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This Document Contains Chapters 11 to 12 Chapter 11: Hispanic Americans Multiple-Choice 1) Which state was brought into the United States as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo at the End of the Mexican American War? A) Oregon B) Utah C) Colorado D) California Answer: D 2) __________ is south of Bolivia. A) Venezuela B) Columbia C) El Salvador D) Uruguay Answer: D 3) __________ has the highest percentage of Hispanic residents. A) Chicago B) Houston C) San Diego D) Miami Answer: D 4) In 1970, the total population of Latin America and the Caribbean was more than 285 million. What was the approximate population in 2012? A) 100 million B) 160 million C) 599 million D) 400 million Answer: C 5) How many legal South American immigrants entered the United States between 2000 and 2009? A) 2,249,421 B) 856,508 C) 576,831 D) 502,247 Answer: B 6) Dignidad refers to ________ A) reciprocal respect in human interaction B) formal rules of etiquette C) deference to those of high status D) laws against children disrespecting their parents Answer: A 7) In Latin American countries, ________ A) racial prejudice is nonexistent. B) social class, not race, is the primary basis for differential treatment. C) a sharp racial line determines social standing. D) racial prejudice is worse than in the United States Answer: B 8) La Raza Cosmica refers to __________. A) an annual competitive event among Hispanic people B) a common bond and great destiny for the Hispanic peoples C) a master-race concept asserting Hispanics are superior D) the emphasis upon nuclear, not extended, families Answer: B 9) Variances in the Hispanic experience in the United States are due to __________. A) their heritage B) lacking a common language C) the regions in which they settled D) religious beliefs Answer: C 10) A Hispanic male’s felt responsibility to protect his family’s honor might be identified by which term? A) Marianismo B) La Raza Cosmica C) Interdependencia D) Machismo Answer: D 11) A Hispanic student who does not look her teacher in the eye is very likely doing so because she __________. A) feels guilty B) respects her teacher C) disrespects her teacher D) has not been raised well by her parents Answer: B 12) In the United States, machismo causes a culture class because it often involves __________. A) the stereotype of a woman as a sex object B) the belief in male dominance and female submissiveness C) less opportunity for males to display physical prowess D) the emphasis upon nuclear, not extended, families Answer: B 13) According to Figure 11.3, __________ appear to have the most prosperous economic status. A) Mexicans B) Puerto Ricans C) Cubans D) Central Americans Answer: C 14) Hispanics are heavily underrepresented in __________. A) blue collar jobs B) manufacturing jobs C) managerial positions D) service occupations Answer: C 15) __________ had the biggest decrease in high school dropouts between 2000 and 2010. A) Whites B) African Americans C) Hispanics D) Asian Americans Answer: C 16) As their length of time in the country grows, Mexican immigrants close the earning gap with __________ but not with non-Hispanic whites. A) Native Americans B) Blacks C) Asians D) U.S. born Mexican Americans Answer: D 17) Who is associated with the Brown Berets? A) Cesar Chavez B) Rudolfo Gonzales C) Reies Lopes Tijerina D) David Sanchez Answer: D 18) Chicano power was promoted by __________. A) Cesar Chavez B) Martin Luther King, Jr. C) Jesse Jackson D) Manuel Noriega Answer: A 19) The Zoot Suit Riots of 1943 illustrate __________. A) dominant-group tolerance of violence against a minority B) an extreme form of minority-group defiance C) labor unrest in times of economic trouble D) the failure of government-mandated hiring programs Answer: A 20) Mexican Americans in Los Angeles and New Mexico compared to those living elsewhere, __________. A) are less likely to enter the mainstream of U.S. society B) exhibit a greater retention of their culture C) show a greater degree of assimilation D) live mostly in the poorest sections of the cities Answer: C 21) Currently, the two most common stereotypes that Mexican Americans have had to combat involve __________. A) belonging to youth gangs and being undocumented aliens B) preferring enjoyment over working hard and material over intangible rewards C) being future-oriented and materialistic D) being unwilling to learn English and not caring about education Answer: A 22) Mexican Americans may be described as __________. A) nonassimilable because of their proximity to Mexico B) confined almost exclusively to the American Southwest C) a single group of mostly impoverished workers D) diverse in values, socioeconomic status, and assimilation Answer: D 23) “Repatriation” and “Operation Wetback” are examples of __________ efforts. A) expulsion B) forced assimilation C) Americanization D) self-justification Answer: A 24) In Puerto Rico, as in all Latin American countries, an individual’s identity, importance, and security depend on __________. A) migration patterns B) family membership C) religion D) occupation Answer: B 25) __________ reduced Puerto Rican involvement in the Catholic Church on the mainland. A) A closed church hierarchy B) Inability to internalize a Catholic identity C) The appeal of Lutheran churches D) Spiritualism and superstition Answer: A 26) In the Puerto Rican American communities, bodegas serve as __________. A) religious temples B) hair salons C) social gathering places D) a source of cultural pride Answer: C 27) Compared to Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans __________. A) are less fluent in English B) have a higher number of high school dropouts C) have seen their poverty rates decline D) have a longer length of residence in the mainland United States Answer: C 28) Changes in the U.S. economy affect Puerto Rico because __________. A) most of its labor force works on the mainland B) it is only a small island C) of its economic dependency