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This Document Contains Chapters 5 to 6 Chapter 5: North and West European Americans Multiple Choice 1) The expulsion of religious dissident Roger Williams from the Massachusetts colony led to the founding in 1639 of which denomination in Rhode Island? A) Methodist B) Baptist C) Quaker D) Seventh-day Adventist Answer: B 2) During the colonial period, one of the most frequent causes of social problems was __________. A) nationality B) religion C) race D) social class Answer: B 3) The civic culture included strong beliefs in __________. A) Protestantism B) Socialism C) Evangelicalism D) Communism Answer: A 4) Who made up 18.9% of the U.S. population in 1790? A) English B) Irish C) Native Americans D) Africans Answer: D 5) Federalist action toward the increasing foreign-born population took the form of __________. A) expulsion B) job discrimination C) legislative actions D) spatial segregation Answer: C 6) Emerson tried to combat the __________ movement by appealing to the “smelting pot” concept. A) immigration B) nativist C) ethnocentric D) patriot Answer: B 7) Anxiety mounted between 1820 and 1860 because new German and Irish immigrants were __________. A) Catholic B) Americanized C) illegal aliens D) violent Answer: A 8) Following 1820, shipmasters were required to __________. A) file a directional plan B) announce their ship’s arrival C) submit a passenger list to custom officials D) expose passengers to the English language Answer: C 9) The Know-Nothing movement of the 1850s illustrates __________. A) acceptance B) avoidance C) political apathy D) xenophobia Answer: D 10) Which former president sought to return to office on the Know-Nothing ticket? A) Millard Fillmore B) James Adams C) Thomas Jefferson D) George Winfield Scott Answer: A 11) The first European colonists were characterized by __________. A) the necessity to survive B) religious diversity C) anti-British sentiments D) a criminal background Answer: A 12) Many Federalists believed that the large foreign-born population was the root of all evil in the United States. This is __________. A) religious persecution B) economic opportunity C) scapegoating D) resistance to assimilation Answer: C 13) Most immigrant groups were forced to live in substandard housing. What was a typical response of dominant society? A) Condemnation of the immigrants for living as they did B) Attempts to address structural causes of the immigrant squalor C) A sense of ethnic solidarity D) Taking in immigrants as adopted families Answer: A 14) To what country did the Pilgrims first flee after leaving England? A) Denmark B) Sweden C) Holland D) Spain Answer: C 15) Nineteenth-century British immigrants __________. A) experienced widespread anti-British hostility B) were the object of much ridicule on the vaudeville stage C) clustered together in ethnic subcommunities D) did not always like America, and many returned home Answer: D 16) Margaret’s departure from her homeland to the United States filled her with hope and anxiety, illustrating how the transition to a new land is a(n) __________ decision. A) emotional B) easy C) coerced D) logical Answer: A 17) Arriving in a new destination with an unfamiliar cultural context can jolt one’s world of reality. This jolt is known as __________. A) xenophobia B) culture shock C) amalgamation D) assimilation Answer: B 18) Between 1820 and 2011, about how many British people moved to the United States? A) 2 million B) 2.9 million C) 5.5 million D) 18.5 million Answer: C 19) Which sport did colonists import from Holland? A) Bowling B) Kolf C) Sailing D) Cricket Answer: B 20) The __________ has its origins in the Dutch religious separatists. A) Lutheran Church B) Christian Reformed Church C) Catholic Church D) Baptist Church Answer: B 21) New Amsterdam offers an early example of __________. A) a pluralistic society B) anti-Semitism C) rigid social control D) ethnocentrism Answer: A 22) Which Louisiana city is identified as essentially “the Cajun capital”? A) New Orleans B) Baton Rouge C) Shreveport D) Lafayette Answer: D 23) __________ is one of the French population segments identified in the text. A) Descendants of the conquistadores B) Migrants from African colonies C) Migrants from the Asian Expulsion D) Settlers in Louisiana Answer: D 24) New England French Canadians and Louisiana French illustrate __________. A) amalgamation B) attempts to assimilate C) convergent subcultures D) persistent subcultures Answer: D 25) __________ has contributed the greatest number of immigrants to the United States. A) France B) England C) Germany D) Ireland Answer: C 26) Germany has contributed __________ immigrants to the United States since 1820. A) 500,000 B) 2.2 million C) 4.8 million D) 7.3 million Answer: D 27) Approximately __________ million Americans trace at least some of their family to Germany. A) 5 million B) 7.3 million C) 29 million D) 47.4 million Answer: D 28) Early German immigrants settled in __________. A) New York B) Maryland C) Pennsylvania D) Delaware Answer: C 29) The “German Triangle” consisted of Cincinnati, Milwaukee and __________. A) Philadelphia B) Chicago C) St. Louis D) Green Bay Answer: C 30) Franklin was opposed to the large German population in Pennsylvania because __________. A) many were Mennonites and pacifists B) they were racist C) they had little knowledge of American customs D) he worried they would overrun government elections Answer: D 31) __________ was/were a source of controversy for German Turnvereine. A) Social-welfare legislation B) Abortion rights C) Prostitution D) Temperance unions Answer: A 32) The nineteenth-century German immigrants were __________. A) diverse in religion, occupation, and area of residence B) mostly lumberjacks living in the Midwest C) mostly political refugees living in the eastern cities D) mostly Sephardic Jews Answer: A 33) Which push factor was responsible for the majority of German immigrants? A) Religion B) Economic C) Political D) Psychological Answer: C 34) __________ was a characteristic that helped mark many