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This Document Contains Chapters 9 to 10 Chapter 9: Middle Eastern and North African Americans Multiple-Choice 1) North Africans and Middle Eastern immigrants __________. A) come from a part of the world predominantly governed by Eastern thought B) have come since the 1965 Immigration Act C) have cultures that are as monolithic as their religious affiliation (Islam) D) have never voluntarily come to the United States Answer: B 2) Immigration legislation after 1965__________. A) effectively limited the number of immigrants from both Western and non-Western world B) were based on the restrictive national-origins quota system C) allowed more non-Western immigrants to gain approval to migrate D) has consistently restricted immigration for non-Christians Answer: C 3) __________ was/were often a push factor for nonwestern immigrants. A) Overpopulation B) Job opportunities C) Rapid air travel D) Religious freedom Answer: A 4) How long do most sojourners remain in the U.S.? A) 10 years B) 2 to 5 years C) 1 year D) 4 to 5 years Answer: B 5) Interaction surveys of Americans and nonwestern newcomers in professional, managerial, or technical fields show __________. A) widespread social distance B) much less social distance than in past years C) extensive social distance for Africans but not Asians D) extensive social distance for all but the Arabs Answer: A 6) Many of today’s professional Arab immigrants do not fit past acculturation patterns because they __________. A) need not become Americanized to enjoy the lifestyle they want B) have a religion different from the three major faiths C) do not physically fit into the melting pot theory D) do not fit into theories about behavior in the western world Answer: A 7) Malik and his immediate family came to the United States a few years ago. They have managed to carve out a nice, middle class lifestyle that they could never have imagined for themselves in their home country. Over the course of letters and phone calls, they convince some of their friends and extended family to come as well. This is a pattern known as __________ migration. A) acquaintance B) chain C) legal D) gradual Answer: B 8) In terms of median income, Arab men earn an average of __________ more than the national median for all males. A) $2500 B) $4500 C) $3000 D) $5000 Answer: B 9) Settlement patterning of recent Arab immigrants tends to be __________. A) in tight clusters in the inner city B) widespread and in loose clusters C) almost exclusively on the West Coast D) in rural and suburban areas Answer: B 10) What percentage of Arab Americans have a post graduate degree? A) 10% B) 15% C) 18% D) 20% Answer: C 11) The push factors for Syrian immigrants included __________. A) low unemployment B) disease C) Chinese oppression D) job opportunities Answer: B 12) The term used for the gradual replacement in a neighborhood of one group by another is __________. A) block-busting B) invasion-succession C) migration D) gradated sequencing Answer: B 13) The occupation of __________ helped speed up Syrian acculturation. A) peddling B) mechanic C) nursing D) teaching Answer: A 14) Syrian adjustment, acceptance, and upward mobility were fairly rapid because of their __________. A) wide dispersal which negated any significant opposition to their presence B) propensity to do low paying factory work C) lower class status which meant they were not seen as a threat D) religious values Answer: A 15) Syrian-Lebanese assimilation is nearly complete because they now have __________, which is what Milton Gordon calls the last stage of assimilation. A) financial security B) upward mobility C) large-scale intermarriage D) representation in all jobs and professions Answer: C 16) Most Egyptian Americans __________. A) live within well-defined urban ethnic communities when they first arrive B) have children who experience great difficulty adjusting to American culture C) do not marry outside their ethnic community D) live in Louisiana Answer: A 17) Why did most Egyptians leave Egypt? A) Economics and educational reasons B) Political unrest C) Religious reasons D) Political and religious reasons Answer: A 18) The experiences of Iraqi immigrants in Detroit illustrates __________. A) a persistent subculture despite changes in the homeland B) changes in the homeland changing immigrant orientations C) a village-oriented community nestled in an urban region D) hostility against them because of the oil crisis Answer: B 19) Most Palestinian Americans are __________. A) Buddhist B) Muslim C) Hindu D) Atheist Answer: B 20) The largest concentration of Palestinian Americans is in __________. A) Illinois B) Texas C) Georgia D) Massachusetts Answer: A 21) The local and regional association that helps Palestinian immigrants adjust to life in the United States is called the __________. A) Chain Migration Association B) Arab Nation C) American Federation of Ramallah D) Nation of Islam Answer: C 22) A common social center for working-class Palestinian Americans is the __________. A) neighborhood bar B) local coffeehouse C) corner grocery store D) parish church Answer: B 23) Their __________ helps Palestinians living in the United States maintain their ethnic identity. A) language B) priests and churches C) political cause D) cultural institute program Answer: C 24) Early Iranian immigrants who opted to stay in the United States permanently called themselves Persian Yankees or __________ A) mandegar B) belataklif C) cosmopolitans D) globalizers Answer: B 25) In explaining what her life as an immigrant is like to her U.S. friends, Shariz stresses the importance of the __________, which serves a religious purpose, an educational purpose, a social purpose and acts as a kind of social service agency. A) YMCA B) mosque C) Arab League D) community school Answer: B 26) Many Iranians kept to themselves for fear of __________. A) the SAVAK B) religious persecution C) violence D) disease Answer: A 27) Today’s second-generation Iranian Americans are mostly __________. A) living in poverty B) born to working-class parents C) living in the southeastern United States D) born to middle-class professional parents Answer: D 28) Iranian Americans experiencing mixed feelings about no longer living in the homeland call themselves __________. A) mandegar B) belataklif C) slyasi D) Now-Ruz Answer: B 29) Iranian immigration, which peaked in the 1980s, __________. A) more than doubled the number from the 1970s B) dropped in the 1990’s before picking up again in the 2000s C) has been more or less steady since the 1950s D) is currently at record low levels Answer: B 30) What two metropolitan areas account for approximately half of all Israeli Jews living in the U.S.? A) San Antonio and El Paso B) New York City and Los Angeles C) Upper Marlboro and Chevy Chase D) Dallas and Austin Answer: B 31) In what ways do Jewish Israeli immigrants maintain their identity? A) Become naturalized U.S. citizens B) Marry