on the United States D) the only industry in Puerto Rico is servicing cruise ships from the U.S. Answer: C 29) In the early twentieth century, U.S. policy toward Puerto Rico was __________. A) mostly to encourage economic investment B) simply exploitation C) an attempt at Americanization D) introduction of pluralism Answer: C 30) Through the __________, the United States reserved the right to intervene in Cuba if necessary to protect U.S. interests. A) Know-Nothing Party B) Labor Unions C) Platt Amendment D) Peace Act Agreement Answer: C 31) Compared to most other Hispanic-American groups except for South Americans, Cubans have __________. A) lower educational attainment B) a higher unemployment rate C) a higher median family income D) worse cultural values Answer: C 32) Cuban cultural values emphasize __________. A) living in order to work and achieve physical comfort B) directing hostility into physical violence C) readily displaying kindness and generosity D) being unwitty or disagreeable Answer: C 33) In which of the following ways did Cubans respond to discrimination in Miami in the early 1980s? A) Forming an ethnic enclave B) Shunning local politics C) Immediate attempts to assimilate D) Moving in large numbers to Pensacola Answer: A 34) Dominicans commonly co-exist in neighborhoods alongside those of the __________. A) Cubans B) Mexicans C) Nicaraguans D) Puerto Ricans Answer: D 35) The greatest number of South American immigrants came from __________. A) Argentina B) Chile C) Colombia D) Ecuador Answer: C 36) The sanctuary movement that hid Salvadoran refugees from immigration officials involved __________. A) Catholic clergy and parishioners B) Cubans serving as a middleman minority C) Mexican smugglers D) the Underground Railroad Answer: A 37) What happened in 1990 that led an 11-year-long exodus of Nicaraguan refugees to subside? A) The contra war began. B) The Sandinistra regime was voted out. C) Nicaraguan asylees were denied resident status. D) Immigration services denied entry to all Nicaraguan refugees. Answer: B 38) Puerto Ricans and Dominicans have exceptionally high rates of intermarriage with __________. A) other Hispanics B) non-Hispanics C) each other D) Blacks Answer: C 39) What groups have low intermarriage rates with non-Hispanics? A) Central and South Americans B) Cubans and Mexicans C) Dominicans and Puerto Ricans D) Colombians and Peruvians Answer: C 40) If you were concerned about the Hispanic dropout rate, you would do well to focus on __________. A) age at the time of entry into the United States B) attendance C) size of family D) living in a two-parent household Answer: A 41) What is the main “hot button” issue that that triggers nativists’ ire more than any other ethnic manifestation by Hispanics? A) Large families B) Extensive use of the Spanish language C) Catholicism D) Refusal to participate in 4th of July celebrations Answer: B 42) As a whole, the patterns for recent Hispanic immigrants can be said to be __________ those for other racial and ethnic groups. A) vastly different than B) extremely similar to C) harder than D) easier than Answer: B 43) Which theoretical perspective is most likely to point out that Latinos are persistently restricted to low-paying job opportunities? A) functionalism B) conflict theory C) interactionism D) feminist theory Answer: B 44) According to functional analysis, __________. A) the Hispanic community is unimportant in adjustment to U.S. life B) Cuban revitalization of neighborhoods has hurt other Hispanic groups C) allowing an underclass undermines personal rights and equal opportunities D) existence of a dual economy denies job opportunities to Hispanics Answer: C 45) According to conflict analysis, improvement of Hispanic status depends upon their __________. A) learning the English language B) developing political power C) benefiting from greater government jobs programs D) reduced immigration to stabilize their ethnic communities Answer: B 46) According to interactionist analysis, Anglos __________. A) have good awareness of Hispanic diversity because of television B) are highly receptive to Hispanic pluralism C) apply understandings of European immigrant patterns to the Hispanics D) often misinterpret Hispanic ethnicity and behavior Answer: D 47) As a(n) __________ theorist, Marissa sees the massive population growth of Latin Americans as providing both a cultural identity in a new land and inciting antagonism among other ethnic groups in the United States. A) functionalist B) conflict C) interactionist D) feminist Answer: A 48) Chicano activists have incorporated the concept of __________ that was first applied to the black ghetto because it also helps to describe the Anglo takeover of Latin American lands and people for the last 150 years. A) internal colonialism B) race C) Hispanic identity D) ethnicity Answer: A 49) When trying to understand the Latin American experience in the United States, Raul continually stresses the dual pillars of residential segregation and economic inequality and exploitation. His views are in line with __________ theory. A) functionalist B) conflict C) interactionist D) feminist Answer: B 50) Linda, as a(n) __________, stresses that Hispanics are not a monolithic group even though non-Hispanic Americans tend to view them and stereotype them that way. A) functionalist B) conflict C) interactionist D) feminist Answer: C True/False 51) Puerto Ricans became U.S. nationals in 1898 when the Treaty of Paris ended the Spanish-American War. Answer: True 52) Hispanics are the largest ethnic group in the United States and are steadily increasing in number all the time. Answer: True 53) Hispanics generally have a more casual attitude toward time than do others in the United States. Answer: True 54) The value of Marianismo might be expressed in a Hispanic female’s decision to prevent her husband from trying to dominate her. Answer: False 55) The median family income for Latino families has traditionally been higher than for black families. Answer: True 56) The bracero program encouraged American-born Hispanics to sponsor recent immigrants to the United States. Answer: False 57) U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service launched a program in the 1950s called “Operation Wetback.” Answer: True 58) In the second half of the 19th century, Mexicans from south of the border helped fill U.S. labor needs for the construction of railroad lines and the expansion of cotton, fruit, and vegetable farms. Answer: True 59) Both Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans have had steadily declining poverty rates in recent years. Answer: False 60) Undocumented aliens make substantial economic contributions as consumers and low-skilled workers. