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This Document Contains Chapters 7 to 8 Chapter 7: American Indians Multiple Choice 1) Native Americans experienced __________ from the dominant group. A) affirmative action B) segregation C) assimilation D) celebration Answer: B 2) Before European colonization, approximately how many Native Americans lived in what would become the United States? A) Less than one million B) Between one and six million C) Between six and ten million D) Over ten million Answer: C 3) Whites viewing Native Americans as cruel, treacherous, lying, dirty heathens is an example of __________. A) self-justification B) discrimination C) cruelty D) ingroup hostility Answer: A 4) In the mid-19th century, the U.S. government adopted a policy of __________ as a means to deal with Native Americans. A) xenophobia B) ethnocentrism C) outgroup hostility D) forced relocation Answer: D 5) The Civil Rights Movement __________. A) inspired Native Americans B) slowed Native American progress C) discouraged Native Americans D) angered Native Americans Answer: A 6) Columbus’s first impressions of the Arawak tribe in the Caribbean reflected __________. A) xenophobia B) stereotyping C) ethnocentrism D) self-justification Answer: C 7) __________ is mentioned by the text as a disease faced by Native Americans after exposure to Europeans. A) Measles B) Cholera C) Influenza D) Cancer Answer: A 8) 19th-century U.S. policies, including __________ prevented most tribes from becoming full participants in U.S. society. A) removal B) reconciliation C) restoration D) affirmative action Answer: A 9) According to Benjamin Franklin’s account, which of the following did the Iroquois consider to be elements of European education? A) Knowledge of cabin building B) Increased masculinity C) Knowledge of the Iroquois language D) Nothing useful for living in the woods Answer: D 10) __________ was a political feature of the Iroquois League. A) Free political expression B) Hierarchical tribal authority C) Restricted religious expression D) A dictatorial political system Answer: A 11) __________ viewed Native Americans as Noble Savages, while __________ viewed them as bloodthirsty barbarians. A) Bartolome de las Casas; Columbus B) Juan Gines de Sepulveda; Bartolome de las Casas C) Bartolome de las Casas; Juan Gines de Sepulveda D) Columbus; Juan Gines de Sepulveda Answer: C 12) Franklin’s account of the Indian response to the offer of scholarships for educating Indian youth at Williamsburg illustrates __________. A) assimilation B) different value orientations C) integration D) upward mobility Answer: B 13) For the Indians, cultural diffusion usually meant __________. A) less self-sufficiency B) greater self-sufficiency C) assimilation D) annihilation Answer: A 14) Unrestrained displays of affection or temper and the use of corporal punishment have rarely been part of __________ child-care practices. A) European B) Native American C) Greek D) Christian Answer: B 15) What are identified in the text as “the basic building blocks” of Native American societies? A) Intertribal alliances B) Kin relationships C) The buffalo D) Ancestor worship Answer: B 16) A “No Trespassing” sign would most likely be found in which culture? A) Native American B) Swedish C) European-American D) East African Answer: C 17) Belief that a wrong had to be repaid, even if it took years, but not to a greater degree is called __________. A) self-justification B) ethnocentrism C) retributive justice D) noncompetitive revenge Answer: C 18) Native-American silence with strangers usually indicates __________. A) caution B) egotism C) low levels of intelligence D) non-sociability Answer: A 19) In a larger context, the fundamental difference in values that separate European Americans from Native Americans is that European Americans __________. A) see art and religion holistically B) see the world from a linear perspective C) emphasize experience over interpretation D) understand life as a great circle Answer: B 20) The Trail of Tears refers to the deadly expulsion of the __________. A) Cherokee B) Apache C) Iroquois D) Seminoles Answer: A 21) The government administrator in charge of the Native American relocation program had also presided over the __________. A) the Indian Removal Act B) the General Allotment Act C) the Restoration Act D) Japanese American internment camps Answer: D 22) One tribe brought to economic disaster by the termination program was the __________. A) Cherokee B) Iroquois C) Menominee D) Taos Pueblo Answer: C 23) Approximately what percentage of the Mississippi Choctaw perished in their march to Oklahoma? A) 5% B) 15% C) 25% D) 45% Answer: C 24) The expulsion of the Cherokee was primarily motivated by __________. A) their inability to fit in with white society B) their fertile land that was coveted by whites C) their active assaults on the white settlements D) religious reasons Answer: B 25) Today, with approximately 200,000 Aborigines dispersed throughout Australia, they account for only __________ of the total population. A) one percent B) two percent C) ten percent D) twenty percent Answer: A 26) Why did the U.S. Supreme Court deny the Cherokee the right to sue Georgia? A) The Cherokee were not considered a foreign nation. B) John Marshall argued that the Cherokee should be forcibly removed. C) The Court wanted to concur with the other two branches of government. D) Andrew Jackson intervened in the decision. Answer: A 27) Which of the following could be reasonably drawn from the textbook’s account of the Cherokee westward expulsion? A) That the Cherokee achieved amalgamation with European Americans. B) That ethnic pluralism has been a dominant culture value throughout American history. C) That attempts at assimilation can be disastrous failures. D) That the Cherokee were uninterested in assimilating with European American culture. Answer: C 28) The General Allotment Act of 1887 attempted to __________. A) establish permanent Indian reservations B) give individual allocations of food and clothing C) offer employment assistance in urban centers D) end communal ownership of Indian lands and encourage private ownership Answer: D 29) As a result of Congress’s termination of sovereign nation status for Native American tribes, __________ became responsible for the welfare of Native Americans. A) inter-tribal councils B) tribal chiefs C) government bureaucrats D) churches Answer: C 30) __________ was a Cherokee effort to attain assimilation. A) Holding onto a hunting and gathering economy B) The burning of sawmills C) The creation of a written language D) Retaining