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Chapter 4 - Infancy and Toddlerhood: Physical, Cognitive, and Language Development 1. Which of the following was NOT one of the six arousal states identified in newborns by Peter Wolff? a. crying b. thinking c. regular sleep d. irregular sleep Answer: b Rationale: Peter Wolff identified six arousal states in newborns, including crying, regular sleep, and irregular sleep. However, "thinking" is not considered one of these arousal states, as newborns are not cognitively capable of structured thought processes like "thinking." 2. The type of malnutrition that is caused by an insufficient total quantity of food and in which muscles waste away and stored fat is depleted is: a. anemia b. marasmus c. kwashiorkor d. stunting Answer: b Rationale: Marasmus is a form of severe malnutrition characterized by inadequate intake of protein, energy, and other nutrients. It leads to wasting of muscles and depletion of stored fat due to an insufficient total quantity of food. 3. The basic units of sounds in a language are referred to as: a. semantics b. morphemes c. syntax d. phonemes Answer: d Rationale: Phonemes are the basic units of sounds in a language. They are the smallest distinct units of sound that can change the meaning of a word. 4. At about what age do most children learn to use the “pincer grasp,” which allows them to use their thumb and forefinger to “pinch” a small object to pick it up? a. 6 months of age b. 12 months of age c. 18 months of age d. 24 months of age Answer: b Rationale: Most children learn to use the pincer grasp around 12 months of age. This developmental milestone allows them to pick up small objects between their thumb and forefinger with precision. 5. If you were to record the activity of a mirror neuron, you should expect that it would act in the same way when we perform an action – such as picking up an object – as when we: a. think about performing that action b. choose to not perform that action c. read about performing that action d. observe someone else perform that action Answer: d Rationale: Mirror neurons are activated not only when an individual performs an action but also when they observe someone else performing the same action. This is why they are associated with imitation and empathy. 6. Which of the following abilities is the newborn infant capable of performing as early as the first week of life? a. making most of the sounds of the language in which he or she has heard prenatally b. distinguishing the smell of his or her mother from that of other women c. being able to grasp small objects by using the thumb and forefinger d. being able to see through closed eyelids how objects move about in this “dim” environment Answer: b Rationale: Newborn infants are capable of distinguishing the smell of their mother from that of other women as early as the first week of life. This ability is believed to aid in bonding and attachment. 7. When a child produces a single word, such as “bottle,” it may mean a variety of things, such as “I want the bottle” or “there’s the bottle” or “I like the bottle.” This type of usage is referred to as: a. an adaptation b. holophrastic speech c. an overextension d. telegraphic speech Answer: b Rationale: When a child uses a single word to convey a variety of meanings or intentions, it is referred to as holophrastic speech. This is common during the early stages of language development when children are beginning to produce words. 8. Jake suffered a head injury at the age of 2. In spite of his injury, Jake was able to recover most of the abilities that he had before the injury. Which of the following terms is most directly related to Jake’s ability to regain these lost functions? a. the brain growth spurt b. neural pruning c. brain plasticity d. habituation training Answer: c Rationale: Brain plasticity refers to the brain's ability to reorganize and adapt following injury or trauma. It allows individuals like Jake to regain lost functions by rewiring neural connections or using different areas of the brain to compensate for damaged ones. 9. Suppose you see a grandparent at the toy store buying a set of 5 “stacking” blocks, a box of large-size crayons, and a toy telephone. Based on this selection of toys, your best guess is that the child these toys are intended for is about how old? a. age 6 months b. age 12 months c. age 18 months d. age 24 months Answer: c Rationale: The selection of toys such as stacking blocks, large-size crayons, and a toy telephone suggests that the child is likely around 18 months old. These toys are suitable for toddlers who are beginning to explore their environment, engage in simple pretend play, and develop fine motor skills. 10. Suppose you observe a researcher interacting with an infant by shaking a rattle while the baby is watching, and then placing the rattle underneath a pillow. The researcher then records whether or not the baby can find the rattle under the pillow. The concept this researcher is studying is most likely: a. assimilation b. accommodation c. object permanence d. deferred imitation Answer: c Rationale: The concept being studied in this scenario is object permanence, which is the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible. By hiding the rattle under the pillow, the researcher is testing whether the infant realizes that the rattle still exists even though it cannot be seen. 1. In adulthood, a typical person’s head is about one-tenth of the person’s total body length. At birth, the head is about _________ of the newborn’s total body length. a. one-half b. one-third c. one-fourth d. one-sixth Answer: c Rationale: The correct answer is c. one-fourth. At birth, a newborn's head is proportionally larger compared to the rest of their body. Typically, a newborn's head constitutes about one-fourth of their total body length. 2. Kwashiorkor results when a person’s diet contains too little: a. vitamin A b. calcium c. vitamin D d. protein Answer: d Rationale: The correct answer is d. protein. Kwashiorkor is a form of severe acute malnutrition caused by insufficient intake of protein. It is characterized by symptoms such as swelling, skin lesions, and failure to grow. 3. The basic sounds in a language are referred to as: a. semantics b. morphemes c. syntax d. phonemes Answer: d Rationale: The correct answer is d. phonemes. Phonemes are the basic units of sound in a language. They are combined to form words and are essential for language comprehension and production. 4. In contrast to how scientists working in earlier decades have conceptualized the neonatal period, scientists today understand that: a. how the infant “attaches” to its primary caregiver is of limited significance b. there is much more stress involved in the birth process than previously thought c. newborns are much more capable than had previously been thought d. newborn behaviors are controlled to a much greater degree by genetics than was previously thought Answer: c Rationale: The correct answer is c. newborns are much more capable than had previously been thought. Current understanding suggests that newborns are more capable than previously believed, showing abilities such as social responsiveness and sensory processing shortly after birth. 5. Which of the following activities would an 8-month-old be LEAST likely to be able to do? a. pick up a quarter with one hand b. point at a nearby object c. pick up a stuffed toy d. clap two hands together Answer: a Rationale: The correct answer is a. pick up a quarter with one hand. Fine motor skills develop gradually in infants, and picking up small objects with one hand typically emerges later than other skills listed. 6. Suppose you visit a child development laboratory and observe a researcher working with an 8-month-old baby. The baby is sitting on top of a piece of Plexiglas, which rests partly over a table top and then extends out over the end of the table. The apparatus being used in this experiment is typically called a: a. visual cliff b. binocular challenge c. visually guided grid d. perceptual challenge map Answer: a Rationale: The correct answer is a. visual cliff. The apparatus described is known as a visual cliff, used to assess depth perception in infants. It presents a simulated "cliff" where one side appears to drop off, testing whether infants perceive depth and are hesitant to crawl over the "edge." 7. When a child produces a single word, such as bottle, it may mean a variety of things, such as “I want the bottle” or “there’s the bottle” or “I like the bottle.” This type of usage is referred to as: a. an adaptation b. holophrastic speech c. an overextension d. telegraphic speech Answer: b Rationale: The correct answer is b. holophrastic speech. Holophrastic speech refers to the use of a single word to convey a complete thought or idea. In this case, the single word "bottle" could represent a variety of meanings depending on the context. 8. Frank argues that early experiences are very important because these “early lessons” shape the way the brain develops. Frank’s view that experience influences brain development is the central idea behind the concept of: a. synaptic transmission b. neuromodulation c. habituation d. brain plasticity Answer: d Rationale: The correct answer is d. brain plasticity. Brain plasticity refers to the brain's ability to reorganize itself by forming new neural connections throughout life. Early experiences play a crucial role in shaping brain development and establishing neural pathways. 9. Suppose you show a newborn infant four photographs, one of his mother smiling, one of his mother making a fearful face, one of a stranger smiling, and one of a stranger making a fearful face. Which photograph should you expect the newborn to look at for the longest time? a. the smiling mother b. the fearful mother c. the smiling stranger d. the fearful stranger Answer: a Rationale: The correct answer is a. the smiling mother. Newborn infants typically prefer to look at faces, especially those displaying positive emotions such as smiling. Therefore, they would likely spend the longest time looking at the photograph of the smiling mother. 10. When 16-month-old Simon was visiting his relatives, he observed his older cousin stomp his foot to the beat of music, something Simon had never seen before. The next day, when Simon heard music on the radio, he stomped his foot to the beat. Simon’s “foot stomping” behavior would best be considered an example of: a. object permanence b. mirror imaging c. symbolic representation d. deferred imitation Answer: d Rationale: The correct answer is d. deferred imitation. Deferred imitation occurs when a person imitates a behavior they observed at an earlier time. In this case, Simon imitated his cousin's foot stomping behavior after observing it the previous day, demonstrating deferred imitation. Multiple Choice questions: The Developing Brain 1. According to the text, individuals experience the most rapid and dramatic developmental change during which 2-year period of the lifespan? a. birth to age 2 b. age 4 to 6 c. age 11-13 d. age 16-18 Answer: a Rationale: The correct answer is (a) birth to age 2. This is known as the infancy stage, during which there is rapid growth and development in physical, cognitive, and socioemotional domains. Infants undergo significant changes in motor skills, language acquisition, and social interaction during this period. 2. About how many neurons are in the typical human brain? a. 10 million b. 100 million c. 10 billion d. 100 billion Answer: d Rationale: The correct answer is (d) 100 billion. The human brain typically contains around 100 billion neurons. This vast network of neurons forms the basis of cognitive function, allowing for processes such as thinking, learning, and memory. 3. The connections that exist between the neurons in the brain are called: a. glial cells b. plastic links c. neuromodulators d. synapses Answer: d Rationale: The correct answer is (d) synapses. Synapses are the junctions between neurons where neurotransmitters are released, allowing for communication between neurons. These connections are essential for neural signaling and information processing in the brain. 4. The primary functions of glial cells are to: a. convey information from the sense organs to the brain b. convey information from the brain to the sense organs c. limit the activity of the brain so that it doesn’t become overloaded d. nourish and support the neurons Answer: d Rationale: The correct answer is (d) nourish and support the neurons. Glial cells, also known as neuroglia, play crucial roles in supporting and maintaining the function of neurons. They provide structural support, regulate the extracellular environment, and contribute to neuronal development and repair. 5. Which of the following statements is FALSE? a. The number of glial cells increases rapidly throughout the first 2 years of life. b. The number of neurons increases rapidly throughout the first 2 years of life. c. During the brain growth spurt in infancy, the complexity of neural branching increases. d. During the brain growth spurt in infancy, unused connections are often pruned away. Answer: b Rationale: Most of the neurons an individual will have throughout a person’s lifetime developed during the prenatal stage of development. Neural development after birth is characterized not by an increase in the number of neurons, but rather by increases in the size of neurons and particularly an increase in the complexity of their interconnections. Glial cells are added during the first 2 years after birth, however. 6. Which of the following experiences the least amount of change during the period of infancy and toddlerhood? a. the number of glial cells b. the number of interconnections between neurons c. the number of neurons d. the size of neurons Answer: c Rationale: Most of the neurons an individual will have throughout a person’s lifetime developed during the prenatal stage of development. Neural development after birth is characterized not by an increase in the number of neurons, but rather by increases in the size of neurons and particularly an increase in the complexity of their interconnections. Glial cells are added during the first 2 years after birth, however. 7. If a normal adult human brain weighs about 3 pounds, about how much would a normal baby’s brain weigh at the time of birth? a. about 1 pound b. about 1 ½ pounds c. about 3 pounds d. about 4 pounds Answer: a Rationale: At birth, an infant’s brain weighs about 25% of its adult weight. 