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank 61) The treaty of __________ ended the Mexican-American War in 1848. Answer: Guadalupe Hidalgo 62) Today, __________ make up more than one-fourth of the population in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires. Answer: mestizos 63) The participation of Hispanic women in the labor force seems to be related to __________. Answer: education level 64) __________ often serves as an unexpected basis of discrimination for Latinos coming to the United States. Answer: Skin colour 65) The percentage of Mexican-Americans receiving welfare assistance is only about __________ that of whites. Answer: one-half 66) The Los Angeles __________ riot in 1943 began over conflicts between Mexican residents and some sailors on leave. Answer: Zoot Suit 67) Under the __________ program, Mexican aliens could enter the state legally as contract laborers. Answer: bracero 68) __________, a term for interracial marriage, might have helped cause a society that deemphasized race. Answer: Miscegenation 69) A __________ might be a good location for a Puerto Rican to both buy groceries and find advice on buying a car. Answer: bodega 70) A __________ is an alien outside the United States who is unable or unwilling to return to his or her country because of persecution or a well-founded fear or persecution. Answer: refugee Short Answer 71) Explain the Puerto Rican concept of dignidad. Use examples to support your answer. Answer: Puerto Rican Concept of Dignidad Dignidad: In Puerto Rican culture, dignidad refers to dignity, pride, and self-respect. It encompasses a sense of honor and integrity, often tied to personal and collective identity. Examples: • Cultural Expressions: Preservation of language, music, and traditions as symbols of dignity and cultural heritage. • Political Activism: Advocacy for civil rights and social justice to uphold the dignity and rights of Puerto Ricans, both on the island and in the diaspora. • Community Resilience: Responses to adversity and challenges with resilience and determination, reflecting a commitment to dignified living conditions and equal treatment. 72) Explain the rise of Chicano Power since the 1960s. Answer: Rise of Chicano Power since the 1960s Chicano Power Movement: • Political Mobilization: Emerged from the civil rights era, advocating for Mexican American empowerment, cultural pride, and social justice. • Activism: Led to protests, strikes, and grassroots organizing to challenge discrimination, improve educational opportunities, and promote political representation. • Cultural Revitalization: Emphasized the reclaiming of Mexican heritage, language, and customs as sources of strength and identity. 73) In what way is an asylee different from a refugee? Answer: Difference Between Asylee and Refugee Asylee: A person who seeks refuge and legal protection within another country due to fear of persecution based on race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a particular social group. Asylum is typically sought after arrival in the host country. Refugee: A person who has been forced to flee their home country due to similar fears of persecution but is recognized as such before arriving in a host country. Refugees receive international protection and resettlement assistance. Key Difference: The main distinction lies in the timing and process of seeking protection—refugees are recognized and granted status before arrival, while asylees seek protection upon arrival. 74) What assimilation patterns do we currently find among Hispanics in the social institutions of family and education? Answer: Assimilation Patterns Among Hispanics in Family and Education Family: Hispanic families often maintain strong kinship ties and cultural traditions while adapting to American norms of gender roles, parenting styles, and household structure. Education: Hispanics show varied assimilation patterns, with challenges such as language barriers and socioeconomic disparities impacting educational attainment. Some achieve academic success through bilingual education and community support programs. 75) What concept describes the strategy of allowing the passage of time to produce acculturation and economic improvement for immigrants rather than direct, legislative action? To what groups has this strategy applied in U.S. history? Answer: Strategy of Allowing Time for Acculturation and Economic Improvement Concept: This strategy is often referred to as "benign neglect" or "passive assimilation," where cultural and economic integration of immigrant groups is expected to occur gradually over time without specific legislative intervention. Groups in U.S. History: This approach has historically applied to immigrant groups such as Italians, Jews, and Irish immigrants in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. These groups faced initial discrimination but eventually assimilated into mainstream American society through socioeconomic mobility and cultural adaptation. Essay 76) Contrast prevailing racial attitudes in Latin America and in the United States. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Note the racial attitudes in Latin America which are tied much more closely to social class and make distinctions within the umbrella of Hispanics. 