their religion Answer: C 31) According to Figure 7.1, what is the median age of Native American females? A) 30.0 B) 31.0 C) 36.5 D) 38.2 Answer: B 32) According to Figure 7.2, what percentage of Native American males graduate from college? A) 3.3% B) 13.3% C) 23.3% D) 33.3% Answer: B 33) Based on the U.S. Census Bureau, 2011, approximately what percentage of American Indians own their homes? A) 17% B) 35% C) 54% D) 67% Answer: C 34) What is referred to as the “new buffalo” for American Indians? A) Farming B) Casinos C) Tourism D) Forestry Answer: B 35) __________ is/are identified in recent studies as a suicide risk factor for Native American youth. A) Family instability B) LGBT issues C) A lack of firearm safety D) Bullying Answer: A 36) The median age for Native American males is about __________ than the median age in the U.S. population. A) three years younger B) three years older C) six years younger D) six years older Answer: C 37) The Native-American birthrate is __________. A) lower than Asians, blacks and whites B) slightly below the national average C) below that of all other ethnic minorities D) slowly decreasing Answer: A 38) The education of Native-Americans __________. A) will enable the next generation to enter the mainstream B) is more effective at the boarding schools than elsewhere C) has made great strides in reducing the drop-out rate D) results in fewer high school graduates than for other U.S. minority groups Answer: D 39) Efforts to overcome chronic unemployment among Native Americans now emphasize __________. A) attracting light industry and business to reservations B) increasing tourism to reservations C) relocating Indians near industrial parks D) creating a federal job corps Answer: A 40) A recent proposal suggested that many reservations be used as __________. A) national parks B) tourist camping grounds C) toxic dumping grounds D) independent municipalities Answer: C 41) The most serious resource shortage for many Western tribes is __________. A) electricity B) fertilizer C) natural gas D) water Answer: D 42) The Pan-Indian movement has been of limited success primarily because of __________. A) emphasis on tribal identities B) government resistance C) reservations scattered among many states D) weak leadership Answer: A 43) The major problem with the Bureau of Indian Affairs dealing with Native Americans is that __________. A) no Native Americans are in leadership positions within the organization B) the organization is not large enough to handle the many different tribes C) it is a bureaucracy attempting to run people’s lives D) the Bureau is inherently racist Answer: C 44) Urban Native Americans __________. A) tend to settle in ethnic enclaves as have most immigrant groups B) assimilate rather quickly and are not a visible minority C) may become acculturated but usually not assimilated D) are extremely small in numbers Answer: C 45) Jonathan is an American Indian whose parents have lived outside of reservations all of their lives. Lately he has decided to return to the old ways of his ancestors even though he has a job at a major corporation. He is reviving some old customs and even speaks both English and his native tribal language. What stage of assimilation is he in? A) Marginal B) Bicultural C) Assimilated D) Pan-traditional Answer: D 46) The occupation of Alcatraz island in 1969 was a(n) __________. A) effort by American Indians to overthrow the U.S. government B) protest designed to draw attention to the concerns of American Indians C) attempt by the United States government to make amends for treaty violations with American Indians D) international peace effort by indigenous peoples from many different countries Answer: B 47) The 1973 Wounded Knee incident illustrates which minority-response pattern? A) Annihilation B) Defiance C) Deviance D) Avoidance Answer: B 48) Barry sees the major problem with white and native relations to be a lack of understanding about the complexity and sophistication of the American Indian social system. Although they are markedly different from one another each system has well-defined institutions and social roles. Barry is a __________. A) functionalist B) conflict theorist C) interactionist D) feminist Answer: A 49) Tyreke found that Lieberson’s power theory really resonated with the way he understood American Indian-white relations. He thinks that the quest for and exercise of power shaped these relations more than anything else because he is a __________. A) functionalist B) conflict theorist C) interactionist D) feminist Answer: B 50) Sally, a __________ theorist, points to the high rates of inter-ethnic violence that results in massive victimization rates for American Indians as evidence of a labeling and dehumanization process. A) functionalist B) conflict C) interactionist D) feminist Answer: C True/False 51) Although he admired the Native Americans, Columbus essentially saw them as potential servants. Answer: True 52) Stabilization of European settlements typically led to less strained relations with Native Americans. Answer: False 53) Native American children grow up under the encouragement and discipline of the extended family, not just the nuclear family. Answer: True 54) Native Americans first learned about scalping from white settlers. Answer: True 55) The median age at death of Aborigines in Australia is 53. Answer: True 56) After 1933, Franklin Roosevelt’s administration shifted from a policy of forced assimilation to one of pluralism. Answer: True 57) The Indian Removal Act recommended that all Native Americans in the northwestern states be relocated to the southeastern states. Answer: False 58) Although fewer than 500 of 17,000 Cherokee signed, the 1836 treaty was ratified by the U.S. Senate. Answer: True 59) No research to date has proved Native Americans to be different from other people regarding the physiology of alcohol metabolism. Answer: True 60) Native Americans who leave their reservations and move to urban areas tend to be more successful than their peers who remain on the reservations. Answer: False Fill-in-the-Blank 61) __________ recognizes 565 different tribal entities in the United States. Answer: The Bureau of Indian Affairs 62) Hawaii’s history dates back to 700 BCE with migration of __________ from the __________. Answer: Polynesians, Marquesas 63) The primary means of social control in Native American culture are __________ and __________. Answer: shame, ridicule 64) According to the text, a __________ but not __________ relationship existed between the sexes in Native American culture. Answer: cooperative, egalitarian 65) Native