Preview (7 of 21 pages)

Preview Extract

Chapter 15: The Ever-Changing U.S. Mosaic Multiple Choice 1) According to Hansen, the process of assimilation is __________. A) dialectical B) one way C) permanent D) different for every single person Answer: A 2) The “Alien Phase” is when immigrants __________. A) form political organizations to protect their interests and fight discrimination B) have a political locus that remains with the country of origin C) display a greater degree of structural and cultural assimilation D) are deported Answer: B 3) The three phases of acculturation in Asian Americans’ political activities are the __________ phases. A) alien, revolutionary, and marginal B) alien, reactionary, and acceptance C) newcomer, adult, and old-timer D) baby, adolescent, adult Answer: B 4) The 1.5 generation refers to __________. A) the second generation perceiving its ethnicity as a disadvantage B) the population growth of immigrants C) immigrants who arrive under the age of ten D) those who have a U.S. born parent and a foreign-born parent Answer: C 5) With regard to acculturation processes, __________. A) ethnicity increases in the second generation of Asian and Hispanic Americans B) acculturation functions as a trade-off between traditional Hispanic tendencies and white practices C) children who adopt the “Hispanic” label are the best assimilated D) Japanese are arguably the least assimilated of all Asian Americans Answer: B 6) The three-generation hypothesis suggests that __________. A) it usually takes three generations to complete the assimilation process B) religious intermarriage occurs by the third generation C) the third generation rediscovers its ethnicity D) the great, great grandchildren of immigrants become very interested in the homeland Answer: C 7) The __________ are arguably the most assimilated of all Asian groups. A) Chinese B) Vietnamese C) Korean D) Japanese Answer: D 8) Between 1990 and 1999, which ethnic groups had the highest proportion of people becoming citizens? A) Asians B) Europeans C) Latin Americans D) Africans Answer: A 9) Ethnicity is __________. A) an ascribed attribute B) found only among those living in ethnic communities C) not found among any racial groups D) a creation of a pluralistic U.S. society Answer: D 10) In his ecological model of Chicago’s growth and development, Robert Park (1926) noted the linkage between social mobility and __________. A) family commitment B) spatial mobility C) popularity D) religion Answer: B 11) Which of the following constitute social capital? A) Taste B) Skills C) Knowledge D) Social network relationships Answer: D 12) The __________ the residence in the U.S. for a group, the __________ the percentage of naturalized citizens. A) shorter; higher B) longer; lower C) longer; higher D) shorter; lower Answer: C 13), __________ help(s) to sustain a strong sense of ethnic identity. A) Ethnic neighbourhoods B) Ethnic fast food restaurants C) Population numbers similar to the majority group D) Assimilation Answer: A 14) Symbolic ethnicity refers to __________. A) taken-for-granted everyday realities B) strictly ethnic religious practices C) public displays such as marching in ethnic parades D) a sociological theory Answer: D 15) What factors make it easy for recent immigrants to have plural identities, including dual citizenship? A) Cultural baggage B) Technology and global economy C) Social capitol D) Political and social behavior Answer: B 16) __________ is a function of social capital. A) A minority group’s successful integration into the economic and political mainstream B) Cultivation of hope, trust, communication, and mutual assistance C) Problem solving through reliance on the individual D) Making life harder by being in a community Answer: B 17) __________ play(s) an important role in segmented assimilation. A) Social capital B) Religion C) Political affiliation D) Hobbies Answer: A 18) Which country supplied more immigrants than Canada and Newfoundland between 1820 and 2012? A) Honduras B) Ireland C) Cuba D) Russia Answer: B 19) Which country was among the top 10 sources of newcomers to the United States in 2012? A) Poland B) The United Kingdom C) Canada D) India Answer: D 20) How much did immigrant spending contribute to the North Carolina’s economy over the last decade? A) 61 million dollars B) 1.9 billion dollars C) 9.2 billion dollars D) 11 billion dollars Answer: C 21) When specifically asked in a CBS News/ New York Times Poll about the seriousness of the immigration problem, __________. A) 61% viewed it as “very serious” B) 30% saw it as “very serious” C) 50% saw it as “somewhat serious” D) 35% saw it as “somewhat serious” Answer: A 22) Today, most undocumented migrants are coming from __________. A) Canada B) Colombia C) Puerto Rico D) Mexico Answer: D 23) Official estimates place the number of unauthorized foreign-born people currently living in the