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This Document Contains Chapters 3 to 4 Chapter 3: Prejudice and Discrimination Multiple Choice 1) Most social scientists consider prejudice to be an attitude with a(n) __________ bias. A) religious B) psychological C) social D) emotional Answer: D 2) Prejudice ________ A) is an attitude with a religious bias B) originally meant “prejudgment” C) often arose even before groups came into contact D) is rare in modern times Answer: B 3) At which level does prejudice exist when a person behaves in ways that maintain the inequality between two groups? A) Cognitive B) Emotional C) Action-orientation D) Religious Answer: C 4) Denigrating another group to justify our maltreatment of them is called __________. A) cognitive development B) self-justification C) scapegoating D) socialization Answer: B 5) Lacking the same standard of living compared to most members of society is called __________. A) absolute deprivation B) poverty C) relative deprivation D) value-deficiency Answer: C 6) Talcott Parsons provided one bridge between psychology and sociology by introducing what concept as a variable in frustration–aggression theory? A) norms B) social forces C) conflict D) aggression Answer: B 7) Talcott Parsons developed a concept that linked the psychological and sociological aspects of frustration-aggression called __________. A) prejudice B) free floating C) permanent anger D) cultural irritation Answer: B 8) __________ is a key focus of the sociological approach to studying prejudice. A) Self-justification B) Socialization C) Religious belief D) Mental capacity Answer: A 9) The generally shared rules defining what is and is not proper behavior in one’s culture is/are __________. A) social restrictions B) social norms C) social solidarity D) social coherence Answer: B 10) Statements such as “African Americans are good musicians” and “Asians are good engineers” support the fact that stereotypes __________. A) can sometimes be positive B) are very rigid C) do not distort reality D) are always true Answer: A 11) __________ is a type of ethnophaulism. A) Disparaging nicknames B) Caricatured mascots C) Immigration quotas D) The KKK Answer: A 12) Aronson and Osherow’s experiments on the jigsaw method __________. A) had no effect on prejudice reduction B) wreaked special hardship on minority children C) lowered self-esteem among minority children D) enhanced peer liking and successfully taught content Answer: D 13) With respect to parenting style, authoritarian personality theory reports __________. A) a correlation between early childhood experiences and the development of a prejudiced personality B) that when children with domineering parents become adults, they demonstrate hatred toward their family C) that children with domineering parents may direct their hostility against a powerful group D) no correlation between early childhood experiences and the development of prejudice Answer: A 14) The authoritarian personality theory developed by Adorno __________. A) has an F scale that stands for potential fascism, and an E scale stands for ethnocentrism B) focuses on a tolerant personality which is characterized by rigidity of view point and dislike for ambiguity C) maintains that personality type is not relevant to prejudice D) points to the importance of economic resources and competition in developing prejudice Answer: A 15) According to Allport, __________ can lead to a group becoming a scapegoat. A) highly visible physical appearance or observable customs and actions B) physical strength C) adherence to dominant norms D) a high mortality rate Answer: A 16) Frustration-aggression theory __________. A) highlights the role of culture B) ignores actual social conflict C) demonstrates a causal relationship between unmet goals and aggressive behavior D) fails to address social psychological perspectives Answer: B 17) According to economic-competition theory, __________. A) in times of high unemployment, nativist movements against minorities have flourished B) antiforeign movements always peak during periods of prosperity C) many working class and middle class whites feel threatened by Asians entering their socioeconomic group D) authoritarian parents can lead to prejudiced attitudes in adulthood Answer: A 18) A sociological understanding of social norms stresses that __________. A) by learning and automatically accepting the prevailing prejudices, an individual is simply conforming to social norms B) no relationship exists between degree of conformity and degree of prejudice C) people’s prejudices do not change even when they move into area where the prejudicial norm is different D) bias persists because there is no statistical data and knowledge about such bias Answer: A 19) Stereotypes __________. A) are predominantly true B) deny individuals the right to be judged and treated on the basis of their own personal merit C) are always hurtful and negative D) have no relation to action Answer: B 20) Stereotypes involve __________. A) overly simplified generalizations B) an emphasis on continuity with societal norms C) recognizing individual differences D) accurate reflections of reality Answer: A 21) Ethnophaulism involves __________. A) denigration of ingroups B) justification of discrimination C) humorous expression of friendship D) balancing ethnic differences Answer: B 22) An ethnic group member might tell an ethnic joke about themselves to an outgroup member in order to __________. A) undermine the stereotype by ridiculing it B) dissociate oneself from stereotypes of one’s group C) maintain the imbalance of power D) reaffirm negative self-image Answer: A 23) One function of telling an ethnic joke is __________. A) challenging stereotypes B) a normalizing phenomenon C) development of a sense of respect for all people D) appealing to common sense Answer: A 24) Studies measuring the impact of television on children’s attitudes indicate __________. A) no correlation at all between amount of television viewed and children’s attitudes B) inconclusive findings about the amount of television viewed and children’s attitudes C) significant correlations between amount of television viewed and children’s attitudes D) black, not white, children are more easily influenced Answer: C 25) In prime-time ads, __________. A) Asians appear in ads for upscale beauty or home products B) people of colour appear in ads for low-cost, low-nutrition products C) there is a de-construction of social norms and stereotypes of people of colour D) there is a multi-dimensional view of people of colour as key consumers Answer: B 26) In advertising and music, __________. A) characters enjoy more prominence and exercise more authority if they are white males B) the status of women is very high C) images of Hispanics are healthy and affirming D) white males have very