Irish as outsiders in the United States. A) Religion B) Urban culture C) Small population D) Rebelliousness against Americans Answer: A 35) Arguing against the nativist position in 1852, a Massachusetts senator argued that the __________. A) nativists were being bigoted B) Irish should be recognized as a superior race C) Irish were inferior and therefore they lift up everyone else D) nativists needed to recognize that they, too, were once immigrants Answer: C 36) __________ was a societal reaction to the Irish presence in the nineteenth-century. A) Higher taxation B) Massive job creation C) Expulsion from certain cities D) The burning of Irish Catholic houses of worship Answer: D 37) __________ was a way that the Irish responded to hostilities toward them in the United States. A) Intermarrying in high numbers in an effort to assimilate B) Mobilizing political forces C) Integrating themselves into federal government positions D) Dispersing to different parts of various cities Answer: B 38) Irish conflicts with Blacks, Chinese, and Germans all illustrate which theory? A) Functionalism B) Internal colonialism C) Marginality D) Split labor market Answer: D 39) What was the nature of the attacks launched on immigrants by Presidents Roosevelt and Wilson, prior to World War I? A) Immigrants were chided to stop being “hyphenated Americans”. B) Immigrants were accused of taking too many jobs from Americans. C) Immigrants were accused of being responsible for a sharp increase in crime. D) Too many immigrants were entering the country illegally. Answer: A 40) Between 1800 and 1840 the ratio of domestic servants per family __________. A) doubled B) was cut in half C) tripled D) fell to zero Answer: A 41) One of the biggest real fears for women in the 1800s was __________. A) doing agricultural work B) living without a servant C) having a husband die and no financial support D) being burned as witches Answer: C 42) In the 19th century, women generally __________. A) enjoyed a surprising amount of power over men B) made great advances toward equality C) had lives full of work and inequality D) had very few rights, but also very few responsibilities Answer: C 43) The brutal working conditions of the Irish for low wages illustrates which theory? A) Conflict B) Functionalist C) Interactionist D) Internal colonialism Answer: A 44) Contrasts among Dutch, Quaker, and Puritan responses to cultural pluralism illustrate the __________ perspective. A) conflict B) functionalist C) interactionist D) split labor market Answer: C 45) According to the functionalist viewpoint, which of the following might be considered the cause of temporary dysfunctions? A) The diverse skill sets of newcomers B) Lack of economic opportunities in the New World C) The natural tendency of social interactions to result in long-term conflict D) The inability of society to quickly absorb large numbers of Irish and Germans Answer: D 46) With regards to newcomers in the New World, conflict theorists would stress the __________. A) New World’s need for newcomers B) English American need for newcomers C) differing social interpretations of strangers D) cooperative efforts between different ethnic groups Answer: B 47) The building of a society when large groups of people arrive to forge a civilization on undeveloped land is best understood with the __________ perspective. A) conflict B) functionalist C) interactionist D) internal colonialism Answer: B 48) The nation’s inability to absorb quickly the large numbers of Germans and Irish, resulting in a temporary societal disruption, illustrates which theory? A) Conflict B) Functionalist C) Interactionist D) Split labor market Answer: B 49) Federalist reaction to French and Irish immigrants illustrates which theory? A) Conflict B) Functionalist C) Interactionist D) Internal colonialism Answer: A 50) Protestant reaction to the large numbers of German Jews and Irish Catholics illustrates __________ theory. A) conflict B) functionalist C) interactionist D) internal colonialism Answer: C True/False 51) Urban living conditions, particularly among the poor Irish immigrants, were substandard. Answer: True 52) The Massachusetts Charter extended “liberty of conscience” to Protestants and Catholics alike. Answer: False 53) During the Colonial Period religious differences caused social problems more frequently than nationality differences. Answer: True 54) The Alien and Sedition Acts were designed to encourage political activity by pro-French immigrants. Answer: False 55) Push factors describe the motivation behind emigration to a new location. Answer: True 56) The emergence of television in the 1950s accelerated the process of ethnogenesis. Answer: True 57) The Federalists were strongly pro-French during the early stages of the French Revolution. Answer: False 58) The Industrial Revolution brought rapid expansion to the New England factories. Answer: True 59) Pretzels, kindergarten, and Pabst all were originated in the United States by German immigrants. Answer: True 60) The large population of German immigrants added to rising tensions and violent confrontations. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank 61) The Pennsylvania Dutch are of __________ descent. Answer: German 62) The Federalists attempted to limit all office-holding to the __________. Answer: native-born 63) The Alien and Sedition Acts were designed to discourage political activity by __________. Answer: pro-French immigrants 64) When a person fears or dislikes a class or classes of immigrants who come from a different region of the world than their own ancestors, the problem is not prejudice toward immigrants in general but __________ because they dislike only those who are different from them. Answer: xenophobia 65) The __________ and __________ make up the French communities in southern Louisiana. Answer: Creoles, Acadians/Cajuns 66) Partially because of their strong command of the English language relative to other immigrants, the __________ were able to provide strong leadership for early labor movements in the U.S. Answer: Irish 