2. Note the racial attitudes in the United States which are based almost exclusively on skin color. 3. Use specific examples to show where these contrast especially with regards to social standing. Sample Answer: Contrasting Prevailing Racial Attitudes in Latin America and the United States Latin America: • Racial Mixture: Emphasizes mestizaje (mixed race) and a more fluid racial identity spectrum. • Social Hierarchy: Historically structured by skin color and socioeconomic status, with greater acceptance of racial intermarriage. • Colorism: Preference for lighter skin tones often reflects social privilege and access to opportunities. United States: • Black-White Binary: Emphasis on a rigid black-white racial dichotomy with historical segregation and systemic racism. • Civil Rights Movements: Struggles for racial equality have focused on dismantling legal segregation and achieving social integration. • Ethnic Diversity: Increasing recognition of diverse racial and ethnic identities beyond black and white, influenced by immigration and multiculturalism. 77) Discuss the fallacy of Mexican stereotypes. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Identify the prevailing Mexican stereotypes-lack of U.S. citizenship and gang/drug involvement. 2. Debunk these myths using sociological data and show how empirical data unwinds the culture of poverty argument. Sample Answer: Fallacy of Mexican Stereotypes Stereotypes: • Homogeneity: Misrepresentation of Mexicans as a monolithic group ignoring diverse regional, cultural, and socioeconomic variations. • Cultural Traits: Oversimplification of characteristics such as laziness or criminality, which overlooks individual agency and cultural richness. • Media Influence: Negative portrayals in media reinforce stereotypes, impacting perceptions and policy decisions. Reality: • Diverse Identities: Mexicans encompass various ethnic backgrounds, languages, and traditions, contributing to cultural vibrancy and resilience. • Contributions: Significant contributions in arts, sciences, cuisine, and labor sectors challenge stereotypes and enrich global culture. • Intersectionality: Intersectional identities intersect with class, gender, and regional differences shape diverse experiences and perspectives. 78) What prevented the Catholic Church from being an effective social force for Puerto Ricans as it once was for other groups? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Explain how the Catholic Church operated for other groups such as the French, Irish, Germans, Italians, Slavics, Poles, Syrians, Lebanese, and others in terms of promoting social cohesion and access to the church hierarchy. 2. Identify the barriers such as colonial rule, language and race, the church faced with Puerto Ricans. Sample Answer: Catholic Church's Effectiveness as a Social Force for Puerto Ricans Challenges: • Historical Context: Colonialism and cultural imposition weakened the church's relevance and authority in Puerto Rican society. • Political Influence: Church leaders' reluctance to engage in social and political activism limited its impact on social justice issues. • Secularization: Modernization and secularization reduced church influence as Puerto Ricans embraced diverse religious and spiritual practices. • Social Justice Advocacy: Despite limitations, grassroots movements and liberation theology promoted social justice and community empowerment. Comparison: The church's role varied, compared to its significant social and political influence among other immigrant groups in the United States. 79) Explain why Puerto Ricans have the highest poverty rate of any major racial or ethnic group. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Document the high poverty rates of Puerto Ricans. 2. Identify some potential causes of this high rate including education and noting how this is possible given that Puerto Rico is a territory of the United States. 3. Explain these causes using theories. For example, conflict theory would have a lot to say about the exploitation of the Puerto Ricans without giving them representation in political structures. Sample Answer: Reasons for Puerto Ricans' High Poverty Rate Factors: • Colonial History: Puerto Rico's status as a U.S. territory limits economic opportunities and access to federal programs compared to states. • Economic Dependence: Reliance on low-wage industries, limited job opportunities, and higher unemployment rates contribute to economic instability. • Educational Disparities: Challenges in accessing quality education and resources lead to lower educational attainment and job prospects. • Social Services: Limited access to healthcare, housing, and social services exacerbates poverty and inequality. • Migration: Migration to the mainland U.S. for economic opportunities often leads to challenges in integration and discrimination. 80) Apply the three major sociological perspectives to the Hispanic experience in the United States. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Outline the three basic theoretical approaches to studying minorities-functionalist, conflict and interactionist. 2. Evaluate the effectiveness of each theory in explaining some aspect of the Hispanic experience in the United States paying particular attention to the vast array of people labeled Hispanic and the stature of this group as the dominant minority. 