little visibility Answer: A 27) When __________ it is an example of prejudice. A) Mr. X says “My mind is made up. Don’t confuse me with facts.” B) Ms. Y says “I don’t really care about minorities at all.” C) Mr. Z says “Christians are statistically more likely to be involved in hate crimes.” D) Ms. Z says “Whites don’t give to charity at a rate consistent with their population numbers.” Answer: A 28) Prejudice is __________. A) caused by a variety of factors B) an abnormal human attribute C) not often associated with discrimination D) rarely based upon economic factors Answer: A 29) Which of the following is an example of self-justification. A) The Crusaders assimilating Jews and Muslims as defenders of the “true faith.” B) Puritans burning witches, whose refusal to confess “proved they were evil.” C) Pioneers befriending Native Americans who were “heathen savages.” D) Europeans trading Africans as slaves. Answer: B 30) Harry meets the criteria for Adorno’s authoritarian personality; therefore, he probably __________. A) was the recipient of a loving and permissive upbringing B) demonstrates displaced aggression C) is highly educated D) is intolerant of authority figures Answer: B 31) An excellent example of economic competition breeding conflict is that of the __________. A) Chinese B) Quakers C) Mormons D) Norwegians Answer: A 32) Inconsistency in education reducing prejudice results from __________. A) selective perception of information B) the typical similarity between classroom and real-life situations C) inadequate information for teaching about intergroup relations D) teachers who are well trained but have bad intentions Answer: A 33) When talking with his friends, Jimmy states that “Jews are intrusive and acquisitive.” Jimmy’s statements are an example of __________. A) cognitive prejudice B) pluralism C) multiculturalism D) discrimination Answer: A 34) Juanita blames her little brother for her failure to do her chores, but her brother was not even home. Juanita is clearly engaging in __________. A) self-justification B) subjugation C) scapegoating D) escapism Answer: C 35) George is trying to understand prejudice. His professor tells him to consider that __________. A) prejudice may be the result of frustration B) prejudice exists on seven distinct levels C) prejudice can only be negative D) prejudice does not really exist anymore Answer: A 36) According to Robert Merton, discrimination against a particular group is __________. A) always the acting-out of prejudice B) only practiced by prejudiced people C) not always the result of prejudice D) practiced only by active bigots Answer: C 37) Affirmative action originated with an executive order by President __________. A) Franklin D. Roosevelt B) John F. Kennedy C) Richard M. Nixon D) Ronald Reagan Answer: A 38) The Bakke decision __________. A) eliminated racial quotas in all fields B) reaffirmed racial quotas in all fields C) reaffirmed race, but not quotas, as a factor in college admissions D) disallowed the use of quotas and race for college admissions Answer: C 39) Evidence about the success of affirmative action programs __________. A) is clearly positive B) is clearly negative C) is mixed D) has not yet been found Answer: C 40) Racial profiling is __________. A) rare B) discriminatory C) legally enforced D) a pathway to racial equality Answer: B 41) An employer who strongly dislikes a racial group hires them anyway because of legal and social pressures, typifying the __________. A) unprejudiced non-discriminatory B) unprejudiced discriminator C) prejudiced non-discriminatory D) prejudiced discriminator Answer: C 42) Erik, who is white, has recently purchased his first house. In an effort to ensure his property value would stay high, he looked for the best neighborhood he could afford in the best school system. As it turned out, his neighborhood was nearly all white. This is an example of __________. A) institutional discrimination B) social discrimination C) institutional prejudice D) social prejudice Answer: B 43) Most Americans seem willing to support affirmative action based on __________. A) economic class B) race C) gender D) religion Answer: A 44) Mark views nonwhites with skepticism. He thinks they are all trying to take something for nothing. However, he is too worried about the social repercussions to act on his feelings. Mark is a(n) __________. A) all-weather liberal B) fair-weather liberal C) timid bigot D) active bigot Answer: C 45) Megan has recently joined a white supremacy group in order to try and do something about her beliefs that nonwhites are inferior races. Megan is a(n) __________. A) all-weather liberal B) fair-weather liberal C) timid bigot D) active bigot Answer: D 46) Holden believes that all races are equal and goes out of his way to support programs and legislation that are aimed at achieving social equality even if it costs him money and/or job opportunities. He is a(n) __________. A) all-weather liberal B) fair-weather liberal C) timid bigot D) active bigot Answer: A 47) Jennifer believes in racial equality, but she does not do much to actively support efforts aimed at racial equality and she still makes decisions that negatively impact minorities. She is a(n) __________. A) all-weather liberal B) fair-weather liberal C) timid bigot D) active bigot Answer: B 48) Gary runs a bank. He is only interested in giving loans to people with an excellent credit history. As a result, he ends up loaning to very few racial minorities. Gary is participating in __________ even if he is not aware of it. A) institutional discrimination B) social discrimination C) institutional prejudice D) social prejudice Answer: A 49) Alfred had no prejudices towards Blacks but when his friends make derogatory comments to Black kids, he does nothing to stop them. Alfred is a(n) __________. A) unprejudiced non-discriminatory B) unprejudiced discriminator C) prejudiced non-discriminatory D) prejudiced discriminator Answer: B 50) Malik thinks that if we truly want to have racial equality at some point in this country, we need to have institutions which are racially diverse in order to give all races an equal chance. He would support __________ programs. A) racial profiling B) affirmative action C) ethnocentric D) afrocentric Answer: B True/False 51) An ethnophaulism is a derogatory word or expression used to describe a racial or ethnic group. Answer: True 52) The average American watches three years’ worth of television ads during the course of a lifetime. Answer: True 53) The contact hypothesis holds that racial and ethnic groups can fight stereotypes by avoiding interactions with one another. Answer: False 54) When people rationalize away information that does not line up with their beliefs, they are engaging in selective perception Answer: True 55) Psychological and sociological perspectives complement each other in providing a fuller explanation about intergroup relations. Answer: True 56) Stereotypes can be positive or negative. Answer: True 57) When children are treated harshly, they may grow up and displace their aggression on those who are less powerful. Answer: True 58) The statement, “She didn’t deserve that promotion, I did,” is directly related to economic competition concept. Answer: False 59) Social discrimination means the unequal treatment of subordinate groups inherent in the ongoing operations of society’s institutions. Answer: False 60) While divided on preferences based on race and gender (blacks less in opposition than whites), most Americans seemed eager to support affirmative action based on economic class. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank 61) __________ is a lack of resources, or rewards, in comparison to those of others in the society. Answer: Relative deprivation 62) Blaming others for something that is not their fault is known as __________. Answer: scapegoating 63) In the __________ process, individuals acquire the values, attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of their culture or subculture, including religion, nationality, and social class. Answer: socialization 64) __________ means that people tend to absorb information that accords with their own beliefs and rationalize away information that does not. Answer: Selective perception 65) The __________ encompasses a person’s beliefs and perceptions of a group as threatening or nonthreatening, inferior or equal (e.g., in terms of intellect, status, or biological composition), seclusive or intrusive, impulse gratifying, acquisitive, or possessing other positive or negative characteristics. Answer: cognitive level of prejudice 66) A __________ is an oversimplified generalization by which we attribute certain traits or characteristics to a group without regard to individual differences. Answer: stereotype 67) We can make a distinction between __________ and __________ discrimination. In the first, one takes action against someone, and, in the second, one’s silent acquiescence to others’ discriminatory actions is still a form of discrimination. Answer: active, passive 68) The __________ of the 1890s and early 20th century established segregated public facilities throughout the South, which subsequent generations accepted as proper and maintained in their own adult lives. Answer: Jim Crow laws 69) __________ refers to action taken by law enforcement officials on the erroneous presumption that individuals of one race or ethnicity are more likely to engage in illegal activity than individuals of other races or ethnicities. Answer: Racial profiling 70) In the United States, the practice of __________ was once widespread throughout the South. Not only were children specifically assigned to certain schools to maintain racial separation, but segregationist laws kept all public places racially separated as well. This exclusion can also take the form of __________ as residential patterns become embedded in social customs and institutions. Answer: de jure segregation, de facto segregation Short Answer 71) Explain how authoritarian personality is connected to racial prejudice and discrimination. Answer: Authoritarian Personality and Racial Prejudice Authoritarian Personality: This concept, developed by Theodor Adorno and others, describes individuals who exhibit a high degree of submission to authority, rigid adherence to conventional values, and hostility towards outgroups. Connection to Racial Prejudice and Discrimination: People with authoritarian personalities are more likely to harbor racial prejudices because they seek to maintain social hierarchies and conformity. They view outgroups as threats to their established social order and are more likely to support discriminatory policies and practices. 72) How can stereotypes be positive and negative? Give examples. Answer: Positive and Negative Stereotypes Positive Stereotypes: • Example: Asians are often stereotyped as being highly intelligent and hardworking. • Impact: Can lead to positive expectations but also creates pressure and can obscure individual differences. Negative Stereotypes: • Example: African Americans are often stereotyped as being prone to criminal behavior. • Impact: Leads to discrimination, prejudice, and negative treatment in various social settings such as the workplace or law enforcement. 73) Explain the ancient Hebrew custom of scapegoating and its social implication in the 21st century. Answer: Ancient Hebrew Custom of Scapegoating Scapegoating: In ancient Hebrew culture, scapegoating involved symbolically placing the sins of the community on a goat and sending it into the wilderness, thus removing the sins from the community. 21st Century Implications: Scapegoating persists today as blaming minority groups or other outgroups for societal problems. For instance, immigrants are often scapegoated for economic downturns or crime rates, leading to social tension and policy measures that target these groups unfairly. 74) Explain the Jigsaw method. Why is it effective? Answer: The Jigsaw Method Explanation: The Jigsaw method, developed by social psychologist Elliot Aronson, is a cooperative learning technique where students are divided into groups, with each member responsible for learning and teaching a segment of the material. Effectiveness: • Reduces Prejudice: Promotes cooperation and interdependence among diverse students. • Enhances Learning: Students become both learners and teachers, deepening their understanding. • Increases Engagement: Active participation enhances motivation and retention. 75) Explain institutional discrimination using examples. How does it differ from social discrimination? Answer: Institutional Discrimination vs. Social Discrimination Institutional Discrimination: Occurs when policies, practices, and procedures of social institutions result in unequal treatment or disadvantage to certain groups. Examples: • Education: School funding based on property taxes leads to disparities in resources and opportunities for students from low-income communities. • Criminal Justice: Racial profiling and harsher sentencing for minority groups. Social Discrimination: Occurs at the interpersonal level, involving prejudiced attitudes and behaviours from individuals toward others based on group membership. Difference: • Scope: Institutional discrimination is systemic and embedded in societal structures, while social discrimination is more about individual interactions and prejudices. • Impact: Institutional discrimination can perpetuate inequality on a larger scale and for longer durations than social discrimination. Essay 76) Discuss stereotypes, their persistence, and their impact upon intergroup relations. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Define stereotypes using examples such as Asians being smart or African-Americans as good athletes to show how they can be positive or negative, but always limiting. 2. Explain how/why they persist and the mechanisms through which they get transmitted throughout a culture such as jokes. 3. Document the way they affect intergroup relations by obscuring differences within groups and creating hostility. Sample Answer: Stereotypes and Their Impact on Intergroup Relations Stereotypes: Stereotypes are oversimplified and generalized beliefs about a group of people. They persist due to socialization, media representation, and cognitive biases such as confirmation bias, where people tend to remember information that confirms their preexisting beliefs. Persistence: • Socialization: From a young age, individuals are exposed to stereotypes through family, peers, and institutions. • Media: Media often perpetuates stereotypes by repeatedly depicting certain groups in specific roles or behaviours. • Cognitive Biases: Humans have a tendency to categorize and simplify complex information, which reinforces stereotypes. Impact on Intergroup Relations: • Prejudice and Discrimination: Stereotypes lead to prejudiced attitudes and discriminatory behaviours, as individuals act based on their generalized beliefs. • Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: Stereotyped groups may internalize these beliefs, affecting their behavior and performance, which then reinforces the stereotype. • Intergroup Tension: Stereotypes create and perpetuate misunderstandings and mistrust between groups, hindering social cohesion and cooperation. Example: Stereotypes about racial minorities being less competent can lead to biased hiring practices, perpetuating economic disparities and intergroup resentment. 77) How could one apply the basic tenets of contact theory to reduce prejudice on college campuses? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Outline the basic ideal of contact theory noting how interaction must be structured in a particular way to avoid negative outcomes. 2. Note the centrality of perspective taking. 3. Apply these insights into a college setting such as dormitories. Sample Answer: Applying Contact Theory to Reduce Prejudice on College Campuses Contact Theory: Gordon Allport's Contact Theory posits that under certain conditions, intergroup contact can reduce prejudice. These conditions include equal status, common goals, intergroup cooperation, and institutional support. Application on College Campuses: • Equal Status: Create diverse student groups for projects where all members have equal roles and responsibilities. • Common Goals: Organize campus-wide events, such as community service projects, that require collaboration towards a shared objective. • Intergroup Cooperation: Facilitate workshops and seminars that encourage students from different backgrounds to work together and discuss their experiences. • Institutional Support: Ensure that the college administration promotes and supports diversity initiatives, such as diversity training programs and inclusive policies. Example: Implementing a mentorship program where upperclassmen from various backgrounds mentor freshmen, fostering intergroup understanding and reducing prejudice through meaningful interactions. 78) Compare and contrast the psychological and sociological analyses of prejudice. Use examples to illustrate the different concepts and point out where the two approaches create a full understanding of prejudice. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Outline the psychological approach to prejudice focusing on the cognitive level. 2. Outline the sociological approach to prejudice focusing on group interactions. 3. Evaluate how the two approaches come together to form a complete understanding of prejudice through the use of stereotypes. Sample Answer: Psychological vs. Sociological Analyses of Prejudice Psychological Analysis: Focuses on individual-level factors that contribute to prejudice, such as personality traits, cognitive biases, and emotional responses. • Example: Authoritarian Personality Theory suggests that individuals with rigid, authoritarian personalities are more likely to harbour prejudices. • Concepts: Cognitive dissonance, social identity theory, and implicit biases are key psychological factors in understanding prejudice. Sociological Analysis: Examines how societal structures, cultural norms, and group dynamics influence prejudice. • Example: Conflict Theory posits that prejudice arises from competition over resources and power imbalances between groups. • Concepts: Institutional racism, socialization, and group conflict theory are important sociological frameworks. Comparison and Contrast: • Focus: Psychology emphasizes internal processes and individual differences, while sociology highlights external social forces and group interactions. • Approach: Psychological approaches often use experiments and clinical studies, whereas sociological analyses rely on surveys, ethnographies, and historical data. Integrated Understanding: Combining both approaches provides a comprehensive view of prejudice. For instance, understanding how implicit biases (psychological) are reinforced by media representations and social policies (sociological) can offer deeper insights into the persistence of prejudice and inform effective interventions. 79) Explain the strengths and weaknesses of self-justification as it relates to prejudice. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Explain the concept of self-justification including how it leads to denigrating another person or group. 2. Note how it relates to prejudice as one of the first steps toward stereotyping and providing a rationale for one’s discriminatory actions. 3. Assess how well it explains prejudice as opposed to other psychological and sociological theories such as the levels of prejudice or personality theory. Sample Answer: Strengths and Weaknesses of Self-Justification Related to Prejudice Self-Justification: Self-justification refers to the cognitive process where individuals rationalize their behaviours, beliefs, and attitudes to protect their self-esteem and avoid cognitive dissonance. Strengths: • Maintains Self-Concept: Helps individuals maintain a positive self-image and consistency in their beliefs and actions. • Reduces Cognitive Dissonance: Alleviates the discomfort associated with holding contradictory beliefs or engaging in behaviours that conflict with one's values. Weaknesses: • Perpetuates Prejudice: Rationalizing prejudiced beliefs and behaviours can reinforce and perpetuate those attitudes, making them resistant to change. • Hinders Self-Reflection: Self-justification can prevent individuals from critically examining their biases and prejudices, limiting personal growth and understanding. • Social Harm: Justifying discriminatory actions can lead to the marginalization and mistreatment of targeted groups, exacerbating social inequalities. Example: A person might justify their prejudice against a racial group by believing negative stereotypes, thereby avoiding the cognitive dissonance that would arise from recognizing their unfairness. 