67) __________’s recruitment in Europe led to a large wave of Scots-Irish immigration to Pennsylvania. Answer: William Penn 68) The __________ in the 1840s accelerated Irish emigration to the United States. Answer: potato famine 69) While the Irish were active in labor issues, they were __________ in social interactions. Answer: retreatist 70) When a group of people gains in terms of economics or social standing, they are experiencing __________ just as the Irish did in their early years in the United States. Answer: upward mobility Short Answer 71) What attitude toward minorities and refugees in New Amsterdam was probably the result of a similar attitude in the Dutch homeland? Answer: Attitude Toward Minorities and Refugees in New Amsterdam Attitude: The Dutch in New Amsterdam (now New York) exhibited a relatively tolerant attitude toward minorities and refugees, likely reflecting the pluralism and commercial pragmatism of the Dutch homeland. Example: New Amsterdam was known for its religious and ethnic diversity, with policies allowing for the settlement of Jews, Catholics, and other religious minorities who faced persecution elsewhere. 72) Provide evidence that the separation of church and state did not immediately occur after the drafting of the Constitution. Answer: Separation of Church and State After the Constitution Evidence: The separation of church and state did not occur immediately after the drafting of the Constitution. Many states retained established churches and religious tests for public office for years after 1787. Example: Massachusetts maintained a state-supported church until 1833, demonstrating that the disestablishment of religion was a gradual process. 73) What institutions have helped the New England French Canadians retain their language and culture? Answer: Institutions Retaining Language and Culture for New England French Canadians Institutions: The New England French Canadians have retained their language and culture through community institutions such as churches, schools, and cultural organizations. Example: Parish schools and Franco-American societies played key roles in preserving the French language and cultural practices among the French Canadian population in New England. 74) The use of the German language in schools, like the use of Spanish instruction in schools today, was an effort to do what? Answer: Use of German and Spanish Language in Schools Effort: The use of the German language in schools historically, like the use of Spanish instruction in schools today, was an effort to preserve cultural heritage and facilitate education for non-English-speaking children. Example: In the 19th and early 20th centuries, German-American communities established bilingual schools to teach children in both German and English, similar to contemporary bilingual education programs for Spanish-speaking students. 75) How did the Molly Maguire movement conclude? Why did it end that way? Answer: Conclusion of the Molly Maguire Movement Conclusion: The Molly Maguire movement, a secret society of Irish-American coal miners in Pennsylvania, concluded with a series of arrests, trials, and executions of its leaders in the 1870s. Reason: It ended this way due to the concerted efforts of mining companies and Pinkerton detectives to suppress labor activism and break the power of the Mollies through legal and extra-legal means. Essay 76) What did Harriet Martineau, the “mother of sociology,” mean when she said that the arrival of new immigrants was “a pure benefit”? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Explain Martineau’s comments and the context of them including the political culture of the time and the immigration debates that were taking place in the country. 2. Assess why she would consider them a pure benefit from a sociological standpoint paying particular attention to the functionalist perspective which prioritizes the need to get all jobs done, even undesirable ones. Sample Answer: Harriet Martineau's View on New Immigrants Explanation: Harriet Martineau, considered the "mother of sociology," viewed the arrival of new immigrants as “a pure benefit” because she believed that immigration enriched society economically and culturally. Key Points: • Economic Contribution: Immigrants provided labor that fuelled industrial growth and economic expansion. • Cultural Diversity: The influx of different cultures, traditions, and perspectives was seen as enhancing the social fabric and promoting social progress. Example: Martineau's perspective aligns with the view that immigrants contribute to the dynamism and innovation of a society, fostering a richer, more diverse community. 77) What dominant and minority response patterns occurred during the colonial period? How are these explained by the theories of majority and minority groups? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Articulate the responses from minority and majority groups including both the push for cultural diversity and religious intolerance. 2. Use conflict theory and functionalist theory to show how both of these could have existed at the same time. Sample Answer: Dominant and Minority Response Patterns During the Colonial Period Dominant Group Responses: • Segregation: Establishing separate living areas and schools for different ethnic and racial groups. • Assimilation: Encouraging or forcing minority groups to adopt the dominant culture and language. Minority Group Responses: • Accommodation: Adapting to the dominant group's norms while maintaining some cultural practices. • Resistance: Opposing discriminatory practices through passive or active resistance, including uprisings and forming parallel institutions. Theories Explanation: • Assimilation Theory: Suggests that minority groups gradually adopt the culture of the dominant group, leading to reduced ethnic distinctions over time. • Conflict Theory: Argues that dominant and minority group interactions are characterized by power struggles and resistance against oppression. Example: Native American tribes resisted European colonization through various means, from warfare to maintaining distinct cultural practices despite pressures to assimilate. 