8. If a normal adult human brain weighs 3 pounds, about how much would a normal 1-year-old’s brain weigh? a. a little less than 1/2 pound b. about 1 pound c. about 2 pounds d. a little more than 3 pounds Answer: c Rationale: At age 1, an infant’s brain has reached about 25% of its adult weight. 9. Frank argues that early experiences are very important because these “early lessons” shape the way the brain develops. Frank’s view that experience influences brain development is the central idea behind the concept of: a. synaptic transmission b. neuromodulation c. habituation d. brain plasticity Answer: d Rationale: The brain’s plasticity in infancy and early childhood makes it susceptible to environmental influences. The textbook describes, for example, a research study (Rosenweig, 1969) in which rats showed brain differences as a result of being raised in either an enriched or impoverished environment. 10. Jake suffered a head injury at the age of 2. In spite of his injury, Jake was able to recover most of the abilities that he had before the injury. Which of the following terms is most directly related to Jake’s ability to regain these lost functions? a. the brain growth spurt b. neural pruning c. brain plasticity d. habituation training Answer: c Rationale: Plasticity is the word used to describe the brain’s flexibility in reassigning functions to different regions. When injury occurs early in life – the time of maximum plasticity – control over functions lost due to injury can often be reassigned to different brain regions and functions can be relearned. 11. Mark Rosenzweig’s famous study of rats that were raised in either “enriched” or “impoverished” environments demonstrated that rats raised in enriched environments: a. lived longer b. gained more weight c. had heavier, more complex brains d. had more difficult mating with other rats when they reached maturity Answer: c Rationale: The correct answer is (c) had heavier, more complex brains. Rosenzweig's study showed that rats raised in enriched environments had brains with increased cortical thickness, greater synaptic density, and more extensive capillary networks, indicating enhanced neural development and complexity. 12. If the results of Rosenzweig’s study of rats raised in enriched environments were to be generalized to children, this would imply that we should be most concerned about which of the following? a. raising children in environments that did not allow for exploration and play b. raising children in environments in which they had to care for younger children c. placing children in day-care centers, even if the centers were well run d. making sure that children get 100% of their daily doses of all important vitamins Answer: a Rationale: Rosenzweig (1969) assigned infant rats to one of two conditions. Some were placed in standard cages where there were few options for their activities. Others, however, were assigned to “enriched” environments where there were running wheels, levers to press, steps to climb, and other “rat toys” to play with. Rats raised in the enriched environments developed brains that were not only heavier but also had thicker layers of cortex cells and more neurochemical activity at synapses. 13. The major conclusion to be drawn from Rosenzweig’s study of the brains of rats raised in an enriched environment is that: a. early experience shapes the way in which the brain develops b. genes exert their greatest influence in guiding neural development during the prenatal period c. too much “privilege” can cause the development of selfishness that cannot be undone through later training d. neural development is for the most part determined by genes, and especially by those carried on the sex chromosomes Answer: a Rationale: Rosenzweig (1969) assigned infant rats to one of two conditions. Some were placed in standard cages where there were few options for their activities. Others, however, were assigned to “enriched” environments where there were running wheels, levers to press, steps to climb, and other “rat toys” to play with. Rats raised in the enriched environments developed brains that were not only heavier but also had thicker layers of cortex cells and more neurochemical activity at synapses, demonstrating that early experience shapes the way in which the brain develops. 14. The neural “pruning” that takes place during infancy and toddlerhood results in: a. a loss of about 10% in the weight of the typical brain b. a loss of many of the neural connections that were present at birth c. severing the connection between left and right hemispheres that was present during the prenatal period of development d. the near-total separation of the brain’s cortex and other brain structures that lie below it Answer: b Rationale: Growth and “pruning” occur where, as the result of each child’s unique experiences, some synaptic connections develop and others are eliminated, or pruned away. According to Alison Gopnik and her colleagues (Gopnik, Meltzoff, & Kuhl, 1999, 2008), neurons in the brain of a newborn average about 2,500 synapses, increasing to a peak of about 15,000 synapses by age 2 or 3—many more than are present in an adult brain. 15. According to the text, neurons in a newborn’s brain have on average about __________ synapses. By age 2 or 3, the number is about __________ synapses. a. 100,000; one million b. one million, 100 billion c. 2,500; 15,000 d. 15,000; 2,500 Answer: c Rationale: The correct answer is (c) 2,500; 15,000. Newborns have relatively few synapses, estimated at around 2,500 per neuron on average. By age 2 or 3, this number increases dramatically to about 15,000 synapses per neuron as a result of synaptic proliferation and pruning during early brain development. 16. Which of the following individuals would have the largest number of average synapses in the neurons of their brain? a. Rita, who is a newborn b. Alan, who is 1 year old c. Matty, who is 2 ½ years old d. Rex, who is 25 years old Answer: c Rationale: The neurons in the brain of a newborn average about 2,500 synapses, which increases to a peak of about 15,000 synapses by the age of 2 or 3. In comparison to a 3-year-old’s brain, an adult’s brain has many fewer synapses. The Neonatal Period 17. The neonatal period refers to which of the following periods? a. the month prior to an infant’s birth b. the first month after birth c. the 3 months prior to birth d. the 3 months after birth Answer: b Rationale: The correct answer is (b) the first month after birth. The neonatal period refers to the first month of a baby's life after birth. This period is characterized by rapid physiological adjustments and adaptation to the extrauterine environment. 18. In contrast to how scientists working in earlier decades have conceptualized the neonatal period, scientists today understand that: a. how the infant “attaches” to its primary caregiver is of limited significance b. there is much more stress involved in the birth process than previously thought c. newborns are much more capable than had previously been thought d. newborn behaviors are controlled to a much greater degree by genetics than was previously thought Answer: c Rationale: Until the 1960s, it was thought that neonates were largely incapable of organized, self-directed behavior. Later research has shown that newborns’ capabilities had been grossly underestimated. We now know that neonates are capable of organized, predictable responses and of more complex cognitive activity than was once thought. 19. According to research conducted by Peter Wolff on arousal states in newborns, as newborns adjust to their new environment following birth, their arousal states become: a. more dramatic, with larger swings of energy between high and low states b. less positive and more negative c. more regular and predictable d. more irregular and dictated by specific environmental occurrences Answer: c Rationale: The correct answer is (c) more regular and predictable. Wolff's research suggests that newborns' arousal states become more organized and predictable as they adjust to their new environment, displaying clearer patterns of sleep-wake cycles and alertness. 20. Which of the following was NOT one of the six arousal states identified in newborns by Peter Wolff? a. crying b. thinking c. regular sleep d. irregular sleep Answer: b Rationale: The correct answer is (b) thinking. Peter Wolff identified six arousal states in newborns, which include crying, regular sleep, irregular sleep, drowsiness, alert inactivity, and waking. "Thinking" is not considered an arousal state in this context, as newborns' cognitive abilities are limited compared to older individuals. 21. Which of the following is NOT one of the arousal states of the infant described by Wolff (1966)? a. crying b. urinating c. drowsiness d. waking Answer: b Rationale: The correct answer is (b) urinating. Wolff identified arousal states such as crying, drowsiness, and waking among newborns, but urinating is not considered an arousal state. Arousal states pertain to the level of wakefulness or alertness, not physiological functions like urination. 22. In comparison to a newborn, a 4-month-old infant spends ____ time sleeping and ____ time in alert activity. a. less; more b. less; about the same amount of c. about the same amount of; less d. more; less Answer: a Rationale: At four months of age, infants typically spend less time sleeping and more time in alert activity compared to newborns. Newborns tend to sleep for longer durations, whereas by four months, infants start to become more active and alert during waking hours as their neurological development progresses. 23. Habituation is a form of: a. walking b. learning c. sleeping d. sensing Answer: b Rationale: Habituation is defined as a simple form of learning which allows people to ignore meaningless, repetitive stimuli in the environment. 24. While a carpenter was doing some remodeling in Kate's kitchen, her infant son cried from the hammering noise at first, but stopped responding to the noise after he got used to it. The son’s response is best thought of as an example of: a. habituation b. shaping c. stimulus generalization d. symbolic representation Answer: a Rationale: Habituation is defined as a simple form of learning which allows infants to ignore meaningless, repetitive stimuli in the environment. 25. Many students study in a room with a TV on or an iPod playing, completely tuned out to the sound of the music and voices. However, if their favorite artist’s name is mentioned, their attention shifts from their reading to the TV or iPod. This phenomenon is best considered to be an example of the basic principles that underlie: a. classical conditioning b. telegraphic thought c. overextension d. habituation Answer: d Rationale: Habituation is defined as a simple form of learning which allows people to ignore meaningless, repetitive stimuli in the environment. 26. What is the adaptive function of habituation? a. to associate the consequences of behavior with the responses they follow b. to enhance memory for new stimuli c. to ignore nonmeaningful stimuli d. to reduce anxiety in stressful situations Answer: c Rationale: Habituation is defined as a simple form of learning that allows people to ignore meaningless, repetitive stimuli in the environment. 27. Suppose that an experiment involves having neonates listen to tape recordings of their own mothers reading a story to them while they are sucking on a pacifier. At one point, the mother’s voice is changed to the voice of a stranger. Researchers look to see if the sucking pattern changes when the voice change occurs. The method used in this study is best considered to be an example of: a. the classical conditioning method b. the correlational method c. the habituation method d. the method of overextension Answer: c Rationale: In the habituation method, researchers study infant perceptual capabilities by habituating infants to certain stimuli, and then changing the stimuli and observing the infant’s response. 28. The Neonatal Behavioral Observation system is used to assess which of the following? a. general health and adjustment to the environment b. intelligence of infants and very young children c. the degree of attachment an infant has with the caregiver d. they style of attachment an infant has with the caregiver Answer: a Rationale: As noted in the textbook, the Neonatal Behavioral Observation system is a scale used to assess neurological functioning, behavioral capabilities, and social responsiveness of newborns. 29. Which of the following is NOT evaluated on the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale? a. response to stress b. quality of motor tone and activity level c. blood pressure and blood sugar d. capacity to habituate to external light and sound stimuli Answer: c Rationale: The Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) evaluates various aspects of a newborn's behavior, including response to stress, quality of motor tone and activity level, and capacity to habituate to external stimuli. However, blood pressure and blood sugar levels are not typically assessed using the NBAS. Physical and Motor Development 30. Suppose that you observe 1000 young children, recording the age at which each is first able to pick up a rattle and shake it. You now compute an average age at which this developmental milestone is reached by the “typical” child. Your work would be most similar to the work that is summarized in which of the following? a. the Newborn Behavioral Observation system b. the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale c. the Visual Cliff norms d. the Gesell Scales Answer: d Rationale: Gesell observed hundreds of infants and children, recording the details of when and how certain behaviors emerged, such as crawling, walking, running, picking up a small pellet, cutting with scissors, managing a pencil, or drawing human figures. On the basis of the resulting data, he compiled the first detailed reports of the capabilities of average children at different ages—the Gesell Scales. 31. If you argued that children all develop according to the same basic, biological schedule, you would be emphasizing the significance of which of the following concepts in guiding development? a. maturation b. assimilation c. accommodation d. equilibration Answer: a Rationale: Maturation is defined as developmental changes that are linked closely to biological events. Gesell observed that by knowing the age of a child, he could predict not only the child’s approximate height and weight but also what the child knew or could do. Consequently, Gesell concluded that most of a child’s achievements result from an internal biological timetable. Behavior, thus, emerges as a function of maturation. 