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This Document Contains Chapters 1 to 2 Chapter 1: The Study of Minorities Multiple Choice 1) The main focus or unit of analysis for sociologists is the __________. A) group B) individual C) stranger D) upper class Answer: A 2) Natives usually perceive strangers __________. A) objectively B) hospitably C) categorically D) indifferently Answer: C 3) In a new social setting, strangers __________. A) experience very few situations as potentially problematic B) lack the natives’ knowledge of shared realities C) are not aware of things unnoticed by the natives D) are typically treated as equals with natives Answer: B 4) The __________ describes Parrillo’s idea of the adjustment from stranger to neighbour. A) concept of a continuum with friction B) idea that assimilation is not inevitable C) centrality of shared religious beliefs leading to social cohesion D) fact that economic conditions are of paramount importance Answer: A 5) Social distance studies have found __________. A) an erratic pattern, depending on world or economic situations B) a fairly consistent pattern over the decades C) greater distance only between racial groups D) elimination of social distance between groups after two generations Answer: B 6) Social distance studies capture social acceptance of groups __________. A) over a period of ten years B) at a given moment in time C) only in the bottom rankings D) as they immigrate into the United States Answer: B 7) A 2001 study of social distance found __________. A) increased diversity in society B) decreasing levels of acceptance of diverse groups among college students C) that social distance continues to rise D) an increased acceptance of diversity for all groups except whites Answer: A 8) Despite the removal of more assimilated groups and the addition of less assimilated groups to the list in 2001, __________. A) the upward trend in social distance continued B) no significant differences were found C) there was an increased level of diversity D) the downward trend in social distance continued Answer: D 9) When a visiting Korean asks for pizza rather than sushi, the host may conclude that all Koreans like pizza. This is an example of __________. A) prejudice B) categoric knowing C) discrimination D) intersubjective understanding Answer: B 10) The adjustment from stranger to neighbour is __________. A) a process B) instantaneous C) impossible D) rare Answer: A 11) As acculturation takes place, __________. A) strangers’ consciousness increases as the freshness of their perception is lost B) the natives’ abstract typification about the strangers become more concrete through social interaction C) the stranger begins questioning daily activities D) there is more conflict between the natives and the strangers Answer: B 12) When Americans say “hello” or “how are you?” this is an example of __________. A) prejudice B) categoric knowing C) discrimination D) intersubjective understanding Answer: D 13) Jose, who is Mexican, moves to San Antonio from Mexico City. This is an example of __________. A) emigration B) immigration C) naturalization D) nationalization Answer: A 14) Aristotle said we like “those like ourselves … of our own race or country or age or family, and generally those who are on our own level.” Which of the following concepts best represents Aristotle’s statement? A) Similarity and attraction B) Identical preferences C) Opposites attract D) Group identification preference Answer: A 15) A minority group __________. A) is determined by a group’s numerical representation B) is determined by a group’s relative power in society C) is not tied to social status at all D) can never achieve power in society Answer: B 16) A minority group __________. A) can still be treated equally in society B) is characterized by a feeling of group identity C) is not often easily identifiable D) usually practices exogamy Answer: B 17) Which of the following is an example of an ascribed status? A) Writer B) Mormon convert C) Female D) New immigrant Answer: C 18) An __________ is a person who is a member of both dominant and minority groups. A) American white woman who is a Buddhist B) African American man born in Texas who lives in New York City C) American citizen who visited Tanzania D) African American woman with disabilities Answer: A 19) Jessica is a woman who lives in the United States where females outnumber males. She is __________. A) a member of a majority group B) a member of a minority group C) a stranger D) a neighbour Answer: B 20) Variation in physical differences such as body build, hair texture, and skin colour is due in part to __________. A) biological race B) racial discrimination C) natural selection D) evolutionary physical adaptation Answer: D 21) According to Parrillo, a category of people who share visible biological characteristics and are regarded as a single group is a(n) __________. A) race B) ethnic group C) social deviant D) status Answer: A 22) Ethnicity is __________. A) another term for “race” B) a false and arbitrary classification of people C) a term used to refer to European peoples D) a set of learned or acquired cultural traits shared by a people Answer: D 23) Racism __________. A) is a human invention B) supports the superiority of the human race C) forces the majority group to experience prejudice and discrimination D) prevails when people believe that a small group of races is superior in some aspects to others Answer: A 24) __________ are an ethnic group. A) Native Americans B) Asian Americans C) Black Americans D) Bulgarian Americans Answer: D 25) Melissa has been referring to the Japanese as a race because they stand out as an identifiable group to her. She is __________. A) using the term “race” incorrectly B) applying a more modern usage of the term “race” C) using the term “race” correctly D) applying a more traditional usage of the term “race” Answer: A 26) By “ingroup,” sociologists mean __________. A) a group immigrating into the country B) the dominant group C) the group to which an individual belongs and feels loyalty D) the reference group others imitate Answer: C 27) Underrepresenting non-European material in textbooks and classes exemplifies __________. A) Afrocentrism B) Eurocentrism C) categoric knowing D) reciprocal typification Answer: B 28) Social identity theory helps explain __________. A) upward mobility B) ethnic antagonism C) ingroup favouritism D) immigration quotas Answer: C 29) Social identity theory explains that __________. A) the assumption that “we” are better than “they” does not often result in ridicule, contempt, or hatred toward the outgroup B) the ingroup almost automatically views the outgroup as inferior C) groups rarely retain their values