U.S. citizens C) Remain active in Israeli organizations D) Live in mixed communities Answer: C 32) Turkish emigration to the United States was low because __________. A) the United States was a Jewish country B) the traditional Turkish pattern of migration involved only small groups emigrating C) Turkish law barred any emigrant from ever returning D) very few states allowed their entry Answer: C 33) Anti-Turkish sentiment in the United States prior to World War I was due primarily to __________. A) the suppression and massacre of Armenians B) the heroin traffic from Turkish poppy fields C) anti-American actions in Turkey D) Turkish support of the Russian pogroms Answer: A 34) An important component of adjustment, acceptance, and assimilation is __________. A) arranged marriages B) length of U.S. residence C) older age at immigration D) recent visits to the country of origin Answer: B 35) __________ assimilation is much more likely for Arab Americans to the extent that they have lived in the U.S. for a long time, were younger at the age of immigration, and are Christian. A) Straight-line B) Segmented C) Structural D) Similar Answer: C 36) A __________ would stress the undercurrents of resentment and tension against the visible presence of nonwestern minorities and their successes. A) conflict theorist B) functionalist C) interactionist D) exchange theorist Answer: A 37) The conflict perspective would emphasize that __________. A) industrialists often used Syrian/Lebanese men to strengthen unions in the Northeast B) the Syrian/Lebanese offered factory owners a more expensive and more skilled labor alternative C) economic competition between two wage level groups generated ethnic antagonism and violence D) better-educated immigrants become functionally integrated fairly easily Answer: C 38) For recent ethnic tensions __________. A) conflict is usually more intense than toward previous waves of immigrants B) the majority of conflict is between recent immigrants C) the fear of further terrorist attacks and racial profiling add to underlying tension D) the extreme violence has slowed immigration to a trickle Answer: C 39) __________ theory explains ethnic conflict as economic exploitation of minority groups. A) Functionalist B) Conflict C) Social interactionist D) Ecological Answer: B 40) __________ theory explains ethnic discrimination as a social dysfunction. A) Functionalist B) Conflict C) Social interactionist D) Ecological Answer: A 41) Functionalists would say that __________. A) newcomers exacerbate the competition for scarce resources and set up class divisions B) the split-labor market theory explains the antagonism and violence early newcomers faced C) immigration laws ensure a support system in relative preference D) social integration follows workplace integration Answer: C 42) According to the functionalist view, the better educated, better skilled, and better connected immigrants __________. A) are typically welcomed immediately upon arriving into a new country B) are celebrated by their host countries C) quickly adjust D) actually have a harder time leaving their old country behind Answer: C 43) According to the functionalist view, less skilled non-Westerner newcomers __________. A) fill a population void in inner-city neighbourhoods B) live in middle-class neighbourhoods C) bring upheaval to neighbourhoods D) like the openness of rural communities Answer: A 44) __________ theory explains ethnic stereotypes as the dominant group’s premature response to minority groups. A) Functionalist B) Conflict C) Social interactionist D) Ecological Answer: C 45) According to __________, North African and Middle Eastern immigrants have benefitted from immigration laws that ensure sufficient earning power in occupational preference or priority for those with a social support system already in place such as an extended family. A) functionalists B) conflict theorists C) interactionists D) feminists Answer: A 46) Bill, a city planner, is working to promote his town as a place for immigrants because his urban and exurban neighbourhoods need the stability. As a(n) __________, he knows that these groups will help prevent neighbourhood decline and maintain racial balance. A) functionalist B) conflict theorist C) interactionist D) feminist Answer: A 47) __________ theorists often find validity with the split-labor-market approach and point to the experiences of Syrian/Lebanese men in the United States as strike-breakers as further evidence to support that theory. A) Functionalist B) Conflict C) Interactionist D) Feminist Answer: B 48) Andrew understands that any immigrant group faces problems, but he is struck by the relative ease with which the groups in this chapter managed to integrate into U.S. society. As someone whose views align with the __________ perspective, he points to the high levels of education and professionalization that many of these immigrants brought with them as key factors in making this possible. A) functionalist B) conflict C) interactionist D) feminist Answer: A 49) __________ theorists viewed the terrible actions of 9/11 as a real threat to reducing prejudice because the already existing social distance of Arab Americans would make it easy to stereotype all of them as radical extremists. A) Functionalist B) Conflict C) Interactionist D) Feminist Answer: B 50) In seeking to explain the experiences of Middle Eastern and North African immigrants to the United States, Diadra, an immigrant from Syria, talks about how she gets along with everyone at work, but socially, she is not well integrated beyond her own compatriots. __________ stress that this increases opportunities for ethnic stereotypes and division to emerge. A) Functionalists B) Conflict theorists C) Interactionists D) Feminists Answer: C True/False 51) Arab Americans are more likely to be married than the total U.S. population. Answer: True 52) Educational attainment translates into occupations and income. Answer: True 53) Greater acculturation appears to be associated positively with satisfaction with life in the U.S. for Arabs but negatively associated with family satisfaction. Answer: True 54) Arab Americans appear to be generally unconcerned about racial differences in the United States. Answer: True 55) Many of today’s Arab Americans are less sophisticated than other middle-class U.S. citizens. Answer: False 56) Predominantly Arab nations are political enemies of the United States. Answer: False 57) Syrian males usually came alone and then sent for their wives and children. Answer: True 58) Syrian and Lebanese people speak Arabic. Answer: True 59) Most Palestinian Americans are Hindus. Answer: False 60) Israeli Americans typically experience a smoother transition to American life than any other immigrant group. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank 61) Terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, in New York City and Washington, DC increased suspicions about __________, although their social acceptance remains fairly strong. Answer: Arab Muslims 62) Of all the Arab American groups, __________ have the highest level of educational attainment. Answer: Egyptians 63) __________ is a broad term covering people of diverse nationalities, religions, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Although Americans described by this term may share a sense of peoplehood, they come from 22 nations of North Africa and the Middle East. Answer: Arab 64) As with most immigrant groups, __________ links play an important role in stabilizing community life for the Arab Americans. Answer: kinship 65) Failure to grasp the humanity of the Arab people increases the __________ between non-Arabs and Arabs. Answer: social distance 66) __________ means one group experiencing upward mobility gradually moves out of its old neighbourhood. Answer: Invasion-succession 67) The early immigrants formed a __________ of village-oriented entrepreneurs whose religious traditions served as their self-identification. Answer: gemeinschaft 68) Middle Easterners and Western Asians usually settle in urbanized areas near their __________, with whom they develop close primary social contacts. Answer: compatriots 69) Among the push-pull factors contributing to Israeli immigration was __________. Answer: political unrest in the Middle East. 70) __________ occurs when there is large-scale entrance of minority group members into primary-group relationships with the host society in its social organizations and institutions. It is rarely seen among first-generation immigrant groups. Answer: Structural assimilation Short Answer 71) How are temporary visitors such as students, workers, and business people different from immigrants in terms of assimilation? Answer: Differences Between Temporary Visitors and Immigrants in Assimilation Temporary Visitors: • Short-Term Stay: Intend to stay temporarily for education, work assignments, or business ventures. • Limited Integration: Often maintain ties to their home country and may not fully integrate into the host society. • Cultural Maintenance: Maintain cultural practices and identities from their home country during their stay. Immigrants: • Long-Term Settlement: Plan to permanently settle in the host country. • Integration Process: Engage in long-term cultural, social, and economic integration into the host society. • Acculturation: Adopt aspects of the host culture while retaining some aspects of their original culture. Assimilation: Immigrants undergo a more profound process of assimilation, involving adaptation to the host society's norms, values, and institutions over generations, whereas temporary visitors maintain a more transient connection to the host society. 72) Many of the new middle Eastern immigrants do not fit the acculturation patterns that worked for other immigrant groups. Explain this trend by using Saudi Arabians as an example. Answer: Acculturation Patterns of Middle Eastern Immigrants, Using Saudi Arabians as an Example Trend Explanation: • Cultural Differences: Saudi Arabians often come from a highly conservative and traditional society with strong religious values. • Social Isolation: Preference for maintaining distinct cultural practices and norms can lead to social isolation in the host country. • Limited Assimilation: Resistance to adopting mainstream cultural values and practices may hinder integration efforts compared to other immigrant groups. Example: Saudi Arabians in the United States may face challenges in integrating due to cultural and religious practices that differ significantly from mainstream American society, such as dress codes, gender roles, and social interactions. 73) Explain residential patterning of Arab Americans. Answer: Residential Patterning of Arab Americans Patterns: • Ethnic Enclaves: Concentration in urban areas with established Arab American communities, such as Dearborn, Michigan, and Brooklyn, New York. • Cultural Centres: Presence of mosques, cultural centres, and businesses that cater to Arab American residents. • Social Networks: Strong social networks within the community based on shared cultural and linguistic ties. Impact: Residential clustering facilitates cultural preservation, mutual support, and the maintenance of ethnic identity among Arab Americans. 74) Explain how Syrian/Lebanese immigrants could easily assimilate into U.S. society before 1950. Answer: Assimilation of Syrian/Lebanese Immigrants Before 1950 Factors: • Early Immigration Waves: Arrived as early as the late 19th and early 20th centuries, facilitating generational assimilation. • Occupational Mobility: Success in entrepreneurial endeavors, such as owning businesses in urban areas, aided socio-economic integration. • Cultural Adaptation: Adoption of American lifestyles, including language proficiency and participation in civic life. Example: Syrian/Lebanese immigrants integrated into U.S. society through economic success, community involvement, and cultural adaptation, contributing to their assimilation before mid-20th century immigration restrictions. 75) Explain the factors that contributed to the lack of societal animosity toward Iraqi Americans. Answer: Factors Contributing to Lack of Societal Animosity Toward Iraqi Americans Factors: • Post-Immigration Context: Many Iraqi Americans arrived after the Gulf War or Iraq War, not during periods of international tension. • Positive Contributions: Contributions to American society through professions like medicine, engineering, and academia. • Cultural Integration: Willingness to assimilate and adapt to American cultural norms and values. • Diversity Awareness: Increased societal awareness and tolerance toward diverse immigrant communities, including Iraqi Americans. Example: Iraqi Americans' positive contributions in various fields and their cultural integration efforts have fostered acceptance and minimized societal animosity compared to perceptions of other immigrant groups during contentious periods. Essay 76) How did September 11, 2001 impact the acceptance of Arab Muslims? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Explain the acceptance of Arab Muslims prior to 9/11. 2. Articulate the differences and challenges post 9/11 paying attention to media portrayals in particular. 3. Assess the impact of these differences on daily life and global relations. Sample Answer: Impact of September 11, 2001, on Acceptance of Arab Muslims Impact: • Heightened Suspicion: Arab Muslims faced increased scrutiny and suspicion due to the association with the 9/11 terrorist attacks. • Discrimination: Reports of hate crimes and discrimination against Arab Americans and Muslims surged. • Policy Changes: Implementation of security measures and policies targeting individuals perceived as threats based on ethnicity and religion. Long-Term Effects: • Stigmatization: Persistent stereotypes and negative perceptions of Arab Muslims as potential terrorists. • Community Response: Efforts by Arab American organizations and allies to combat prejudice and promote understanding. Example: The backlash post-9/11 led to challenges in employment, social interactions, and civil liberties for Arab Americans and Muslims in the U.S. 77) How does the residential patterning and community life of today’s Arab Americans differ from that of past European immigrants? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Note the current residential patterns and community life of Arab Americans including region of settlement and gender patterns. 2. Identify points of departure from past Arab Americans. 3. Use examples such as marriage patterns and education levels to illustrate the differences. Sample Answer: Residential Patterning and Community Life of Today's Arab Americans vs. Past European Immigrants Today's Arab Americans: • Urban Enclaves: Concentration in urban areas with established Arab American communities, fostering cultural preservation and mutual support. • Diverse Occupations: Engagement in diverse professions, including medicine, engineering, business, and academia. • Cultural Centers: Presence of mosques, cultural centers, and businesses catering to Arab American needs. Past European Immigrants: • Industrial Era Settlements: Settlement in ethnic enclaves in cities, largely driven by industrial labor demands. • Ethnic Institutions: Development of community organizations, churches, and social clubs to preserve cultural identity. • Assimilation: Gradual assimilation into mainstream American society over generations, with shifts in occupational and residential patterns. Comparison: Today's Arab Americans maintain strong ethnic identities through community institutions while integrating into broader American society, similar to past European immigrants' experiences in urban enclaves. 78) Discuss how Arab Americans deal with stereotypes and group blame. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Explain the concepts of stereotypes and group blame. 2. Articulate the Arab American response distinguishing between pre and post 9/11 responses. 3. Note how this differs from the responses of other ethnic groups because of their visibility. Sample Answer: Strategies: • Education and Advocacy: Educating the public about Arab American culture, history, and contributions to counter stereotypes. • Community Support: Building solidarity within the Arab American community and alliances with other ethnic groups to address discrimination. • Legal Advocacy: Legal recourse against discrimination and hate crimes through civil rights organizations and advocacy groups. Challenges: • Media Representation: Addressing negative portrayals and biased media coverage through media literacy and representation efforts. • Policy Advocacy: Advocating for policies that promote diversity, inclusion, and equitable treatment of Arab Americans in society. Example: Arab American organizations like the Arab American Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC) work to combat stereotypes and promote understanding through education, advocacy, and community engagement. 79) What were the settlement and acculturation patterns of Egyptians in America? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Briefly identify and define settlement patterns and acculturation including regional settlement patterns. 2. Illustrate these concepts using the case of Egyptians in America paying attention to the prominent role of education in the Egyptian culture. Sample Answer: Settlement and Acculturation Patterns of Egyptians in America Settlement Patterns: • Urban Concentration: Initially settled in urban areas with sizable Egyptian communities, such as New York City, Los Angeles, and Washington, D.C. • Professional Migration: Many Egyptians immigrated to the United States for educational and professional opportunities in fields like medicine, engineering, and academia. • Community Institutions: Established mosques, cultural centers, and businesses catering to the Egyptian-American community's needs. Acculturation Patterns: • Cultural Preservation: Maintained ties to Egyptian cultural practices, including language, cuisine, and religious customs. • Integration: Engaged in American society through education, employment, and civic participation while preserving aspects of their Egyptian identity. • Generational Shifts: Second-generation Egyptians often navigate dual identities, balancing Egyptian heritage with American cultural norms. Example: Egyptian Americans contribute to diverse professions and cultural enrichment in the U.S., reflecting both integration into American society and preservation of their cultural heritage. 80) Apply the three major sociological perspectives to the experiences of the groups discussed in this chapter. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Outline the three basic theoretical approaches to studying minorities-functionalism, conflict theory and interactionism. 2. Evaluate the effectiveness of each theory in explaining some aspect of the experiences of Middle Eastern and North African Americans including assessing the impact of 9/11 and the War on Terror in addition to settlement and assimilation patterns. 3. Use examples to show where each theory could be useful. Sample Answer: Sociological Perspectives on the Experiences of Egyptian Americans Functionalism: • Integration: Focuses on how Egyptian Americans contribute to American society through their roles in various professions and cultural institutions. • Community Cohesion: Highlights the role of ethnic organizations and cultural centers in maintaining social cohesion and supporting newcomers. • Example: Egyptian American communities foster cultural exchange through festivals, educational programs, and community events. Conflict Theory: • Structural Inequality: Analyzes systemic barriers and discrimination faced by Egyptian Americans in areas such as employment, education, and political representation. • Intersectional Challenges: Considers how race, ethnicity, and religion intersect to shape Egyptian Americans' experiences of marginalization and exclusion. • Example: Advocacy efforts against racial profiling and discriminatory policies targeting Arab and Muslim communities post-9/11. Symbolic Interactionism: • Identity Construction: Examines how Egyptian Americans negotiate their identities through everyday interactions, cultural symbols, and experiences of discrimination. • Perceptions and Stereotypes: Considers the impact of media representation and public perceptions on shaping Egyptian American self-perception and social interactions. • Example: Media portrayals of Egyptian Americans influence public attitudes and policy debates about immigration and diversity. Chapter 10: Black Americans Multiple-Choice 1) The new black immigrants come from areas where __________. A) their race is the majority B) a bipartite color system prevails C) color is a primary factor in group life D) Africans are partially assimilated and socially restricted