32. The text discusses a study of Guatemalan infants, who were poorly nourished and not provided with much opportunity for interaction with adults. These infants were also observed to learn to walk at later ages than less-deprived children from other cultures. With respect to the concept of maturation, which of the following conclusions does this study support? a. Maturation is a biologically driven process. b. Maturation depends heavily on brain development. c. Maturation is somewhat dependent on environmental circumstances. d. Maturation has much more to do with culture than with biology. Answer: c Rationale: Gesell observed that by knowing the age of a child, he could predict not only the child’s approximate height and weight but also what the child knew or could do. Based on his research, Gesell concluded that most of a child’s achievements result from an internal biological timetable. Behavior, thus, emerges as a function of maturation. The finding that predictable differences were observed between the Guatemalan infants and less-deprived children suggests, however, that maturation is somewhat dependent on environmental circumstances. 33. A psychologist notes that brain development depends on having certain experiences, but also that brain development limits the type of experiences a child can have. This comment points out the basic idea behind the term: a. maturation b. interaction c. schema d. accommodation Answer: b Rationale: As described in Chapter 1, most development throughout the lifespan is a result of successive interactions between biology and experience. In general, it is not possible to categorize development as primarily biological or environmental; rather, it involves an ongoing, dynamic interplay between these two basic sets of causes. 34. If Andrew is a normal, healthy baby who weighed 8 pounds at birth, about how much would you expect him to weigh at age 4 months: a. 10 pounds b. 13 pounds c. 16 pounds d. 21 pounds Answer: c Rationale: By age 4 months, the typical infant weighs about twice as much as at birth. 35. In adulthood, a typical person’s head is about one-tenth of the person’s total body length. At birth, the head is about _________ of the newborn’s total body length. a. one-half b. one-third c. one-fourth d. one-sixth Answer: c Rationale: At birth, a newborn's head is proportionally larger compared to its body length than in adulthood. On average, a newborn's head constitutes about one-fourth of its total body length, reflecting the characteristic feature of neonates known as cephalocaudal growth. 36. All of the following behaviors are likely to be in place by the age of 4 months of age EXCEPT: a. smiling b. the visually guided reach c. the ability to visually focus on an object in the field of vision d. the ability to discriminate between the mother’s face and a stranger’s face Answer: b Rationale: The visually guided reach develops at about 5 to 6 months of age. Smiling is present by 4 months. By 3 to 4 months of age, babies can focus their eyes nearly as well as adults. Infants can discriminate between their mother’s face and a stranger’s face by as early as 2 weeks of age. 37. Suppose that the average weight of a 12-month-old baby is 23 pounds and 80% of 12-month-old babies weigh between 21 and 25 pounds. If the average weight of a 24-month-old baby is 33 pounds, between what weights should you expect 80% of 24-month-old babies to fall? a. between 32 and 34 pounds b. between 31 and 35 pounds c. between 30 and 36 pounds d. The answer cannot be determined from the information given in this question. Answer: c Rationale: As children get older, they become more variable in their growth patterns. Therefore the range of weights of 80% of the children will be wider at age 24 months than at age 12 months. 38. When an infant learns to coordinate looking at an object, grasping the object, and putting the object in her mouth, this process is called: a. accommodation b. assimilation c. maturation d. the visually guided reach Answer: d Rationale: Visually guided reach is a developmental milestone that occurs at about 5 to 6 months of age in which infants can combine reaching, grasping, mouthing, and perceiving into a smooth sequence. 39. In the United States, at about what age is the average child first able to sit without support, if placed in this position? a. age 4 months b. age 8 months c. age 10 months d. age 12 months Answer: b Rationale: On average, infants in the United States typically achieve the milestone of sitting without support at around 8 months of age. By this age, many infants have developed sufficient strength and balance to maintain a seated position independently. 40. In the United States, about what percent of 1-year-old infants are able to stand by themselves and take their first step? a. about 20% b. about 50% c. about 75% d. nearly 100% Answer: b Rationale: Approximately 50% of 1-year-old infants in the United States are able to stand by themselves and take their first steps. This milestone represents a significant stage in motor development, but it is not achieved by all infants at the same time or to the same extent. 41. Generalizing from research conducted by Karen Adolph, if you observed an 8-month-old infant and a 14-month-old infant attempt a somewhat dangerous motor task (such as climbing up a stair), which of these two infants should you expect to be more cautious and more aware of the risk? a. the 8-month-old infant would be more cautious b. the 14-month-old infant would be more cautious c. These two infants would be equally cautious, but the 8-month-old would be more aware of the risks involved. d. These two infants would be equally cautious, but the 14-month-old would be more aware of the risks involved. Answer: b Rationale: Adolph and her colleagues (e.g., Adolph et al., 2008) observed the capabilities of infants as they crawled or walked up and down “slopes” at varying angles. At age 8 1⁄2 months, infants typically charged up steep slopes, crawling without hesitation. Then, perhaps after surveying the downward side, they continued on headfirst, where most got into trouble and needed to be rescued by the experimenters. In contrast, 14-month-old “walkers” were better judges of risk; after walking up the steep slope, they changed strategies and carefully and safely slid down. The 14-month-olds were more cautious than the 8-month-olds. 42. Suppose that your friend’s child is typical. If he asks you when he should expect that his child will learn to ascend and descend stairs, you should note that most children in the United States learn to crawl up stairs at about age ___ and learn to crawl down stairs at about age ___. a. 11 months; 13 months b. 13 months; 11 months c. 12 months; 12 months d. 14 months; 10 months Answer: a Rationale: Although children learn to ascend and descend stairs at somewhat varying ages, they learn to crawl up stairs before they learn to crawl down. 43. You notice that little Charlie can now use his thumb and index finger to pick up small objects like marbles and cereal flakes. This ability is called the development of: a. the pincer grasp b. the visually guided reach c. the fundamental flexion reflex d. dynamic reach Answer: a Rationale: The pincer grasp refers to a fine motor skill that involves using the thumb and forefinger to “pinch” a small object. 44. At about what age do most children learn to use the “pincer grasp,” which allows them to use their thumb and forefinger to “pinch” a small object to pick it up? a. 6 months of age b. 12 months of age c. 18 months of age d. 24 months of age Answer: b Rationale: As noted in the textbook, the pincer grasp develops at about 12 months of age and refers to a fine motor skill that involves using the thumb and forefinger to “pinch” a small object. 45. Which of the following activities would an 8-month-old be LEAST likely to be able to do? a. pick up a quarter with one hand b. point at a nearby object c. pick up a stuffed toy d. clap two hands together Answer: a Rationale: Picking up a quarter involves the ability to use the pincer grasp, which emerges at about 12 months of age. All other tasks involve simpler motor skills that are in place by age 8 months. 46. Suppose you see a grandparent at the toy store buying a set of 5 “stacking” blocks, a box of large-size crayons, and a toy telephone. Based on this selection of toys, your best guess is that the child these toys are intended for is about how old? a. age 6 months b. age 12 months c. age 18 months d. age 24 months Answer: c Rationale: At 18 months, children may be stacking two to four cubes or blocks to build a tower, and they often manage to scribble with a crayon or a pencil. Their ability to feed themselves has improved considerably, and they may be able to partly undress themselves. Many of their actions imitate what they see others doing—“reading” a book, “sweeping” the floor, or where applicable, “chatting” on a toy telephone. 47. If Emily weighed 8 pounds at birth, about how much would you expect her to weigh at age 24 months? a. 32 pounds b. 40 pounds c. 60 pounds d. 72 pounds Answer: a Rationale: Typically, 2-year-olds weigh about 4 times what they did at birth. Since Emily was of average weight at birth, you would expect her to weigh four times her birth weight at age 2 years. 48. The child’s ability to categorize objects into groups that are similar (round shapes, square shapes, triangles, and so forth) begins to emerge at about what age? a. 1 year b. 18 months c. 2 years d. 3 years Answer: c Rationale: Around the age of 2 years, children typically start demonstrating the ability to categorize objects based on their similarities. This marks the beginning of their cognitive development in terms of classification and organization of information. 49. According to the text, the two nutritional deficiencies that are most common among children in the United States are deficiencies of: a. vitamin A and vitamin D b. vitamin D and calcium c. calcium and protein d. protein and iron Answer: d Rationale: The most common nutritional deficiencies among children in the United States are deficiencies of protein and iron. These deficiencies can lead to various health issues if not addressed through proper nutrition. 50. According to research presented in the text, about what percent of infants in low-income families in the U.S. suffer from iron deficiency anemia? a. about 1% b. 10 to 12% c. 20 to 24% d. 50 to 60% Answer: c Rationale: Research indicates that approximately 20 to 24% of infants in low-income families in the United States suffer from iron deficiency anemia. This condition can have significant consequences for the child's development and overall health if left untreated. 51. Around the world, about what percent of people suffer from either stunting or malnutrition? a. about 10% b. about 20% c. about 30% d. about 50% Answer: c Rationale: Globally, approximately 30% of people suffer from either stunting or malnutrition. This underscores the widespread prevalence of nutritional inadequacies and their impact on physical growth and development worldwide. 52. Suppose an anthropologist studies a culture in which adults have very poor diets and consequently are considerably shorter than would be expected. The word that describes this condition is: a. anorexia b. anemia c. kwashiorkor d. stunting Answer: d Rationale: Stunting refers to a failure to achieve full adult height due to malnutrition in childhood. 53. The term used to refer to a failure to achieve full adult height due to malnutrition during childhood is: a. plasticity b. marasmus c. kwashiorkor d. stunting Answer: d Rationale: Stunting is the term used to describe a failure to achieve full adult height due to chronic malnutrition during childhood. It results in impaired growth and development, both physically and cognitively, and can have long-lasting consequences for health and well-being. 54. The type of malnutrition that is caused by an insufficient total quantity of food and in which muscles waste away and stored fat is depleted is: a. anemia b. marasmus c. kwashiorkor d. stunting Answer: b Rationale: Marasmus is characterized by severe calorie deficiency, resulting in wasting of muscle tissue and depletion of fat stores. This condition occurs when there is an insufficient intake of both protein and calories over an extended period. 55. Children with marasmus most often have a diet that is deficient in: a. fats and carbohydrates b. carbohydrates and vitamin A c. protein and total calories d. iodine and other “trace” nutrients Answer: c Rationale: Marasmus refers to a type of malnutrition caused by an insufficient total quantity of food causing deficiencies in protein and in total calorie intake and eventually leading to muscles wasting away and stored fat being depleted. 56. Suppose that children raised in an orphanage in a war-torn region of the world have had far too little food to eat. As a consequence, they have little body fat and are very weak. This condition would best be described as an example of: a. marasmus b. stunting c. kwashiorkor d. anemia Answer: a Rationale: Marasmus refers to a type of malnutrition caused by an insufficient total quantity of food causing deficiencies in protein and in total calorie intake and eventually leading to muscles wasting away and stored fat being depleted. 57. Kwashiorkor results when a person’s diet contains too little: a. vitamin A b. calcium c. vitamin D d. protein Answer: d Rationale: Kwashiorkor is a form of severe acute malnutrition resulting from inadequate protein intake. It is characterized by edema (swelling), skin lesions, and other symptoms associated with protein deficiency. 58. The type of malnutrition that is caused by an insufficient amount of protein is called: a. anemia b. marasmus c. kwashiorkor d. stunting Answer: c Rationale: Kwashiorkor is specifically caused by inadequate protein intake. It is characterized by symptoms such as edema, skin lesions, and liver enlargement. 