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This Document Contains Chapters 13 to 14 Chapter 13: Women as a Minority Group Multiple-Choice 1) Who suggested that male genitalia influenced boys to be questing, aggressive, and outward-thrusting and that female genitalia directed girls to be concerned with boundaries, limits and interiors? A) Friedan B) Hacker C) Erikson D) Myrdal Answer: C 2) Gunnar Myrdal noted the common experiences in early America of women and __________. A) immigrants B) children C) Native Americans D) blacks Answer: D 3) Congress gave women the right to vote in __________. A) 1789 B) 1865 C) 1890 D) 1919 Answer: D 4) Freudian psychologists suggested that __________. A) gender differences affected behavior B) biological differences had no effect on behavior C) all sex role behavior was learned D) females were actually more aggressive than males Answer: A 5) Women have which minority-group characteristics? A) Achieved status B) Easily identifiable C) They do not see themselves as a group D) Periods where they hold the majority of the political power Answer: B 6) Mead’s study of the Arapesh, Mundugamor, and Tchambuli found __________. A) evidence of consistent sex differences in behavior B) cultural variance in male-female role behavior C) greater male aggression in primitive societies D) less male aggression in primitive societies Answer: B 7) Television ________ A) helps overcome sex stereotyping B) significantly improved its realistic portrayal of women C) continues to promote traditional sex stereotypes D) has no pattern of promoting sex stereotyping Answer: C 8) The term “second shift” refers to __________. A) women working at two different job locations B) women as a second source of family income C) working women also doing most household chores D) the use of domestic workers for childcare and household chores Answer: C 9) Minority women encounter prejudice and discrimination on what two fronts? A) Age and gender B) Beliefs and attitudes C) Race and gender D) Social class and gender Answer: C 10) College educated African American women are more likely to benefit from the Feminist movement in __________. A) social identity B) ethnic experiences C) egalitarian marriage D) cultural identity Answer: C 11) The traditional gender roles within immigrant minority subgroups deflect recent advances in __________. A) occupational mobility B) educational advances C) sexual equality D) political power Answer: C 12) Lillian Rubin’s study of second-generation U.S. women revealed __________. A) the importance of family of origin B) the importance of feminism in their lives C) their opposition to the feminist movement D) the lack of a second shift for these women Answer: A 13) Previously, many women of colour who were legal scholars __________. A) opposed self-empowerment B) felt excluded by white feminist legal scholars C) emphasized their femininity over their cultural identity D) rejected feminism Answer: B 14) __________ have the highest educational attainment. A) Asian males B) Asian females C) White males D) White females Answer: A 15) __________ have the lowest educational attainment. A) Black males B) Asian females C) Hispanic males D) White males Answer: C 16) __________ is the field of study that has the largest number of female bachelor’s degree earners. A) Education B) Foreign languages C) Health professions D) Psychology Answer: C 17) __________ have the highest rate of labor force participation. A) White men B) Black men C) American Indian men D) Hispanic men Answer: D 18) Women have the highest employment rate among __________. A) speech pathologists B) secretaries C) receptionists D) bookkeepers Answer: A 19) Men have the highest employment rate among __________. A) carpenters B) automobile mechanics C) airline pilots, navigators D) truck drivers Answer: B 20) Most female technical and professional workers work as __________. A) speech-language pathologists B) registered nurses C) librarians D) social workers Answer: A 21) Women earn __________ men in almost every occupation. A) more than B) about the same as C) exactly the same as D) less than Answer: D 22) The term “mommy track” refers to the __________. A) reality that most mothers also work at a paying job B) desire of most working women to become mothers C) choice working women make to put family ahead of career D) women who get pregnant within a couple of months of giving birth Answer: C 23) __________ have the highest rate of female headed households. A) Asian families B) Hispanic families C) Black families D) White families Answer: C 24) Sexual bias in schools __________. A) continues to exist B) has almost completely disappeared C) is the worst it has ever been in the history of the United States D) is not measurable Answer: A 25) In fields of study in college today, we find __________. A) proportional representation of males and females in most areas B) females outnumbering males in the sciences C) males significantly outnumbering females in engineering and physical sciences D) females outnumbering males in computer and informational sciences Answer: C 26) With regard to labor force participation by wives, we can say that __________. A) compared 30 years ago, more women with children under 18 participate in labor force B) the younger the children’s ages are, the more women participate in labor force C) in general, white women show higher level of labor force participation than black women D) the vast majority of husbands view it as shameful to have their wives in the workforce Answer: A 27) Occupations overwhelmingly filled by women are often called __________ jobs. A) softie B) pink collar C) throwaway D) pedestal-protection Answer: B 28) The term “glass ceiling” refers to __________. A) most women working in office buildings B) the shattering of past limits on women’s salaries C) discrimination against female upward mobility D) affirmative action opening new careers for women Answer: C 29) The greatest increase in working women has been among __________. A) young unmarried women B) married women with young children C) mothers of grown children D) widows Answer: B 30) The growing number of female-headed households living in poverty has led to the creation of the concept of __________. A) feminization of poverty B) discrimination C) unfair treatment of women D) prejudice Answer: A 31) In __________, women are most equal with men in terms of degrees conferred. A) medicine B) dentistry C) law D) theology Answer: A 32) If educational levels are equal, it is true that __________. A) black women earn about the same as white women while working longer hours B) white women earn more than black women C) white women work longer hours than black women D) black women earn more than white women while working fewer hours Answer: B 33) Public concern about sexual harassment began __________. A) in the mid-1990s B) in the mid-1930s C) in the mid-1960s D) in the mid-1970s Answer: D 34) Many state labor laws __________. A) fail to protect women from economic exploitation B) protect women’s employment opportunities C) restrict women’s income potential D) bar women from higher education Answer: A 35) Sociologists Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales maintained that the efficient functioning of a society, indeed its very survival, depends on satisfying both __________ and __________ needs. A) functional; institutional B) expressive; instrumental C) instrumental; expressive D) institutional; functional Answer: C 36) As male dominance continued over the generations, a sexist ideology evolved to justify the existing order as __________. A) illegitimate B) natural C) unstable D) structural Answer: B 37) Many changes occurred after the Industrial Revolution, including the fact that __________. A) machines dramatically increased men’s advantage of greater strength for work tasks B) there were decreases in infant-mortality and in family size C) expectations about women’s proper role stabilized D) a general consensus arose that women were not to be seen outside of the house Answer: B 38) When did sex inequality become marked by disparities in economic contributions? A) Hunting-and-gathering societies B) Industrial societies C) Post-industrial societies D) Globalized societies Answer: B 39) According to the conflict view, who benefits from sexual inequality? A) Men B) Women C) Children under 18 D) Minorities and immigrants Answer: A 40) Interactionists emphasize __________ as a way of understanding how gender inequality structures our world. A) male advantages in maintaining sexual inequality B) biological gender roles C) class differences D) internalized societal expectations Answer: D 41) Interactionists suggest we can overcome sexual biases and stereotypes through use of __________. A) educational institutions B) the government C) the democratic process D) religious institutions Answer: A 42) Functionalists suggest gender-linked tasks became questioned after __________. A) the introduction of labour-saving domestic servants B) machines doing labor tasks requiring strength C) increase in immigration D) the increase in the infant mortality rate Answer: B 43) The functionalist view emphasizes that __________. A) traditionally, women performed the instrumental tasks B) assigning work tasks by sex created a smoothly functioning society C) distinct sex roles have never facilitated social stability D) the biological differences between males and females demands differing work from the sexes Answer: B 44) According to the functionalist view, changes in societal conditions and expectations require __________ if the dysfunctions are to be overcome. A) system adjustments B) social movement C) socialization D) revolution Answer: A 45) Conflict theorists suggest sexual equality or inequality has usually rested heavily upon __________. A) the degree of industrialization in a society B) women’s economic contributions to the society C) women achieving political power D) the willingness of men to allow equality Answer: B 46) According to the conflict view, __________ illustrates the universal human problems of exploitation and oppression. A) the subordination of men B) sexual equality C) gender equality D) male dominance Answer: D 47) Jordan, who is strong proponent of equal gender rights, points out that clear gender roles are still useful, but the specifics of these roles need to change over time to reflect a more equitable position and the realities of the economy and other social institutions. She is a(n) __________ theorist. A) functionalist B) conflict C) interactionist D) behavioral Answer: A 48) Chad, who is a(n) __________ at heart, believes that sexual equality does not come just from economic or political rights, but a general situation of mutually agreed upon expectations and conditions between the sexes. A) functionalist B) conflict theorist C) interactionist D) behavioral theorist Answer: A 49) William sees sexual inequality as, quite simply, the exploitation of a minority group by a dominant group. He is a(n) __________. A) functionalist B) conflict theorist C) interactionist D) behavioral theorist Answer: A 50) Janet argues that women are more expressive and instrumental because they are socialized to be that way from a very young age. She is a(n) __________. A) functionalist B) conflict theorist C) interactionist D) behavioral theorist Answer: C True/False 