Answer: A 2) Opponents of slavery reparations argued that __________. A) unlike other reparation payments, no victims are alive today B) the statute of limitations has not expired C) identifying descendants of slaves is meaningless even with racial self-identification D) no real harm was done to the African slaves in the long run Answer: A 3) Racism emerged as an ideology __________. A) after slavery began in the United States B) sometime in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries C) during the sectional rivalry in the early nineteenth century D) only in the twentieth century Answer: B 4) Myths about Black racial inferiority __________. A) began with the ancient Egyptians B) originated in Africa to discourage the slave trade C) emerged as a rationalization for U.S. slavery D) were rejected by slave owners who knew Blacks worked hard Answer: C 5) Looking at the TV news about inner-city black adolescents’ delinquency problems, John thinks that blacks are the cause of social problems in the US. This is an example of __________. A) overt racism B) the subtlety of racism C) institutional racism D) external prejudice Answer: B 6) What was the difference between other ethnic groups and African immigrants in the U.S. during the years of slavery? A) Neither other ethnic groups nor African immigrants could re-create in miniature the society they left behind. B) The South made educating black slaves and other ethnic groups a criminal offense. C) Through hard work and perseverance, African immigrants were able to overcome nativist fears and prejudices. D) 200 years of master-slave relations shaped values and attitudes about whites and blacks that still linger today. Answer: D 7) The __________ had implications far beyond slavery as it produced a system which replicated social inferiority throughout generations. A) master-slave social system B) racial reparations C) creation of African American ethnic enclaves D) Jim Crow laws Answer: A 8) The principle of “separate but equal” was __________. A) upheld by the Supreme Court in 1896 B) struck down by the Supreme Court in 1896 C) recommended by President Lincoln D) created by Congress in 1896 with passage of the Plessy-Ferguson Act Answer: A 9) The gradual and pervasive change in the values of a people is known as __________. A) value shift B) cultural drift C) cultural differentiation D) value evolution Answer: B 10) Myrdal called the intensification of discrimination resulting from Jim Crow laws __________. A) exponential pathology B) cumulative causation C) behavioral rigidity D) societal racism Answer: B 11) Jim Crow Laws __________. A) caused a massive migration of blacks to the southern states B) reflected southern states’ embracing the notion of separate but equal upheld in Plessy v. Ferguson C) meant that segregation became the norm only in limited areas in the South D) were common in northern states in the form of poll tax laws Answer: B 12) In the early twentieth century, the migration of southern blacks to the North was due mostly to __________. A) the existence of Jim Crow laws and poor economic conditions in the North B) better educational opportunities in the North C) more political freedom in the South D) religious persecution in the South Answer: B 13) In the 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan spread northward and __________. A) added Jews, Catholics, and foreigners to its list of targets B) focused on the urban blacks who had migrated from the South C) were ignored by almost everyone D) seized control of several state legislatures Answer: A 14) In 1954, the landmark desegregation order covered __________. A) schools only B) transportation only C) any public establishment D) any form of segregation, including housing Answer: A 15) Since the mid-1960s, the number of elected black officials has __________. A) increased slightly B) increased dramatically C) decreased slightly D) decreased dramatically Answer: B 16) The measurable impact of the massive civil rights legislation was its __________. A) changing of people’s attitudes B) creation of the welfare system C) provision of equal life opportunities for African Americans D) exclusion of Native Americans Answer: C 17) The 1960s sit-ins and freedom rides are examples of which minority response pattern? A) Avoidance B) Defiance C) Deviance D) Self-justification Answer: B 18) The 1980s Miami riot __________. A) was black versus Asian B) was caused by black resentment against the Cuban community C) was about protesting the war in Vietnam D) lasted for 13 years Answer: B 19) The 1992 Los Angeles riot __________. A) was a black versus white riot like the 1965 Watts riot B) did not involve Latinos C) was a black versus white and Korean riot D) was a multiracial riot with various conflict combinations Answer: D 20) The National Commission on Civil Disorders said a major cause of the 1960s riots was/were __________. A) police practices B) low unemployment C) the rise of affordable housing D) religious persecution Answer: A 21) The Bell Curve says the best explanation of wealth, status, poverty, and social pathologies is __________. A) education B) intelligence C) occupation D) work ethic Answer: B 22) Critics attack the Bell Curve for its __________. A) selective use of data B) poorly trained scientists C) use of graduate students as analysts D) conflict of interest with regard to funding Answer: A 23) The major criticism against using intelligence testing to compare the capabilities of races is __________. A) the presumption that genetic factors explain differences in scores B) the presumption that cultural factors explain differences in scores C) no significant or consistent differences in scores occur D) whites outnumber blacks, giving them an unfair advantage Answer: A 24) Language may subconsciously encourage racial prejudgment __________. A) if people use nasty words B) because if you hear words, you believe them C) of the negative connotations of some D) of their frequent repetition Answer: C 25) What percentage of Latino voters did Obama receive in 2012? A) 7% B) 20% C) 52% D) 71% Answer: D 26) Today, many African Americans still lack __________. A) basic services and amenities B) educational opportunities C) legal rights D) political representation Answer: A 27) Blauner’s “internal-colonialism” refers to __________. A) the rise in tenement housing B) the large number of African Americans trapped in ghettos C) racial pride D) a negative mindset found in Blacks Answer: B 28) Population movement since 1960 from inside to outside central cities __________. A) involved few African Americans B) reduced the percentage of African Americans living outside central cities C) kept the proportion of African Americans living outside central cities fairly constant D) resulted in most African Americans living outside central cities Answer: D 29) Segregation for Blacks has __________ over the last 20 years. A) increased B) decreased C) remained the same D) been