78) Explain the roots of separation of church and state. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Define the separation between church and state. 2. Note the circumstances under which it developed including the rise in religious intolerance. 3. Explain the ethnic and religious dynamics influencing the idea especially with regard to Catholicism. Sample Answer: Roots of Separation of Church and State Explanation: The roots of the separation of church and state in the United States are found in the historical context of religious persecution and the desire to ensure religious freedom for all. Key Points: • Historical Context: Early settlers, such as the Pilgrims and Puritans, fled religious persecution in Europe, seeking freedom to practice their faith without government interference. • Enlightenment Influence: Enlightenment thinkers, including John Locke, advocated for the separation of religious and governmental powers to protect individual rights and prevent tyranny. • Constitutional Framework: The First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution enshrines the principle of separation, stating that "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof." Example: Thomas Jefferson's letter to the Danbury Baptists in 1802 explicitly mentions a "wall of separation between Church and State," reflecting the intention to prevent government involvement in religious affairs. 79) Explain how immigrants who were seeking religious freedom actually came to the New World with their own stereotyped beliefs. How did this impact their relationship with other immigrant groups? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Note some of the groups who came seeking religious freedom including the various sects of Protestantism 2. Explain the ways these groups acted on stereotypes about others’ religious beliefs including their distaste of Catholicism. 3. Assess the impact of these actions paying attention to religious intolerance in the laws and finally acceptance. Sample Answer: Immigrants Seeking Religious Freedom and Their Stereotyped Beliefs Explanation: Many immigrants who came to the New World seeking religious freedom carried with them their own stereotyped beliefs and prejudices, which affected their interactions with other immigrant groups. Impact on Relationships: • Puritans and Quakers: Puritans, seeking religious freedom for themselves, often persecuted Quakers and other religious groups in New England, showing a lack of tolerance for differing beliefs. • Ethnic and Religious Conflict: Immigrants from different religious backgrounds sometimes clashed, leading to segregated communities and mistrust. Example: The Puritans, who settled in Massachusetts, sought religious freedom but imposed strict religious conformity within their colony, leading to the persecution of dissenters like Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson, who were expelled for their differing views 80) Why don’t all immigrants desire to become full, participating citizens in the country to which they move? How does this affect their new country? Use examples. Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Outline the reasons why some immigrants might be retreatist. 2. Use examples to show which groups might avoid full participation. Perhaps consider using the Irish as an example due to their persecution in the United States. 3. Use theories to help speculate about the impact of these groups on their host country. Explain how a conflict theorist, functionalist and symbolic interactionist might explain this reaction. Sample Answer: Reasons Some Immigrants Do Not Desire Full Citizenship Explanation: Not all immigrants desire to become full, participating citizens in their new country for various reasons, including cultural, economic, and political factors. Reasons: • Cultural Ties: Strong connections to their homeland and a desire to return eventually. • Economic Motives: Migrants seeking temporary employment may prioritize earning money over integrating. • Political Distrust: Distrust in the political system of the host country or satisfaction with legal resident status. Effects on the New Country: • Economic Contribution: While they contribute economically, their limited integration may affect social cohesion. • Policy Implications: Governments may need to address the challenges of providing services and ensuring rights for non-citizen residents. Example: Many migrant workers in Gulf countries do not seek citizenship due to temporary work contracts and a strong desire to return home, impacting social dynamics and policy considerations in these countries. Chapter 6 South, Central, and East European Americans Multiple Choice 1) The turning point when the total of immigrants from northern and western Europe was surpassed by the total from South, Central and Eastern Europe occurred in __________. A) 1880 B) 1896 C) 1901 D) 1908 Answer: B 2) __________ would be considered a “push” factor. A) The promise of a better life B) Low unemployment C) Tyrannical governments D) Familial ties Answer: C 3) In 1880-1920, migration “push” factors included __________. A) disease B) famine and poverty C) democratic elections D) the promise of a better life Answer: B 4) Working conditions from 1880-1920 included __________. A) long hours and low wages B) massive improvements in workers’ rights C) labor by the elderly to support a youthful leisure class D) high levels of unionization Answer: A 5) According to Madison Grant’s 1916 book, The Passing of the Great Race, the new influx of immigrants was faced with __________. A) marginality B) Anglo-conformity C) racism D) ethnic hegemony Answer: C 6) Many believed rapid Americanization of the newcomers could be best achieved through __________. A) schools B) churches C) government D) employment Answer: A 7) The Haymarket affair resulted in __________. A) a renewed respect for immigrants B) 7 people being sentenced to death C) A fear of Catholics D) an association of Americans