59. If blindness or severe visual impairment is the result of a nutritional deficiency, the most likely cause is a deficiency of: a. iron b. protein c. vitamin A d. iodine Answer: c Rationale: Vitamin A deficiency is a leading cause of blindness or severe visual impairment worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Adequate vitamin A is essential for maintaining healthy vision and preventing conditions like night blindness and xerophthalmia. 60. Goiter, a condition in which the thyroid gland is enlarged, is most often associated with a deficiency of which of the following nutrients? a. iron b. protein c. vitamin A d. iodine Answer: d Rationale: Goiter is primarily caused by iodine deficiency, which leads to an enlarged thyroid gland as the body tries to compensate for insufficient iodine for thyroid hormone synthesis. 61. Generalizing from the text’s discussion of malnutrition, you should conclude the most detrimental effect of starvation or severe malnutrition is on which of the following organs or organ systems? a. the gastrointestinal system b. the respiratory system c. the heart d. the brain Answer: d Rationale: If the duration of marasmus is short, no long-term negative effects result. In the first 3 years of life, the effects of kwashiorkor, however, can be highly damaging because brain development is directly affected. 62. A common result found in studies that investigate the effects of long-term malnutrition is that children often exhibit symptoms of __________ and parents often exhibit symptoms of ___________. a. depression; anxiety b. impulsiveness; depression c. depression; heart disease d. respiratory disease; heart disease Answer: b Rationale: In one study, for example, children in Barbados who were healthy at birth but malnourished during the first year of life were followed until age 11, at which time they showed a substantial academic deficit (Galler, 1984). What went wrong? In a careful follow-up study that used parent interviews, teacher reports, and observation of the children, two findings emerged: the children’s behavior was characterized by impulsiveness and attention deficit and their parents, most of whom had also been through periods of protein malnutrition, had low energy and symptoms of depression. 63. The process of shifting the infant’s diet from breast- or bottle-feeding to eating and drinking a wider variety of foods is referred to as: a. solidifying b. marasmus c. de-breasting d. weaning Answer: d Rationale: The textbook describes weaning as the process of shifting an infant’s diet from exclusively breast- or bottle-feeding to eating and drinking a wider variety of foods. 64. Breastfeeding, rather than bottle-feeding, improves infant mortality rates in: a. both developing and developed nations b. developing nations but not in developed nations c. developed nations but not in developing nations d. neither developing nor developed nations Answer: a Rationale: Breastfeeding provides numerous health benefits to infants, including protection against infections and diseases. This advantage applies to both developing and developed nations, contributing to lower infant mortality rates compared to bottle-feeding. 65. According to the text, in industrialized nations like the U.S., the most typical age at which foods other than milk are introduced into a child’s diet is: a. 3 to 4 months of age b. 8 to 9 months of age c. about age 1 year d. about 18 months of age Answer: a Rationale: In industrialized nations, including the U.S., complementary foods are typically introduced to a child's diet around 3 to 4 months of age, as recommended by pediatric guidelines. 66. Marcy comments that her son is having a hard time shifting from being breastfed to eating a wider array of strained and solid foods. The technical term for this shift is: a. marasmus b. dietary transition c. dietary assimilation d. weaning Answer: d Rationale: The textbook describes weaning as the process of shifting an infant’s diet from exclusively breast- or bottle-feeding to eating and drinking a wider variety of foods. Sensory and Perceptual Development 67. The process of converting information from the environment into neural impulses is called __________; the process of associating meaning with this information is called __________. a. perception; sensation b. sensation; perception c. translation; transduction d. transduction; sensation Answer: b Rationale: Sensation refers to the process of converting physical stimuli from the environment into neural signals, while perception involves the interpretation and organization of these signals to give them meaning. 68. The complex process by which the mind interprets sensory input is the text’s definition of: a. perception b. adaptation c. sensation d. habituation Answer: a Rationale: Perception refers to the mental process of interpreting and making sense of sensory information received from the environment. 69. Newborns focus best on objects at what distance? a. 1 to 2 inches away b. 7 to 10 inches away c. 24 to 30 inches away d. 36 to 48 inches away Answer: b Rationale: Newborns have a visual preference for objects that are approximately 7 to 10 inches away from their eyes, which coincides with the typical distance between a newborn and their caregiver's face during feeding and bonding interactions. 70. Immediately after birth, newborns focus most clearly on objects that are about how far away from their face? a. about 1 to 2 inches b. about 7 to 10 inches c. about 2 to 3 feet d. about 5 to 6 feet Answer: b Rationale: Newborns typically focus most clearly on objects that are approximately 7 to 10 inches away from their face, which coincides with the distance to their caregiver's face during feeding or bonding interactions. 71. Which of the following is true regarding the visual processes of a typical newborn? a. Newborns can’t see any color, so they see only in black and white. b. Newborns prefer to look at faces more than at complex, abstract pictures. c. Newborns cannot focus clearly on any object nearer to them than about 2 feet but their vision for distant objects is nearly as good as an adult’s would be. d. Newborns can see out of only one eye at a time, so their attention shifts between eyes. Answer: b Rationale: The textbook notes that classic research indicates that newborns prefer to look at patterns of moderate complexity. The textbook also presents research supporting the idea that infants are especially attentive to images of the human face. 72. Suppose you show a newborn infant a sequence of 3 cards, each with an image printed on it. The first card consists of a very simple image of a black circle. The second card contains an image of moderate complexity, showing two circles and two squares. The third card contains a highly complex image of several different objects of various shapes, each overlapping the others. Which of these three cards would you expect a newborn to pay attention to for the longest period of time? a. You should expect that the newborn will pay an equal amount of attention to each of the 3 cards. b. The newborn will pay most attention to the simple image. c. The newborn will pay most attention to image of moderate complexity. d. The newborn will pay most attention to the image of the greatest complexity. Answer: c Rationale: Research demonstrates that newborns prefer images of moderate complexity over those that are simple or complex. Thus, the newborn would be expected to look longest at the second card with the moderately complex image. 73. Suppose you show a newborn infant four photographs, one of his mother smiling, one of his mother making a fearful face, one of a stranger smiling, and one of a stranger making a fearful face. Which photograph should you expect the newborn to look at for the longest time? a. the smiling mother b. the fearful mother c. the smiling stranger d. the fearful stranger Answer: a Rationale: In one research study, when presented with pictures of their mother and an unfamiliar woman, even infants as young as 2 weeks of age preferred to look at their mother’s photo, and they sometimes turned completely away from the image of the stranger. Other research demonstrated that when newborns only a few days old were presented with pictures of a happy face and a fearful face, they looked longer at the happy face. Combining these findings, one would expect the newborn to look longest at the smiling mother. 74. If three babies of different ages were shown the same picture of a human face, you would expect that the 2-month-old baby would look longest at __________; the 5-month-old baby would look longest at the ___________; and the 8-month-old baby would look longest at ___________. a. the nose; the mouth; the eyes b. the entire face; the eyes; the eyebrows c. the mouth; the nose; the eyes d. the eyes; the mouth; the entire face Answer: d Rationale: Research demonstrates that at 2 months, infants look at internal features of the face, such as the eyes. By 5 months, they more often look at the mouth of a person who is talking, and by 6 to 7 months, they respond to whole facial expressions and can discriminate differing expressions, such as “happy” versus “fearful” (Lewkowitz & Hansen-Tift, 2012; C. A. Nelson & de Haan, 1996). 75. If a researcher is studying the “other race” effect, the research findings would suggest that: a. people have more trouble distinguishing among faces of people belonging to a racial group to which they have little exposure b. malnutrition is perceived to be more common among racial groups to which they have little exposure c. infants smile more at members of racial groups to which they have little exposure d. infants smile less at members of racial groups to which they have little exposure Answer: a Rationale: The “other race” effect refers to the finding that people, including infants, find it harder to distinguish among faces of people in unfamiliar racial groups than among faces of people in their own, more familiar racial group. 76. The finding that newborns prefer to look at pictures of their mother’s face over pictures of strangers’ faces suggests that these behaviors may be linked to the development of: a. stranger anxiety b. attachment c. visual perception d. visual sensation Answer: b Rationale: Newborns' preference for their mother's face suggests the development of attachment, as it indicates a recognition and preference for the primary caregiver, which is foundational to attachment formation. 77. The neurons that seem especially involved in imitation are called: a. reciprocal neurons b. interactive neurons c. mirror neurons d. empathetic neurons Answer: c Rationale: Mirror neurons are neurons that fire both when an individual performs an action and when they observe the same action being performed by another individual. This suggests their involvement in imitation and understanding others' actions. 78. If you were to record the activity of a mirror neuron, you should expect that it would act in the same way when we perform an action – such as picking up an objects – as when we: a. think about performing that action b. choose to not perform that action c. read about performing that action d. observe someone else perform that action Answer: d Rationale: Mirror neurons respond similarly when an individual performs an action and when they observe the same action being performed by someone else. This phenomenon supports the idea that mirror neurons are involved in understanding and imitating others' actions. 79. Scientists currently are speculating that defects in the mirror neuron system may be implicated in which of the following disorders: a. depression b. hyperactivity c. autism d. Down syndrome Answer: c Rationale: Deficits in the mirror neuron system are being investigated as a possible factor in autism spectrum disorders, given the social and behavioral difficulties characteristic of these conditions. 80. Which of the following types of cells is most likely to function as the basis for empathy? a. mirror neurons b. glial cells c. motor neurons d. sensory neurons Answer: a Rationale: Mirror neurons are considered a potential neural basis for empathy, as they are involved in understanding and mirroring others' actions and emotions, which are essential components of empathy. 81. Research suggests that newborn infants have difficulty in focusing both of their eyes on a single object. This inability to use both eyes would imply that newborns would also be limited in their ability to: a. process depth perception using monocular vision b. process depth perception using binocular vision c. perceive color d. perceive different shapes Answer: b Rationale: Binocular vision requires that both eyes focus on the same object. Because our eyes are in slightly different locations in our head, each eye sees the object from a slightly different perspective. Binocular vision involves processing this visual disparity in such a way that depth (or distance) is perceived. Monocular vision requires cues from only one eye, so the inability to focus both eyes at once would not be so much involved in perceiving depth. Color and different shape perception would not depend on using two eyes. 82. The visual cliff is used to test infants': a. memory b. habituation c. color discrimination d. depth perception Answer: d Rationale: A classic approach to assessing infants’ depth perception uses the “visual cliff” created by Eleanor Gibson and her colleagues (e.g., Gibson & Walk, 1960) to simulate depth. On one side of the horizontal surface, a heavy piece of glass covers a solid surface. On the other side, the glass is well above the floor, simulating a cliff. 