American silence is a precautionary device to preserve __________ and __________ on both sides of a negotiation. Answer: respect, dignity 66) __________ were the first inhabitants of Australia. Answer: Aborigines 67) The __________ in 1924 granted U.S. citizenship to Native Americans. Answer: Indian Citizenship Act 68) Warfare against the Seminole cost the U.S. Army more than __________ soldiers and __________ dollars before the army gave up. Answer: 2000, $40 million 69) Senator Dawes hoped the General Allotment Act would engender a spirit of __________ in Native Americans. Answer: self-interest 70) Population change for Native Americans show that they are far from being the “__________ American” some observers once claimed. Answer: Vanishing Short Answer 71) Explain how the Native Americans’ view of nature differed from that of the white settlers. Answer: Native Americans’ View of Nature vs. White Settlers Native Americans: • Spiritual Connection: Viewed nature as sacred, with a deep spiritual and harmonious connection to the land, animals, and plants. • Sustainability: Practiced sustainable living, using resources in a way that ensured their availability for future generations. White Settlers: • Resource Exploitation: Viewed nature primarily as a resource to be exploited for economic gain and expansion. • Land Ownership: Emphasized private property and land ownership, often leading to large-scale alteration and depletion of natural resources. 72) What types of policies were employed in the mid-19th century by the U.S. government as it promoted westward expansion? Answer: U.S. Government Policies for Westward Expansion in the Mid-19th Century Policies: • Homestead Act (1862): Provided 160 acres of public land to settlers for a small fee, encouraging westward migration. • Indian Removal Act (1830): Forced relocation of Native American tribes to lands west of the Mississippi River, often through brutal means. • Transcontinental Railroad: Promoted infrastructure development, facilitating easier access and settlement of the West. 73) Which Native American tribal coalition earned the name “Greeks in America” from romanticists? What features garnered this name? Answer: Native American Tribal Coalition Known as “Greeks in America” Tribal Coalition: The Cherokee earned the name “Greeks in America” from romanticists. Features: • Advanced Society: Demonstrated sophisticated political structures, written language (Cherokee syllabary), and educational systems. • Adaptation: Successfully adapted many aspects of European-American culture while maintaining their own traditions. 74) Explain how the Seminole resisted expulsion from Florida after the Indian Removal Act. Answer: Seminole Resistance to Expulsion from Florida Resistance: • Armed Conflict: Engaged in the Seminole Wars (1817-1858), using guerrilla tactics to resist U.S. military forces. • Geographic Advantage: Utilized the difficult terrain of the Florida Everglades to evade capture and conduct surprise attacks. • Leadership: Led by influential leaders such as Osceola, who inspired and coordinated the resistance efforts. 75) What was the significance of the Wounded Knee standoff? Answer: Significance of the Wounded Knee Standoff Significance: • Symbol of Resistance: The Wounded Knee standoff of 1890 marked the end of the Indian Wars and symbolized the Native American struggle against U.S. government oppression. • Tragedy: The massacre of over 200 Lakota Sioux, including women and children, by U.S. troops highlighted the brutal treatment of Native Americans. • Historical Legacy: Became a powerful symbol of Native American resilience and a rallying point for future activism and rights movements. Essay 76) Discuss why Indian-white relations deteriorated from the peaceful early encounters. Use sociological theories to help you craft a rationale. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Document the peaceful early encounters and the transition away from peace including both military and legal efforts. 2. Apply conflict, functionalist and interactionist theories to assess the reasons behind the transition paying particular attention to the competition for scarce resources and the justifications for claims on these resources. 3. Articulate the impact of this transition. Sample Answer: Deterioration of Indian-White Relations Explanation: Initially peaceful encounters between Native Americans and white settlers deteriorated due to various socio-economic and political factors. Sociological Theories: • Conflict Theory: Highlights the struggle for resources and power. White settlers sought land and resources that belonged to Native Americans, leading to conflicts. • Functionalism: As white society expanded, Native American ways of life were seen as obstacles to progress and stability, leading to policies that sought to assimilate or remove them. • Symbolic Interactionism: Differences in cultural symbols and misunderstandings led to mistrust and conflict. For example, land ownership concepts differed greatly between the two groups. Examples: • Land Seizures: Settlers encroaching on Native lands, violating treaties, and forcibly relocating tribes. • Cultural Misunderstandings: Differing views on land use and ownership led to conflicts and broken agreements. 77) Discuss the social structure and child-rearing practices among many Indian tribes. How does this differ from European child-rearing practices? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Outline the basic approach to child-rearing among many Indian tribes which seems more permissive to many European Americans. 2. Connect this approach to the social structure of the tribe using functionalist theory. 3. Contrast this approach with the European approach. Sample Answer: Social Structure and Child-Rearing Practices Among Indian Tribes Social Structure: • Community-Centric: Strong emphasis on communal living and collective responsibility. Extended families played a crucial role in social organization. • Egalitarian: Many tribes practiced a more egalitarian social structure, with significant roles for women and elders. Child-Rearing Practices: • Community Involvement: Child-rearing was a communal effort, with children learning from multiple adults within the tribe. • Emphasis on Nature and Spirituality: Education included learning about nature, spirituality, and cultural traditions. Differences from European Practices: • Individualism: European child-rearing practices emphasized nuclear family structures and individual achievement. • Strict Discipline: European methods often included stricter discipline and formal education systems. Example: Native American children might learn through storytelling and participation in community activities, while European children attended formal schools with a focus on academic education. 