3. Use examples to show where each theory could be useful especially as it relates to the varied experiences of different sub-groups of Hispanics. Sample Answer: Sociological Perspectives on the Hispanic Experience in the United States Functionalism: • Integration and Stability: Focuses on Hispanic contributions to labor markets, cultural diversity, and social cohesion. • Social Institutions: Emphasizes family networks, community organizations, and religious institutions as sources of support and resilience. • Example: Functionalists highlight the role of Hispanic-owned businesses in economic growth and cultural preservation in local communities. Conflict Theory: • Structural Inequality: Analyzes systemic barriers in education, employment, and healthcare that perpetuate socioeconomic disparities. • Discrimination and Power Dynamics: Highlights racial discrimination, immigration policies, and labor exploitation as sources of inequality. • Example: Conflict theorists examine disparities in wages and working conditions faced by Hispanic immigrants in low-wage industries. Symbolic Interactionism: • Identity Construction: Examines how language, cultural symbols, and interactions shape Hispanic identity and integration. • Micro-Level Interactions: Focuses on everyday experiences of discrimination, assimilation, and cultural adaptation. • Example: Symbolic interactionists explore how media representations and stereotypes influence public perceptions of Hispanics and impact self-esteem. Chapter 12: Religious Minorities Multiple Choice 1) The number of religious groups in the United States today numbers __________. A) under 500 B) about 1,000 C) over 1,500 D) over 2,000 Answer: C 2) How many religious groups in the United States have memberships exceeding one million? A) 29 B) 83 C) 513 D) 1245 Answer: A 3) Which religious group has grown the most vigorously in recent years? A) Mormons B) Jehovah’s Witnesses C) Pentecostal Assemblies of God D) Presbyterians Answer: C 4) According to Miller, Americans are leaving mainstream churches in droves to __________. A) join cults B) embrace atheism C) join nondenominational churches D) start their own religions Answer: C 5) What is the largest U.S. denomination? A) Catholic B) Baptist C) Methodist D) Mormon Answer: A 6) U.S. Catholics today are __________. A) less than ten percent of the total population B) declining in numbers, except for Hispanic immigrant additions C) more than 50 percent of the total population D) the largest single religious denomination in the United States Answer: D 7) U.S. Catholics and Protestants fundamentally differ on the issue of __________. A) abortion B) school prayer C) birth control D) clerical celibacy Answer: D 8) Throughout much of the colonial period, U.S. Catholics __________. A) encountered discriminatory laws in all thirteen colonies B) faced no discriminatory laws since they were so few in number C) settled mostly in New England where people were more hospitable D) dominated Maryland which was their power base at the Constitutional Convention Answer: A 9) The greatest conflict between Catholics and Protestants was on the subject of __________. A) tax exemption status B) education C) zoning variances for convents D) Sunday blue laws Answer: B 10) Achieving economic success, but not public acceptance, is known as __________. A) social ostracism B) clannishness C) parasitic deference D) consciousness of kind Answer: A 11) As of 2013, what percentage of legislators in the U.S. congress was Jewish? A) 5% B) 14% C) 23% D) 43% Answer: A 12) What strained relations between the “old” Jewish population and the “new” Jewish arrivals? A) Ethnic and nationalist prejudices B) Similarity in social class C) Religious homogeneity D) Differing family sizes Answer: A 13) Anti-Jewish stereotypes included characterizing Jews as __________. A) scoundrels B) athletes C) part of an open society D) accommodating Answer: A 14) Often accompanying Jewish economic success was __________. A) social segregation B) structural assimilation C) return to their native land D) social acceptance Answer: A 15) German Jews were embarrassed by the __________ of the Sephardic Jews. A) appearance B) German language C) unorthodox religious practices D) cosmopolitanism Answer: A 16) The fact that __________ contributed to the success of some first and many second-generation Jewish Americans. A) they brought to America skills useful in an industrial society B) male immigrants were not burdened with familial commitments C) they lacked seriousness of purpose D) they put an emphasis on real world experience over school learning Answer: A 17) Which of the following was an action the federal government took against Mormons? A) Use of federal troops to install a non-Mormon governor B) Higher taxation rates C) Deportation D) Removal from political office Answer: A 18) Mormons forbid __________. A) eating meat B) coffee or tea C) having sex D) women working Answer: B 19) Utah is among the top states in the country in __________. A) divorce rates B) illiteracy C) high school dropout rates D) college graduates Answer: D 20) In what year did the Mormon church announce that blacks could become priests? A) 1948 B) 1969 C) 1978 D) 1990 Answer: C 21) In what year did the Mormon church announce that blacks could become priests? A) 1948 B) 1969 C) 1978 D) 1990 Answer: C 22) Mormon values stress __________. A) religious exploration B) family togetherness C) economic independence D) independent thinking Answer: B 23) What primary motivation prompted the Mormons to move westward from New York? A) Economic opportunity B) Expulsion C) Overpopulation D) Railroad work Answer: B 24) In 1847, Mormon migration to the Great Salt Lake Valley resulted from __________. A) the threat of extermination or forced assimilation B) the lure of gold and silver discoveries C) the desire to live in a less settled region D) an avoidance response to the growing slavery issue Answer: A 25) Which worldwide religion is second to Christianity in membership numbers? A) Buddhism B) Hinduism C) Islam D) Taoism Answer: C 26) Islam incorporates many beliefs and practices of __________. A) Buddhism and Hinduism B) Buddhism and Christianity C) Christianity and Judaism D) Christianity and Hinduism Answer: C 27) Muslims are concerned about __________ interfering with their ability to maintain the integrity of their way of life. A) work B) divorce C) television D) the government Answer: B 28) According to a 2011 poll by ABC News and the Washington Post, what percentage of respondents considered mainstream Islam a peaceful religion? A) 9% B) 43% C) 72% D) 82% Answer: B 29) __________ is/are least likely to have a favorable view of Islam. A) College students B) Seculars C) Evangelical Protestants D) People under 30 years old Answer: C 30) Amish citizens in __________ would be most likely to vote Republican. A) Indiana B) Ohio C) Pennsylvania D) Illinois Answer: D 31) A common aspect of all Amish communities is their __________. A) beautiful country churches B) adaptability to modern life C) high degree of integration and harmony D) dependence on tourism Answer: C 32) In order to strengthen the group by removing errant members and silencing ideas which do not conform, the Amish may __________ a member. A) convert B) baptize C) excommunicate D) shun Answer: D 33) Symbols of Amish group identity include their __________. A) clothing B) monotheistic beliefs C) specially styled jewelry D) knowledge of the Russian language Answer: A 34) The Amish allow __________. A) conservative behavior from their teenagers B) adolescent rebelliousness prior to adult church membership C) their teenagers to date outgroup members D) educational achievement through high school only Answer: B 35) __________ is/are identified in the text as an identifying symbol for Rastafarians. A) Dietary habits B) Smoking tobacco C) Using ebonics as a language D) Refusing to bathe Answer: A 36) Rastafarians believe themselves to be __________. A) black Israelites B) black Muslims C) black Arabs D) black Indians Answer: A 37) I and I is used among Rastafarians to __________. A) distinguish themselves from other religions B) denote who is inside and outside of the religion C) promote equality and oneness with everyone D) show respect for elders Answer: C 38) Which is part of the Rastafarian behavior code? A) An emphasis on frequent cleaning to maintain dreadlocks B) Using only natural foods without chemical processing C) Drinking only natural milk, not liquor or soda D) Using “you” and “me” only when speaking to outgroup members Answer: B 39) Santeria in the United States today is __________. A) exclusively followed by Hispanics B) a highly ethnocentric Cuban religion C) against any form of animal sacrifice D) a multi-ethnic, multi-racial, secret religion Answer: D 40) Hindus are __________. A) vegetarians B) polytheistic C) able to practice another religion simultaneously D) a minority religious group in every country where they are present Answer: C 41) Which social caste is considered to be the elite? A) Brahmins B) Kshatriyas C) Vaishyas D) Sudras Answer: A 42) In what way can we say that Hinduism is like most Western religions? A) It originated with a single founder. B) It reflects a diverse set of practices and philosophical concepts. C) It has a single system of morality. D) It has a specific theological system. Answer: B 43) The pottu or dot on the forehead for Hindus is similar to __________. A) Christians wearing a cross B) The nazi swastika C) The American flag D) a marriage ceremony Answer: A 44) __________ is identifiable as an example of “civil religion.” A) “In God We Trust” B) Biblical literalism C) The separation of church and state D) The removal of prayer from schools Answer: A 45) Controversies over abortion and school prayer __________. A) once again pit Protestants against Catholics B) are illustrations of civil religion C) unite people of many different faiths in a common cause D) threaten to create deep religious division in the country Answer: C 46) Creationists’ support for a literal interpretation of the Bible puts them in conflict with __________ theory. A) Feminist B) Conflict C) Gravity D) Evolutionary Answer: D 47) Martin, defending the institution of religion, argues that religion helps otherwise disparate groups of people to maintain common values and bonds. Martin’s views are in line with __________ theory. A) functionalist B) conflict C) interactionist D) feminist Answer: A 48) The __________ perspective points to examples from the Amish and Hasidim to show that when minority groups are marginalized, they will simply become even more extreme and separatist. A) functionalist B) conflict C) interactionist D) feminist Answer: A 49) David is not a religious person. He thinks dominant religions are simply tools of the powerful to keep other people from challenging the status quo. His views are in line with __________ theory. A) functionalist B) conflict C) interactionist D) feminist Answer: B 50) Many groups rely on religion to help them make sense of the world and to interpret both daily and cosmic level events. Jill stresses this meaning making function of religion because she is a(n) __________. A) functionalist B) conflict theorist C) interactionist D) feminist Answer: C True/False 51) According to the text, religious differences fan the flames of intense bigotry and acts of mob violence in the United States. Answer: False 52) The Catholic Church has not rebounded to the levels of participation it held before the sexual scandals in the early 2000s. Answer: False 53) Protestants were dedicated to keeping Catholics out of office because they would supposedly take their orders from Rome. Answer: True 54) Anti-Semitic behavior in the United States largely disappeared after World War II. Answer: False 55) Many Jewish Americans today see religion less as an inherited ethnic identity and more as a personal choice of belief and practice. Answer: True 56) The discovery of silver in California ended Mormon isolation because their settlement was located along the best route to the California silver mines. Answer: False 57) The referendum to ban the building of Minarets in Switzerland was passed with 58% of the vote. Answer: True 58) Most of the Muslims in Switzerland follow the codes of dress and conduct associated with conservative Muslim countries like Saudi Arabia. Answer: False 59) The Amish typically support social security and all other forms of insurance, believing the country should be responsible for its people. Answer: False 60) The United States is now probably the most religiously diverse country in the world. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank 61) Churches in many older New England towns stand in the __________ of the community. Answer: centre 62) The APA struck a responsive chord with many Protestants who were afraid immigrant Catholics would take their __________. Answer: jobs 63) One Jewish survey shows that only __________ of Jews in the United States today are “seriously religious.” Answer: 20% 64) Church officials ask the media to use the term “the Church of Jesus Christ” instead of “__________.” Answer: the Mormon Church 65) For Mormons, Monday is set aside as __________. Answer: Family Home Evening 66) Most Mormon investments go directly into __________ companies. Answer: church-run 67) Devout Muslims eat their food only with the __________ hand. Answer: right 68) Of the 150 Mosques in Switzerland, __________ conduct the call to prayer. Answer: none 69) A __________ is a tower attached to Mosques from which a Muezzin or Crier calls the faithful to prayer. Answer: minaret 70) __________ is a powerful social control mechanism that enables the Amish to maintain their way of life. Answer: Shunning Short Answer 71) What is the role of the clergy in an immigrant group’s adjustment to their new home in the United States? Use examples to illustrate your answer. Answer: Role of Clergy in Immigrant Adjustment in the United States Role: • Community Leadership: Clergy often serve as cultural and spiritual leaders, providing guidance, support, and community cohesion. • Social Services: They may facilitate access to resources such as language classes, legal aid, and healthcare services. • Cultural Preservation: Clergy help maintain religious practices, traditions, and values that aid in preserving cultural identity. • Example: Catholic priests in Hispanic communities often provide language assistance, advocate for immigration reform, and foster community solidarity through church activities. 72) Why do many Protestants fear Catholics in public office? Answer: Protestant Fear of Catholics in Public Office Reasons: • Historical Animosity: Stemming from religious conflicts and competition, Protestants historically viewed Catholics as agents of a foreign power (the Pope) with conflicting allegiances. • Political Influence: Fear of Catholic dominance in policy-making due to their numerical strength and hierarchical organization. • Social Issues: Concerns over moral and social policies influenced by Catholic doctrine, such as abortion and marriage laws. • Example: In the early 20th century, Protestant opposition to Catholic presidential candidates like Al Smith reflected these fears. 73) Compare and contrast the first three waves of Jewish immigrants to the United States. Answer: Comparison of First Three Waves of Jewish Immigrants to the United States First Wave (Colonial Era): • Sephardic Jews: Arrived in the 17th century, primarily from Spain and Portugal. • Occupations: Engaged in trade, finance, and shipping; settled in urban centres like New York and Charleston. • Cultural Impact: Established synagogues and contributed to early American commerce and culture. Second Wave (Mid-19th century): • German Jews: Fleeing economic hardship and political unrest in Germany. • Integration: Embraced Reform Judaism, assimilated into American society, and became prominent in business and intellectual pursuits. • Example: Contributions in arts, sciences, and philanthropy shaped American culture. Third Wave (Late 19th-early 20th century): • Eastern European Jews: Escaping pogroms and anti-Semitism in Russia and Eastern Europe. • Settlement: Concentrated in urban ghettos, worked in sweatshops and garment industries. • Cultural Legacy: Strengthened Jewish cultural institutions, contributed to labor movements, and enriched American literature and arts. 74) What is Minaret? Explain its importance both functionally and symbolically. Answer: Minaret: Importance Functionally and Symbolically Functionally: • Religious Significance: Tower-like structure in Islamic architecture used for the call to prayer (Adhan). • Orientation: Points towards Mecca, indicating the direction for prayer (Qibla). • Acoustic Design: Amplifies the voice of the muezzin during the call to prayer. Symbolically: • Islamic Identity: Represents the presence of Islam and the Muslim community in a geographic area. • Unity and Faith: Symbolizes unity of believers and the centrality of faith in Muslim life. • Cultural Identity: Reflects architectural and artistic styles unique to Islamic civilizations. 75) Explain why the Amish consider adolescence to be the most dangerous period in a person’s life and how they handle this period. Answer: Amish Perspective on Adolescence Most Dangerous Period: • Transition Challenges: Adolescence seen as a time of moral testing and potential for deviation from community norms. • Social Pressures: Exposure to modern influences like technology and peer pressure can challenge traditional values. • Example: Rumspringa, a period of exploration, allows Amish youth to experience the outside world before committing to the community's way of life. Handling Adolescence: • Community Support: Guidance from elders and close-knit community help navigate challenges. • Faith and Discipline: Emphasis on religious teachings, humility, and commitment to community values. • Example: Continued participation in church activities and adherence to Plain dress code reinforce cultural identity and spiritual growth. Essays 76) Discuss some of the cultural factors that contributed to the success of some first- and many second-generation Jewish Americans. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Document the successes of many first and second generation Jewish Americans. 2. Apply these successes directly to their unique cultural factors where relevant. 