83. Suppose you visit a child development laboratory and observe a researcher working with an 8-month-old baby. The baby is sitting on top of a piece of Plexiglas, which rests partly over a table top and then extends out over the end of the table. The apparatus being used in this experiment is typically called a: a. visual cliff b. binocular challenge c. visually guided grid d. perceptual challenge map Answer: a Rationale: A classic approach to assessing infants’ depth perception uses the “visual cliff” created by Eleanor Gibson and her colleagues (e.g., Gibson & Walk, 1960) to simulate depth. On one side of the horizontal surface, a heavy piece of glass covers a solid surface. On the other side, the glass is well above the floor, simulating a cliff 84. During the first few weeks of life, hearing is believed to be muffled because of: a. excess fluid and tissue in the middle ear b. an underdeveloped ear drum c. a lack of cartilage in the inner ear d. a lack of cartilage in the outer ear Answer: a Rationale: Newborns' hearing may be muffled initially due to the presence of excess fluid and tissue in the middle ear, which can impede the transmission of sound waves to the inner ear. 85. The way in which a newborn hears probably would be most like which of the following? a. a deaf adult who reads lips b. a deaf adult who uses sign language c. a hearing adult who has a bad head cold d. a hearing adult who is blind Answer: c Rationale: For the first few weeks, there is excess fluid and tissue in the middle ear, and hearing is believed to be muffled—similar to the way you hear if you have a head cold. 86. Which of the following abilities is the newborn infant capable of performing as early as the first week of life? a. making most of the sounds of the language in which he or she has heard prenatally b. distinguishing the smell of his or her mother from that of other women c. being able to grasp small objects by using the thumb and forefinger d. being able to see through closed eyelids how objects move about in this “dim” environment Answer: b Rationale: Research shows that as early as 4 days of age, infants can distinguish the smell of their mother from that of another woman, and they prefer her familiar scent. 87. Suppose you perform an experiment in which you allow a group of babies to suck on one of two different pacifiers. Some babies sucked on the one that was smooth and round and other babies sucked on the pacifier that had ridges on it and was oblong. Later, you show both pacifiers to the babies. Generalizing from similar research reported in the text, you would expect that the babies would look: a. longer at the pacifier that they had sucked on b. longer at the pacifier that was “new” c. equally long at both pacifiers d. at neither pacifier, since sucking on a “weird” pacifier was unpleasant for them Answer: a Rationale: The situation described in this question is essentially a replication of the classic experiment cited in the text by Meltzoff and Borton, 1979. 88. Suppose you perform an experiment in which you allow a group of babies to suck on one of two different pacifiers. Some babies sucked on the one that was smooth and round and other babies sucked on the pacifier that had ridges on it and was oblong. Later, you show both pacifiers to the babies and observe how long they look at each. An experiment such as this would most likely be performed to study which of the following topics? a. sensory integration b. classical conditioning c. habituation d. operant conditioning Answer: a Rationale: Sensory adaptation refers to combining the information gathered from different sensory channels—such as vision and touch—into coordinated perceptions. Cognitive Development 89. According to the text, the processes that include thinking, learning, perceiving, remembering, and understanding are together referred to as: a. metacognition b. cognition c. perception d. accommodation Answer: b Rationale: As defined, cognition is a set of interrelated processes through which we gain and use knowledge about our world. It includes thinking, learning, perceiving, remembering, and understanding—all processes central to our understanding of human nature. 90. According to Piaget, a mental category is called a: a. metacognition b. metacategory c. adapted category d. schema Answer: d Rationale: In Piaget's theory of cognitive development, a mental category is referred to as a schema, which represents a person's understanding or concept of a particular aspect of the world. 91. According to Piaget, an infant’s first schemes are built around: a. the basic reflexes present at birth b. sensory experiences early in life, such as hearing the mother’s voice c. concepts involving voluntary movement, such as picking up a rattle d. the infant’s production of language sounds, such as cooing and babbling Answer: a Rationale: Piaget posited that infants' first schemes, or mental representations of the world, are constructed around the basic reflexes present at birth, such as sucking and grasping. 92. Piaget's first period of cognitive development is usually called the: a. sensorimotor period b. concrete operational period c. formal operational period d. preoperational period Answer: a Rationale: Piaget's first period of cognitive development, occurring from birth to approximately 2 years old, is known as the sensorimotor period. This stage is characterized by the child's interactions with the environment primarily through sensory experiences and motor actions. 93. In Piaget's theory, the general process by which infant schemas are elaborated, modified, and developed is called: a. adaptation b. organization c. symbolic representation d. iteration Answer: a Rationale: Adaptation refers to the process by which individuals adjust to their environment through assimilation (interpreting new information in terms of existing schemas) and accommodation (adjusting existing schemas or creating new ones to fit new information). This process is fundamental to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, where infants continually adapt their schemas as they encounter new experiences. 94. If an infant has learned to push buttons on a toy to get it to make funny sounds, and now the toy is changed so that she must turn the buttons to the left or right to hear the sounds, the learning this requires would best be considered an example of: a. metacognition b. assimilation c. equilibration d. accommodation Answer: d Rationale: In Piaget’s theory, accommodation requires us to modify a schema in order to incorporate the new information. In this example, the infant must modify her schema for the toy in order to hear the sounds. 95. An infant is shown an interesting rattle and appears to like it. Then the mother places the rattle under a blanket. The infant appears to forget about the rattle completely. Which of the following is most likely true? a. The infant probably is older than 8 months. b. The infant probably is younger than 8 months. c. The infant had habituated to the rattle. d. The infant had not habituated to the rattle. Answer: b Rationale: Object permanence, according to Piaget, is the realization by infants beginning at about 8 months that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight. 96. Suppose you observe a researcher interacting with an infant by shaking a rattle while the baby is watching, and then placing the rattle underneath a pillow. The researcher then records whether or not the baby can find the rattle under the pillow. The concept this researcher is studying is most likely: a. assimilation b. accommodation c. object permanence d. deferred imitation Answer: c Rationale: Object permanence, according to Piaget, is the realization by infants beginning at about 8 months that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight. 97. When 16-month-old Simon was visiting his relatives, he observed his older cousin stomp his foot to the beat of music, something Simon had never seen before. The next day, when Simon heard music on the radio, he stomped his foot to the beat. Simon’s “foot stomping” behavior would best be considered an example of: a. object permanence b. mirror imaging c. symbolic representation d. deferred imitation Answer: d Rationale: Deferred imitation refers to imitating something that happened hours or even days earlier. 98. If Kelly sings into with a ketchup bottle, pretending it is a microphone, we would know that she is engaging in: a. assimilation b. accommodation c. overextension d. deferred imitation Answer: d Rationale: Deferred imitation refers to imitating something that happened hours or even days earlier. 99. Twenty-month-old Hannah pretended to drive a car by sitting in a clothes basket and making steering motions with her hands. Her behavior is best considered an example of: a. assimilation b. accommodation c. object permanence d. symbolic representation Answer: d Rationale: Symbolic representation refers to the use of a word, picture, gesture, or other sign to represent past and present events, experiences, and concepts. 100. According to the text, most researchers today believe that Piaget’s view of infant development was inaccurate in that young children are ______ competent than Piaget believed and they develop _______ than he thought. a. more; earlier b. more; later c. less; earlier d. less; later Answer: a Rationale: Most researchers today believe that young children are more competent than Piaget believed because they have a greater understanding of their environment and possess more cognitive abilities at earlier ages than Piaget proposed. Additionally, they develop certain skills, such as object permanence and theory of mind, earlier than Piaget thought. 101. The basic sounds in a language are referred to as: a. semantics b. morphemes c. syntax d. phonemes Answer: d Rationale: Phonemes are the basic units of sound in a language. They are the smallest distinct units of sound that can change the meaning of a word. For example, in English, the sounds /b/, /p/, and /m/ are distinct phonemes because changing one of these sounds in a word can change its meaning (e.g., bat, pat, mat). 102. Fiona is 12 months old. Although she is not yet producing words, she appears to understand some of the sentences that her parents say to her. Fiona is displaying ability in which of the following? a. productive language b. receptive language c. holophrastic speech d. overextension Answer: b Rationale: Receptive language refers to the repertoire of words and commands that a child understands, even though she or he may not be able to use them. 103. A child's understanding of the spoken or written word is called: a. receptive language b. productive language c. structural language d. referential language Answer: a Rationale: Receptive language refers to the ability to understand spoken or written language. It involves comprehension and interpretation of language input received from others. 104. All of the following terms refer to basic units of language EXCEPT: a. schemas b. morphemes c. syntax d. phonemes Answer: a Rationale: Schemas are cognitive frameworks or mental structures that help organize and interpret information. They are not specific to language but are rather broader cognitive constructs. Morphemes, syntax, and phonemes, on the other hand, are all basic units of language. 105. This term refers to how meaning is derived from words and sentences: a. semantics b. morphemes c. syntax d. phonemes Answer: a Rationale: Semantics refers to the study of meaning in language. It involves understanding how words and sentences convey meaning and how different words relate to one another in conveying information. 106. This term is used to describe the system of language involving phonemes, morphemes, semantics, and syntax: a. receptive language b. grammar c. productive language d. schemes Answer: b Rationale: Grammar encompasses the system of language, including phonology (phonemes), morphology (morphemes), syntax (sentence structure), semantics (meaning), and pragmatics (language use in context). It is the overarching term that describes the rules and structures governing language. 107. Infants begin cooing at approximately what age? a. 12 weeks b. 12 months c. 18 months d. 24 months Answer: a Rationale: Infants typically begin cooing, which involves making vowel-like sounds, around 12 weeks of age. Cooing is one of the earliest vocalizations produced by infants as they explore their vocal abilities. 108. A child typically has a vocabulary of about 50 words at which of the following ages? a. 6 months b. 12 months c. 18 months d. 24 months Answer: c Rationale: By around 18 months of age, most children typically have a vocabulary of about 50 words. This stage of language development is characterized by rapid vocabulary growth as children begin to acquire words at an accelerated pace. 109. The typical child begins to produce repeated syllables, such as “ga-ga-ga,” at about what age? a. 6 weeks b. 4 months c. 6 months d. 12 months Answer: c Rationale: The repetition of meaningless syllables, such as “ga-ga-ga,” is called babbling, and this emerges in the typical infant about age 6 months. 110. Which of the following statements is the most accurate description about babbling when infants are deaf? a. Deaf infants do not babble. b. Deaf infants babble early in infancy, but their babbling lessens significantly after about 6 months of age. c. Deaf infants babble, but their babbling begins much later than does babbling in babies who can hear at birth. d. Deaf infants babble in the same ways and at the same ages as do babies who can hear at birth. Answer: b Rationale: Research has shown that deaf infants do babble, but their babbling tends to be less varied and complex compared to hearing infants. They may babble early in infancy, but their babbling may 111. When a child produces a single word, such as bottle, it may mean a variety of things, such as “I want the bottle” or “there’s the bottle” or “I like the bottle.” This type of usage is referred to as: a. an adaptation b. holophrastic speech c. an overextension d. telegraphic speech Answer: b Rationale: Holophrastic speech occurs in the early stages of language acquisition and refers to the young child’s use of single words to convey complete thought. 112. Around the world, which of the following words would be most likely to be among the first words that infants would learn (translated into their own language, of course)? a. “TV” b. “UhOh” c. “Perfect” d. “Yes” Answer: b Rationale: "Uh-oh" is a common expression used in response to a mistake or accident, which infants may hear frequently in various contexts. It's simple, repetitive, and often accompanied by facial expressions or tone variations, making it memorable for infants as they start to grasp language. 113. When Sharma learns to speak, she uses the word “Puffie” to describe not only her own cat (whose name is Puffie) but also every cat she sees, including tigers at the zoo. Sharma’s language in this case demonstrates the principle of: a. overextension b. holophrasic speech c. telegraphic speech d. deferred imitation Answer: a Rationale: Overextension refers to the young child’s tendency to overgeneralize specific words, as when a child uses “Lassie” as the term for all dogs. 114. According to the text, the “language explosion” begins at about what age? a. 12 months b. 15 months c. 18 months d. 21 months Answer: d Rationale: The "language explosion" typically begins around 18 months, marked by a rapid increase in vocabulary and the ability to string words together into simple sentences. By 21 months, children typically exhibit significant language development. 