78) Discuss the past federal programs, intended to promote assimilation, which further devastated the Indians. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Define and explain assimilation from a functionalist perspective. 2. Outline the federal approach to increasing assimilation including both laws and unofficial policies. 3. Articulate why these had the opposite of their intended effect. Sample Answer: Past Federal Programs and Their Impact on Native Americans Assimilation Programs: • Indian Boarding Schools: Aimed to assimilate Native American children by removing them from their families and forbidding them from speaking their native languages or practicing their cultures. • Dawes Act (1887): Divided tribal lands into individual allotments to promote individual land ownership and farming, undermining communal living and leading to significant land loss. Impact: • Cultural Erosion: Forced assimilation policies led to the loss of language, traditions, and cultural identity. • Social and Psychological Damage: Boarding schools often subjected children to harsh treatment, causing long-term trauma. • Economic Displacement: The Dawes Act resulted in significant land loss and economic hardship for Native American communities. Example: The Carlisle Indian Industrial School sought to "kill the Indian, save the man," stripping children of their cultural identity and causing generational trauma. 79) What are the present living conditions on most reservations, including the state of their natural resources? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Describe the basics of living conditions paying particular attention to housing. 2. Note the effect of living in these situations—including both high suicide and violence rates. Sample Answer: Present Living Conditions on Most Reservations Living Conditions: • Poverty: High rates of poverty and unemployment compared to the national average. • Housing: Substandard housing conditions, with many homes lacking basic amenities. • Healthcare: Limited access to quality healthcare services, leading to higher rates of chronic diseases and lower life expectancy. • Education: Lower educational attainment and limited educational resources. Natural Resources: • Depletion and Contamination: Many reservations face issues with resource depletion and environmental contamination due to past and ongoing exploitation by external entities. • Land Rights: Ongoing disputes over land rights and access to natural resources. • Economic Dependency: Dependence on federal assistance and limited economic opportunities due to restrictions on land use. Example: The Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota exemplifies these conditions, with extreme poverty, inadequate housing, and limited access to healthcare and education. 80) Apply the three major sociological perspectives to the experiences of Native Americans. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Outline the three basic theoretical approaches (conflict, functionalist, interactionist) to studying Native Americans. 2. Evaluate the effectiveness of each theory in explaining some aspect of the Native American experience. 3. Use examples such as assimilation, housing and reservation policies to show where each theory could be useful. Sample Answer: Sociological Perspectives on the Experiences of Native Americans Functionalism: • Integration: Examines how Native American societies function within the larger American society and the disruptions caused by forced assimilation and loss of traditional ways of life. • Cultural Institutions: Highlights the role of cultural institutions, such as tribal governance and community rituals, in maintaining social cohesion and stability. • Example: The preservation of traditional ceremonies and languages through tribal efforts to maintain cultural identity. Conflict Theory: • Power Struggles: Focuses on the historical and ongoing power struggles between Native Americans and the dominant society, including land dispossession and resource exploitation. • Economic Inequality: Analyzes the economic disparities and systemic discrimination faced by Native Americans. • Example: The struggle against the Dakota Access Pipeline, which highlights issues of environmental justice and land rights. Symbolic Interactionism: • Identity Formation: Examines how Native American identities are constructed and maintained through daily interactions and cultural symbols. • Stereotypes and Stigma: Investigates the impact of stereotypes and stigma on the experiences and self-perceptions of Native Americans. • Example: The use of Native American mascots in sports and the movements to change these symbols due to their negative impact on Native American identity. Chapter 8: Asian Americans Multiple Choice 1) Which Asian immigrants first came to the United States during the California gold rush in the 1850s? A) Chinese B) Japanese C) Korean D) Filipinos Answer: A 2) __________ was a major social problem affecting most Asian immigrants up through the 1940s. A) Alcoholism B) Suicide C) Shortage of women D) Nationalism Answer: C 3) The Immigration Act of 1965 __________. A) ensured both sexes equal opportunity to enter the United States B) restricted female Asian immigrants from entering the United States C) restricted Asian children from entering the United States D) allowed for unlimited Asian immigration to the United States Answer: A 4) Generally, traditional Asian values emphasized __________. A) freedom of behavior B) strict control of aggressive or assertive impulses C) independent thought and behavior D) atheism Answer: B 5) It was not until the passage of the __________ that the Chinese were able to enter the United States under regular immigration regulations. A) Immigration Act of 1965 B) Burlingame Treaty of 1868 C) Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 D) Taft and Hartman Act of 1864 Answer: A 6) With respect to the Asian American populations __________. A) the Chinese is the largest population B) the Filipino is the largest population C) Los Angeles has the largest Asian population D) San Francisco has the largest Asian population Answer: A 7) Some ethnophaulisms about the Chinese dealt with perceptions of them being __________, A) industrious B) dirty C) quiet D) violent Answer: B 8) Chinese immigrants utilized the minority group response of __________ when they formed Chinatowns. A) segregation B) expulsion