United States at __________ million. A) under 6 B) around 9 C) around 11 D) over 15 Answer: C 24) The Department of Homeland Security employs approximately __________ people who work on immigration issues. A) 1,000 B) 8,000 C) 18,000 D) 100,000 Answer: C 25) About how many Americans speak Arabic in their homes? A) 6 million B) 800,000 C) 60,000 D) 6,000 Answer: B 26) Between 1980 and 2009, the percentage of schoolchildren who speak a language other than English at home increased by __________ percent. A) 2 B) 5 C) 11 D) 14 Answer: C 27) As of January 2013, how many states have passed English-only legislation? A) 4 B) 9 C) 13 D) 31 Answer: D 28) In Rumbaut’s study, more than 97% of the third-generation immigrants preferred to do what? A) Speak only English only at home B) Speak only their native language at home C) Speak both languages at home D) Learn three or more languages Answer: A 29) Generally speaking, France __________ cultural diversity. A) encourages B) discourages C) is indifferent toward D) has the most Answer: B 30) The 10.3 million immigrants arriving in the United States between 2000 and 2009 is __________. A) the second highest decade total B) the highest record for a single decade C) a slight decrease from the 1960s D) probably the last decade Europeans will dominate Answer: B 31) Studies show that immigrants __________. A) do not take jobs away from American workers B) adversely affect the earnings of other groups C) impose a financial burden on services D) take jobs away from American workers Answer: A 32) Over __________ million immigrant children who speak a language other than English at home presently are enrolled in public schools. A) 9 B) 11 C) 15 D) 8 Answer: B 33) Fostering separation instead of a cohesive society is called __________. A) language exclusion B) ethnic tribalism C) selective relations D) nativism Answer: B 34) New multiculturalists advocate “minority nationalism” and __________. A) “collaborative pluralism” B) “freedom of movement” C) “separatist pluralism” D) “total nationalism” Answer: C 35) __________ are banned in French schools. A) Hijabs B) Shorts C) Earrings D) Small crosses Answer: A 36) According to recent public-opinion polls, Americans have __________ opinions about immigration. A) strictly positive B) undeniably negative C) mixed D) indifferent Answer: C 37) Public funding for bilingual education began in 1968, when Congress passed the __________. A) Bilingual Education Act B) Equal Opportunity Act C) Educational Accessibility Act D) English Only Act Answer: A 38) Generally speaking, the number of school children speaking a language other than English in the United States has ___________ in recent decades. A) increased B) decreased C) stayed the same D) fluctuated wildly Answer: A 39) Which of the following is a goal of the Official English Movement? A) Have all public documents written in English B) Establish multilingual ballots C) Promote expenditures to translate road signs D) Promote translating to assist non-English-speaking patients at public hospitals Answer: A 40) Opponents of multiculturalism argue that __________. A) it undermines the assimilation ethic B) it creates a common bond of identity C) teaches and maintains a group’s own cultural customs D) it adds to the acculturation process Answer: A 41) The percentage of Americans in which group is predicted to increase the most by 2050? A) Hispanics B) Native Americans C) Non-Hispanic whites D) Blacks Answer: A 42) Which group experiences more direct racism? A) Whites married to Blacks B) Asians married to Blacks C) Whites married to non-Blacks D) Asians married to Whites Answer: A 43) Census Bureau projections for 2050 include __________. A) Hispanics becoming the largest minority group B) blacks decreasing in their proportion of the population C) Asians remaining at the present percentage D) whites claiming over 90 percent of the population Answer: A 44) There is great concern that the Census Bureau projections will fall victim to __________. A) the Dillingham Flaw B) the Calculation Error Debate C) Regression toward the Mean D) Standard Deviation Answer: A 45) With increased immigration comes the issue of __________. A) interethnic marriages B) higher divorce rates C) higher birth rates D) mixed identity beliefs Answer: A 46) With regard to interracial dating, __________. A) women are more likely to date interracially B) religious preference is often a factor C) geographic region does not matter D) status chasing is a factor Answer: C 47) Current migration patterns offer clues about the __________ of future Americans. A) political party domination B) legal implications of citizenship C) religious preferences D) artistic and cultural preferences Answer: C 48) What factors have changed the perception of race in the 2010 census? A) Status chasing and immigration B) Immigration and higher birth rates C) Low birth rate and