impossible to measure Answer: B 30) In terms of income, which group has benefited most from all the civil rights actions? A) Black poor B) Black middle class C) Both the black poor and the black middle class D) Neither the black poor nor the black middle class Answer: B 31) Black men are more likely than white men to be employed as __________. A) high school principals B) university professors C) food-service workers D) sanitation workers Answer: C 32) Analysis of the age distribution of American blacks and whites shows __________. A) blacks have a larger percentage of young people B) whites have a larger percentage of young people C) a fairly even age distribution between the two races D) both blacks and whites are experiencing a new “baby boom” Answer: A 33) The black middle class __________. A) has earnings that are comparable to the white middle class B) has businesses that are more susceptible to failure because of government intervention C) still endures various forms of racism D) is increasingly returning to Africa Answer: C 34) Wilson maintains that denial of upward mobility to the black poor results from __________. A) social class barriers that limit life chances B) racial discrimination C) cutbacks in government support programs D) job competition from Hispanic immigrants Answer: A 35) What percentage of blacks believe that major conflicts still exist between the races? A) 47% B) 35% C) 75% D) 53% Answer: D 36) Immigration from Haiti will likely __________. A) continue for a long time B) be limited in number and duration C) surpass that from Mexico D) eliminate all problems related to poverty Answer: A 37) African-born Americans tend to __________ than American-born African Americans. A) be better educated B) have lower income levels C) own their homes in lower numbers D) be more represented in popular media Answer: A 38) __________ constitute the largest non-Hispanic immigrant population from the Caribbean. A) Haitians B) Jamaicans C) Cubans D) Kenyans Answer: B 39) __________ are routinely denied refugee status in the United States. A) Haitians B) Jamaicans C) Cubans D) Kenyans Answer: A 40) Immigration from Africa __________. A) is virtually nonexistent B) is down to a small trickle C) has been steadily declining since European colonial rule ended D) has been significantly increasing in recent years Answer: D 41) African immigrants and black Americans __________. A) identify with each other because of the racial bond B) seldom interact because of the cultural differences C) are alike, since both are African Americans D) come into frequent conflict with one another Answer: B 42) Native-born blacks __________. A) rarely face racial issues in their social acceptance B) raised in the Northeast tend to differ in lifestyles and interaction patterns compared to those from the South C) are pretty homogenous as a group D) are completely integrated into society Answer: B 43) According to the interactionist view, __________. A) skin color often triggers negative responses about busing, crime, housing, jobs, and poverty B) oppression of blacks is the result of American capitalists’ exploitation C) the question of who benefits is the most significant issue in black-white relationships D) slavery provided cheap labor in the South as a social function Answer: A 44) The interactionist view on the experiences of African Americans stresses that __________. A) beliefs about a people are culturally transmitted and reinforced by external conditions B) differences or alleged inferiority lead to class differentiation C) the opposition to integration efforts usually comes from a fear of how social roles and institutions will be altered D) slavery provided cheap labor in the South as a social function Answer: A 45) With regard to ethnic inequality, the functionalist view suggests that __________. A) inequality exists in all societies because of distinct ethnic mentalities B) in a society, a value consensus develops about the functional importance in meeting the needs and priorities of society C) slavery offered the south an effective means of finding a consensus between whites and blacks D) ethnic differences are really just a struggle for class status and social position Answer: B 46) While Aaron does not condone slavery, as a(n) __________ theorist, he understands that it served a purpose by allowing the Southern states to develop an agriculturally based economy. A) functionalist B) conflict C) interactionist D) critical race Answer: A 47) Although she recognizes that slavery happened generations ago, Shirlene cannot help but see the connection between the long term economic exploitation of labor and current inequalities. She is a(n) __________ theorist. A) functionalist B) conflict C) interactionist D) critical race Answer: B 48) According to the conflict view, __________. A) social status of blacks depends on the functionalist orientation of the society and the availability of qualified personnel B) inequality exists because people value certain occupational roles C) system corrections such as federal judicial and legislative action occur when there are social dysfunctions D) slavery is an obvious example of past economic exploitation of blacks Answer: D 49) The conflict view on the experiences of African Americans stresses that __________. A) compared to the era of slavery, more recent economic exploitation of blacks may be even more obvious B) confining blacks to marginal positions preserved better-paying job opportunities for Hispanics C) Blauner’s internal-colonialism theory is appropriate for understanding the racial oppression of blacks D) slavery creates a meaning system that develops among slaves to communicate with one another in the presence of the dominant group Answer: C 50) Karl believes that racism is so interwoven into the fabric of U.S. society that our culture literally is sustained by a system of racism. Karl is a(n) __________. A) functionalist B) conflict theorist C) interactionist D) critical race theorist Answer: D True/False 51) Most Africans who arrived in America from 1619 until 1808 immigrated unwillingly. Answer: True 52) To ease their transition to a new land, other ethnic groups re-created in miniature the society they left behind; but the Africans who came to the Unites States were not allowed to do so. Answer: True 53) Some ancient civilizations considered themselves superior to others, and they typically based their beliefs on race. Answer: False 54) Although popular in the 19th century, today the Ku Klux Klan is considered a relic from the past. Answer: False 55) Although African Americans found greater freedom in the North, the dominant group’s animosity toward them led to majority patterns of avoidance and discrimination. Answer: True 56) Rosa Parks’ refusal to sit at the back of the bus eventually led a federal district court to rule against segregated seating. Answer: True 57) The 1992 Los Angeles riot was between blacks and whites. Answer: False 58) Barack