and standards while recognizing the superiority of another group D) countless people reject their own ingroup by becoming voluntary exiles, expatriates, and so on Answer: B 30) Pluralist advocates criticize __________. A) Afrocentrism B) social identity theory C) Marxism D) cultural relativism Answer: A 31) Studying race and ethnic relations is __________. A) easier than most other subjects because of our familiarity with minority problems B) easier because most people are sensitive to the problems and needs of others C) difficult because our values, attitudes, and experiences make our objectivity almost impossible D) difficult because the subject defies a logical or scientific explanation Answer: C 32) __________ is a historical example of ethnocentrism. A) Manifest Destiny in China B) The “white man’s burden” in England C) the Vienna Conventions on diplomatic relations in Austria D) the African Crusaders of the thirteenth century Answer: B 33) Arguing Western civilization derives from the black African influence on Egyptian civilization is a bolder form of __________. A) Afrocentrism B) categoric knowing C) false consciousness D) interactionist theory Answer: A 34) In American culture, such things as freedom, individualism and equal opportunity are deemed to be highly desirable. In sociological terms these concepts are __________. A) mores B) desires C) norms D) values Answer: D 35) Susan, a Texas cattle rancher, thinks the Japanese custom of eating raw fish is disgusting. This is an example of __________. A) ethnicity B) ethnocentrism C) poor taste D) cultural relativism Answer: B 36) Juan believes that Hispanic families are superior to white families. This belief is an example of which theory? A) social-referent group theory B) ethnic preference theory C) social identity theory D) outgroup discrimination theory Answer: C 37) An ethnic group held up as a role model for a newly arrived group was probably __________. A) an object of scorn and condemnation itself at one time B) the beneficiary of governmental assistance C) a political force from the time they first immigrated D) quick to learn English and assimilate Answer: A 38) __________ illustrates the Dillingham Flaw. A) An emphasis on preserving one’s culture B) A distrust of political solutions to end discrimination C) Criticism of a new immigrant group, compared to an earlier one D) The assumption that a minority group is lazy or immoral Answer: C 39) Mills states that an issue is a public matter when it is __________. A) not relevant to group behavior study in sociology B) less important than the welfare of the group C) only important to sociologists after thorough study of the group D) intricately connected to the larger historical context of society Answer: D 40) Seeing the connection between one person’s story of being bought and sold into modern slavery and recognizing the patterns of increasing human trafficking worldwide requires use of a(n) __________. A) ethnocentric viewpoint B) modern understanding of an ethnic group C) psychological perspective D) sociological imagination Answer: D 41) Functionalist theory emphasizes __________. A) social equilibrium B) the importance of social class C) imbalance of power D) the power of symbols in constructing social life Answer: A 42) Karl Marx believed that the elite exploited the masses and that this exploitation created tensions and disagreements. Marx’s theory is best known as __________. A) conflict perspective B) functionalist perspective C) interactionist perspective D) unfair perspective Answer: A 43) A __________ perspective focuses on who benefits from a particular situation. A) functionalist B) conflict C) interactionist D) societist Answer: B 44) When marrying, members of a minority group usually practice __________. A) endogamy B) exogamy C) polyandry D) polygamy Answer: A 45) A sociologist who investigates how people interpret the situations they are in is probably a(n) __________. A) functionalist B) conflict theorist C) interactionist D) societist Answer: C 46) Conflict theorists believe that the North Korean communist regime __________. A) was created by shared expectations among individuals B) maintains North Korean political harmony C) has only temporary dysfunctions D) was created to act against false consciousness Answer: D 47) Even though women make up a statistical majority, they do not have equal representation in government and face significant economic inequalities. This illustrates the idea that minority groups __________. A) receive unequal treatment as a group B) are easily identifiable because of distinguishing physical or cultural characteristics that are held in high esteem C) are biologically similar D) are rare in modern societies Answer: A 48) A 2001 study showed that more than 50 percent of newlyweds met their spouses in the workplace. Sociologically, meeting a spouse at work would be considered a __________. A) latent function of workplaces B) manifest function of workplaces C) latent dysfunction of workplaces D) a manifest dysfunction of workplaces Answer: A 49) Matt believes that the frustrations and struggles between social groups and classes are what structure and determine society. He is a __________. A) conflict theorist B) functionalist C) symbolic interactionist D) racist Answer: A 50) Bill believes that assimilation is the key to understanding racial and ethnic differences and that economic equality will follow. His views are in line with __________ theory. A) functionalist B) conflict C) interactionist D) feminist Answer: A True/False 51) Within any society, groupings of people by race, religion, tribe, culture, or lifestyle can generate a sense of familiarity and belonging. Answer: False 52) Social distance refers to how far away your relatives and friends live. Answer: False 53) There are very few studies that examine the how much people like those who are similar in appearance to them. Answer: False 54) Many people still call the United States a great melting pot where people of all races, religions, and nationalities come to be free and to improve their lives. Answer: True 55) Since strangers experience a “lack of historicity,” they often observe things that go unnoticed by the natives, such as natives’ customs, social institutions, appearances, and lifestyle. Answer: True 56) The adjustment from stranger to neighbour moves along a continuum without friction. Answer: False 57) Cross-racial friendships on college campuses are increasingly rare. Answer: False 58) Sociologists use historical documents, reports, surveys, ethnographies, and direct observation to systematically gather empirical evidence about intergroup relations. Answer: True 59) Functionalists believe that society is a stable, cooperative social