as terrorists Answer: B 8) Use of a national-origins quota system ended when Congress passed the __________. A) Immigration and Nationality Act B) McCarran-Walter Act C) Johnson-Reed Act D) National Origins Quota Act Answer: A 9) __________ was a migration “pull” factor in the 1800s. A) Job opportunities in industrial America B) Political upheaval at home C) Harsh peasant life in Europe D) Religious persecution Answer: A 10) __________ was a part of the argument for Anglo-conformity in the excerpt from an early 20th century educator. A) That new immigrants were overly self-reliant B) That new immigrants lacked an appreciation for law and order C) That new immigrants lacked an appreciation for racial and ethnic diversity D) The new immigrants made it more difficult to keep conditions sanitary Answer: B 11) The Haymarket Affair in 1886 set in motion which dominant group response pattern? A) Expulsion B) Defiance C) Segregation D) Xenophobia Answer: D 12) The 1911 Dillingham report concluded that __________. A) “Old” immigrants had tended to congregate and slow the immigration process B) All immigration should be restricted, without exception C) “New” immigrants were likely to accept a low standard of living D) Stemming hate crimes toward immigrants would require severe legal penalties Answer: C 13) The Dillingham Commission recommended what dominant group response pattern? A) Legislative controls B) Forced assimilation C) Segregation D) Expulsion Answer: A 14) Henry Pratt Fairchild considered __________ a “threat to the very fabric of society”. A) tight quotas on immigration B) the Haymarket affair C) sociology D) unrestricted immigration Answer: D 15) __________ likely slowed upward mobility for Slavic immigrants. A) Their backgrounds in factory labor B) Child labor C) Focus on education instead of work D) Low rates of intermarriage Answer: B 16) Slavic people practiced child labor because of __________. A) a value orientation that children were miniature adults B) a value orientation about early vocational training C) economic necessity D) the unavailability of schools for their children Answer: C 17) Polish peasants viewed education as a waste of time. After the second generation, though, Poles __________. A) trailed behind other groups in terms of upward mobility B) had an increase in upward mobility C) experienced stability, pride, and status competition D) began experimenting with homeschooling Answer: B 18) The study of Polish Americans by Thomas and Znaniecki showed that delinquency, divorce, prostitution, and crime were the result of __________. A) a vigorous ethnic community B) family disorganization C) a strong desire to assimilate D) deviant religious values Answer: B 19) Polish receptiveness to ethnogenesis is evidenced by their ___________. A) rigid sense of cultural norms B) formation of strong ethnic associations C) willingness to live in poverty D) strict moral standards in the schools Answer: A 20) Of the approximately 3 million Russians who arrived in the United States from 1881 to 1920, approximately how many were Jewish? A) 25% B) 34% C) 43% D) 58% Answer: C 21) Immigrants following the Bolshevik Revolution were most likely to be __________. A) Czarist army officers B) peasants C) working class people D) extremely poor Answer: A 22) __________ is/are closely associated with the xenophobic reaction to Russian immigrants. A) The assassination of President McKinley B) Lynch mobs C) Palmer raids D) The Teapot Dome scandal Answer: C 23) Which country has led all former-Soviet republics and Russia in U.S. immigration since 1992? A) Kazakhstan B) Byelorussia C) Ukraine D) Uzbekistan Answer: C 24) The epithet “honky” evolved from an ethnophaulism for what group? A) Hungarians B) Gypsies C) Italians D) Russians Answer: A 25) Hungarians became prominent through their __________. A) productivity in farming B) participation in labor unrest C) failure to settle in ethnic clusters D) anti-labor activity Answer: B 26) Today, third and fourth generation Italian Americans are __________. A) absent from the professional fields B) attending colleges and universities in large numbers C) experiencing downward mobility D) being drawn back to Italy Answer: B 27) Many Italians participated in __________ patterns. A) shuttle migration B) push migration C) train migration D) permanent migration Answer: A 28) __________ is a Little Italy location. A) Boston’s North End B) South Dallas C) The area to the southeast of Chicago’s loop D) All of Philadelphia Answer: A 29) __________ was/were a hindrance to upward mobility for Italian immigrants. A) High education standards in Italy B) Dominant group acceptance C) The decision of many families to remain in a Little Italy for long periods of time D) Second-generation desires to assimilate Answer: C 30) Italian immigrants continued to stress the value of __________. A) individual achievement B) educational achievement C) family cohesion D) formal education Answer: C 31) __________ might have drawn second-generation Italian adults to la via nuova. A) Schools B) Religion C) The homeland D) Family traditions Answer: A 32) __________ identifies the status of second-generation Italian-Americans prior to 1940. A) Marginality B) Rapid upward mobility C) Geographic dispersion D) College-educated Answer: A 33) An important social center for the Greek community was the __________. A) village B) marketplace C) saloon D) coffeehouse Answer: D 34) What factor most likely would have encouraged some Greek immigrants to stay in the United States? A) The Greek dowry system B) The restaurant industry in the United States C) The male-female ratio of Greek immigrants in the United States D) A high valuation of endogamy Answer: B 35) The Greek-American community has long demonstrated __________. A) a blend of pluralistic and assimilationist patterns B) low socioeconomic status C) tightly clustered residential patterns D) low value orientations about education Answer: A 36) __________ would be likely in the Gypsy subculture. A) Marrying after the age of 36 B) Having no children C) Never