51) In 1944, Myrdal noted a parallel between the position of women and blacks in U.S. society. Answer: True 52) Women were considered sexual property in settlement areas with a shortage of women. Answer: True 53) Flagrant sexism and sex role stereotyping abound in all forms of the media. Answer: True 54) The status of Asian American women rises with their level of education and degree of Americanization. Answer: True 55) Low-income African American women at first did not identify with the Feminist movement because many of its demands seemed irrelevant to their needs. Answer: True 56) The dual burden of career and family does not affect the experiences and career development of professional minority women as it does their white counterparts. Answer: False 57) Women tend to make less than men in almost every field, including those dominated by women. Answer: True 58) The greatest increase in working women has been among single women with college degrees. Answer: False 59) Since the Department of Defense has a “zero tolerance” policy on acts of sexual harassment in all branches of the military and acts quickly on complaints, such incidents have dramatically decreased. Answer: False 60) When women first secured voting rights, they immediately used their political power to improve their lives or to win a proportional share of elected offices. Answer: False Fill-in-the-Blank 61) __________ is one’s socially defined, unchangeable position in a society based on such arbitrary factors as age, sex, race, or family background. Answer: Ascribed status 62) __________ is the tendency for people to marry only within their own social group. Answer: Endogamy 63) __________ describes a society in which descent and inheritance pass through the female side of the family. Answer: Matrilineal 64) __________ describes the custom of married partners settling in or near the household of the wife’s family. Answer: Matrilocal 65) __________ are anticipated behaviours because of one’s gender. Answer: Gender-role expectations 66) The __________ is a real, but unseen, discriminatory policy that limits female upward mobility into top management positions. Answer: glass ceiling 67) The cost of __________ is a major reason many women quit their jobs or delay entry into the workforce. Answer: child care 68) Women on the __________ try to juggle both family and work, which often slows or halts their upward mobility within the company. Answer: Mommy track 69) __________ contend that a gender-based division of labor was an efficient means of achieving a smoothly functioning society in the past. Answer: Functionalists 70) __________ stress the oppression of women as economically based and beneficial to male status and power. Answer: Conflict theorists Short Answer 71) Explain how World War II changed women’s labor force participation. Answer: Impact of World War II on Women’s Labor Force Participation Changes: • Increased Participation: With men enlisted in the military, women took on roles traditionally held by men in factories, agriculture, and other sectors. • Economic Independence: Women gained financial autonomy and skills, challenging traditional gender roles. • Policy Shifts: Government support for women entering the workforce through campaigns like "Rosie the Riveter." • Long-Term Effects: Post-war, women's workforce participation continued, paving the way for later feminist movements and legal changes. 72) Explain the “third wave” of feminism. How was it different from the first two? Answer: The "Third Wave" of Feminism Characteristics: • Intersectionality: Emphasizes diversity and intersectional identities, including race, sexuality, and class. • Critique of Second Wave: Addresses issues overlooked by earlier feminism, such as LGBTQ+ rights and globalization. • Media and Technology: Utilizes digital platforms for activism and consciousness-raising. • Examples: Riot grrrl movement, advocacy for reproductive rights, and efforts to combat sexual violence. 73) In what ways does machismo affect lower-income Hispanic women? Answer: Impact of Machismo on Lower-Income Hispanic Women Effects: • Gender Roles: Reinforces traditional roles where men dominate decision-making and women are expected to prioritize family duties. • Economic Dependency: Limits educational and career opportunities, perpetuating cycles of poverty. • Health and Wellbeing: Contributes to stress, mental health issues, and domestic violence. • Examples: Limited access to healthcare, unequal pay, and cultural expectations of subservience. 74) Explain a female occupational ghetto. Provide at least two examples in your answer. Answer: Female Occupational Ghetto Definition: • Segregation by Gender: Concentration of women in specific low-paying, often undervalued occupations. • Examples: 1. Nursing: Predominantly female profession with lower pay compared to male-dominated fields like medicine. 2. Early Childhood Education: Majority of workers are women, often receiving lower wages despite critical roles in child development. 75) Define sexual harassment and give three examples. Answer: Definition of Sexual Harassment and Examples Definition: • Unwelcome Behavior: Unwanted sexual advances, requests for sexual Favors, or other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature. • Creates Hostile Environment: Harassment that interferes with work performance or creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment. • Examples: 1. Inappropriate Comments: Sexual jokes or comments about appearance. 2. Unwanted Touching: Touching, hugging, or kissing without consent. 3. Quid Pro Quo: Offering job benefits or advancement in exchange for sexual Favors. Essay 76) In what areas are women denied equal rights? How has this changed over time? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Note the various equal rights discrepancies for women including pay and political representation, but also noting rates of higher education attendance. 2. Identify and analyse the trajectory of equal rights for women paying attention to the history of the women’s movement and feminism. Sample Answer: Areas Where Women Are Denied Equal Rights and Changes Over Time Areas of Inequality: • Pay Equity: Women often earn less than men for the same work. • Political Representation: Underrepresentation in leadership roles and government. • Reproductive Rights: Access to healthcare, contraception, and abortion varies. • Violence: Higher rates of domestic violence and sexual assault. Changes Over Time: • Legal Advances: Civil rights legislation, equal pay laws, and reproductive rights protections. • Social Awareness: Increased visibility of gender inequality, leading to activism and policy reform. • Cultural Shifts: Changing attitudes towards gender roles and expectations. 77) Explain the evolution of the women’s movement in the United States and assess its impact on women’s lives. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Explain the factors that gave rise to feminism in the United States situating it within the broader context of civil rights. 2. Note the differences in the various waves of feminism as a movement which worked both within and outside of traditional social structures. 3. Identify the outcomes for women because of the movement, especially the 19th Amendment, the impact of World War II, and the Equal Pay Act of 1963. Sample Answer: Evolution of the Women’s Movement in the United States and Impact on Women’s Lives Evolution: • First Wave (19th-early 20th century): Suffrage movement for women’s voting rights. • Second Wave (1960s-1980s): Focus on legal and workplace equality, reproductive rights. • Third Wave (1990s-present): Intersectional feminism, addressing diversity and global issues. Impact: • Legal Advances: Equal Pay Act, Title IX, Roe v. Wade, and Violence Against Women Act. • Social Changes: Increased workforce participation, leadership roles, and educational attainment. • Challenges: Persistent gender gaps in pay, representation, and societal expectations. 78) Discuss the role of socialization in developing sex role behavior. Provide specific examples. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Outline the concept of socialization and explain its importance to sociologists as a way of passing messages about appropriate gender behavior from one generation to the next. 2. Explain gender-role expectations as a way of society reinforcing norms. 3. Use examples to show how socialization and gender-roles are connected through role entrapment. Sample Answer: Role of Socialization in Developing Sex Role Behavior Socialization Process: • Family: Parents reinforce gender norms through expectations and chores (e.g., boys and sports, girls and domestic tasks). • Education: Schools may perpetuate stereotypes through curriculum and teacher biases. • Media: Portrayals of gender in TV, films, and advertising shape perceptions and behaviours. • Peers: Influence from friends and social groups reinforces gender roles and expectations. Examples: • Toys: Marketing toys to boys (action figures, cars) vs. girls (dolls, kitchen sets). • Clothing: Different styles and colours marketed based on gender stereotypes. • Behavior: Expectations around assertiveness for boys and nurturing for girls. 79) Explain the concept of “role entrapment.” Use examples to show how women are affected by this phenomenon. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Articulate what role entrapment is, why it is important and how the media perpetuates stereotypes. 2. Using examples, specifically identify its impact on women’s lives in terms of curtailing how they think of themselves and how they are seen by society. Sample Answer: Concept of "Role Entrapment" and Examples Definition: • Role entrapment refers to being stuck or constrained within societal roles, limiting personal development or opportunities for change. Examples: • Gender Roles: Women often face expectations of caregiving and domestic responsibilities, limiting career advancement. • Workplace: Glass ceiling phenomenon where women are unable to break into top leadership roles despite qualifications. • Cultural Norms: Stereotypes that discourage women from pursuing male-dominated fields like STEM or leadership positions. 80) Discuss the functionalist, conflict theory, and interactionist explanation for male-dominance in the United States. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Outline the three basic theoretical approaches to studying minorities. 2. Evaluate the effectiveness of each theory in explaining some aspect of the minority experience. 