C) xenophobia D) rebellion Answer: A 9) A very recent example of deviance in the Chinese community is __________. A) gambling B) tongs C) brothels D) juvenile delinquency Answer: D 10) Chinatowns today are __________. A) declining in size, like many European ethnic communities B) growing larger than in earlier years C) primarily tourist attractions, not residential clusters D) being replaced by Hispanic communities Answer: B 11) The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 is significant because __________. A) it was the first federal legislation against a particular race of immigrants B) it was the first restrictive bill passed over a presidential veto C) it was the first act to stop completely immigration from any one country D) its passage brought organized labor into opposition with the government Answer: A 12) A “push” factor spurring early Japanese migration was __________. A) religious persecution B) political unrest C) primogeniture D) famine Answer: C 13) Which legislative effort prohibited any person who was ineligible for citizenship from owning land in California? A) Alien Landholding Law of 1913 B) Gentlemen’s Agreement of 1908 C) Immigration Act of 1965 D) Simpson Bowles Act of 1910 Answer: A 14) One way the Gentlemen’s Agreement improved the personal lives of U.S. Japanese was __________. A) the authorization of small business loans B) giving permission for wives to enter the United States C) the right to own land D) the liberalization of immigration regulations Answer: B 15) __________ brought an end to the forcible detention of the Japanese in 1945. A) Korematsu v. United States of America B) Endo v. United States of America C) The Japanese American Citizens League D) The Foreign Visitors Act Answer: B 16) After the Gentlemen’s Agreement Act of 1908 curtailed Japanese emigration, the Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association recruited laborers from __________. A) China B) the Philippines C) Vietnam D) the continental United States Answer: B 17) Japanese-Americans’ emphasis on conformity, aspiration, competitiveness, discipline, and self-control has resulted in __________. A) changes in Japanese family structure and husband-wife roles B) more rapid assimilation C) increased opportunities due to resettlement D) better school performance than other American students Answer: D 18) The differences in the Japanese experience in Hawaii and on the mainland are best understood by recognizing __________. A) the differences in structural discrimination B) fear of the “perfidious” character C) mass evacuation of the Japanese D) the Japanese experience in internment camps Answer: A 19) Since the Immigration Act of 1965, Filipino immigration has __________. A) been quite high B) been severely restricted C) stayed the same D) resulted in strict segregation Answer: A 20) Early Korean immigrants were recruited by the __________. A) railroad companies B) U.S. school system C) petroleum industry leaders D) Hawaii Sugar Planters’ Association Answer: D 21) Koreans have utilized __________ to successfully immigrate to the United States. A) sojourning B) return migration C) chain-migration D) segregation Answer: A 22) High levels of church involvement among Korean immigrants was the result of __________. A) marginalization B) religious beliefs C) middle class status D) stronger religious foundations Answer: A 23) Between 1820 and 1900, fewer than __________ immigrants came to the U.S. from India A) 500 B) 800 C) 750 D) 900 Answer: B 24) In 1923, the U. S. Supreme Court ruled that Asian Indians were __________. A) whites B) non-white and ineligible for citizenship C) eligible for citizenship D) too culturally inferior to be citizens Answer: B 25) Asian Indians have a __________. A) higher birth rate than any other Asian group B) significantly lower birth rate than any other Asian group C) similar birth rate to other Asian groups D) slightly lower birth rate than any other Asian group Answer: B 26) In the early 20th century, migrants from India were __________. A) middle class B) college educated C) agricultural laborers D) professionally trained Answer: C 27) Asian Indians in the early twentieth century experienced __________. A) racial prejudice B) affirmative action C) forced assimilation D) extermination Answer: A 28) For Asian Indians, __________. A) the ease of population pressures has caused their emigration to decline B) the exodus restrictions have caused their emigration to decline C) their immigration has been fairly constant since 1970 D) the Asian-Indian population in the U.S. has increased dramatically in recent years Answer: D 29) Phuc duc is __________. A) the belief in astrology as important in child-rearing practices B) the amount of good fortune accumulated over generations of conduct C) the belief in the ability to determine one’s own fate D) another term for reincarnation Answer: B 30) The Hmong __________. A) technically are Laotians B) society is patrilineal C) identify with a national identity D) have a lot of exposure to the modern world Answer: B 31) Bias-motivated hate crimes against Pacific Americans have __________. A) declined throughout the years B) increased significantly C) remained virtually non-existent D) remained at about the same moderate level Answer: A 32) For Asian and white Americans it is generally true that __________. A) Asian men are less educated than white men B) Asian women have the highest education of all races C) Asian poverty level is lower than that of the white population D) More Asian families own their home than white families Answer: C 33) __________ is a current pattern in Asian-American assimilation. A) Low family median income B) High rates of poverty C) High rates of racial intermarriage D) High residential segregation Answer: C 34) Many Japanese settled in rural areas instead of urban regions because __________. A) labor union hostility prevented their finding much work in the cities B) they came from an agrarian country and preferred farming C) they did not get along with the Chinese who lived in the cities D) they did not think cities were a good place to raise children Answer: A 35) The term “inscrutable” is __________. A) used almost exclusively to describe Hispanics, especially the Mexican and Puerto Rico immigrants B) exemplified by Asians who defy understanding due to their markedly non-Western physical appearance, language, belief systems, customs, stoicism, and observable behavior C) a way of explaining that diversity of Asian ethnic characteristics should be understood in terms of their own traditions D) a way of describing the lack of