3. Use theories of assimilation to explain why these factors mattered to their success. Sample Answer: Cultural Factors Contributing to the Success of Jewish Americans First Generation: • Education: Emphasis on literacy and education as keys to social mobility and success. • Work Ethic: Strong entrepreneurial spirit and involvement in commerce and skilled trades. • Cultural Cohesion: Support networks within Jewish communities promoting business partnerships and economic cooperation. Second Generation: • Cultural Capital: Education and cultural literacy passed down from parents, facilitating integration into mainstream society. • Adaptability: Willingness to adapt to new environments while retaining cultural identity. • Social Networks: Utilization of community networks and institutions for economic advancement and social integration. Examples: • First Generation: Jewish immigrants involved in urban professions like garment manufacturing and finance. • Second Generation: Achieved prominence in fields such as academia, entertainment, and business leadership. 77) Discuss the controversy revolving around banning the building of Minarets in Switzerland. Why has this become an issue now? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Explain what a Minaret is and what purpose it serves. 2. Document both sides of the Minaret debate in Switzerland explaining the lack of tolerance in an otherwise tolerant country. 3. Analyse why this is a controversy at this point in history connecting it to the rise in religious extremism. Sample Answer: Controversy over Banning Minarets in Switzerland Issue: • Political and Social Context: Rise of anti-immigrant sentiment and right-wing populism in Europe. • Symbolism: Minarets seen as symbols of Islam and perceived as incompatible with Swiss cultural and architectural identity. • Referendum: Swiss referendum in 2009 resulted in a ban on the construction of new minarets. Controversy: • Human Rights Concerns: Criticism from international bodies and human rights organizations for violating religious freedom. • Integration Debate: Debate over multiculturalism, religious tolerance, and assimilation of Muslim communities in Europe. • Legal Challenges: Legal challenges within Switzerland and international scrutiny regarding discriminatory practices. 78) Discuss the role of Ganja in the Rastafarian religion. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Outline the basic tenets of Rastafarianism including their particular beliefs and use of language. 2. Identify how Ganja is a part of this religion in the same way that other religions have ceremonies and symbols. Sample Answer: Role of Ganja in the Rastafarian Religion Spiritual and Cultural Significance: • Sacrament: Ganja (cannabis) used ceremonially in rituals to enhance meditation and spiritual connection. • Medicinal Uses: Belief in its healing properties for physical ailments and spiritual cleansing. • Cultural Identity: Symbolizes resistance against oppression and colonialism, promoting unity and communal solidarity. Legal and Social Issues: • Legalization Efforts: Advocacy for decriminalization and recognition of religious freedom to use Ganja. • Social Stigma: Misconceptions and negative stereotypes associated with its use, affecting public perception and legal status. • Global Influence: Spread of Rastafarian culture and Ganja advocacy worldwide, influencing cannabis legalization movements. 79) Explain the role of reincarnation in the Hindu faith using examples. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Describe the basics of Hinduism including region of development and social conditions of India. 2. Using examples and a discussion of castes, explain the role reincarnation as a central component of their belief system. Sample Answer: Role of Reincarnation in Hindu Faith Concept: • Cycle of Rebirth: Central belief in Hinduism where the soul (Atman) undergoes multiple births and deaths. • Karma: Actions in current life shape future reincarnations, determining one's status and experiences. • Moksha: Ultimate goal of liberation from the cycle of rebirth, achieved through spiritual realization and union with the divine. Examples: • Bhagavad Gita: Krishna's teachings to Arjuna emphasize duty (dharma) and spiritual growth over multiple lifetimes. • Castes: Reincarnation linked to caste system, where karma influences social status and responsibilities. 80) Apply the three sociological perspectives to an understanding of religion in U.S. society. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Outline the three basic theoretical approaches to studying minorities. 2. Evaluate the effectiveness of each theory in explaining the experience of religious minorities in the United States. 3. Use examples to show where each theory could be useful paying particular attention to the connection between religion and ethnicity and to the concept of a civil religion in the United States. Sample Answer: Sociological Perspectives on Religion in U.S. Society Functionalism: • Social Cohesion: Religion fosters unity and stability through shared beliefs, rituals, and moral values. • Social Institutions: Churches, mosques, and synagogues provide social support, community services, and moral guidance. • Cultural Integration: Religion reinforces cultural norms and traditions, contributing to societal harmony. Conflict Theory: • Power Dynamics: Religious institutions uphold social inequalities and maintain power structures. • Secularization: Challenge to religious authority and decline in influence due to modernization and scientific advancements. • Religious Conflict: Inter-religious tensions and conflicts over moral issues and political influence. Symbolic Interactionism: • Meaning and Identity: Religious symbols, rituals, and language shape individual and collective identities. • Socialization: Religious communities socialize members into shared beliefs and practices, influencing behavior and worldview. • Example: Study of religious rituals and symbols in shaping personal and group identities in diverse faith communities. Test Bank for Strangers to These Shores Vincent N Parrillo 9780205971688, 9780134732862, 9780205970407

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