3. Use examples to show where each theory could be useful. Sample Answer: Sociological Explanations for Male-Dominance in the United States Functionalist Perspective: • Social Stability: Gender roles maintain social order by assigning complementary roles (e.g., breadwinner and caregiver). • Specialization: Efficient division of labor between genders enhances family and societal functioning. • Institutional Support: Institutions like marriage and family reinforce traditional roles, promoting stability and continuity. Conflict Theory: • Power Dynamics: Gender inequality stems from competition for resources and social power. • Capitalism: Economic system perpetuates male dominance through unequal pay and limited opportunities for women. • Social Stratification: Gender inequality serves to maintain hierarchy and control over resources by dominant groups. Symbolic Interactionism: • Role Construction: Gender roles are socially constructed through everyday interactions and symbolic meanings. • Socialization: Gendered behaviours and expectations are learned and reinforced through social interactions. • Identity Formation: Individuals negotiate their gender identities based on cultural norms and societal expectations. Chapter 14: Gays, People with Disabilities, and the Elderly Multiple-Choice 1) __________ is particularly helpful in assessing the marginalization of the groups in this chapter. A) Understanding the duality of remoteness and nearness B) The ability to make sweeping judgments C) A lack of intersubjective understanding D) Racial profiling Answer: A 2) How was sodomy generally viewed in Europe in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance? A) As a sin B) As distasteful, but legal C) As an act of emotional intimacy D) As a declaration of love Answer: A 3) The American Academy of Paediatrics claims that __________ is one of the influences that determines sexual orientation. A) genetics B) political affiliation C) peers D) religious affiliation Answer: A 4) Who estimated in 1948 that 10% of Americans were homosexual? A) John Gagnon B) Lawrence Bowers C) Alfred Kinsey D) Robert T. Michael Answer: C 5) In a 1994 study by a team of social researchers, __________ percent of males said they were attracted to others of the same gender. A) 1.3 B) 7.3 C) 6.2 D) 4.4 Answer: C 6) Cases of arson, assault, and murder of homosexuals __________ in the 1990s. A) decreased slightly B) decreased dramatically C) increased slightly D) increased dramatically Answer: D 7) Recent studies from Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, and Norway found the percentage of homosexuals to range from __________ percent of the population. A) 1 to 4 B) 5 to 8 C) 9 to 13 D) 14 to 17 Answer: A 8) What was the difference in the percentage of Americans who considered homosexuality an acceptable alternative lifestyle in 2013 compared to 1989? A) 25% B) 30% C) 13% D) 50% Answer: A 9) What was the primary way in which homosexuals responded to homophobia in the 1950s? A) Media outreach B) Adopting a low profile C) Emigration from the United States D) Large-scale protests Answer: B 10) According to the intergroup contact hypothesis, if an employee made friends with a gay coworker, his attitude toward homosexuals in general would probably __________. A) become more positive B) not relate to his feelings for his friend C) cause the employee to also become gay D) become negative at an inverse rate to his positive feeling toward his friend Answer: A 11) After various setbacks, the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act was passed and signed into law in __________. A) October 2009 by President Obama B) July 1998 by President Clinton C) December 2007 by President Bush D) March 1991 by President Bush Answer: A 12) How many Americans have a severe hearing difficulty? A) 2.5 million B) 56 million C) 1.7 million D) 1.1 million Answer: D 13) What is the third largest minority group in the United States? A) African Americans B) homosexuals C) people with disabilities D) the elderly Answer: C 14) According to the U.S. Census, how many Americans have a physical, mental, or emotional condition causing difficulty in learning, remembering, or concentrating? A) 9.3 million B) 15.2 million C) 21.2 million D) 6.8 million Answer: B 15) The Medical Model in Figure 14.2 is associated with the idea that __________ is/are the problem. A) a lack of education B) prejudice C) the impairment D) the structures in society Answer: C 16) __________ have the highest percentage of disabled senior citizens. A) Non-Hispanic whites B) Pacific Islanders C) Asian Americans D) Black Americans Answer: D 17) __________ have the highest percentage of disabled respondents that are under the age of 15. A) Non-Hispanic whites B) Pacific Islanders C) Asian Americans D) Black Americans Answer: A 18) According to the text, __________ might lead well-intentioned people to create uncomfortable situations for the disabled? A) noticing someone’s disability B) ignoring someone’s disability C) comments about noteworthy disabled individuals D) dismissing a person with a disability Answer: C 19) The Kessler Foundation/National Organization on Disability national poll has consistently revealed that people with disabilities are more likely to __________. A) have health care B) attend religious services C) socialize D) drop out of high school Answer: D 20) __________ is identified as a common societal reaction to the disabled, especially prior to the Americans with Disabilities Act. A) Job discrimination B) Media portrayals of disabled underachievers C) Stereotypes of the disabled as sexual perverts D) Fear of the disabled as carrying a communicable disease Answer: A 21) How is age prejudice institutionalized in American society? A) In laws B) In interpersonal relations C) In religious beliefs D) In jokes Answer: A 22) By 2030, __________ percent of the elderly will be 75 or older. A) 46 B) 55 C) 65 D) 75 Answer: A 23) By 2030, approximately one in __________ North Americans will be 65 years or older. A) four B) five C) two D) six Answer: B 24) Projections suggest that by 2030, the composition of the older population for Hispanics will be __________ percent. A) 72 B) 11 C) 10 D) 5 Answer: C 25) What was the total fertility rate in less developed countries in 2012? A) 1.61 B) 3.0 C) 3.63 D) 14.1 Answer: B 26) Which country had the highest fertility rate in 2012? A) The Czech Republic B) Japan C) Ireland D) The United States Answer: C 27) Which country is predicted to have the lowest proportion of the