acculturation and assimilation of minority groups Answer: B 36) In what ways were Asian immigrants in the United States similar to the first European immigrants? A) They assimilated very quickly due to similarities in religious belief. B) When encountering hostile natives, they chose to settle in homogenous communities near their port of entry. C) Their success can be largely explained by gains in political representation. D) Although a statistical majority, they experienced minority social status. Answer: B 37) Which state historically provided the most opportunity and protection for Asian immigrants? A) California B) Alaska C) Hawaii D) Oregon Answer: C 38) __________ explains ethnic riots as a social dysfunction. A) Functionalist theory B) Conflict theory C) Social interactionist theory D) Ecological theory Answer: A 39) __________ is a social dysfunction that Asian immigrants experienced in the 18th and 19th century. A) Long-lasting economic prosperity B) High rates of intermarriage C) Negative legislation against Asian immigrants D) Affirmative action Answer: C 40) __________ explains ethnic struggles as economic exploitation of minority groups. A) Functionalist theory B) Conflict theory C) Social interactionist theory D) Ecological theory Answer: B 41) __________ explains ethnic tensions from the conflict view. A) Employers needing inexpensive Asian labor, and reaping the profits B) Dominant groups using intergroup ethnic antagonisms to divide the working class to protect their own interests C) Cultural traditions and family cohesiveness being a positive function easing the adjustment of Asian immigrants into U.S. society D) The changing religious meanings and rituals that occur with assimilation Answer: B 42) The split-labor-market theory belongs to __________. A) functionalist theory B) conflict theory C) social interactionist theory D) feminist theorists Answer: B 43) Which of the following presents the conflict view of ethnic competition for jobs? A) An influx of Chinese workers to the United States to expand the nationwide railroad system B) Blacks in Harlem and Brooklyn urging boycotts of Korean stores C) Korean picture brides and students migrating to the United States between 1907 and 1924 D) Black-Filipino animosity on the East Coast leading to the emigration of Filipinos Answer: B 44) __________ explains ethnic stereotypes as the dominant group’s premature response to minority groups. A) Functionalist theory B) Conflict theory C) Social interactionist theory D) Ecological theory Answer: C 45) From a __________ perspective the strong rates of marriage and multigenerational families present in Chinatowns is a strong indicator of social stability and economic success. A) functionalist B) conflict C) interactionist D) feminist Answer: A 46) While her parents decry the “exclusionary” nature of Chinatowns, Parker, a sociology major whose views are in line with the __________ perspective, points out that these areas serve a number of purposes that help create prosperity and social stability for everyone. A) functionalist B) conflict C) interactionist D) feminist Answer: A 47) Bob, a __________ theorist, thinks the Asian immigrant experience is simple, when U.S. employers needed cheap labor, they opened the doors and downplayed tensions. When economic times turned bad, they divided the working class and let immigrant persecution go unchecked. A) functionalist B) conflict C) interactionist D) feminist Answer: B 48) From a __________ perspective, split-labor-market theory explains the experiences of several Asian groups very well as employers exploited the Asian willingness to work for very low wages. A) functionalist B) conflict C) interactionist D) feminist Answer: B 49) In an essay for her sociology class, Ashley takes a __________ point of view and argues that the rough times that some Asian immigrants have had is partially due to the wide social distance between them and mainstream society which resulted in more opportunities for negative stereotypes to develop. A) functionalist B) conflict C) interactionist D) feminist Answer: C 50) __________ theory focuses on how European immigrants in the United States interpreted the actions of the Asian immigrants and translated these interpretations into action. A) Functionalist B) Conflict C) Interactionist D) Feminist Answer: C True/False 51) The Chinese first came to the United States during the California gold rush in the 1850s. Answer: True 52) Legislators in all 50 states passed laws against miscegenation to prevent Asians from marrying whites. Answer: False 53) The Filipinos did not establish the support institutions usually found in immigrant communities. Answer: True 54) New Filipino arrivals tend to have better educational and occupational skills than most of their ethnic cohorts born in the United States. Answer: True 55) The self-employment rate of Korean Americans is one of the highest of all ethnic or racial groups. Answer: True 56) Mexicans and Central Americans are increasingly visible as employees in Korean–owned-businesses in metropolitan cities. This is an example of minority-minority relations. Answer: True 57) Nearly all the early Asian Indian immigrants were Sikh males. Answer: True 58) Asian Indians did not experience dominant group aggression as other Asian groups had. Answer: False 59) Cambodians and Laotians, like the Vietnamese, came from the area of Southeast Asia formerly colonized and administered by England. Answer: False 60) The idea of a model minority creates a harmful and unrealistic example for the dominant group to use as a cudgel to blame others for their difficulties in achieving success. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank 61) Since the 1850s, some foreigners came to the United States to stay, but many came as __________, intending to return home after earning enough money. Answer: sojourners 62) In the 1940s, legislators in 14 states passed laws against __________ (interracial marriage) to prevent Asians from marrying whites. Answer: miscegenation 63) In the 19th century, Chinese immigrants’ “strange” clothes and hair worn in __________ (a braid of hair in the back of the head) seemed out of place in the crude pioneer surroundings. Answer: queues 64) In the Mississippi Delta, Chinese grocers catered mostly to __________, extending them credit and providing other essential services. Answer: blacks 65) Crime syndicates in China, known as __________, smuggle perhaps as many as 80,000 Chinese into the United States each year Answer: triads 66) After the Gentlemen’s Agreement of 1908 curtailed Japanese emigration, the Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association recruited laborers from the __________ to work the plantations. Answer: Philippines 67) __________ means a private Korean-American banking club to which members pay contributions and from which they may take out loans. It provides startup funds for their ethnic entrepreneurs. Answer: Kye 68) Many recent immigrants to the United States from India have been professionals such as physicians, dentists, teachers, and skilled workers – the very people India needs most to retain if the quality of life there is to improve. Most developing nations face this __________ problem. Answer: brain drain 69) Although some second-generation Indian young people still yield to their parents’ traditional prerogative to arrange marriages, this is one area in which __________ is apparent. Most young people tolerate their parents’ introduction to eligible mates but insist that the final choice is entirely their own. Answer: ethnogenesis 70) As shown in the 1992 LA riot, social distance, economic frustration, envy, alienation, and a sense of being exploited all help explain the racial tensions that sometimes erupt into __________. Answer: ethnoviolence Short Answer 71) Can a single model explain Asian Americans? Explain your answer. Answer: Can a Single Model Explain Asian Americans? Explanation: No, a single model cannot explain Asian Americans due to the diversity within the group. Asian Americans encompass various ethnicities, cultures, languages, histories, and experiences. Each subgroup, such as Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Indian, Filipino, and Vietnamese Americans, has distinct migration patterns, socio-economic statuses, and cultural practices. A single model would oversimplify these differences and fail to capture the complexities and unique challenges faced by each subgroup. 72) Explain the differences in structural discrimination against the Japanese in Hawaii and on the mainland. Answer: Differences in Structural Discrimination Against the Japanese in Hawaii and on the Mainland Hawaii: • Economic Integration: Japanese in Hawaii were integrated into the plantation economy, playing a significant role in agriculture, which gave them some economic stability. • Cultural Pluralism: There was a relatively higher level of cultural pluralism and acceptance due to the multi-ethnic society in Hawaii. Mainland U.S.: • Exclusion and Internment: Japanese Americans faced severe structural discrimination, including exclusionary laws, property loss, and internment during World War II. • Segregation: They were subjected to residential and social segregation, limiting their opportunities for economic advancement and integration. 73) Unlike the Chinese, who had a tradition of being sojourners and who formed benevolent and protective associations, the Filipinos did not establish the support institutions usually found in immigrant communities. Explain why. Answer: Lack of Support Institutions Among Filipino Immigrants Explanation: • Colonial History: Filipinos came from a colonial background under Spanish and then American rule, which disrupted the formation of cohesive community structures. • Individual Migration: Many Filipinos migrated as individuals rather than family units, making it harder to establish community institutions. • Agricultural Labor: Filipino immigrants often worked in isolated agricultural settings, limiting their ability to form supportive associations like those of the Chinese in urban areas. 74) Why did emigration from India occur in two distinct phases? Answer: Two Phases of Emigration from India First Phase: • Early 20th Century: Initial wave consisted of laborers, mainly Sikh farmers, who went to work in agriculture in countries like the U.S., Canada, and the British colonies. Second Phase: • Post-1965: After the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, there was an influx of highly educated professionals, such as doctors, engineers, and IT specialists, seeking better economic opportunities. 75) Explain how physical appearance was an important factor setting Asian Indians apart. Answer: Importance of Physical Appearance for Asian Indians Explanation: • Racial Visibility: Physical appearance, including darker skin and distinct facial features, made Asian Indians easily identifiable and subject to racial discrimination and stereotyping. • Stereotypes: These visible differences often led to prejudices and assumptions about cultural differences, reinforcing social and economic barriers. • Social Exclusion: Physical appearance contributed to social exclusion and discrimination in housing, employment, and social interactions. Essay 76) What were the particular West Coast conditions that prompted racist attitudes and actions against Asian groups? What were the specific outcomes of these attitudes? How have they shaped long term relations with Asian immigrants? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Identify the conditions on the West Coast that led to prejudice paying particular attention to economic factors and competition for jobs. 2. Note the specific actions that were taken as a result of these attitudes including miscegenation and immigration laws 3. Assess the short and long term impact of these actions. Sample Answer: Racist Attitudes and Actions Against Asian Groups on the West Coast Conditions: • Economic Competition: Asians, particularly Chinese and later Japanese immigrants, were seen as economic competitors by white settlers, especially in industries like mining, agriculture, and railroads. • Labor Unrest: During economic downturns, Asian immigrants were scapegoated for depressed wages and perceived job scarcity. • Racial Hierarchies: White supremacist ideologies viewed Asians as racially inferior and incompatible with American society. Outcomes: • Legal Discrimination: Enactment of laws like the Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) and later the Immigration Act of 1924, which severely restricted Asian immigration. • Violence and Segregation: Anti-Asian riots, such as the Rock Springs Massacre (1885) and the Tacoma Riot (1885), resulted in deaths and forced expulsion. • Long-Term Impact: Created enduring stereotypes and barriers to full integration and acceptance of Asian immigrants in American society. 77) Explain the concept of “yellow peril” and note its impact on ethnic relations in the U.S. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Outline what “yellow peril” was and the principle people and groups involved being sure to include the backlash against the sojourner orientation. 