system in which everything has a function and provides the basis of a harmonious society. Answer: True 60) Manifest functions are better than latent functions. Answer: False Fill-in-the-Blank 61) To understand intergroup relations, we must recognize that differences among various peoples cause each group to view other groups as __________. Answer: strangers 62) Compared to migration, __________ is a narrower term that refers to the movement of people out of a country to settle in another. Answer: emigration 63) __________ refers to the movement of people into a new country to become permanent residents. Answer: Immigration 64) Ranking __________ is an excellent technique for evaluating how perceptions of similarity attract closer interaction patterns. Answer: social distance 65) By __________, Alfred Schutz meant that people from the same social world mutually “know” the language, customs, beliefs, symbols, and everyday behavior patterns that the stranger usually does not. Answer: intersubjective understanding 66) The development of racism includes philosophers such as Immanuel Kant offering biological distinctions of the races of mankind and 19th-century social Darwinists seeing human society as a __________ in which the naturally superior will win out. Answer: survival of the fittest 67) Sociologists define a(n) __________ as a group to which individuals belong and feel loyal. A(n) __________ consists of all people to whom an individual does not have a sense of belonging and loyalty. Answer: ingroup, outgroup 68) __________ is a variation of ethnocentrism in which the content and emphasis in history, literature, and other humanities primarily concern Western culture. One counterforce to this is __________, a viewpoint emphasizing African culture and its influence on Western civilization and the behavior of American blacks. Answer: Eurocentrism, Afrocentrism 69) Strict new laws enacted in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Sweden and the U.S. in the 1990’s resulted in a marked increase in __________. Answer: deportations 70) __________ functions refer to obvious and intended results, while __________ functions refer to hidden and unexpected results. Answer: Manifest, latent Short Answer 71) Explain the “lack of historicity” that strangers often experience. Answer: Strangers often experience a "lack of historicity" because they are new to the community and thus lack the shared history, memories, and experiences that establish common ground and social bonds among longtime members. This absence of a shared past can make it challenging for strangers to fully integrate and feel connected to the group. 72) Using specific examples, explain the difference between ethnocentrism and cultural relativism. Answer: Ethnocentrism is the tendency to view one's own culture as superior and to judge other cultures by one's own cultural standards. For example, a person from the United States might criticize arranged marriages in India as backward without understanding the cultural context. Cultural relativism is the practice of understanding and evaluating a culture based on its own values and beliefs rather than comparing it to one's own culture. For example, an anthropologist studying the practice of arranged marriages in India would seek to understand the cultural, social, and economic reasons behind the practice without imposing their own cultural biases. 73) Give an example of an outgroup becoming a positive reference group. Answer: An outgroup can become a positive reference group when members of an ingroup adopt the values, behaviours, or lifestyles of the outgroup as aspirational. For instance, during the Civil Rights Movement in the United States, some white Americans began to view the African American community's fight for equality and civil rights as a positive model for social justice and change, thus adopting some of their ideals and methods. 74) Using examples, explain the major difference between macrosocial theories and microsocial theories. Answer: Macrosocial theories focus on large-scale social processes and structures, such as institutions, social systems, and populations. For example, functionalism examines how different parts of society contribute to overall stability and functionality. Microsocial theories focus on small-scale social interactions and individual behavior within these interactions. For instance, symbolic interactionism looks at how individuals create and interpret symbols and meanings through their social interactions, such as the meaning of a handshake or a smile in different contexts. 75) Explain why conflict theorists view that racism is an ideology. Answer: Conflict theorists view racism as an ideology because it serves to justify and maintain the power and privilege of dominant racial groups over minority groups. By promoting the belief that certain races are inherently superior or inferior, racism helps to legitimize unequal treatment and social structures that benefit the dominant group economically, politically, and socially. For example, the systemic discrimination in housing, education, and employment that disadvantages racial minorities is perpetuated by racist ideologies that normalize and rationalize these inequalities. Essay 76) Explain the primary changes in social distance results from 2001 to 2012. Why did these changes occur? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Explain how social distance scale results have changed in the last decade. 2. Note which groups have moved on the social distance scale, particularly Arab Americans. 3. Connect the changes in social distance to sociohistorical events such as 9/11. Sample Answer: Changes in Social Distance Results from 2001 to 2012 Primary Changes: From 2001 to 2012, social distance—the level of acceptance people feel towards those from different social, ethnic, or cultural groups—generally decreased. This period saw increased acceptance and inclusion of various racial and ethnic groups, reflecting a trend toward greater social integration and multiculturalism. Reasons for Changes: 1. Increased Globalization: Greater interaction and exposure to different cultures through media, travel, and communication technologies helped reduce prejudices and stereotypes. 2. Policy and Legal Reforms: Policies promoting equality and anti-discrimination, such as affirmative action and same-sex marriage legalization, contributed to more inclusive attitudes. 3. Demographic Changes: Younger generations, who tend to be more open and accepting of diversity, grew in influence, shifting societal norms. 4. Education and Awareness: Improved education on cultural diversity and history of social injustices raised awareness and fostered empathy towards marginalized groups. These factors collectively contributed to a decrease in social distance, indicating a more inclusive and accepting society over the decade. 