population at age 60 or older by 2050? A) China B) India C) Mexico D) The Philippines Answer: D 28) What is the minimum total fertility rate to maintain population stability? A) 1.61 B) 2.1 C) 2.83 D) 3.4 Answer: B 29) Why has public awareness of senior citizens increased in recent years? A) Demographic changes in the population composition B) Decreased group cohesiveness C) Political clout among younger Americans D) The increasing popularity of actors such as Betty White Answer: A 30) People of what status are likely to feel strain related to rapid growth in numbers of elderly Americans? A) The great grandchildren of the elderly B) Adult children of the elderly C) Aging parents D) Teenagers Answer: B 31) Which group has the lowest suicide rates? A) Older Whites B) Older Asian or Pacific Islanders C) Older Blacks D) Older Hispanics Answer: C 32) __________ can be cited as a cause of the growing proportion of elderly people. A) Increasing birth rates B) Declining nutrition C) Advances in health care D) Social assistance in snowbelt states Answer: C 33) An emphasis on __________ is tied to America’s youth-oriented culture. A) spiritual formation B) creativity C) sexuality D) prejudice Answer: C 34) Approximately what percentage of people over the age of 65 experience significant mental impairment? A) 80% B) 10% C) 15% D) 20% Answer: D 35) What percentage of elderly people aged 65-74 live in nursing homes? A) 1% B) 11% C) 21% D) 31% Answer: A 36) Medical expenses for the elderly are about __________ than those of middle-aged adults. A) six times greater B) two times greater C) three times greater D) ten times greater Answer: C 37) __________ is/are usually tied to the employment of older workers. A) Lower costs for health care plans B) Lower absenteeism C) Negative job attitudes D) Poor relationships with customers Answer: B 38) Among all races, __________ percent older women were in poverty in 2011, compared to __________ percent of older men? A) 7.6; 4.6 B) 10.7; 6.2 C) 13.8; 14.2 D) 4.6; 15.3 Answer: B 39) The immigrant elderly are characterized by the fact that __________. A) most do not drive B) they have an expansive social network C) over 70% speak fluent English D) they have a high standard of living Answer: A 40) Employers often attempt to circumvent the ADEA by __________. A) openly advertising positions with age restrictions B) stating that workers are “over qualified” because of their experience C) requiring certain physical health standards of new employees D) demanding job skills that no old person could possibly possess Answer: B 41) About what proportion of elderly citizens depend on Social Security for over 50% of their income? A) 1/4 B) 1/3 C) 1/2 D) 2/3 Answer: D 42) Which group had the highest percentage of seniors living in poverty in 2008? A) Hispanic married-couple families B) Non-Hispanic white married-couple families C) Male Hispanics living alone D) Female non-Hispanic whites living alone Answer: A 43) __________ contributes to the high levels of deprivation for the rural elderly population. A) Lack of recreation options B) Poor heating and insulation C) High population density D) Lack of community Answer: B 44) In 2009, approximately what percentage of immigrant seniors lived below the poverty line? A) 13% B) 70% C) 19% D) 25% Answer: C 45) __________ has/have typically considered homosexuality to be deviant. A) The young B) Religious teachings C) Greek philosophy D) Sociologists Answer: B 46) The conflict perspective as applied to the groups in this chapter emphasizes __________. A) activity theory B) political lobbying for rights C) institutional structures and roles for marginalized groups D) structures of meaning making in daily life Answer: B 47) Jeremy runs a nursing home. As such he is concerned about the health of the elderly and works to make sure they have a number of things to do during the day so they do not simply sit around all of the time. He believes in __________ theory. A) activity B) disengagement C) conflict D) interactionist Answer: A 48) For __________ theorists, the disabled, gays and elderly are all marginalized groups that are exploited in various ways by the able bodied, young and straight population. A) functionalist B) conflict C) interactionist D) feminist Answer: B 49) Megan understands that the social world channels all of our activities, even our sexuality. She draws on the concept of __________ to explain the development of both homosexuality and heterosexuality. A) activity theory B) labeling theory C) social learning D) sexual scripts Answer: D 50) As a symbolic interactionist, Terrence is constantly stressing that sexual deviance and normality have to do with __________ theory as other people respond to particular sexual actions and identities. A) activity B) labeling C) social learning D) sexual scripts Answer: B True and False 51) Homosexuality has been descriptively evidenced in only about the last 500 years. Answer: False 52) Biological differences between homosexuals and heterosexuals have never been cited in scientific studies. Answer: False 53) 6.2% of men say that they are attracted to people of the same sex. Answer: True 54) In a recent national public opinion poll, more than four in five Americans reported that they personally knew someone who was gay. Answer: True 55) Americans are about equally divided between approval and disapproval of homosexuality. Answer: False 56) By a slight majority Americans are in Favor of same-sex marriage legalization. Answer: True 57) “Sandwich generation” refers to the adult children of the elderly who simultaneously provide for their own dependent children. Answer: True 58) According to Figure 14.6, the African American senior population will be larger than the Hispanic senior population in 2030. Answer: True 59) Higher birth rates result in lower proportions of the elderly age cohort. Answer: False 60) Ageism is the manifestation of prejudice, aversion, or hatred of the old. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank 61) The Bedamini people believe that the sharing of __________ between older and younger males is a means of enhancing masculinity. Answer: semen 62) Ancient Greeks praised homosexuality as more __________ and __________ then heterosexual love. Answer: genuine; tender 63) Psychological literature into the 1980s considered homosexuality to be __________. Answer: pathological 64) By the 1930s, popular fascination with gay culture led thousands to attend New York City’s __________. Answer: drag balls 65) Approximately __________ in three blacks believe that homosexuality is morally wrong. Answer: two 66) Mississippi prohibits any __________ couple from adopting. Answer: same-sex 67) Civil unions and domestic partnerships entitle homosexual couples to all the benefits, rights, privileges, and obligations afforded to __________. Answer: heterosexual couples 68) The “social model” seeks to eliminate the prejudice, exclusion, and barriers in society that result in __________ for the disabled. Answer: marginalization 69) Focusing on just one characteristic of a person and disregarding all others is a typical element of __________. Answer: prejudice 70) The text predicts that one in __________ North Americans will be 65 or older by 2030. Answer: five Short Answer 71) According to the intergroup contact hypothesis, what will happen to individuals’ attitudes as they attain more equal states or active ties with homosexuals? Answer: Intergroup Contact Hypothesis and Attitudes Toward Homosexuals Hypothesis: According to the intergroup contact hypothesis, increased contact between individuals and homosexuals under conditions of equality and cooperation should lead to improved attitudes and reduced prejudice. Outcome: As individuals have more positive and equal interactions with homosexuals: • Attitude Change: Prejudice and stereotypes are likely to decrease. • Positive Perception: Greater understanding and empathy may develop. • Social Norms: Support for equal rights and acceptance may increase in society. 72) How did the 1969 Stonewall Inn raids change the gay response to police aggression? Answer: Impact of the 1969 Stonewall Inn Raids on Gay Response Event: The Stonewall Inn raids in 1969 were a series of police raids on a gay bar in New York City. Change in Gay Response: • Resistance: Patrons and supporters of the bar fought back against police aggression, sparking protests and demonstrations. • LGBTQ+ Rights Movement: Galvanized the gay rights movement, leading to increased activism and advocacy for LGBTQ+ rights. • Community Solidarity: Strengthened community bonds and collective action against discrimination and police harassment. 73) What is meant by the “Detroit Syndrome”? Answer: Meaning of the "Detroit Syndrome" Definition: The "Detroit Syndrome" refers to the socio-economic decline and urban decay experienced by cities like Detroit, Michigan, during periods of economic hardship and industrial decline. Characteristics: • Job Loss: Decline of manufacturing industries leading to unemployment and poverty. • Population Decline: Outmigration of residents due to economic challenges and lack of opportunities. • Social Problems: Increased crime rates, deteriorating infrastructure, and reduced public services. 74) How did preindustrial societies usually react toward the elderly? Answer: Treatment of the Elderly in Preindustrial Societies Characteristics: • Respect: Elderly individuals were often revered for their wisdom and experience. • Role in Society: They played important roles as caregivers, storytellers, and community advisors. • Interdependence: Family and community networks provided support and care for elderly members. • Limited Aging: Shorter life expectancy and harsh living conditions meant fewer elderly individuals compared to modern societies. 75) How did industrialization and technology revolutionize the existing social order? Answer: Industrialization and Technology's Impact on Social Order Revolutionary Changes: • Urbanization: Mass migration from rural areas to cities for industrial jobs. • Social Class Formation: Emergence of distinct social classes based on wealth and occupation. • Labor Relations: Shift from agricultural work to industrial labor with new forms of employment and unionization. • Technological Advancements: Innovations like steam power and mechanization transformed production and transportation. • Social Challenges: Displacement of workers, urban overcrowding, and new forms of social inequality. Essay 76) Evaluate the evidence claiming that homosexuality is biologically determined. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Discuss the evidence against the idea that homosexuality is biologically determined. 2. Discuss the evidence for the idea that homosexuality is biologically determined. 3. Assess how compelling this evidence is and make some determination about how confident we can be one way or the other. Sample Answer: Evaluation of Evidence on Biological Determination of Homosexuality Evidence: • Genetic Studies: Research suggests possible genetic factors influencing sexual orientation. • Brain Structure: Differences in brain structure and function between homosexual and heterosexual individuals. • Twin Studies: Higher concordance rates in identical twins compared to fraternal twins. Criticism: • Complexity: Sexual orientation likely influenced by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors. • Social Construction: Some argue sexual orientation is shaped more by social and cultural factors than biology alone. Conclusion: While biological factors may play a role, sexual orientation is likely a complex interplay of genetics, environment, and personal experiences. 