Obama’s victory has lessened the scope of the race problem. Answer: False 59) The widest gaps in education for blacks occur in the Southern states that were the strongholds of slavery. Answer: False 60) Bipolarization refers to the economic gap among blacks only. Answer: False Fill-in-the-Blank 61) Some black leaders have lobbied for slavery reparations, arguing that if President __________ had not stripped the freed slaves of the land given them by General William Tecumseh Sherman under Special Field Orders No. 15, their descendants might now control a much larger share of U.S. wealth. Proponents seek cash payments now to right an old wrong. Answer: Andrew Johnson 62) The problem with racism is twofold: its __________ and its subtlety. The missing term here refers not only to racism’s institutionalization within society but also to its transmission from one generation to the next. Answer: legacy 63) The 16th and 17th centuries were the period of European exploration and __________, during which Europeans came into contact with many physically different, less technologically advanced peoples. Answer: imperialism 64) __________ is a gradual and pervasive change in a people’s values. Answer: Cultural drift 65) When Reconstruction ended in 1876, blacks once again found themselves in a formalized inferior status through segregation laws, voting disfranchisement, __________ (state laws designed to keep blacks in subservient positions), job discrimination, and occupational eviction. Answer: black codes 66) The South had __________ segregation, but Jim Crow—as a cause of black migration and a model for northern attitudes and actions—played an important role in the development of __________ segregation in the North. Answer: de jure, de facto 67) __________ of 1964 was the most far-reaching legislation against racial discrimination ever passed. Answer: The Civil Rights Act 68) The word __________ rather than Negro became the accepted way of referring to this racial group in the 1970s. Answer: black 69) Blauner’s __________ certainly applies to the segment of the black population that is trapped in a culture of poverty. Answer: internal-colonialism theory 70) __________ occurs when laws attempt to legitimize differential racial treatment. Answer: Institutional racism Short Answer 71) Explain three factors that contributed to the rise of racism in the United States. Answer: Factors Contributing to the Rise of Racism in the United States 1.Historical Legacies: Centuries of slavery and institutionalized racism entrenched racial hierarchies and stereotypes. 2.Economic Competition: Perceptions of racial groups as economic threats led to scapegoating and discriminatory practices. 3.Political Exploitation: Politicians and leaders exploited racial divisions to maintain power and control, fostering resentment and prejudice among different racial groups. 72) What are “slavery reparations?” Why are they controversial? Answer: Slavery Reparations and Their Controversy Definition: Slavery reparations refer to financial compensation or other forms of restitution to descendants of enslaved Africans for the economic and social injustices inflicted during slavery and its aftermath. Controversy: Legal and Moral Arguments: Critics argue over the feasibility of identifying and compensating descendants, as well as the moral implications of assigning responsibility for historical injustices. Political and Social Implications: Reparations are controversial due to concerns about cost, fairness, and whether they could exacerbate racial tensions rather than promote reconciliation and justice. 73) Explain how Jim Crow laws affected blacks in the South and why such laws caused them to migrate to the North. Answer: Impact of Jim Crow Laws on Blacks in the South and Migration to the North Effects: Segregation: Jim Crow laws enforced racial segregation in public facilities, education, housing, and employment, perpetuating inequality and limited opportunities for African Americans. Violence and Intimidation: Systematic disenfranchisement and violence, including lynching, created a hostile environment for African Americans. Northern Migration: Seeking better economic opportunities, improved living conditions, and escape from racial violence, many African Americans migrated from the rural South to urban centres in the North during the Great Migration (1916-1970). 74) Explain black-white relations during the late 19th and early 20th century as cultural drift. Answer: Black-White Relations during the Late 19th and Early 20th Century as Cultural Drift Cultural Drift: Segregation and Stereotypes: Cultural divisions reinforced by segregation and racial stereotypes perpetuated misunderstandings and social barriers. Resistance and Resilience: African Americans developed distinct cultural practices and institutions to resist oppression and maintain community cohesion. -Slow Integration: Gradual shifts in social norms and legal reforms eventually challenged segregation and promoted civil rights movements. 75) What is the main argument of the Bell Curve? Is it a valid argument and study? Why or why not? Answer: Main Argument of the Bell Curve and Its Validity Main Argument: The Bell Curve, authored by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, argues that intelligence (measured by IQ tests) is a significant predictor of socioeconomic success, and that differences in IQ scores between racial groups contribute to disparities in income, education, and social outcomes. Validity Debate: Criticism: Critics argue that the IQ tests used are culturally biased and do not account for environmental factors that influence intelligence. Social Implications: The Bell Curve's argument has been criticized for perpetuating racial stereotypes and justifying policies that reinforce inequality. -Scientific Debate: Many scholars and experts dispute the study's conclusions, questioning its methodology and the interpretation of data on race and intelligence. Essay 76) Explain Gunnar Myrdal’s conclusion that “discrimination breeds discrimination” using examples. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Briefly define discrimination and Myrdal’s concept of cumulative causation. 2. Explain the context for Myrdal’s statement and the meaning behind it. 3. Use examples from Jim Crow laws and economic conditions to support his argument. Sample Answer: Gunnar Myrdal’s Conclusion: "Discrimination Breeds Discrimination" Explanation: Gunnar Myrdal, in his influential work "An American Dilemma" (1944), argued that discriminatory practices and attitudes create a cycle of reinforcement, perpetuating inequalities and prejudices. Examples: • Employment Discrimination: Employers who discriminate against minorities in hiring practices may inadvertently reinforce stereotypes about the capabilities of those minorities, leading to further discrimination. • Educational Opportunities: Discriminatory policies in education, such as unequal funding or tracking based on race, can limit educational attainment among minority groups, perpetuating disparities in achievement. • Housing Segregation: Racially discriminatory practices in housing, such as redlining or restrictive covenants, concentrate poverty and limit access to quality housing and neighbourhood resources for minority communities. Impact: This cycle of discrimination leads to systemic inequalities and reinforces negative stereotypes, affecting social mobility and perpetuating racial and ethnic divisions. 