returning to the Rom D) Posing as another ethnicity to evade authorities Answer: D 37) Gypsies in the United States today can be described best as __________. A) virtually non-existent B) fully assimilated C) a persistent subculture D) a convergent subculture Answer: C 38) Gypsies have kept their tribal codes and morals virtually unchanged in an urbanized and industrialized society by __________. A) remaining outside educational institutions B) attempting to add outsiders to their numbers C) living only in rural areas D) participating in the political process Answer: A 39) With regards to immigrant women and work, __________. A) cultural norms dictated that married women should not work outside the home B) about 20% of women worked in factories or mills C) most immigrant women workers were maids and nannies D) prostitution was the only viable way to make money Answer: A 40) With so massive and complex a migration and settlement pattern for the groups in this chapter __________ general assessment of acculturation and assessment is possible. A) a strong B) no C) an accurate D) only a biased Answer: B 41) Which statement accurately gives the conflict perspective for immigrants working for low wages under harsh conditions? A) They did not understand the language and customs. B) They were unaccustomed to an industrialized society. C) They fared better than living amidst European conflicts. D) Industrialists took advantage of them. Answer: D 42) Interactionists suggest a main reason for calls for immigration restrictions was the __________. A) exploitation of the immigrants B) association of the social problems with the new arrivals C) rapid urban and industrial growth D) overcrowding in schools Answer: B 43) Functional analysis would emphasize the __________ with regard to immigration. A) conflict between social classes that arises when new groups move in B) behavioral pathologies after an abrupt life change C) identity formation of new immigrants D) way beliefs change when new groups move in Answer: B 44) Assimilation due to labor regulations, housing codes, acculturation, and upward mobility might all be emphasized from which theoretical viewpoint? A) Functionalist B) Conflict C) Interactionist D) Rational choice Answer: A 45) For __________ the accompanying problems with rapid development in the United States such as overcrowded tenements and social disorganization could all be traced back to the rapid pace of social change. A) functionalists B) conflict theorists C) interactionists D) rational choice theorists Answer: A 46) Roger believes that any wave of immigrants will necessarily face a hard time at first, but that eventually things will calm down and social equilibrium will be restored. Roger is a __________. A) functionalist B) conflict theorist C) interactionist D) rational choice theorist Answer: A 47) Jack focuses on the use and abuse of power rather than on societal inability to cope with rapid change. He thinks racial and ethnic conflicts are simply struggles for power. Jack is a __________. A) functionalist B) conflict theorist C) interactionist D) rational choice theorist Answer: B 48) Bill is imploring his fellow workers to strike, reminding them that the only way their immigrant ancestors achieved any social mobility was by force, not assimilation. Bill’s interpretation of history is in line with __________ theory. A) functionalist B) conflict C) interactionist D) rational choice Answer: B 49) At dinner the other night, Erik told Emily, “You know we never had all these problems with teenagers getting pregnant until we had so many people crossing the border illegally.”__________ theorists would be inclined to focus on how Erik’s statements, regardless of accuracy, helped to shape beliefs. A) functionalist B) conflict C) interactionist D) rational choice Answer: C 50) __________ theorists put a lot of emphasis on how people construct images of other groups of people according to stereotypes and very limited knowledge. A) Functionalist B) Conflict C) Interactionist D) Rational choice Answer: C True/False 51) Madison Grant argued that, among other faults, the new immigrants were stealing American women. Answer: True 52) Settling in the oldest city sections, immigrants quickly conformed to the dominant culture Answer: False 53) The Haymarket affair was initiated by mostly nativist organizers. Answer: False 54) The immigrants from southern, central and eastern Europe arrived in large enough numbers to be able to preserve some of their old-country culture. Answer: True 55) The Johnson-Reed Act of 1924 was much less restrictive than The National Origins Quota Act of 1921. Answer: False 56) Sojourners immigrated to America to earn money and then returned to their native land after a year or two. Answer: True 57) By the 1980’s, Polish American high school graduation was higher than all other European American groups. Answer: True 58) The Displaced Persons Act called for the expulsion of any immigrant without familial ties in America. Answer: False 59) A gemeinschaft society is regulated by custom and habit. Answer: True 60) Many Russian Americans who had worked hard to achieve some economic security in the United States found themselves jobless and unable to find work after the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917. Answer: True Fill-in-the-Blank 61) The __________ hour workweek for low wages was common for unskilled immigrant workers. Answer: 84 62) __________ and __________ stood out from other immigrants because of large numbers, residential clustering, religions, languages, appearance, and cultural practices. Answer: Italians, Jews 63) The new note in American nativism emphasized a racist claim of __________ for those with lighter skins, fairer hair, and earlier debarkation dates. Answer: biological superiority 64) __________ fled to the Quaker colony of Pennsylvania in the 18th century. Answer: Moravians 65) The values and forms of village life in rural Poland were partially reintegrated in the parish structure of the __________. Answer: urban Roman Catholic Church 