immigration D) Immigration and cultural identity Answer: B 49) One limitation of census projections is that __________. A) the population rarely stays stagnant B) it assumes that conditions worldwide will remain constant C) it does not account for birth rates D) it does not account for medical advances Answer: B 50) According to the text, what do Americans need to do in order to gain “greater appreciation and tolerance for one another”? A) Realize that pluralism has never been part of the U.S. experience and threatens society’s cohesiveness. B) Recognize that race and ethnicity are simply other people’s humanity. C) Realize that diversity is a real problem in the country. D) Have an official and actual separation of church and state because religious teachings fuel intolerance. Answer: B True/False 51) Most Asian and Hispanic Americans are too recently part of U.S. society to apply the three-generation hypothesis. Answer: True 52) Ethnic identity and assimilation are both influenced by educational achievement. Answer: True 53) Transnationalism refers to sustained ties of persons, networks, and organizations across national borders. Answer: True 54) New immigrants tend to shed their “cultural baggage” and choose to assimilate in their new home. Answer: False 55) Some parts of the U.S. economy are dependent on the labor of undocumented Latino migrants, and about 10 percent of the labor force of Mexico is now working in the United States. Answer: True 56) The industry with the highest percentage of undocumented alien workers is construction. Answer: False 57) Between 1980 and 2009, the number of school-age children who spoke a language other than English at home decreased from 19 to 9 percent. Answer: False 58) Echoing xenophobic fears of earlier generations, immigration opponents worry that U.S. citizens will lose control of the country to foreigners. Answer: True 59) Native Americans who object to Columbus Day parades and Afro centrists who assert that Western culture was merely derived from Afro-Egyptian culture are the examples of minority nationalism and separatist pluralism. Answer: True 60) Immigration lowered wages for U.S. workers because immigrants and low-skilled U.S. workers fill the same roles in the economy. Answer: False Fill-in-the-Blank 61) __________ assumes that the second generation perceives its ethnicity as a disadvantage in being accepted in U.S. society. Answer: Hansen’s law 62) The third generation, more secure in its U.S. identity and socioeconomic status through __________, often becomes interested in the ethnic heritage that the second generation neglected in its efforts to overcome discrimination and marginality. Answer: intergenerational mobility 63) Another dimension to examining both intergenerational assimilation and mobility lies in a fairly new social science concept, the __________, which is a term that refers to immigrants who arrive under the age of ten. Answer: 1.5 generation 64) __________ theory suggests a variety of outcomes among, and even within, contemporary immigrant streams. Answer: Segmented assimilation 65) Some scholars argue that __________ makes obsolete the traditional terms of assimilation, integration, or segregation. Answer: transnationalism 66) After five years of continuous legal residence in the United States, immigrants are eligible to become __________, provided they are of good moral character and demonstrate a command of English and knowledge of U.S. history and government. Answer: naturalized citizens 67) African Americans express __________ through such elements as musical styles, fashion and dress styles, cuisine, etc. Answer: symbolic ethnicity 68) __________ is teaching subjects in both English and the student’s native language to develop fluency in both. Answer: Bilingual education 69) In its early phase, during the 1970s, __________ meant including material in the school curriculum that related the contributions of non-European peoples to U.S. history. Answer: multiculturalism 70) __________ refers to any inaccurate comparison based on simplistic categorizations and anachronistic judgments. Answer: Dillingham Flaw Short Answer 71) How can the segmented-assimilation hypothesis help to explain research findings on the educational enrolment of recent immigrants and children of immigrants in the United States? Answer: Segmented-Assimilation Hypothesis and Educational Enrolment of Immigrants Hypothesis Explanation: • Segmented Assimilation: Proposes that outcomes of assimilation vary based on factors like social class, race, and neighbourhood context. • Educational Enrollment: Recent immigrants and children of immigrants may experience different educational outcomes based on socioeconomic status and community resources. • Examples: High educational aspirations in middle-class immigrant families vs. limited resources and support in lower-income immigrant communities. Research Findings: • Segmented assimilation helps explain varying educational enrolment rates among immigrant groups. • Middle-class immigrants may have higher educational attainment due to resources and support networks, while those in low-income communities may face barriers. 