77) Discuss and illustrate the concept of language as prejudice. Use examples to show how language can structure racial and ethnic relations Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Outline the idea of language as a source of prejudice noting the power of connotation. 2. Use examples to support the idea of language as prejudice and show the power of language maybe drawing on Davis’ thesaurus example. 3. Identify key places where language has shaped race relations. Sample Answer: Language as Prejudice: Structuring Racial and Ethnic Relations Concept: Language can be a tool of prejudice, shaping perceptions and interactions between racial and ethnic groups. It reflects and reinforces power dynamics and social hierarchies. Examples: • Racial Slurs: Derogatory language used against racial or ethnic minorities reinforces negative stereotypes and perpetuates discrimination. • Cultural Signifiers: Linguistic differences, such as accents or dialects associated with particular racial or ethnic groups, can lead to discrimination or bias in employment, education, or social interactions. • Language Policy: Official language policies can marginalize linguistic minorities, limiting access to services or opportunities based on language proficiency. Impact: Language can both reflect and reinforce social hierarchies, influencing how individuals perceive themselves and others, and shaping interactions in diverse societies. 78) Outline the current debate of race versus social class as a basis for understanding the current status of race relations. Which side in this debate do you take? Why? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Identify both sides of the class versus race argument articulating the concept of bipolarization. 2. Argue in support of one side or the other advocating for or against a color-blind society. 3. Use evidence to support the argument. Sample Answer: Debate of Race vs. Social Class in Understanding Race Relations Current Debate: There is ongoing debate over whether race or social class is a more significant determinant of socioeconomic outcomes and status in contemporary societies. Arguments: • Race-Centered Perspective: Advocates argue that racial discrimination and systemic racism create unique barriers and disadvantages that cannot be fully explained by social class alone. Historical and institutional factors perpetuate racial inequalities. • Class-Centered Perspective: Supporters argue that socioeconomic status, including education, income, and social capital, is a more critical factor in determining life chances and opportunities. Class-based policies may address broader inequalities more effectively than race-specific interventions. Position: The debate often intersects with policy discussions on affirmative action, economic justice, and social mobility. My perspective leans towards acknowledging the intersectionality of race and class, recognizing that both factors interact to shape individuals' experiences and opportunities. Addressing systemic racism and socioeconomic inequalities requires a multifaceted approach that considers race alongside class dynamics. 79) What are the general public’s opinions with regard to race relations in our country? How have these opinions changed over time? What forces give shape to these opinions now? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Note the current opinions about race and how they differ from the past drawing on conflict and interactionist perspectives to identify patterns. 2. Identify key debates or social forces that shape contemporary race relations including opposition to integration, critical race theory and Black racism. Sample Answer: Public Opinions on Race Relations in the United States General Public Opinions: • Current Views: Varied and often polarized opinions exist regarding race relations, influenced by media coverage, political rhetoric, and personal experiences. • Historical Trends: Opinion shifts over time reflect changing societal norms and events such as civil rights movements, economic downturns, and demographic shifts. • Forces Shaping Opinions: Media representation, political discourse, social movements (e.g., Black Lives Matter), and educational initiatives all influence public perceptions of race relations. 80) Apply the three major sociological perspectives to the black experience in the United States. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Outline the three basic theoretical approaches to studying minorities-functionalism, interactionist, and conflict theory 2. Evaluate the effectiveness of each theory in explaining some aspect of the African American experience paying particular attention to the legacy of slavery from each perspective. 3. Use examples to show where each theory could be useful. Sample Answer: Sociological Perspectives on the Black Experience in the United States Functionalism: • Integration and Stability: Focuses on how African Americans contribute to societal stability through labor, cultural contributions, and community institutions. • Social Order: Emphasizes the role of social institutions in maintaining stability and addressing inequalities through policies and reforms. • Example: Functionalists highlight the role of historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) in fostering educational opportunities and cultural preservation. Conflict Theory: • Structural Inequality: Analyses systemic barriers and power dynamics that perpetuate racial disparities in education, employment, and criminal justice. • Oppression and Resistance: Highlights African Americans' struggles against institutional racism, economic exploitation, and political marginalization. • Example: Conflict theorists examine disparities in wealth accumulation and access to resources, illustrating how racism intersects with economic and social inequalities. Symbolic Interactionism: • Identity Construction: Examines how race shapes individual identities, interactions, and self-perceptions through language, symbols, and cultural norms. • Micro-Level Interactions: Focuses on everyday experiences of prejudice, discrimination, and racial identity formation. • Example: Symbolic interactionists explore how media representations and stereotypes influence perceptions of African Americans and contribute to racial prejudice. Test Bank for Strangers to These Shores Vincent N Parrillo 9780205971688, 9780134732862, 9780205970407

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