80) Using Merton’s fourfold typology, explain the interrelationships between prejudice and discrimination. Use examples to support your points. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Outline Merton’s typology using examples for the active bigot, all weather liberal, timid bigot and fair weather liberal. 2. Note the difference between prejudice and discrimination as an attitude and action, respectively. 3. Use examples to show how the typology could be useful in explaining the persistence of discrimination without an increase in prejudiced attitudes. Sample Answer: Merton’s Fourfold Typology: Prejudice and Discrimination Merton’s Typology: Robert K. Merton developed a typology to describe the relationships between prejudice (attitudinal) and discrimination (behavioral). The four types are: 1. All-Weather Liberal: Not prejudiced and does not discriminate. 2. Fair-Weather Liberal: Not prejudiced but discriminates due to social pressure or situational factors. 3. Timid Bigot: Prejudiced but does not discriminate due to social norms or fear of sanctions. 4. Active Bigot: Prejudiced and discriminates openly. Examples: • All-Weather Liberal: An individual who actively supports equal rights and opposes discrimination in all forms. • Fair-Weather Liberal: A business owner who personally believes in equality but discriminates in hiring practices to conform to biased customer preferences. • Timid Bigot: A person who holds racist beliefs but does not act on them publicly because they fear social backlash. • Active Bigot: An individual who both holds racist beliefs and engages in discriminatory actions, such as a landlord who refuses to rent to people of certain races. Interrelationships: • Prejudice without Discrimination: (Timid Bigot) Indicates societal norms and laws that deter overt discriminatory behavior. • Discrimination without Prejudice: (Fair-Weather Liberal) Shows how external pressures and social contexts can lead individuals to act against their personal beliefs. • Consistency: (All-Weather Liberal and Active Bigot) Reflects alignment between attitudes and behaviours, either positively or negatively impacting social dynamics. Chapter 4 Intergroup Relations Multiple Choice 1) Which affects responses to prejudice and discrimination? A) Personality characteristics B) Sociological training C) Mental capacity D) Religious beliefs Answer: A 2) A common reason for defiance as a minority response is __________. A) the elimination of discrimination B) the overthrow of the government C) different cultural norms D) juvenile delinquency Answer: A 3) Accepting a subordinate position in society may result from __________. A) social conditioning B) being a numerical majority C) religious instruction D) a lack of intelligence Answer: A 4) Which factor promotes ethnic group identity? A) Ethnic-minority media B) A fractured community C) The loss of religion D) Assimilation Answer: A 5) People of colour typically affirm their identity and heritage by __________. A) combating their stereotypes B) avoiding teaching children about a distinct racial history C) adopting slogans D) participating in reverse racism Answer: A 6) Deviance among minority-group members is __________. A) usually widespread B) usually due to their behavioral characteristics C) often due to poverty and lack of opportunity D) more often due to racial, not ethnic, differences Answer: C 7) __________ is an example of defiance. A) A belief in polytheism B) Educational achievement C) Sit-in demonstration D) Pursuing a high paying career Answer: C 8) To satisfy the human need for a sense of belonging, non-white ethnics typically develop a(n)__________. A) racial-group identity B) racial majority C) intergroup bonding D) fear of pluralism Answer: A 9) Defiant actions are __________. A) always violent B) always done with the public interest in mind C) illegal D) sometimes peaceful Answer: D 10) Acceptance maintains the superior position of the dominant group, the subordinate position of the minority group and __________. A) diminishes conflict between the two groups B) the attention of law enforcement C) makes everyday life more difficult D) eases the passage of the next group of minorities into mainstream society Answer: A 11) Living, working, and relaxing within the ethnic community illustrates __________. A) acceptance B) avoidance C) defiance D) deviance Answer: B 12) Deliberately breaking a discriminatory law illustrates __________. A) acceptance B) avoidance C) defiance D) deviance Answer: C 13) Another term for cumulative causation is __________. A) marginality B) negative self-image C) paternalism D) vicious circle Answer: D 14) Calling Jews “clannish” when they went to their own resorts after being denied access to public resorts illustrates __________. A) marginality B) a negative self-image C) paternalism D) the vicious circle phenomenon Answer: D 15) Middleman minorities are __________. A) members of a racial group other than the dominant group B) sometimes temporarily stationed in that role C) rare in contemporary society D) always in that role for the long term Answer: B 16) Shaniqua has a negative self-image because she is a member of a minority group. As a result, she __________. A) tries to dress like the dominant group and blend in B) tries to start fights with the dominant group C) challenges laws that discriminate against her minority group D) only maintains relationships with other minorities Answer: A 17) When minorities move out of their neighbourhood but still feel outside the societal mainstream, this is an example of __________. A) avoidance B) marginality C) negative self-image D) vicious circle Answer: B 18) Tommy has made progress toward fitting in with the dominant group but he hasn’t completely broken away from his minority group. More likely than not Tommy is bound to feel __________. A) silly B) accepted C) marginalized D) committed Answer: C 19) Manny is a Korean American who owns and operates a grocery store in a major city, typifying the concept of __________. A) gentrification B) marginality C) middleman minorities D) social segregation Answer: C 20) Preventing others from participating in social, fraternal, service, and other types of activities is known as __________ segregation. A) spatial B) social C) de jure D) de facto Answer: B 21) Expulsion __________. A) is an effort to remove a problem rather than resolve it B) has never been practiced in the United States C) has not occurred since the nineteenth century D) is currently proposed in Congress for Native