledgment of rising rates of unplanned pregnancy and STIs China has begun to
educate young people about sex and sexual health.
• The Chinese government approved a website called You and Me, the intention of which was
to inform young people about a variety of sexual topics.
• The website places particular emphasis on such subjects as HIV/AIDS, unwanted
pregnancies, and unsafe abortion practices.
• Through the website, Chinese youth are able to read about sexuality and to communicate
with each other about sexual matters.
• China is also becoming open to research about sexuality.
• The World Health Organization funded a large-scale study in the mid-2000s to establish a
comprehensive sex education program in a small Chinese town near Shanghai. Participants
were unmarried people between the ages of 15 and 24.
• Topics included contraception, STIs, and healthy sexual behaviors.
• As a result of the study, participants engaged in less coercive sexual behavior and were
more likely to use condoms and other forms of contraception.

• They were also less likely to experience unwanted pregnancies.
4. Define and describe the survey method. Identify two types of surveys and discuss the
rationale for using each of these methods.
Responses should consider:
• The most common form of sexual research methodology is the survey.
• A survey is the process of collecting information from volunteer respondents.
• The purpose of a survey is to explain, describe, or compare people’s knowledge, attitudes,
beliefs, and behaviors.
• Large-scale surveys were first done by Kinsey in the 1940s.
• The written questionnaire offers the greatest anonymity and privacy for the respondent and
may produce more honest responses.
• The face-to-face interview allows the interviewer to establish a friendly, trusting rapport
with the participants, and to have more flexibility in asking planned and follow-up questions.
• This may lead to greater honesty in the answers.
• A telephone survey allows for anonymity and flexibility in questioning.
• In doing a telephone survey, one runs the risk that some people may not take telephone
interviews seriously.
• They may also be annoyed at the intrusion into their lives. If so, the completeness or
accuracy of their answers might be in doubt.
• The widespread use of cell phones can reduce the reliability and validity of the telephone
survey method.
• Internet surveys offer the opportunity for a large number of responses from a wide
geographical area in a relatively short time span.
• Internet surveys pose concerns about ethics and validity.
• For example, are Internet surveys truly confidential? Are the participants of legal age? Are
they whom they claim to be in regard to age, gender, attitudes, and experiences?
• Does the Internet provide a non-representative, self-selected sample of participants?
• What about people who don’t have computers or Internet access?
5. Define the term correlational research. Identify and explain the three types of correlations.
Provide examples of each.
Responses should consider:
• Correlational research is a scientific research methodology that determines the extent to
which two variables are systematically related to each other.
• This type of research is so common in human sexuality research because researchers
typically cannot control people’s sexual behavior as would be necessary for an experiment.

• Most studies conducted in the field of human sexuality use correlational research because
researchers must usually take data that are already associated with their research participants
and look for predictive links between them.
• A positive correlation indicates that we can predict that two variables will change together
in the same direction. An example is shoe size and height; as one increases, the other does, as
well.
• A negative correlation tells us that the variables move predictably in the opposite direction.
An example is amount of alcohol consumed and driving ability; as one increases the other
decreases.
• No correlation means that there is no consistent, predictable relationship between two
variables, such as the relationship between shoe size and driving ability.
6. Identify and explain three guidelines that researchers conducting studies in human
sexuality are required to adhere to in order to ensure the ethical treatment of human
participants.
Responses should consider:
• Protection from harm: researchers have to protect their subjects from all physical and
psychological harm.
• This includes present and future harm.
• Informed consent: researchers must explain to potential participants what the study is about,
what procedures will be used, and what, if any, possible risks are involved.
• They must assure participants that the records are to be kept confidential. If that’s not
possible, they should explain who will have access to the records and why.
• They should inform participants in sexual research if sensitive or potentially embarrassing
topics will be part of the study.
• This allows the potential participants to make informed choices; if they agree to participate
this is called informed consent.
• If participants are minors, consent must be obtained from parents or guardians.
• Freedom to withdraw; participants have to understand that they have the freedom to
withdraw their participation at any time.
• Some people might think that if they agreed to participate they have to see it through to the
end; this is not so.
• If participants receive payment, if they are made to feel that their completion of the study is
required for payment, this may produce an unethical inducement to avoid withdrawing if they
wish to do so. A possible solution is to pay participants at the beginning of each session “just
for showing up.”
• Debriefing: this occurs after participants have completed their roles in the study.
• This is when researchers explain the goals and procedures of the study to participants.

• This gives participants the opportunity to ask questions or make comments about their
experiences.
• If deception was employed in any way during the study, participants must be fully
counseled about the form of the deception and why it was necessary. If so, participants should
be assured that they were not foolish in any way to have been deceived.
• Debriefing allows researchers to determine if any lingering negative aftereffects from the
study should be addressed with the participants.
• During debriefing, researchers may reassure participants of the confidentiality of the data
and provide them with phone numbers of email addresses for further contact, if needed.
• Confidentiality: all results from research participants must be kept in complete confidence
unless participants have given permission to share their data with other specific individuals.
• Findings must be reported in such a way that individual data cannot be identified.
• Researchers must develop methods of guarding against any possible breach of
confidentiality before they begin to gather data.
• The widespread use of computer databases and electronic storage and transfer of
information have created challenges for maintaining the confidentiality of research data.

Test Bank for Human Sexuality
Roger R. Hock
ISBN's: 9780205989409, 9780133971385, 9780134224961

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