66) The first Russian immigrants were __________ originally from __________. Answer: Mennonites, Germany 67) Mennonites from Russia made a valuable contribution to U.S. agriculture by introducing __________. Answer: Turkish wheat 68) Despite __________, Sacco and Vanzetti were executed for robbery and murder in 1927. Answer: someone else’s confession 69) The use of __________ and __________ to intervene in strikes by Irish workers is an example of interethnic conflict compatible with conflict theory. Answer: Hungarians, Italians 70) From the interactionist standpoint, demands for immigration restrictions reflected the __________ of those who looked “different”. Answer: negative stereotyping Short Answer 71) Explain the concept of push-pull factors. How do they impact migration patterns? Use examples. Answer: Push-Pull Factors and Migration Patterns Concept: Push-pull factors refer to the reasons why people migrate from one area to another. "Push" factors drive individuals away from their home country, while "pull" factors attract them to a new location. Impact on Migration Patterns: • Push Factors: Include economic hardship, political instability, conflict, and environmental disasters. • Pull Factors: Include better job opportunities, political stability, higher standards of living, and safety. Examples: • Push: Syrian refugees fleeing civil war. • Pull: Mexicans migrating to the United States for better employment opportunities. These factors shape the flow and direction of migration, influencing demographic changes and cultural integration in host countries. 72) What are “eugenic” explanations of culture? Are they valid? Give examples. Answer: Eugenic Explanations of Culture Concept: Eugenic explanations of culture posit that genetic differences among races or ethnic groups account for variations in cultural and intellectual achievements. Validity: These explanations are widely discredited and considered pseudoscientific because they ignore social, economic, and historical contexts and promote racial stereotypes and discrimination. Examples: • Invalid: Claims that certain ethnic groups are inherently more intelligent or capable based on genetics. • Rebuttal: Research shows that socio-economic conditions, education, and access to resources play a crucial role in cultural and intellectual development. 73) Explain how the Bolshevik revolution in Russia impacted Russian immigrants in America. Answer: Impact of the Bolshevik Revolution on Russian Immigrants in America Impact: The Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 led to a significant wave of Russian immigrants fleeing political persecution and economic hardship. Consequences: • Red Scare: Increased suspicion and hostility towards Russian immigrants, associating them with communism. • Assimilation Pressures: Russian immigrants faced pressure to assimilate and distance themselves from radical political ideologies. Example: The Palmer Raids of 1919-1920 targeted suspected communists, including many Russian immigrants, leading to arrests and deportations. 74) What is shuttle migration? Give examples of groups that participate in migration this way. What are the impacts of this form of migration? Answer: Shuttle Migration Concept: Shuttle migration refers to the cyclical movement of migrants between their home country and the host country for work or other purposes. Examples: • Mexican Migrant Workers: Frequently move between Mexico and the United States for seasonal agricultural work. • Filipino Overseas Workers: Travel between the Philippines and various countries for employment in domestic and healthcare sectors. Impacts: • Economic: Provides financial support for families in the home country but can lead to unstable employment conditions. • Social: Maintains strong cultural ties and family connections but can cause psychological stress due to separation. 75) How does the functionalist viewpoint help us to make sense of the experience of white ethnics in the United States? Answer: Functionalist Viewpoint on White Ethnics in the United States Explanation: The functionalist perspective views society as a complex system with interdependent parts that work together to promote stability and social order. Application: • Integration: White ethnics (e.g., Irish, Italian, Polish immigrants) contributed to the labor force, helping to build infrastructure and industries. • Social Cohesion: Their gradual assimilation into the dominant culture and upward social mobility helped to stabilize and integrate diverse communities. • Cultural Pluralism: Preserved cultural heritage through institutions like churches and ethnic organizations, enriching American society. Example: The integration of Irish immigrants into American society through labor unions and political involvement, leading to their acceptance and influence in mainstream culture. Essay 76) What were the findings and recommendations of the Dillingham Commission? What legislative action occurred as a result? What did social scientists learn from this? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Explain the background of the Dillingham Commission and how it was influenced by public pressure. 2. Note the legislative actions associated with it. 3. Link the outcomes to the Dillingham Flaw and the resulting ethnocentrism. Sample Answer: Findings and Recommendations of the Dillingham Commission Findings: The Dillingham Commission, established in 1907, studied immigration and concluded that newer immigrants (from Southern and Eastern Europe) were less assimilable and posed economic and social challenges compared to earlier immigrants (from Northern and Western Europe). Recommendations: • Restriction of immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe. • Implementation of literacy tests to limit the entry of less educated immigrants. Legislative Action: • The Immigration Act of 1917, which included a literacy test for immigrants. • The Emergency Quota Act of 1921 and the Immigration Act of 1924, which established national origin quotas favouring Northern and Western European immigrants. Lessons for Social Scientists: • Recognition of biases in immigration policy. • Understanding the impact of socio-economic factors on assimilation. • Highlighting the need for more objective and inclusive approaches to immigration studies. 