Americans Answer: A 22) The increase of hate groups in the 2000’s is driven by __________. A) a weakened U.S. economy B) public funding C) immigration and economic issues D) new biological research Answer: C 23) The Intelligence Project identifies __________ as a hate group. A) the NAACP B) Methodists C) the Nation of Islam D) Focus on the Family Answer: C 24) The greatest number of U.S. hate crimes result from __________ bias. A) ethnic B) racial C) religious D) sexual-orientation Answer: B 25) In terms of the motivation for hate-crime incidents in 2011, __________. A) anti-white motivation was higher than anti-black motivation B) anti-Jewish motivation was higher than any other ethnic bias motivations C) anti-male homosexual motivation was lower than anti-female homosexual motivation D) anti-abortion motivation topped the list Answer: B 26) Annihilation __________. A) has often been practiced in both ancient and modern times B) is always unintended C) by definition must be a deliberate and systematic action D) is a relatively recent phenomenon Answer: A 27) __________ a legislative effort to control a minority. A) Immigration quota laws are B) The Voting Rights Act is C) Jim Crow Laws were D) The requirement of a passport for international travel is Answer: C 28) Chinatown would be an example of __________. A) spatial segregation B) social segregation C) language segregation D) religious segregation Answer: A 29) Julie has been afraid of all Middle Easterners ever since 9/11. This is an example of __________. A) expulsion B) xenophobia C) immigrant anarchy D) politico-economic independence Answer: B 30) Split labor market theory holds that __________. A) ethnic antagonism is specifically produced by the competition from a wage differential B) an oversupply of equal-priced labor produces antagonism C) hiring practices usually fall along ethnic lines D) conflict is rarely tied to wages Answer: A 31) The most useful theories for explaining exploitation are __________ theories. A) macro level functionalist B) micro level symbolic interactionist C) middle range conflict D) meso range feminist Answer: C 32) __________ helps to explain the ethnic antagonism in the workplace. A) Functional theory B) Conflict theory C) Internationalist theory D) Split or dual labor theory Answer: D 33) Majority paternalism refers to __________. A) promoting a racial hierarchy to cultivate majority group loyalty B) cultivating minority-group loyalty through jobs, home loans, or funds for community projects to encourage company unions C) anti-immigration sentiments D) the underground economy Answer: A 34) __________ is one of the factors that lowers the price of labor. A) Exploitation by fellow employees B) Competition between two or more groups of laborers C) Limited language skills and customs D) Lack of housing Answer: B 35) When a labor market splits along ethnic lines, __________. A) religious stereotyping becomes a key factor in the labor conflict B) prejudice, ethnic antagonism, and racism become covert C) it fuels anti-immigration sentiments D) it leads to a more pluralistic society Answer: C 36) With regards to exploitation __________. A) perpetrators are typically from the same group as victims B) members of dominant groups exploit minority groups C) perpetrators rarely benefit at the expense of victims of exploitation D) there is an equal amount between minority and dominant groups Answer: B 37) When a labor market splits along ethnic lines, employers __________. A) are passive observers of this clash between them B) control the lower wages offered to the minority workers C) actively manipulate the situation to keep the groups integrated D) will often bring in mediators to resolve the situation Answer: B 38) How might labor groups respond in a labor market split along ethnic lines? A) Racial and ethnic profiling become key factors in labor conflict. B) Workers may create a system of occupational integration. C) Workers from a multi-ethnic coalition may align with the employers. D) Inclusive unions might form to harness the power of disparate minority groups. Answer: A 39) How can employers persuade a group to work for a lower price? A) By hiring groups whose initial standard of living is low. B) By using the law to support labor protests. C) By tempting another group coming from a more favourable economic resource position. D) By working with local officials to promote an equitable work environment. Answer: A 40) Intergroup conflicts __________. A) also happen between minority groups B) only happen between dominant and minority groups C) don’t happen in the same groups D) are typically religious issues Answer: A 41) __________ is a cause of conflict between minority groups. A) Having power equally distributed B) Not having to compete for jobs C) Seeing the other as gaining an unfair advantage D) One group’s moving out of a neighbourhood Answer: C 42) __________ affects the conflict between black and Hispanic Americans. A) Hispanic Americans’ focus on family life B) The decreasing numbers of Hispanic newcomers generating competition for resources C) The lack of direct knowledge or interaction with one another D) Cultural and language similarities Answer: C 43) Which of the following is an example of Anglo-Conformity? A) In the early 19th century, many U.S. citizens wanted to emphasize their English origins and influences. B) The curtailing of non-Anglo-Saxon immigrants. C) Using schools to socialize all children into Anglo-Saxon culture. D) Promoting the United States as a multicultural society. Answer: C 44) __________ is a type of assimilation suggested by Gordon. A) Push assimilation B) Institutional assimilation C) Marital assimilation D) Pull assimilation Answer: C 45) Assimilation (majority-conformity) theory belongs to the __________. A) conflict theory tradition B) functionalist theory tradition C) social interactionist theory tradition D) feminist theorists Answer: B 46) __________ assimilation involves an impersonal public sphere of social interaction. A) Secondary structural B) Primary structural C) Secondary institutional D) Primary institutional Answer: A 47) __________ is the formula for explaining the amalgamation (melting-pot) theory. A) A+B+C=A B) A+B+C=A+B+C C) A+B+C=D D) A=B Answer: C 48) The accommodation (pluralistic) theory __________. A) suggests that only in the institution of religion did minority groups alter the national culture B) recognizes the persistence of racial diversity C) offers a psychological analogy to describe how the absorption of various cultural components produces assimilation D) is basically the same as dual-labor market theory Answer: B 49) Hector believes that race and ethnicity shouldn’t matter because we are all Americans and we’ve created our own unique culture that all immigrants should participate in. He is a proponent of __________ theory. A) amalgamation B) assimilation C) Anglo-conformity D) pluralistic Answer: A 50) __________ theory addresses how ethnic immigrant groups fit into U.S. society. A) Assimilation B) Feminist C) Human capital D) Social capital Answer: A True/False 51) Acceptance as a minority response is less common in the United States than it once was. Answer: True 52) Everyday ethnicity eventually yields to assimilation over the generations. Answer: True 53) Deviant behavior among minority groups occurs because of race or ethnicity. Answer: False 54) Defiance is violent and spontaneous. Answer: False 55) A group that is denied the ability to fully participate in mainstream society, such as African slaves in the U.S., will typically forge their own identity. Answer: True 56) Members of a dominant group may react to minority peoples with hostility, indifference, welcoming tolerance, or condescension. Answer: True 57) Segregation, whether spatial or social, may be voluntary or involuntary. Answer: True 58) The genesis of the practice of annihilation – killing all the men, women, and children of a particular group – goes back to ancient times. Answer: True 59) When a labor market splits along ethnic lines, racial and ethnic stereotyping is a key factor in labor conflict. Answer: True 60) Mainstream Americans often tolerate pluralism only as a short-term phenomenon, believing that sustained pluralism is the enemy of assimilation, a threat to the cohesiveness of U.S. society. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank 61) In attempting to enter the mainstream of society, the __________ person internalizes the dominant group’s cultural patterns without having gained full acceptance. Answer: marginal 62) __________ is the undue fear of or contempt for strangers or foreigners. Answer: Xenophobia 63) The Nazi extermination of more than 6 million Jews was an example of __________. Answer: annihilation 64) Middle-range conflict theories are often helpful in understanding specific forms of __________, such as the internal-colonialism theory. Answer: exploitation 65) Marital assimilation and __________ assimilation best reveal the extent of acceptance of minority groups in the larger society. Answer: structural 66) __________ typically involves the more impersonal public sphere of social interaction. Examples are a non-discriminatory sharing by dominant- and minority-group members of settings such as those in civic, recreational, school, or work environments. Answer: Secondary structural assimilation 67) The __________ theory states that all the diverse peoples blend their biological and cultural differences into an altogether new breed— the American Answer: amalgamation 68) The __________ recognizes the persistence of racial and ethnic diversity, as in Canada, where the government has adopted multiculturalism as official policy. Answer: accommodation theory 69) __________ means two or more culturally distinct groups living in the same society in relative harmony. Answer: Cultural pluralism 70) When distinct groups live near each other in relative harmony with their own customs, it is known as __________. Answer: structural pluralism Short Answer 71) Explain defiance. How do ethnic groups use this tactic? Answer: Defiance and Its Use by Ethnic Groups Defiance: Defiance refers to the act of openly resisting or challenging established norms, rules, or authorities. Ethnic groups may use defiance as a tactic to oppose discriminatory practices, demand equal rights, and assert their cultural identity. Examples: • Civil Rights Movement: African Americans used defiance through protests, sit-ins, and marches to challenge segregation and racial discrimination. • Indigenous Land Rights: Indigenous groups may occupy land or engage in protests to resist exploitation and reclaim their ancestral territories. Effects: Defiance can draw attention to injustices, mobilize support, and potentially lead to social and legal reforms. 72) Explain how minority groups use avoidance in ethnic relations. Answer: Avoidance in Ethnic Relations Avoidance: Avoidance involves minority groups minimizing contact with the dominant group to escape discrimination and preserve their cultural practices. Examples: • Ethnic Enclaves: Immigrants forming tight-knit communities where they can speak their native language, practice their customs, and support each other economically. • Cultural Institutions: Establishing schools, places of worship, and businesses that cater specifically to their ethnic group. Effects: While avoidance can provide safety and cultural continuity, it may also limit opportunities for integration and access to broader societal resources. 73) Explain how “negative self-image” works among minorities. What are the effects of “negative self-image?” Use examples. Answer: Negative Self-Image Among Minorities Negative Self-Image: Negative self-image occurs when minority groups internalize societal stereotypes and prejudices, leading to diminished self-esteem and self-worth. Effects: • Low Self-Esteem: Individuals may develop feelings of inferiority and lack confidence in their abilities. • Educational and Economic Impact: Believing they are less capable can lead to poorer academic performance and reduced career aspirations. Example: Children from marginalized ethnic groups may underperform in school if they internalize the stereotype that they are less intelligent or capable than their peers. 74) Explain the labeling theory in ethnic relations. What is an example of an ethnic label? Who has the ability to label? Answer: Labeling Theory in Ethnic Relations Labeling Theory: Labeling theory posits that the labels or categories society assigns to individuals can significantly influence their self-identity and behavior. Example of Ethnic Label: Referring to someone as "illegal immigrant" instead of "undocumented immigrant" carries negative connotations and impacts public perception. Ability to Label: Typically, those in positions of power—such as government officials, media, and the dominant cultural group—have the ability to assign and enforce labels. Effects: Labels can stigmatize and marginalize minority groups, affecting their social and economic opportunities. 75) What is the underground economy? How is it related to racial and ethnic inequality? What part of the labor market does it make up? Answer: The Underground Economy and Its Relation to Racial and Ethnic Inequality Underground Economy: The underground economy includes unregulated and untaxed economic activities, often involving cash transactions and informal labor. Relation to Racial and Ethnic Inequality: Minority groups, facing barriers in the formal labor market due to discrimination, may turn to the underground economy for employment. Part of the Labor Market: It comprises a significant portion of low-wage, unskilled labor such as domestic work, construction, and street vending. Effects: • Economic Insecurity: Workers in the underground economy lack legal protections, job security, and benefits. • Perpetuation of Inequality: Limited access to formal employment opportunities and social mobility reinforces economic disparities among racial and ethnic minorities. Essay 76) How can group identity have both positive and negative aspects? Use examples. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Explain the concept of group identity. 2. Note the positives and negatives using specific examples such as the development of a cohesive ethnic identity, socialization into a group, slow assimilation, easier transition to a new country, ability to be classified and stereotyped or racialized. Sample Answer: Positive and Negative Aspects of Group Identity Positive Aspects: • Social Cohesion: Group identity fosters solidarity, mutual support, and a sense of belonging among members. For example, LGBTQ+ communities provide a supportive network for individuals facing discrimination. • Collective Action: Shared identity can mobilize groups to advocate for rights and social change, such as the civil rights movements led by African Americans. Negative Aspects: • Conflict and Exclusion: Strong group identities can lead to intergroup conflicts and exclusion of those perceived as outsiders. For instance, ethnic nationalism can fuel ethnic tensions and violence. • Stereotyping: Group identities may perpetuate stereotypes and prejudice against other groups, hindering intergroup cooperation and understanding. Example: • Positive: Indigenous communities maintaining cultural traditions and ecological knowledge that contribute to environmental conservation efforts. • Negative: Ethnic conflicts in regions like the Balkans, where strong national identities have fuelled historical animosities and violence. 77) How is the duration of an ethnic group identity established? What can be done to decrease the duration? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Identify and explain the factors that determine the duration of ethnic group identity. 2. Note the ways that the process can be manipulated to be longer or shorter. 3. Explain the effects on the ethnic group of having a longstanding group identity. Sample Answer: Duration of Ethnic Group Identity Establishment: Ethnic group identities are established through historical experiences, shared cultural practices, language, and collective memory that reinforce a sense of distinctiveness and continuity over time. Decreasing Duration: • Assimilation Policies: Encouraging assimilation into broader national identities through policies that promote integration and equal opportunities. • Intermarriage: Increased intermarriage and cultural exchange can dilute distinct ethnic boundaries and identities over generations. Example: Ethnic identities in multicultural societies like the United States may evolve as subsequent generations integrate into mainstream culture while retaining elements of their heritage. 78) Explain what is meant by “middleman minorities” and give an example. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Define the concept of middleman minorities. 2. Use examples such as Jews in Nazi Germany or Asians in Uganda to illustrate the concept. Sample Answer: Middleman Minorities Definition: Middleman minorities refer to ethnic groups that predominantly engage in intermediary economic activities, such as trade, finance, and retail, often within societies where they are a minority. Example: • Chinese Diaspora: In Southeast Asia, Chinese communities historically function as middleman minorities, dominating local commerce and trade networks despite being a numerical minority. Role: • Economic Function: They often occupy economic niches, providing goods and services to diverse communities while facing both economic success and social tensions due to their perceived role. 79) Explain the two types of segregation and give an example of each. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Explain each of the two types of segregation: social and spatial. 2. Identify the effects of the types of segregation on various aspects of social life paying particular attention to the difference between de jure and defacto segregation 3. Use examples such as education to support your points. Sample Answer: Types of Segregation and Examples 1. De Jure Segregation: • Definition: De jure segregation refers to segregation that is enforced by law or government policy. • Example: The Jim Crow laws in the southern United States mandated racial segregation in public facilities such as schools, transportation, and restaurants until they were abolished in the 1960s. 2. De Facto Segregation: • Definition: De facto segregation refers to segregation that occurs by social and economic factors rather than by explicit laws. • Example: Residential segregation in many American cities where neighbourhoods are predominantly inhabited by people of one racial or ethnic group due to historical discrimination, economic disparities, and social norms. 80) Explain split-labor-market theory as it applies to ethnic groups. Use your theories to explain what could be done to avoid this situation. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Outline the basics of split labor market theory as introduced by Bonacich. 2. Note the effects of a split labor market on minority groups and infighting. 3. Apply theories to evaluate how the split labor market could be avoided or overcome. Sample Answer: Split-Labor-Market Theory and Ethnic Groups Split-Labor-Market Theory: • Theory: Split-labor-market theory suggests that in capitalist economies, employers exploit racial or ethnic divisions within the labor market to maintain a segmented workforce. • Application: Ethnic groups are often relegated to different segments of the labor market based on perceived skills, cultural capital, or social networks, which can perpetuate inequalities. Avoiding Split-Labor-Market Situation: • Promoting Equal Opportunity: Implement policies that ensure fair hiring practices and access to education and training for all ethnic groups. • Anti-Discrimination Laws: Enforce laws that prohibit discrimination based on race or ethnicity in hiring, promotion, and workplace practices. • Promoting Diversity Initiatives: Encourage diversity and inclusion programs in workplaces to reduce stereotypes and biases. Example: By promoting educational opportunities and workforce training for historically marginalized ethnic groups, societies can equip individuals with skills that align with market demands, reducing reliance on segmented labor markets and fostering greater economic equity. Test Bank for Strangers to These Shores Vincent N Parrillo 9780205971688, 9780134732862, 9780205970407

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