72) What impact do immigrants have on the U.S. economy? Answer: Impact of Immigrants on the U.S. Economy Positive Impacts: • Labor Force: Fill gaps in low-skilled and high-skilled labor markets. • Entrepreneurship: Start businesses, contributing to innovation and economic growth. • Consumer Spending: Increase demand for goods and services, stimulating local economies. • Cultural Diversity: Enhance creativity and productivity in workplaces. Negative Perceptions: • Job Competition: Concerns over wage suppression in certain sectors. • Public Services: Strain on public resources like education and healthcare. Overall: Immigrants have historically contributed positively to the U.S. economy through their labor, entrepreneurial endeavours, and cultural enrichment. 73) Explain the “ethnic tribalism” argument regarding bilingual education. Answer: Ethnic Tribalism Argument in Bilingual Education Argument Explanation: • Ethnic Tribalism: Argues that bilingual education can perpetuate cultural separation rather than promoting integration. • Concerns: Fear that bilingual programs may reinforce ethnic identities over national identity. • Debate: Advocates for English-only education believe it fosters unity and assimilation into American society. Examples: • Supporters of bilingual education emphasize cultural preservation and academic success among linguistic minority students. • Critics argue it hinders English proficiency and impedes full integration into American society. 74) An increasingly multiracial America requires that we create a new social construct. What is that new social construct? Answer: New Social Construct in Multiracial America New Social Construct: • Diversity: Embracing cultural, racial, and ethnic differences as integral to national identity. • Inclusion: Promoting equity and representation across diverse communities. • Intersectionality: Recognizing multiple identities and experiences within a complex social landscape. Purpose: To create a society where diversity is valued, and all individuals have equal opportunities regardless of race, ethnicity, or cultural background. 75) Your text argues that “diversity” is the best word to describe the past, present, and future of the United States? Why? Do you agree? Answer: Diversity as Descriptive Term for the United States Argument: • Past: Historical immigration waves and indigenous populations shaped a multicultural nation. • Present: Increasing racial and ethnic diversity reflects demographic shifts and globalization. • Future: Projected trends suggest continued diversification in U.S. demographics. Agreement: • Diversity accurately captures the evolving composition and dynamic interactions within American society. • Acknowledges challenges and opportunities in fostering inclusive communities and equitable practices. Essay 76) Explain why the country of origin is a factor in understanding immigrant interaction patterns. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Not some of the ways that immigrants interact with each other and how status is determined drawing on the three phase model (alien, reactionary, and acceptance) 2. Explain the role of country of origin in this process paying attention to the role of geographic proximity and political activity in particular. Sample Answer: Country of Origin in Understanding Immigrant Interaction Patterns Factors: • Cultural Norms: Influence communication styles, social customs, and community practices. • Economic Conditions: Impact reasons for migration, occupational choices, and remittance patterns. • Political Climate: Shapes attitudes towards host country, engagement in civic activities, and transnational ties. Examples: • Mexican Immigrants: Maintain close-knit communities and cultural practices in the U.S., influenced by traditions from Mexico. • Chinese Immigrants: Engage in business networks and cultural associations that reflect Chinese values and business practices. Significance: Country of origin influences immigrant integration, identity formation, and participation in both host and home country contexts. 77) Discuss the divergent views about the three-generation hypothesis. Use examples to construct an argument for or against the hypothesis. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Outline the basics of the three-generation hypothesis known as the Law of the Return of the Third Generation which suggests that grandchildren of immigrants want to return to their cultural roots. 2. Articulate the strengths and critiques of the approach drawing on the concepts of the 1.5 and 2.5 generation. 