77) Strangers and natives have different perceptions of each other. Why is this? How do these perceptions help to structure social life between the two? Use concrete examples in your response. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Articulate the way strangers view natives. 2. Explain the way natives view strangers. 3. Use theories to explain the patterns of interaction between strangers and natives. 4. Apply examples to outline the effects of these perceptions on society with regard to changing social norms and legislative efforts. Sample Answer: Perceptions of Strangers and Natives Different Perceptions: Strangers and natives often have different perceptions of each other due to their differing experiences, backgrounds, and levels of integration within the community. Natives may see strangers as outsiders, unfamiliar with local customs and norms, while strangers might view natives as insular or resistant to change. Structuring Social Life: These perceptions help structure social life by delineating boundaries of inclusion and exclusion. Natives' perceptions can lead to protective behaviours, creating social cohesion but also potentially fostering xenophobia. Conversely, strangers' perceptions can drive efforts to assimilate or maintain distinct identities, influencing cultural diversity. Examples: 1. Immigration: In many Western countries, native populations may perceive immigrants as a threat to job security or cultural identity. This perception can lead to restrictive immigration policies and social tension. Immigrants, on the other hand, may view natives as gatekeepers to economic and social opportunities, leading them to either integrate quickly or form close-knit ethnic communities to preserve their heritage. 2. Gentrification: Long-term residents (natives) in urban areas undergoing gentrification may see newcomers (strangers) as disruptors of their established community dynamics. This can result in social friction and resistance to change. Newcomers might perceive natives as resistant to progress and modernization, leading to a cultural clash that reshapes the neighbourhood’s social fabric. These differing perceptions influence social interactions, policy decisions, and the overall integration process, highlighting the complex dynamics between strangers and natives in any given society. 78) Compare and contrast Simmel and Schutz’s view of the role of a stranger. Which one do you find the most compelling? Why? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Explain Simmel’s view of the stranger role. 2. Explain Schutz’s view of the stranger role. 3. Note the similarities and differences between the two theories. 4. Justify which one the student finds the most compelling. Sample Answer: Simmel vs. Schutz on the Role of a Stranger Simmel’s View: Georg Simmel viewed the stranger as a unique social role characterized by both nearness and distance. Strangers are part of the group yet remain external, which allows them to offer objective insights and serve as intermediaries or agents of change. This duality gives them a distinctive perspective that can be valuable to the community. Schutz’s View: Alfred Schutz built on Simmel’s ideas but focused more on the subjective experience of the stranger. He emphasized the stranger’s outsider status and the cognitive processes involved in understanding and navigating the new social world. Schutz highlighted the challenges strangers face in interpreting and adapting to the social norms of the group. Most Compelling: I find Simmel’s view more compelling because it highlights the functional role of strangers in society. His concept of nearness and distance captures the transformative potential of strangers to bring fresh perspectives and innovations to a community, which can drive social progress and adaptation. 79) Discuss ethnocentrism as a universal human condition. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Explain the basic tenets of ethnocentrism. 2. Identify why ethnocentrism is a universal condition pointing to social-conflict theories. 3. Apply examples from different cultures or past civilizations as support. Sample Answer: Ethnocentrism as a Universal Human Condition Ethnocentrism, the tendency to view one's own culture as superior to others, is a universal human condition because it stems from the inherent need to belong to and defend one’s group. It is rooted in socialization processes where individuals learn to value their own cultural norms and practices above others. This can be observed globally, from small tribal societies to large modern nations. Examples: 1. Language: People often view their native language as more expressive or superior, leading to resistance to learning or valuing other languages. 2. Cultural Practices: Dietary habits, religious rituals, and social customs are often judged through an ethnocentric lens, leading to misunderstandings and conflicts. Ethnocentrism serves to reinforce social cohesion within a group but can also lead to prejudice and discrimination against outsiders. 80) Compare and contrast the three major sociological perspectives in studying minorities. What is the value in having all three theories? Use examples to show the power of each. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Outline the three basic theoretical approaches to studying minorities. 2. Evaluate the effectiveness of each theory in explaining some aspect of the minority experience. 3. Use examples to show where each theory could be useful. Sample Answer: Comparing the Three Major Sociological Perspectives in Studying Minorities 1. Functionalism: Functionalists view minorities in terms of their contributions to social stability and cohesion. They might focus on how diversity brings different skills and perspectives that enhance societal functionality. Example: The integration of immigrant labor in the economy, which fills labor shortages and supports economic growth. 2. Conflict Theory: Conflict theorists emphasize the power struggles between dominant and minority groups. They examine how inequalities and exploitation arise and are perpetuated by social structures. Example: The systemic discrimination against African Americans in the US, leading to economic and social disparities. 