115. Noam Chomsky’s term for an innate set of mental structures that aid children in language learning is: a. plasticity b. receptive language c. overextension d. language acquisition device Answer: d Rationale: Noam Chomsky coined the term "language acquisition device" (LAD) to refer to the hypothetical innate mental structures that facilitate the learning of language. This concept suggests that humans are born with an inherent capacity for language learning. 116. Dr. Franklin believes that all humans are born with a biological predisposition to develop language, and that a specific region in the brain is highly adapted for language learning. In this respect, Dr. Franklin’s view would emphasize the same central feature as which of the following concepts? a. deferred imitation b. language acquisition device c. overextension d. telegraphic speech Answer: b Rationale: According to Chomsky (1959), children are preprogrammed to learn language because they are born with a cognitive structure, called a language acquisition device, especially developed for this task. This structure enables children to process linguistic information and “extract” rules with which they create language; that is, when children hear people talk, their brains are prewired to acquire the words and rules of the language to which they are exposed. 117. The fact that sometimes deaf children begin to “babble” with their hands, making up a sign language even if they have not been taught to do so, emphasizes the basic idea advanced in: a. deferred imitation b. assimilation c. overextension d. language acquisition device Answer: d Rationale: According to Chomsky (1959), children are preprogrammed to learn language because they are born with a cognitive structure, called a language acquisition device (LAD), especially developed for this task. This structure enables children to process linguistic information and “extract” rules with which they create language; that is, when children hear people talk, their brains are prewired to acquire the words and rules of the language to which they are exposed. In early development, deaf babies babble just like hearing babies do, indicating that babbling is not the result of imitation or reinforcement but rather is biologically programmed. 118. According to the text, what does the FOXP2 gene appear to do? a. It allows people to hear “tonal” differences that are important in some languages, such as Chinese and Japanese. b. It causes developmental speech and language disorders in humans. c. It produces an acceleration in the rate at which some people can learn vocabulary. d. It causes deafness. Answer: b Rationale: The FOXP2 gene is associated with developmental speech and language disorders in humans. Mutations in this gene have been linked to difficulties in speech production and language comprehension. 119. According to research presented in the text, if you compared the language acquisition patterns of children raised in poverty to those of children raised by middle-income parents, you would expect that the children raised in poverty would: a. have smaller vocabularies b. babble about 3 months later c. utter their first words about 3 months later d. be much more likely to use telegraphic speech, and for a longer period of time Answer: a Rationale: Research cited in the text found that compared to children from middle-income professional families, children from families on welfare were found to develop basic language skills and structures in much the same way and at the same time. However, children from middle-income homes had much larger vocabularies as the result of their parents spending almost twice as much time talking to them. Changing Perspectives: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Shaken Baby Syndrome 120. In Europe and the United States today, the infant mortality rate is about: a. 3.7% b. 1. 7% c. 0.7% d. 0.07% Answer: c Rationale: The text notes that the infant mortality rate in Europe and the United States today is about 7 in every 1000 live births, which yields a mortality rate of 0.7%. 121. The leading cause of deaths in infants between the ages of 1 month and 1 year of age in the United States is: a. shaken baby syndrome b. protein deficiency c. respiratory problems d. sudden infant death syndrome Answer: d Rationale: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the leading cause of death in infants between the ages of 1 month and 1 year in the United States. It is characterized by the sudden, unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant during sleep. 122. The text notes that the rate of infant deaths from sudden infant death syndrome is higher in the winter months than the summer months, suggesting that SIDS may be the result of: a. problems in regulating body temperature among vulnerable infants b. infections c. child abuse, which is also higher during winter months d. a genetic defect Answer: b Rationale: Infections may play a role in SIDS deaths. A disproportionately large number of SIDS babies have infections just prior to their deaths, and more SIDS deaths are reported in the winter months when infections are more common. 123. According to the text, if your goal were to minimize the risk of sudden infant death syndrome, you would advise caregivers to put their infants to sleep in which of the following positions? a. on their stomach b. on their back c. on their right side d. propped in a slightly “sitting up” position with the head elevated above the feet Answer: b Rationale: To minimize the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), caregivers are advised to place infants on their back to sleep. This sleep position has been associated with a decreased risk of SIDS compared to stomach sleeping. 124. The most severe effects from shaken baby syndrome typically result from injury to: a. the spinal cord b. the brain c. the lungs d. the heart Answer: b Rationale: Death or, in less severe cases, brain injury results when an infant is shaken with enough force that the baby’s brain bounces against the skull, causing it to swell, bruise, and bleed. Current Issues: Cats, Horses and Tight Fits – Is Language Involved in Category Formation? 125. The text describes a study in which infants were shown pictures of several different horses. Then they were shown a picture of a different horse and a picture of a different animal, such as a giraffe. What were the results of this study? a. The infants learned the word “horse” faster than they learned the word “giraffe.” b. The infants learned the word “giraffe” faster than they learned the word “horse.” c. The infants looked longer at the picture of the horse than the picture of the giraffe. d. The infants looked longer at the picture of the giraffe than the picture of the horse. Answer: d Rationale: The study suggests that infants looked longer at the picture of the novel animal (giraffe) compared to the familiar animal (horse), indicating that they were more interested in the unfamiliar stimulus. This preference for novelty is a common phenomenon observed in infant cognition studies. 126. The text describes a study in which infants were shown pictures of several different horses. Then they were shown a picture of a horse and a picture of a different animal, such as a giraffe. What research technique did this study employ to determine how infants learn to categorize objects? a. classical conditioning b. reinforcement c. habituation d. punishment Answer: c Rationale: In the habituation method, researchers study infant perceptual capabilities by habituating infants to certain stimuli, and then changing the stimuli and observing the infant’s response. In this study, the question was whether the infant would spend more time looking at the horse or the “new” animal to determine if the infants had formed a category of horses. If the infants had formed the horse category, the researchers reasoned that habituation would have occurred through the six previous trials; therefore, the infants’ attention would be drawn to the new kind of animal. 127. An experiment was described in the text in which English and Korean babies and adults learned to distinguish between a “loose-fitting” and a “tight-fitting” cylinder and between cylinders that were placed “inside” or “on top of” each other. The results of this study were that: a. adults learned both distinctions much faster than babies learned them b. babies learned both distinctions much faster than adults learned them c. English-speaking adults learned the unfamiliar “loose-fitting” versus “tight-fitting” distinction more easily than babies d. babies from both cultures learned the “loose-fitting” versus “tight-fitting” distinction more easily than English-speaking adults who were unfamiliar with this distinction Answer: d Rationale: This experiment was presented to demonstrate the idea that infants are busy finding the regularities in their perceptual world and forming concepts long before they learn the labels that language provides. Thus, the task was hardest for the adults who had to learn this distinction, which is common in Korean languages but unfamiliar to English-speaking adults. True-False questions: The Developing Brain 128. The size of the human brain does not change across the lifespan; the size of one’s brain at birth is the size that his or her brain will be as an adult. Answer: False Rationale: At birth, the human brain weighs about 25% of its adult weight. By age 1, it has grown to about 70% of its adult weight; by age 3, the brain has grown to 90% of its adult weight. 129. In Mark Rosenzweig’s study of rats raised in enriched versus impoverished environments, the results suggest that environmental stimulation is important to healthy brain development. Answer: True Rationale: Rosenzweig's study indeed showed that rats raised in enriched environments, with more stimuli and opportunities for exploration, had thicker cerebral cortices and performed better on various learning tasks compared to rats raised in impoverished environments. This indicates the significant impact of environmental stimulation on brain development. The Neonatal Period 130. According to the text, the key to developing a more accurate understanding of infants’ capabilities is to develop more effective ways of understanding their behavior. Answer: True Rationale: Understanding infants' capabilities heavily relies on interpreting their behavior accurately. By developing more effective methods for understanding their behavior, researchers can gain deeper insights into infants' cognitive and developmental processes. 131. Suppose an infant is shown the same picture of a cow over and over again. Eventually the infant grows tired of looking at the picture. Now, the infant is shown a picture of an elephant, and she stares intently at this “new” picture. The procedure used in this demonstration would best be considered to be an example of classical conditioning. Answer: False Rationale: This situation is a good example of how habituation studies are performed. This is not an example of classical conditioning, since there is no unconditioned stimulus (reflex) that produces an unconditioned response. 132. The Newborn Behavioral Observation system is usually used to assess the health of a newborn child. Answer: True Rationale: The Newborn Behavioral Observation (NBO) system is commonly employed to assess the behavioral and neurological responses of newborn infants, which can provide valuable insights into their health and well-being shortly after birth. Physical and Motor Development 133. To say that a developmental process is heavily influenced by maturation means that it is heavily influenced by environmental circumstances. Answer: False Rationale: Maturational processes are biologically driven. Although environmental circumstances can influence maturational processes, the major force behind these changes is biological growth and development. 134. The harm done to babies who are subjected to shaken baby syndrome usually results from injury to the lungs and the kidneys. Answer: False Rationale: Shaken baby syndrome usually involves injury to the brain and the spinal cord, since the baby’s muscles are not yet well developed and even moderate shaking can produce injury to these organs. 135. Suppose you observe a baby focus his eyes on a rattle being held in front of him, and then he moves his arm and hand out and grasps the rattle, taking it from the person holding it. This series of actions is a good example of the visually guided reach. Answer: True Rationale: A visually guided reach involves the coordination of visual attention with motor actions, such as reaching for and grasping an object. In the described scenario, the baby focuses on the rattle visually before reaching out and grasping it, demonstrating a visually guided reach. 136. By their 2nd birthday, typical toddlers will weigh about 8 times what they weighed at birth. Answer: False Rationale: At age 2, the typical child weighs about 4 times the birth weight. 137. In developing nations around the world, malnutrition affects about 50% of children under the age of 5. Answer: True Rationale: Malnutrition remains a significant issue in many developing nations, with approximately half of children under the age of 5 experiencing its detrimental effects on health and development. This statistic underscores the widespread impact of malnutrition in these regions. 138. In developing nations around the world, about 50 percent of the deaths of children under the age of 5 are associated with malnutrition. Answer: False Rationale: UNICEF reported in 2012 that malnutrition contributes to about one-third of child deaths in these nations. 139. Several world health organizations and the Surgeon General of the United States all recommend that women breastfeed their infants if possible. Answer: True Rationale: Breastfeeding is widely recommended by health organizations, including the World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Academy of Pediatrics, due to its numerous health benefits for both infants and mothers. The Surgeon General of the United States has also emphasized the importance of breastfeeding for promoting optimal infant health. 