77) What were the specific push-pull factors contributing to the increased immigration in 1880-1902? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Explain what push (negative)-pull (positive) factors are. 2. Give examples of specific factors that influenced immigration during this period such as economic hardship or religious persecution. Sample Answer: Push-Pull Factors Contributing to Increased Immigration (1880-1902) Push Factors: • Economic Hardship: Poverty, unemployment, and lack of land in Europe. • Political Instability: Persecution and violence, especially against Jews in Eastern Europe (e.g., pogroms in Russia). • Agricultural Failures: Crop failures and famines. Pull Factors: • Economic Opportunities: Industrialization and job opportunities in the United States. • Land Availability: The Homestead Act and the promise of land ownership. • Political and Religious Freedom: Escape from persecution and desire for a better quality of life. Example: Many Eastern European Jews fled pogroms and sought safety and economic opportunity in the U.S. 78) What were Americans’ xenophobic reactions to the newcomers? Why do you think they had this reaction? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Articulate what xenophobia is. 2. Document xenophobic reactions using examples including both social and legislative. 3. Apply theories such as conflict, functionalist and interactionist perspectives, to help make sense of why xenophobia occurred. Sample Answer: Americans’ Xenophobic Reactions to Newcomers Reactions: • Nativism: Hostility towards immigrants, promoting the interests of native-born Americans. • Legislation: Restrictive immigration laws and policies, such as the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. • Violence: Anti-immigrant riots and discrimination in employment and housing. Reasons for Reaction: • Economic Competition: Fear of job loss and wage reduction due to immigrant labor. • Cultural Differences: Anxiety over the preservation of American culture and values. • Racial and Ethnic Prejudices: Deep-seated biases against people from different racial and ethnic backgrounds. Example: The Know-Nothing Party of the 1850s exemplified political nativism, advocating for restrictions on immigrant voting rights and holding public office. 79) Why do Gypsies remain a persistent subculture? How are they able to manage this? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Note the basic facets of the Gypsy subculture including the distinction between the Rom and the gadje and the rates of assimilation. 2. Explain how they are able to maintain this culture and what strategies they use focusing on the role of the family. Sample Answer: Persistence of Gypsy Subculture Persistence: Gypsies (Roma) remain a persistent subculture due to their strong cultural traditions, social structures, and adaptive strategies. Management: • Cultural Cohesion: Strong emphasis on family, community, and cultural rituals that reinforce group identity. • Economic Adaptability: Engaging in occupations that allow mobility and independence, such as trade, craftsmanship, and entertainment. • Social Networks: Maintaining extensive social networks across different countries that support their lifestyle and cultural continuity. • Resistance to Assimilation: Deliberate efforts to maintain distinctiveness and resist assimilation into mainstream societies. Example: Gypsies continue to celebrate traditional festivals, practice their language (Romani), and uphold customary laws (kris) that govern their communities. 80) Compare and contrast the three major sociological perspectives as they apply to the experiences of the groups discussed in this chapter. What do we learn from each perspective that we don’t get from the others? Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should include: 1. Outline the three basic theoretical approaches to studying minorities-conflict, functionalist and interactionist. 2. Evaluate the effectiveness of each theory in explaining some aspect of the minority experiences of South, Central, and East European Americans. 3. Use examples to show where each theory could be useful in explaining the experiences of South, Central, and East European Americans. Sample Answer: Sociological Perspectives on Group Experiences Functionalism: • Focus: Stability, social order, and integration of ethnic groups. • Application: Examines how ethnic groups contribute to the functioning of society, such as the economic contributions of immigrant labor. • Learning: Highlights the roles different groups play in maintaining social stability and cohesion. • Example: The integration of white ethnic groups like Irish and Italians into the broader American society through labor unions and community institutions. Conflict Theory: • Focus: Power struggles, inequality, and exploitation between dominant and minority groups. • Application: Analyses how minority groups face systemic discrimination and economic exploitation. • Learning: Sheds light on the structural inequalities and conflicts that shape the experiences of minority groups. • Example: The economic exploitation of migrant laborers and the resistance movements like the Molly Maguires among Irish coal miners. Symbolic Interactionism: • Focus: Daily interactions, meanings, and identity formation. • Application: Investigates how ethnic identities are constructed and maintained through social interactions and cultural symbols. • Learning: Provides insights into the subjective experiences and micro-level dynamics of ethnic relations. • Example: The use of cultural symbols and language by New England French Canadians to preserve their identity and sense of community. Test Bank for Strangers to These Shores Vincent N Parrillo 9780205971688, 9780134732862, 9780205970407

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