2. Identify how this shaped ethnic relations in the U.S. including legislative actions that reduced immigration from Asia. Sample Answer: Concept of "Yellow Peril" and Its Impact on Ethnic Relations in the U.S. Concept: • Fear of Invasion: Yellow Peril referred to the perceived threat of East Asian immigration and influence, portraying Asians as an existential threat to Western civilization. • Racist Stereotypes: Asians were depicted as uncivilized, morally degenerate, and inherently dangerous. • Political Propaganda: Used to justify exclusionary immigration policies and discriminatory practices. Impact: • Legal Exclusion: Led to laws like the Chinese Exclusion Act and Japanese internment during World War II. • Social Segregation: Institutionalized discrimination and social exclusion, perpetuating stereotypes and limiting opportunities for Asian Americans. • Legacy: Contributed to ongoing racial tensions and challenges in achieving racial equality and social integration. 78) What was the impact of the relocation centers on the Japanese American people? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Explain how the relocation centers came about due to the bombing of Pearl Harbor. 2. Document what the Japanese Americans lost in the relocation efforts noting especially the loss of businesses and property. 3. Evaluate the long term consequences of this policy including the reparations. Sample Answer: Impact of Relocation Centers on Japanese Americans Impact: • Forced Removal: More than 120,000 Japanese Americans, majority of whom were U.S. citizens, were forcibly relocated to internment camps following the attack on Pearl Harbor. • Loss of Property and Rights: Families lost homes, businesses, and personal belongings due to the forced evacuation and detention. • Psychological Trauma: Experience of incarceration in camps under harsh conditions led to long-lasting psychological effects on individuals and families. • Legal Precedent: Korematsu v. United States (1944) upheld the constitutionality of internment, despite later recognition of its injustice. Long-Term Consequences: • Community Resilience: Japanese Americans rebuilt their lives post-war, advocating for redress and reparations. • Memory and Education: Efforts to preserve the memory of internment camps and educate future generations about civil rights violations. 79) What were some of the push-pull factors and acculturation problems affecting Asian-Indian immigrants? How did these shape immigration? Do they continue? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Explain the basic concept of push-pull factors in general as both the positive and negative things that drive immigration. 2. Identify those factors specific to Asian-Indian immigrants including both economic and educational opportunity. 3. Articulate the impact of these factors on both the United States and Asia and whether they persist today. Sample Answer: Push-Pull Factors and Acculturation Problems Affecting Asian-Indian Immigrants Push Factors: • Economic Opportunities: Pushed by limited economic opportunities and job prospects in India, especially in sectors like technology and medicine. • Political Instability: Pushed by political instability and social unrest in some regions of India. • Education: Seeking better educational opportunities and advanced degrees available in the United States. Pull Factors: • Educational Opportunities: Pulled by opportunities for higher education and research in American universities. • Career Advancement: Pulled by the potential for higher salaries and career advancement in industries such as IT, engineering, and healthcare. • Quality of Life: Attracted by the perceived better quality of life, healthcare, and social services available in the United States. Acculturation Problems: • Cultural Adjustment: Challenges in adapting to a new cultural environment, including language barriers and unfamiliar social norms. • Discrimination: Facing racial discrimination and stereotypes, impacting social integration and career advancement. • Identity Maintenance: Balancing cultural identity with assimilation into American society, especially for second-generation immigrants. Immigration Impact: These factors have shaped significant immigration from India to the United States, contributing to the growth of Indian-American communities and their integration into various sectors of American society, particularly in technology and entrepreneurship. Continuation: These factors continue to influence immigration patterns, although the specific dynamics may evolve over time with changes in economic conditions, political landscapes, and immigration policies in both India and the United States. 80) Apply the three major sociological perspectives to the U.S. Asian experience. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Outline the three basic theoretical approaches to studying minorities. 2. Evaluate the effectiveness of each theory in explaining some aspect of the minority experience. 3. Use examples to show where each theory could be useful. Sample Answer: Sociological Perspectives on the U.S. Asian Experience Functionalism: • Integration: Focuses on how Asian Americans contribute to the functioning and stability of American society through their roles in education, technology, and healthcare. • Community Institutions: Highlights the role of ethnic institutions and organizations in maintaining cultural identity and supporting social cohesion. • Example: The establishment of cultural centers and community organizations that provide social services and preserve cultural heritage. Conflict Theory: • Structural Inequality: Analyzes the systemic discrimination and barriers faced by Asian Americans in areas such as employment, education, and political representation. • Model Minority Myth: Critiques the stereotype of Asian Americans as a monolithic, successful minority group, masking disparities within the community. • Example: The activism against discriminatory practices and the advocacy for civil rights and social justice. Symbolic Interactionism: • Identity Construction: Examines how Asian American identities are constructed through interactions, cultural symbols, and stereotypes. • Perceptions and Stigma: Investigates the impact of racial stereotypes and perceptions on the everyday experiences and self-perceptions of Asian Americans. • Example: The representation of Asian Americans in media and popular culture, influencing public perception and social interactions. Test Bank for Strangers to These Shores Vincent N Parrillo 9780205971688, 9780134732862, 9780205970407

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