140. In Western nations, most mothers begin weaning their babies at about 8 to 9 months of age. Answer: False Rationale: According to the text, the age at which infants in Western settings begin to be fed strained foods is about age 4 months, although some women do continue to breastfeed for a much longer period. Sensory and Perceptual Development 141. At birth, the newborn’s ability to see colors is equal to that of an adult. Answer: False Rationale: Although newborns can discriminate some bright colors at birth, by 2 months they can discriminate among most colors. Their color vision appears to be similar to adult color vision by about age 6 months. 142. As early as 2 weeks of age, infants show a preference for looking at a photo of their mother as opposed to looking at a photo of a stranger. Answer: True Rationale: Research indicates that infants as young as 2 weeks old demonstrate a preference for familiar faces, particularly their mothers, over unfamiliar faces. This early preference for the mother's face suggests an innate predisposition for social bonding and attachment. 143. Research demonstrates that shortly after birth, newborns are able to imitate the facial expressions of adults, such as sticking out the tongue, pursing the lips, opening the mouth. Answer: True Rationale: Studies have shown that newborns possess the ability to imitate various facial expressions shortly after birth, indicating an early capacity for social learning and interaction. This ability to mimic facial gestures contributes to the establishment of social bonds between infants and caregivers. 144. Mirror neurons respond in the same way to performing an action as to watching that action he performed by others. Answer: True Rationale: Mirror neurons are a type of neuron that fires both when an individual performs an action and when they observe the same action being performed by another individual. This mirroring effect suggests a neural mechanism underlying empathy, imitation, and social learning in humans. 145. Although infants have no sense of taste and smell at birth, by age 2 months these senses are functioning at the adult level. Answer: False Rationale: According to the text, the senses of taste and smell are fully operational at birth. 146. By studying the results of experiments such as those that use the visual cliff apparatus, scientists generally conclude that children’s perceptual abilities develop somewhat in advance of their understanding of risks associated with certain actions. For example, a child typically develops the ability to perceive depth before she understands that crawling out on the “cliff” side of the visual cliff is dangerous. Answer: True Rationale: Experiments like those involving the visual cliff apparatus indicate that children's perceptual abilities, such as depth perception, often develop before their understanding of associated risks. Although a child may perceive depth, they may not necessarily comprehend the danger of certain actions, highlighting a developmental gap between perception and cognitive understanding. 147. At birth, newborns are unable to feel pain, which makes procedures like circumcision painless to the child. Answer: False Rationale: Newborns do feel pain, causing some parents and physicians to question the wisdom of pain-inducing practices like circumcision. Cognitive Development 148. According to Piaget, a scheme is a mental structure much like a category. Answer: True Rationale: Piaget described schemes as mental structures or frameworks that organize and interpret information. These schemes are similar to categories in that they help individuals make sense of the world by grouping similar objects, actions, or ideas together. 149. Adaptation is much more effective if it consists of accommodation, rather than assimilation. Answer: False Rationale: Adaptation advances when there is a balance between assimilation and adaptation. 150. Suppose you wave an attractive rattle in front of an infant. The infant reaches out to grasp the rattle, but instead you “hide” it under a pillow sitting in front of the infant. Now the infant acts as if the rattle no longer exists. This example demonstrates the concept Piaget called object permanence. Answer: True Rationale: Piaget's concept of object permanence refers to the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible or detectable by the senses. In the described scenario, when the infant no longer sees the rattle, they act as if it no longer exists, indicating a lack of understanding of object permanence. 151. According to Piaget, the process of imitation requires the infant to have achieved a symbolic level of representation. Answer: True Rationale: Piaget proposed that imitation involves the ability to mentally represent actions symbolically, meaning that the infant can mentally represent and understand the actions of others. This symbolic representation is necessary for the infant to imitate behaviors observed in others. 152. Most researchers today believe that Piaget was too optimistic about the speed with which infants develop, since many developmental processes, such as object permanence and symbolic representation, appear to emerge at ages considerable later than Piaget prescribed. Answer: False Rationale: Most researchers today believe that children actually develop earlier than Piaget described. Language Development 153. All human languages have the same basic set of sounds, or phonemes, which are arranged in various ways to form words. Answer: False Rationale: All languages have phonemes, which are the basic sounds of the language, but different languages contain somewhat different phonemes. 154. Before children can produce a complex sentence, they are likely to be able to understand complex sentences. Answer: True Rationale: Language comprehension typically precedes language production in children's development. Before children are able to produce complex sentences themselves, they often demonstrate an understanding of complex sentence structures when they hear or read them, indicating their comprehension abilities. 155. Although language development ultimately ends with the ability to produce and understand language, children raised in different cultures proceed through the stages of language development is widely varying sequences. For example, English-speaking children learn to coo before they babble, but children raised in China babble before they coo. Answer: False Rationale: Although culture can influence the pace of language development, the basic stages of language development are invariant. All children learn to coo before they learn to babble. 156. Infants who are deaf do not engage in the vocalizations referred to as babbling, making it very difficult for them to learn sign language. Answer: False Rationale: Deaf babies babble vocally the same way that hearing babies babble in the early months of life; however, vocal babbling usually lessens significantly beginning at about 6 months of age. 157. Research demonstrates that many of the first words children learn are quite consistent from one culture to another, even though languages children use differ. Answer: True Rationale: Despite differences in language and culture, research has shown that children's early vocabulary development often follows similar patterns across different cultures. Many of the first words children learn tend to be related to objects, actions, and relationships that are universally important to human experience, contributing to the consistency observed in early word acquisition. 158. When a child says something like “I have two foots” (rather than feet), this is called telegraphic speech. Answer: False Rationale: This is an example of overgeneralization of rules to specific examples. Telegraphic speech refers to the young child’s use of only a few words to convey a more complex meaning. An example would be: “Mommy do!” to indicate that the child would like his mother to help him put on his shoes. 159. In studies that compare children raised in middle-income homes with those raised in families on welfare, the typical result is that middle-income children learn language in the same way, but have a larger vocabulary. Answer: True Rationale: Studies comparing language development in children from different socioeconomic backgrounds often find that while the basic language learning process is similar across groups, children from more affluent backgrounds tend to have larger vocabularies due to greater exposure to language-rich environments, resources, and opportunities for verbal interaction. Short Answer questions: The Developing Brain 160. Define the term “plasticity” as it refers to the development of the nervous system. Answer: Plasticity, in the context of nervous system development, refers to the brain's ability to reorganize itself by forming new neural connections throughout life. It encompasses processes such as synaptic pruning, where weak or unused connections are eliminated, and synaptic growth, where new connections are formed in response to experiences and learning. 161. Mark Rosenzweig conducted an experiment in which rats were raised in either an enriched or an impoverished environment. Briefly describe the results of this study. Answer: In Rosenzweig's experiment, rats raised in enriched environments with toys, ladders, and social interaction showed increased cortical thickness, heavier brains, and greater synaptic connections compared to rats raised in impoverished environments with minimal stimulation. This study highlighted the significant impact of environmental enrichment on brain structure and function. 162. How does the number of synapses in the brain compare at age 2 or 3 to the number present in adulthood? What does this difference imply about how the brain develops? Answer: At age 2 or 3, the brain typically has more synapses than in adulthood. Synaptic density peaks around this age and then gradually decreases through a process called synaptic pruning. This difference implies that during early childhood, the brain undergoes extensive refinement and organization, eliminating weaker or unused connections while strengthening and consolidating important ones, ultimately optimizing neural circuits for efficient processing. The Neonatal Period 163. Give an example of how the development of a new method of study has expanded what we know about infant behavior and/or cognition. Answer: The use of eye-tracking technology has revolutionized our understanding of infant behavior and cognition. Researchers can now precisely track where infants look and for how long, providing insights into their visual preferences, attentional processes, and early cognitive abilities. For example, studies using eye-tracking have shown that infants as young as a few months old demonstrate preferences for faces, complex patterns, and social stimuli, shedding light on the early development of social cognition. 164. Give an example of what is meant by the term “habituation” and suggest how researchers can use this type of early learning to study developmental abilities present in the newborn. Answer: Habituation refers to the process by which an organism becomes less responsive to a repeated stimulus over time. In the context of newborns, researchers often use habituation paradigms to study their perceptual and cognitive abilities. For instance, a newborn might initially show interest in a novel visual stimulus, but with repeated exposure, they habituate to it, displaying decreased attention or arousal. By measuring habituation rates and recovery to new stimuli, researchers can assess newborns' sensory discrimination, memory capabilities, and attentional processes, providing valuable insights into early developmental abilities. 165.Identify 4 different abilities that are assessed by the Newborn Behavioral Observation system. Answer: 1. Self-regulation: This ability involves the newborn's capacity to manage their arousal levels, such as maintaining a state of calmness or alertness in response to various stimuli. It encompasses behaviors like self-soothing, ability to fall asleep, and control over bodily functions like breathing and heart rate. 2. Motor organization: Motor organization refers to the infant's ability to coordinate and control their movements. This includes observing the newborn's reflexes, muscle tone, and voluntary movements such as reaching, grasping, and kicking. 3. State organization: State organization assesses the newborn's patterns of sleep, wakefulness, and transitional states between these states. It involves observing how the infant transitions between states, the duration and quality of sleep, and the responsiveness to external stimuli during different states. 4. Responsiveness to social and non-social stimuli: This ability evaluates how the newborn responds to both social cues, such as human faces and voices, and non-social stimuli, such as sounds and lights. It includes assessing the infant's ability to orient towards stimuli, maintain attention, and exhibit social behaviors like smiling or vocalizing.Physical and Motor Development 166. Define the term “maturation” and give an example of a developmental process that is heavily influenced by maturation. Answer: Maturation refers to the biological process of growth and development that unfolds naturally over time, guided by genetic factors and internal biological mechanisms. It involves the progressive unfolding of physical, cognitive, and emotional abilities according to a predetermined sequence. An example of a developmental process heavily influenced by maturation is the acquisition of language skills in infants. While environmental factors such as exposure to language and social interaction play a role, the ability to understand and produce language follows a relatively predictable sequence that is largely determined by maturation of the brain's language centers. 167. Identify 2 changes that occur in body shape and proportion that occur between the ages of 4 months and 24 months of age. Answer: 1. Growth in height: Between 4 months and 24 months of age, infants undergo significant growth in height. This growth contributes to the elongation of their limbs and overall increase in stature as they progress from infancy to toddlerhood. 2. Proportional changes in body mass: During this period, there is a shift in body proportions as the infant's body becomes more proportionate. Initially, infants have relatively larger heads and shorter limbs, but as they grow, the proportions of their body parts become more balanced. 