3. Symbolic Interactionism: Symbolic interactionists focus on the day-to-day interactions and meanings constructed between individuals. They study how stereotypes and labels affect minority identities and social experiences. Example: The impact of racial profiling on the self-identity and social interactions of young minority men. Value of All Three Theories: Having all three perspectives allows for a comprehensive understanding of minority experiences. Functionalism highlights the contributions and roles of minorities, conflict theory exposes power dynamics and inequalities, and symbolic interactionism reveals the micro-level interactions and meanings. Together, they provide a holistic view of the complex realities faced by minority groups. Chapter 2: Culture and Social Structure Multiple Choice 1) When people create meaning and significance in life through the use of language or symbols, they are creating __________. A) nonmaterial culture B) material culture C) acculturation D) nonverbal communication Answer: A 2) __________ is a basic U.S. value. A) Freedom B) Interdependence C) Community D) Superstition Answer: A 3) Shared cultural __________ encourage solidarity by embodying society’s fundamental expectations. A) materials B) beliefs C) norms D) laws Answer: C 4) In 2012, how many athletic director positions did white males hold at Football Bowl Subdivision schools? A) 2 B) 32 C) 62 D) 92 Answer: D 5) What did the first “Droodle” in your text represent? A) A snake B) A bear climbing a tree C) An eagle D) A tribe Answer: B 6) The Thomas Theorem states that __________. A) people have to be taught to hate and fear B) if people define a situation as real, it becomes real in its consequences C) the world of reality is taken for granted D) each generation passes its cultural values on to the next generation Answer: B 7) Culture is __________. A) shared B) universal C) made up from scratch for each generation D) a relatively unimportant part sociological study Answer: A 8) What feature of language may connote both intended and unintended prejudicial meanings? A) Social structure B) Culture C) Linguistic relativity D) Beliefs Answer: C 9) __________ is an example of material culture. A) Money B) The exchange of ideas C) Religion D) Acculturation Answer: A 10) A fork is an example of __________. A) nonmaterial culture B) material culture C) acculturation D) nonverbal communication Answer: B 11) Students who sit quietly in class and take careful notes are fulfilling societal expectations of behavior, which are called __________. A) mores. B) values C) norms D) material culture Answer: C 12) The basic U.S. value of __________ is at odds with the value of “individualism.” A) efficiency B) progress C) science D) external conformity Answer: D 13) __________ is a paralinguistic signal. A) Whistling at someone of the opposite sex B) Shrugging your shoulders C) Flipping your middle finger D) Rolling your eyes Answer: A 14) Jeremy knows very little about his family’s heritage, and as a fourth generation Irish-American, most people simply assume he is a white American. It is safe to say that Jeremy’s family has been __________. A) acculturated B) naturalized C) culturally transmitted D) culturally diffused Answer: A 15) Oscar is an interactionist. He believes that social interaction among people of different cultures may be difficult because __________. A) the two parties do not share the same definitions of symbols B) people have a natural reluctance to relate to strangers C) strangers are intimidated by the natives of the host country D) one group tries to dominate the other Answer: A 16) Dominique whistled at her brother to get his attention. Dominique is using __________. A) paralinguistic signals B) language C) vocal communication D) nonverbal notation Answer: A 17) Settling in an area already containing family, friends, or compatriots is known as __________. A) chain migration B) joined resettlement C) parallel social institutions D) recycling Answer: A 18) The fact that cultures owe a substantial debt to other cultures because of the spread of ideas, inventions, and practices is called __________. A) cultural transmission B) convergence C) cross-cultural impregnation D) cultural diffusion Answer: D 19) What do sociologists call a minority group’s establishment of its own clubs, organizations, stores, churches, newspapers, and schools? A) Duplication B) Parallel social institutions C) Redundant social patterns D) Subcultural networking Answer: B 20) In convergent subcultures we tend to see __________. A) continued residential clustering B) everyday ethnicity in language, dress, and cultural behavior C) a gradual assimilation process D) high rates of interpersonal conflict Answer: C 21) When Juan arrived in Milan, he was surprised to find that people drank wine during working lunches. This is an example of __________. A) cultural transmission B) culture irrelevance C) culture diffusion D) culture shock Answer: D 22) __________ would likely lead to culture shock. A) Finding that everyone around dresses like you B) Behaving according to societal norms C) Not understanding the slang used by people around you D) Encountering a group that expresses different opinions than you Answer: C 23) Which group illustrates a persistent subculture? A) Amish B) Irish C) Germans D) Italians Answer: A 24) Relationships between majority and minority groups are influenced by differences in culture, as well as __________. A) structural conditions B) acculturation C) cultural ethnocentrism D) religious beliefs Answer: A 25) Which of the following is a social or economic condition that would likely foster conflict between minority groups? A) Stagnant economy B) Ample resources C) Agrarian based economy D) Expanding economy Answer: A 26) Technological improvements in communication and transportation __________. A) have no real impact upon dominant-minority relations B) may actually delay assimilation C) accelerate the assimilation process because they make for a smaller world D) are important only because they encourage more people from distant places to migrate to the United States Answer: B 27) Researchers note that whites tend to categorize __________. A) lower-class blacks by race B) lower-class blacks by class C) middle-class blacks by race D) upper-class blacks by class Answer: A 28) What is a core cause of the “tangle of pathology” in black communities? A) Juvenile delinquency B) Adult crime C) Welfare dependency D) Family deterioration Answer: D 29) The culture of poverty refers to __________. A) poor peoples’ contributions to U.S. culture in folk music, literary subjects, and folklore B) cultural traits of the poor transmitted from one generation to the next, creating a perpetual underclass C) the cultural tastes of the poor D) blacks only; other minority groups do not fit this framework Answer: B 30) Moynihan believed that the explanation for high unemployment, welfare dependency and other social problems was __________. A) poor social class skills B) pluralism C) family deterioration D) culture shock Answer: C 31) The reputational method involves __________. A) asking people how they thought others compared to them B) asking people for references C) beliefs about how your coworkers feel about you D) asking someone to tell you how they feel about you Answer: A 32) Warner’s Yankee City study found an important link between social class status and __________. A) length of residence in the United States B) religious belief C) political participation D) gender Answer: A 33) Milton Gordon’s ethclass groupings represent __________. A) the eventual decline of ethnicity as a significant factor B) the supremacy of ethnicity over social class because of ethnic reawakening C) the subsocieties resulting from the intersection of ethnicity and social class D) an abstract concept, not one of primary relationships Answer: C 34) __________ is one of the four social categories proposed by Milton Gordon that play a part in forming ethclasses. A) Technological advances B) Race C) Social class D) Religion Answer: C 35) Edward Banfield described the lower classes as attaching high value to __________. A) being present-oriented B) sacrifice C) community service D) self-improvement Answer: A 36) The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 __________. A) implied that structural problems prevented many from working B) placed a five year limit on government assistance C) acknowledged that most living in poverty also have jobs D) required welfare recipients to work after two years of assistance Answer: D 37) Miranda is Catholic and her family has lived in the same working class neighbourhood in Boston for four generations. Miranda could be considered to be part of a(n) __________. A) race B) ethclass C) dominant class D) persecuted minority group Answer: B 38) Barry believes that most poor people are caught in a cycle where they end up developing bad habits and belief systems which keep them in poverty. He is a supporter of Moynihan’s interpretation of the __________ theory. A) ethclass B) pluralist C) culture of poverty D) language hypothesis Answer: C 39) Cultural differentiation refers to __________. A) the differences that are present between two cultures B) the likelihood of similarity between two groups C) pluralism D) assimilation Answer: A 40) The contact hypothesis strongly emphasizes __________ as a path toward reducing prejudice. A) having outgroup friends B) economic equality C) equitable social roles D) political representation Answer: A 41) Cynthia began working in the copy room of a large corporation but is now the manager of an entire corporate division. This is an example of __________. A) occupational mobility B) luck C) right place phenomenon D) career achieved status Answer: A 42) Jeremy, an African American, is trying to put his sociological knowledge to practice in order to reduce prejudice. As someone who sees a lot of value in the interactionist perspective, he wants to employ them __________ and make friends with people who are not black. A) contact hypothesis B) Dillingham hypothesis C) feminist perspective D) outgroup theory Answer: A 43) Michael sees a strong correlation between a group’s economic position and the intensity of negative interactions with the dominant society. Michael’s views are in line with __________ theory. A) functionalist B) conflict C) interactionist D) feminist Answer: B 44) According to theorist William J. Wilson, in which power relationship does the dominant group exercise almost complete control over the subordinate group? A) industrialization B) capitalism C) communism D) paternalism Answer: D 45) Cultural crashes in China illustrate which sociological mode? A) conflict B) functionalism C) interactionism D) internal-colonialism Answer: D 46) Joe’s family has had uneven experiences in their new country with some people having tremendous success while others who immigrated are stuck in ethnic enclaves and have enjoyed very little prosperity, lending support for __________ theory. A) power-differential B) internal-colonialism C) paternalism D) immigrant assimilation Answer: A 47) __________ represents a minority-against-minority clash over limited resources. A) The 1992 Los Angeles riots B) Violence between blacks and Australians in Miami in 1988 C) The 19th-Century race-baiting riots on the West Coast D) Black-White violence in urban neighbourhoods Answer: A 48) As the text suggests, white values and behavior patterns might be unrealized by group members because __________. A) group members celebrate pluralism B) group members want to express their emotions C) whites don’t exhibit any consistent patterns D) the values and behaviours are taken for granted Answer: D 49) What, according to Hitchcock, is a common value in white culture? A) Avoiding “stepping on people’s toes” B) Trying to “making a scene” C) Spontaneity D) Uncoordinated daily activities Answer: A 50) According to the text, recognizing a “white culture” would likely __________. A) prevent dominant group perceptions of racism B) promote suspicion regarding alternative cultural experiences C) promote the idea of a single “American” culture D) relegate whites to the bottom of the racial hierarchy Answer: A True/False 51) Material culture consists, in part, of the meaning and significance attached to material objects. Answer: True 52) Most minority groups eventually adapt their distinctive cultural traits to those of the host society. Answer: True 53) Paralinguistic signals include sounds but not words. Answer: True 54) The significance attached to iPods is an element of nonmaterial culture. Answer: False 55) Linguistic relativity of language means that every race has its own language. Answer: False 56) Ralph Linton calculated that any given culture contains about 90 percent borrowed elements. Answer: True 57) Convergent subcultures come together to create a brand new culture. Answer: False 58) According to the concept of “persistent subcultures,” all ethnic groups avoid any assimilation with the dominant culture. Answer: False 59) An ascribed status is one that someone has given to us as a gift. Answer: False 60) Attitudes about a group may result from people’s value judgments about social class. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank 61) Based on Figure 2.1, each individual observes the world through __________, which are evaluated in terms of __________. Answer: sense perceptions, culture 62) Through _________, each generation transmits its culture to the next generation. Answer: cultural transmission 63) Bill has always been told that Mexican are lazy. The consequences of defining this group of people this way is that he treats them as though they are incapable of working hard. This is an example of the __________ at work. Answer: Thomas Theorem 64) __________ social institutions, such as newspapers, churches, and schools, often promote cohesiveness within minority subcultures. Answer: Parallel 65) An Irish immigrant who feels stress in both American and Irish cultures as her subculture converges with the dominant culture in America, might experience the problem of __________. Answer: marginality 66) In W. Lloyd Warner’s study of Newburyport, Massachusetts, a significant relationship existed between an ethnic group’s __________ and their social class. Answer: length of residence 67) According to Daniel P. Moynihan, young men who grow up in broken families and never acquire a stable relationship to __________ will be more likely to resort to crime and other forms of deviance. Answer: male authority 68) The greater and more visible the __________, the greater the likelihood that conflict will occur. Answer: cultural differentiation 69) In __________ theory, which group becomes dominant and which becomes subordinate governs relationships between the groups. Answer: Power-Differential 70) Some social scientists argue that the black experience does not equal with that of __________. Answer: European immigrants Short Answer 71) Explain the differences between cultural diffusion and cultural transmission. Use specific examples in your response. Answer: Cultural Diffusion: This is the process by which cultural elements, such as beliefs, practices, and technologies, spread from one society or group to another. For example, the adoption of sushi from Japanese cuisine into Western diets exemplifies cultural diffusion. Cultural Transmission: This refers to the way cultural knowledge, practices, and values are passed down from one generation to the next within the same culture. For instance, parents teaching their children traditional holiday customs is a form of cultural transmission. Example Comparison: Diffusion: The global popularity of yoga, originally an Indian practice. Transmission: Teaching children to celebrate Thanksgiving in the United States. 72) As the text suggests, accessibility to homelands through technology might make immigrants less interested in assimilation. Why? Use examples in your answer. Answer: Technology’s Role: Technology, such as the internet and social media, provides immigrants with easy access to their homeland’s news, entertainment, and social networks. This constant connection can reduce the pressure to assimilate into the host country’s culture because immigrants can maintain strong ties to their original culture. Examples: Communication: Apps like WhatsApp allow immigrants to stay in daily contact with family back home. Media: Streaming services provide access to movies, TV shows, and news from their home countries, reinforcing cultural continuity. 73) Explain the concept of the culture of poverty and discuss how it has been used and misused. Answer: Concept: The culture of poverty suggests that the values and behaviours of the poor are passed down from generation to generation, creating a cycle of poverty. It implies that poverty is maintained by cultural norms rather than structural factors. Usage: It has been used to explain why poverty persists despite economic opportunities, suggesting that the poor are trapped by their own cultural traits. Misuse: Critics argue it oversimplifies poverty by blaming the victims and ignoring systemic issues like economic inequality, lack of education, and discrimination. It can lead to policies that do not address the root causes of poverty but rather try to change individual behaviours. 74) Explain W. Lloyd Warner’s reputational method and illustrate with examples. Why is this method important for social scientists? Answer: Concept: Warner’s reputational method involves asking community members to rank others based on social status, resulting in a subjective measure of social stratification. Examples: Small Towns: Residents might be asked who they consider the most influential families, leading to a ranking based on local perceptions of status. Corporate Settings: Employees might rank colleagues based on perceived competence and influence. Importance: This method is important for social scientists because it provides insights into how social status and class are perceived within a community, revealing the subjective dimensions of social stratification that might not be evident through objective measures like income or education. 75) Explain how, according to Thomas Sowell, the compatibility of a group’s cultural characteristics with the dominant culture determines the group’s level of economic success. Answer: Concept: According to Thomas Sowell, a group’s economic success depends significantly on how well its cultural characteristics align with the dominant culture’s values and norms. If a group’s cultural traits, such as work ethic, education values, and social behaviours, match those of the dominant culture, they are more likely to achieve economic success. Example: Asian Immigrants in the U.S.: Sowell argues that many Asian immigrant groups have cultural values that emphasize education and hard work, aligning well with the dominant American culture, which contributes to their economic success. Explanation: Compatibility reduces friction in adapting to the host society’s economic system, educational institutions, and workplace norms, facilitating smoother integration and upward mobility. Essay 76) Explain the difference between material and nonmaterial culture. Which should change faster? Use specific examples in your answer. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Define and explain material culture such as physical objects with examples. 2. Define and explain nonmaterial culture such as ideas and values with examples. 3. Analyse which one should change faster and why. Sample Answer: Material vs. Nonmaterial Culture Material Culture: This consists of the physical objects, resources, and spaces that people use to define their culture. Examples include buildings, artwork, tools, clothing, and technology. Nonmaterial Culture: This includes the intangible aspects of a culture, such as beliefs, practices, aesthetics, values, norms, and language. Which Should Change Faster: Material culture tends to change faster due to technological advancements and innovations. For example, smartphones and the internet have rapidly transformed how people communicate and access information. Example: • Material Culture: The evolution of transportation from horse-drawn carriages to electric cars. • Nonmaterial Culture: Changes in societal views on marriage and family structures, which evolve more slowly as they are deeply embedded in cultural values and traditions. 77) Explain how knowledge of language and cultural symbols shape our perception of reality. How does this apply to racial and ethnic dynamics? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Outline the basics of how language structures our perceptions paying attention to how language shapes thought and behavior patterns. 2. Explain why interactionist theory is particularly interested in language as a set of symbols. 3. Apply to racial and ethnic dynamics and to stereotype formation. Sample Answer: Language, Cultural Symbols, and Perception of Reality Language and Cultural Symbols: Language and symbols shape our perception of reality by influencing how we categorize, interpret, and communicate our experiences. They provide the framework through which we understand the world and our place in it. Application to Racial and Ethnic Dynamics: • Language: The use of certain terms or phrases can reinforce stereotypes or challenge them. For example, the shift from "illegal immigrant" to "undocumented immigrant" changes the perception of the individuals involved, reducing negative connotations. • Cultural Symbols: Symbols like flags, religious icons, or traditional clothing can foster a sense of identity and belonging or highlight differences, impacting social interactions and power dynamics. For instance, the Confederate flag in the United States symbolizes heritage for some but is a potent symbol of racism and oppression for others. Impact: These elements shape how racial and ethnic groups see themselves and are seen by others, influencing social cohesion, discrimination, and intercultural relations. 78) Explain the interrelationships between ethnicity and social class. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Explain and define ethnicity and social class. 2. Show how the two are linked together using examples such as the culture of poverty argument, racial stereotypes, or structural economic conditions. Sample Answer: Interrelationships Between Ethnicity and Social Class Ethnicity and Social Class: Ethnicity and social class are interconnected, influencing each other in various ways. Ethnic background can impact access to resources, opportunities, and social networks, which in turn affects social class. Examples: • Economic Opportunities: Certain ethnic groups may have historical disadvantages, such as limited access to education and employment opportunities, leading to lower socioeconomic status. • Social Mobility: Ethnic minorities who achieve higher education and professional success can improve their social class, challenging stereotypes and creating role models within their communities. • Discrimination: Racial and ethnic discrimination can hinder economic mobility, reinforcing class disparities. For instance, systemic racism in housing, education, and employment affects many African Americans and Latinos in the United States, perpetuating cycles of poverty. Conclusion: Understanding the interplay between ethnicity and social class is crucial for addressing social inequalities and promoting inclusive policies that consider both ethnic and class-based disparities. 79) Compare and contrast Stephen Steinberg and Thomas Sowell’s views of a minority group’s economic success using examples. Which one do you find more useful? Why? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Note Steinberg’s theory about economic success which minimizes cultural factors using examples. 2. Note Sowell’s theory about economic success which pays great attention to cultural factors using examples. 3. Point out similarities and points of departure with regard to the role of culture. 4. Evaluate which is more powerful. Sample Answer: Comparing Stephen Steinberg and Thomas Sowell’s Views on Minority Economic Success Stephen Steinberg: • Viewpoint: Steinberg emphasizes the structural barriers and systemic discrimination that minority groups face. He argues that historical and institutional factors, such as segregation and unequal access to education, play significant roles in hindering minority economic success. • Example: African Americans' economic struggles can be traced to the legacy of slavery, Jim Crow laws, and ongoing racial discrimination in housing and employment. Thomas Sowell: • Viewpoint: Sowell focuses on cultural factors, arguing that the cultural characteristics of a group determine its economic success. He believes that groups with cultural traits compatible with the dominant society’s values (e.g., emphasis on education and work ethic) are more likely to succeed economically. • Example: Sowell cites the economic success of Asian immigrants in the United States, attributing it to their strong cultural emphasis on education and family cohesion. More Useful Viewpoint: Steinberg’s view is more useful for understanding and addressing systemic inequalities. While cultural factors are important, Steinberg’s focus on structural barriers highlights the need for policy interventions to dismantle discrimination and provide equal opportunities. 80) Discuss the concept of “white culture.” Do you think there is such a thing? What are the effects of having a “white culture?” Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Describe what “white culture” is from a white studies perspective. 2. Provide evidence for or against its existence as opposed to American culture. 3. Evaluate the effects of “white culture” and how it can lead to a multiracial society Sample Answer: The Concept of “White Culture” Concept: • Debate: The concept of "white culture" is debated. Some argue that there is a distinct "white culture" characterized by certain values, norms, and practices predominantly associated with white communities in Western societies. Others contend that "white culture" is a social construct used to maintain racial hierarchies. • Examples: Proponents might point to cultural practices such as certain holiday celebrations (e.g., Thanksgiving in the U.S.), norms around individualism, or specific types of music and literature. Effects of “White Culture”: • Normalization: It can normalize and prioritize the values, norms, and behaviours of white people, marginalizing other cultural expressions. • Privilege: It perpetuates white privilege by setting the dominant culture’s standards as the norm, against which other cultures are measured and often found lacking. • Exclusion: It can lead to the exclusion and marginalization of minority cultures, reinforcing social and economic inequalities. Opinion: There may be patterns and practices often associated with white communities, but calling it "white culture" risks oversimplifying and overlooking the diversity within white populations. The concept can be problematic if it perpetuates exclusion and inequality. Test Bank for Strangers to These Shores Vincent N Parrillo 9780205971688, 9780134732862, 9780205970407

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