77) Explain the opposing positions in the controversies over same-sex marriage and gay parenting. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Note the arguments for same-sex marriage and gay parenting including crucial civil rights arguments and the research findings about the lack of negative effects on children. 2. Outline the opposition to same-sex marriage and gay parenting paying special attention to religious concerns. 3. Explain how these positions get converted into social action and policy regarding adoption laws and civil and domestic partnerships as opposed to marriage. Sample Answer: Controversies over Same-Sex Marriage and Gay Parenting Opposing Positions: • Conservative View: Marriage should be reserved for heterosexual couples based on religious or traditional beliefs. • Progressive View: Support for marriage equality, arguing for equal rights and recognition for same-sex couples. • Gay Parenting: Concerns over child well-being, with opponents citing potential psychological or social impacts. • Supporters: Emphasize research showing children raised by same-sex couples fare as well as those raised by heterosexual couples. Impact: Legal battles and societal debates continue, influencing policies and attitudes towards LGBTQ+ rights. 78) Provide some examples of double marginality, and predict some of its effects on an individual. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Define double marginality as a status where someone has two identities that both carry minority status. 2. Explain the general effects of it. The text shows that it can make people feel like an outcast and less than human. 3. Use examples to document the effects of double marginality drawing on the example provided in the text or from other places in life. Sample Answer: Examples of Double Marginality and Predicted Effects Examples: • Ethnic Minorities with Disabilities: Facing discrimination based on both ethnicity and disability status. • Elderly LGBTQ+ Individuals: Dealing with age-related challenges and LGBTQ+ marginalization. • Immigrants with Mental Health Issues: Struggling with acculturation and stigma related to mental illness. Effects: • Isolation: Feeling marginalized from both mainstream society and within their own community. • Identity Strain: Balancing multiple identities and facing internal conflict. • Access to Resources: Limited access to support services tailored to their specific needs. 79) Discuss the ways in which, people with disabilities and the elderly are “strangers” in U.S. culture. Does this approach work for studying these populations? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Apply the stranger model to the marginalized populations discussed in this chapter. 2. Note the places where these minority groups are similar and different than the other racial and ethnic groups discussed. 3. Assess the effectiveness of this approach to studying the populations in this chapter. Sample Answer: Disabilities and the Elderly as "Strangers" in U.S. Culture Strangeness in Culture: • Social Exclusion: Marginalized from mainstream activities and societal roles. • Stigma: Negative stereotypes and misconceptions affecting social interactions and opportunities. • Policy and Accessibility: Challenges in access to healthcare, transportation, and public spaces. Studying Populations: • Approach: Viewing them as "strangers" helps highlight societal neglect and the need for inclusive policies. • Critique: Risks oversimplifying diverse experiences and resilience within these populations. 80) Apply functionalist, conflict, and interactionist viewpoints to the issue of adoption of children by homosexual couples. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Outline the three basic theoretical approaches to studying minorities as functionalists focus on cohesion in society, conflict theorists focus on power relationships in society and symbolic interactionists focus on the social construction and meaning making that happens in society. 2. Evaluate the effectiveness of each theory in explaining the issue of adoption by homosexual couples noting how adoption might affect cohesion, be a threat to existing power arrangements or change the meaning of parenthood. 3. Use examples to illustrate your analysis. Sample Answer: Functionalism, Conflict, and Interactionism on Adoption by Homosexual Couples Functionalist Perspective: • Social Stability: Adoption provides children with stable homes, reinforcing family structures. • Role Function: Homosexual couples contribute to society by providing nurturing environments for children. Conflict Theory: • Power Dynamics: Opposition to homosexual adoption reflects broader inequalities and discrimination. • Legal and Social Barriers: Challenges in gaining adoption rights due to societal prejudices and legal barriers. Interactionist Perspective: • Symbolic Interaction: Focuses on meanings attached to family roles and relationships, challenging stereotypes. • Personal Agency: Emphasizes the agency of homosexual couples in negotiating family dynamics and societal norms. Conclusion: Each perspective offers unique insights into the adoption debate, emphasizing different aspects of social structure, power dynamics, and personal interactions. Test Bank for Strangers to These Shores Vincent N Parrillo 9780205971688, 9780134732862, 9780205970407

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