3. Using examples, advance an argument in support of one position. Sample Answer: Divergent Views on the Three-Generation Hypothesis Argument For: • Assimilation Process: First generation retains native culture, second generation bi-cultural, and third generation fully assimilated. • Examples: European immigrants in the early 20th century, showing gradual assimilation over generations. Argument Against: • Continued Ethnic Identity: Some groups maintain cultural practices beyond the third generation, challenging assimilation expectations. • Examples: Hispanic communities in the U.S., where language and cultural traditions persist across generations. Conclusion: Views vary based on ethnic group experiences, adaptation to host society, and maintenance of cultural heritage. 78) Explain the concept of transnationalism. How does it affect ethnic groups and countries? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Define transnationalism as a way of keeping ethnic ties across national boundaries. 2. Note its effect on both individuals and countries as, among other things, an inhibitor to assimilation, a network to ease transition, and a financial drain on host countries. Sample Answer: Concept of Transnationalism and Its Effects Definition: • Transnationalism: Refers to the simultaneous engagement in social, economic, and political activities across national borders. • Effects: • Ethnic Groups: Maintain ties with homeland through remittances, cultural exchanges, and political activism. • Countries: Benefit from diaspora contributions to development, investment, and global cultural influence. Examples: • Mexican Immigrants: Sending remittances to Mexico while participating in U.S. labor markets. • Indian Diaspora: Engaging in technology entrepreneurship globally while maintaining cultural ties to India. Impact: Enhances global interconnectedness and challenges traditional notions of national identity and belonging. 79) What is the theory of segmented assimilation? To what groups can it successfully be applied in the United States? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Briefly explain assimilation. 2. Specify how segmented assimilation means that there are many different paths to assimilation. Apply the theory to a particular group or groups such as recent African immigrants who were not slaves or the mobility patterns of Hispanic youth. Sample Answer: Theory of Segmented Assimilation and Its Applicability Theory Explanation: • Segmented Assimilation: Proposes that assimilation outcomes vary based on social factors such as socioeconomic status and neighbourhood context. • Successful Application: • Middle-Class Immigrants: Achieve socioeconomic mobility and cultural integration into mainstream society. • Low-Income Immigrants: Face barriers to assimilation, including economic hardships and social exclusion. Examples: • Asian Americans: Diverse outcomes based on class and educational opportunities, influencing their integration paths. • Latino Communities: Segmented assimilation patterns vary by socioeconomic status, geographic location, and historical context. Conclusion: Segmented assimilation theory provides insights into diverse immigrant experiences and integration processes in the U.S. 80) What majority and minority patterns have you noticed throughout the text? Be specific. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Discuss the concept of majority and minority interaction patterns with specific regard to nativist fears of being overrun and loss of social cohesion. 2. Specify some particular patterns of interaction and explain (e.g., immigration fears, job competition, wage deflation, social welfare costs) Sample Answer: Majority and Minority Patterns in Ethnic Relations Majority Patterns: • Dominant Culture: Sets norms, values, and institutions that shape societal structures. • Privilege: Enjoy economic, social, and political advantages based on majority status. • Examples: White Americans historically dominating political and economic spheres. Minority Patterns: • Marginalization: Experience social exclusion, discrimination, and limited access to resources. • Resistance: Form ethnic enclaves, advocate for civil rights, and challenge dominant cultural narratives. • Examples: African Americans mobilizing during the Civil Rights Movement for equal rights and recognition. Conclusion: Patterns reflect power dynamics, social inequalities, and ongoing struggles for equity and inclusion. Test Bank for Strangers to These Shores Vincent N Parrillo 9780205971688, 9780134732862, 9780205970407

Document Details

Related Documents

Close

Send listing report

highlight_off

You already reported this listing

The report is private and won't be shared with the owner

rotate_right
Close
rotate_right
Close

Send Message

image
Close

My favorites

image
Close

Application Form

image
Notifications visibility rotate_right Clear all Close close
image
image
arrow_left
arrow_right