168. Why is it that babies are more likely to suffer muscle injuries than broken bones during their first year of life? Answer: Babies are more likely to suffer muscle injuries than broken bones during their first year of life primarily because their bones are still relatively soft and flexible compared to older children and adults. Additionally, infants' muscles are often not yet fully developed, which can make them more susceptible to strains and tears. The rapid growth and development experienced during infancy can also contribute to muscle injuries as their bodies adapt to increasing motor demands. 169. Give an example of how an infant would use the visually guided reach and another example for how she would use the pincer grasp. Answer: 1. Visually guided reach: An infant might use visually guided reach to grasp a toy that they see within their reach. They will visually track the object and coordinate their arm movements to accurately reach and grasp it. 2. Pincer grasp: An example of the pincer grasp is when an infant picks up a small object, such as a cheerio or a piece of cereal, between their thumb and index finger. This grasp allows for more precise manipulation of small objects and is a milestone in fine motor development. 170. Describe 3 motor behaviors that the typical 18-month-old child can do that a 12-month-old child most likely cannot do. Answer: 170. At 18 months, typical motor behaviors include walking independently, climbing stairs with support, and scribbling with a crayon. These skills typically develop between 12 and 18 months, showing significant advancement in gross and fine motor abilities. 171. What kind of malnutrition is probably most common in the United States today? Answer: In the United States today, micronutrient malnutrition is likely the most common type. Despite overall caloric sufficiency, deficiencies in vitamins and minerals such as vitamin D, iron, and calcium are prevalent due to poor dietary choices or inadequate intake of nutrient-rich foods. 172. Identify 3 advantages associated with breastfeeding as opposed to bottle-feeding. Answer: Breastfeeding offers several advantages over bottle-feeding, including optimal nutrition tailored to the baby's needs, antibodies passed from mother to child for enhanced immunity, and convenient availability without the need for preparation or sterilization of bottles and nipples. Sensory and Perceptual Development 173. What is the fundamental difference between sensation and perception? Answer: The fundamental difference between sensation and perception lies in their processes. Sensation involves the detection of sensory stimuli by sensory receptors and transmission of this information to the brain, while perception is the interpretation and organization of these sensory inputs to form meaningful experiences and understanding of the world. 174. Describe 3 ways that the vision experienced by a 4-month-old differs from that of a newborn. Answer: At four months, a baby's vision differs from that of a newborn in several ways: they demonstrate improved visual acuity, allowing them to focus on objects farther away; they develop depth perception, enabling them to perceive distances accurately; and they begin to exhibit better tracking abilities, following moving objects with more precision compared to newborns. 175. Suppose you show a photograph of a human face to 3 infants: one is 2 months old, one is 5 months old, and the third is 8 months old. What part of the photograph would you expect each child to look at for the longest periods of time? Answer: The 2-month-old infant would likely focus on the outer features of the face, such as the outline of the head or the hairline. The 5-month-old might pay attention to the eyes and mouth, as they begin to recognize facial expressions. The 8-month-old, being more socially aware, would probably concentrate on the eyes and mouth as well, but also on other facial details like wrinkles or subtle expressions. 176. Describe the function of mirror neurons and suggest how they may be involved in empathy. Answer: Mirror neurons are brain cells that activate both when an individual performs an action and when they observe the same action performed by another. They are believed to play a crucial role in understanding and imitating others' behaviors. In terms of empathy, mirror neurons may enable individuals to simulate the emotions, intentions, and sensations of others, facilitating the understanding of their experiences and fostering empathetic responses. For example, when we see someone experiencing pain, mirror neurons may fire, allowing us to resonate with their feelings and respond with compassion. 177. Define the term “sensory integration” and give an example of what is meant by this term. Answer: Sensory integration refers to the process by which the brain organizes and interprets sensory information from the environment to produce appropriate responses. It involves integrating sensory inputs such as touch, sight, sound, taste, and smell to form a coherent perception of the world. An example of sensory integration is when a child plays with building blocks: they use tactile information (touch) to feel the texture and shape of the blocks, visual information (sight) to perceive their colors and patterns, and proprioceptive information (sensations from muscles and joints) to control their movements while building structures. Cognitive Development 178. Define the term “scheme” (or “schema”) as Piaget used this concept. Answer: In Piaget's theory of cognitive development, a scheme (or schema) refers to a mental framework that organizes and interprets information about the world. Schemes are the basic building blocks of intelligent behavior and represent the child's understanding of concepts, objects, actions, and events. They evolve and become more sophisticated as children interact with their environment and acquire new knowledge. 179. Suppose a child has a well-developed schema for “cats.” Now you show the child a picture of a tiger. If the child assimilates the instance of the tiger into his schema for cats, how will he categorize the tiger? How would the child’s response differ if the process of accommodation was used? Answer: If the child assimilates the tiger into his schema for cats, he would likely categorize the tiger simply as another type of cat, possibly a "big cat." However, if the child engages in accommodation, he would recognize that the tiger possesses distinct features and behaviors that differentiate it from domestic cats. In this case, the child might create a new or modified schema for tigers, acknowledging their unique characteristics such as size, stripes, and habitat. 180. Give an example of behavior that would demonstrate that a child had not yet acquired the concept of object permanence. Answer: A classic example demonstrating the lack of object permanence in a child would be if the child visibly loses interest or becomes distressed when a caregiver or a toy disappears from sight, as they do not understand that the object still exists even when it's out of their view. 181. Give two examples of the concept of symbolic representation, as Piaget used this term to describe cognitive development. Answer: One example of symbolic representation is when a child uses a stick to represent a sword while playing make-believe. Another example is when a child uses words to represent objects or concepts, such as saying "doggy" to refer to a dog. 182. Give an example of receptive language and an example of productive language. Which usually develops first? Answer: An example of receptive language is a baby responding to their parent's voice by turning their head toward the sound. An example of productive language is a toddler saying "milk" when they want some milk. Receptive language usually develops before productive language. 183. Describe babbling, telegraphic speech, and cooing, and identify the order in which these three language abilities develop. Answer: Babbling refers to the repetitive consonant-vowel combinations infants make as they explore language sounds. Cooing is the early vowel sounds infants make, often expressing pleasure. Telegraphic speech involves using short, simple phrases to communicate, typically omitting non-essential words. Generally, cooing develops first, followed by babbling, and then telegraphic speech. 184. Give an example of holophrastic speech and suggest what the existence of this type of speech suggests about how language and thought are related to each other. Answer: An example of holophrastic speech is a toddler saying "milk" to mean "I want some milk." This type of speech suggests that language and thought are closely related and that early language development involves the use of single words to convey complex meanings, indicating an early understanding of symbolic representation and communication. 185. Give an example of an overextension in children’s speech and suggest what the existence of this type of speech suggests about language development. Answer: An example of overextension in children's speech is when a child calls all four-legged animals "doggie," including cats, cows, and even horses. This suggests that children initially generalize language rules broadly, indicating a phase where they are learning to categorize and understand the nuances of language. 186. What is the “language explosion” and when does it typically occur? Answer: The "language explosion" refers to a rapid increase in a child's vocabulary and grammatical complexity that typically occurs around 18 to 24 months of age. During this time, children experience significant growth in their ability to understand and produce language. 187. Give an example of how imitation and reinforcement play a role in language acquisition. Answer: An example of how imitation and reinforcement play a role in language acquisition is when a child learns new words by mimicking the speech of their caregivers and receives positive reinforcement, such as smiles or praise, when they use those words correctly in context. 188. Give an example that demonstrates that language acquisition is more complex than simple imitation and reinforcement would imply. Answer: Despite the importance of imitation and reinforcement, language acquisition involves more than mere repetition and reward. For instance, children often produce sentences they have never heard before, indicating that they are capable of generating novel linguistic structures rather than just imitating what they hear. 189. What is the language acquisition device (LAD)? What evidence suggests that language learning is tied to brain development? Answer: The Language Acquisition Device (LAD) is a theoretical construct proposed by Noam Chomsky, suggesting that humans are born with an innate capacity to learn and produce language. Evidence supporting this idea includes the universality and consistency of language development milestones across cultures, as well as neurological studies showing that language processing areas in the brain exhibit specialization and activity patterns consistent with language learning. Essay questions: The Developing Brain 190. Describe how the brain changes from birth to age 2 years. What changes occur in the size of the brain, in the number of neurons, and in the interconnections among neurons? Answer: During the first two years of life, the brain undergoes rapid growth and development. The size of the brain increases substantially, nearly tripling in weight by age 2. This growth is primarily due to an increase in the number of neurons as well as the growth and branching of dendrites and axons, which form connections between neurons. At birth, the brain already contains most of the neurons it will ever have, but the connections among these neurons continue to develop and strengthen through synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning. This process results in a highly interconnected network of neurons, allowing for the efficient transmission of signals within the brain. 191. Define the term “plasticity” as it related to brain development and suggest how this concept helps explain why young children often experience good recovery from even catastrophic brain injuries. Answer: Plasticity refers to the brain's ability to adapt and reorganize in response to experiences, environmental influences, and injury. During development, the brain exhibits a high degree of plasticity, allowing it to modify its structure and function based on the stimulation it receives. This concept helps explain why young children often experience good recovery from brain injuries. Due to their developing brains, children have a greater capacity for neural reorganization and repair compared to adults. In the event of a brain injury, remaining healthy brain tissue can take on the functions of damaged areas, and neural pathways can be rerouted to compensate for the injury, facilitating recovery. 192. Generalizing from studies with animals, how would you expect the brain of a 4-year-old raised in a middle-income home to differ from a 4-year-old raised in a war-torn, impoverished region of the world where attention from parents or caregivers was mostly absent? Answer: Studies with animals suggest that environmental factors, such as socioeconomic status and parental/caregiver involvement, can significantly impact brain development. Therefore, one would expect the brain of a 4-year-old raised in a middle-income home to have experienced more enriching and stimulating environments compared to a child raised in a war-torn, impoverished region with limited attention from parents or caregivers. The 4-year-old from the middle-income home may have been exposed to more educational opportunities, adequate nutrition, and emotional support, all of which contribute to optimal brain development. Conversely, the 4-year-old from the impoverished region may have experienced chronic stress, nutritional deficiencies, and limited cognitive stimulation, which can negatively affect brain development and lead to differences in cognitive abilities, emotional regulation, and overall brain structure. The Neonatal Period 193. Describe how the states of arousal experienced by a newborn change as the newborn develops over the first 6 months of life. Answer: Initially, newborns spend much of their time in a state of either deep sleep or active sleep, with brief periods of wakefulness for feeding. As they develop over the first 6 months, their sleep-wake cycle begins to consolidate, with longer periods of wakefulness during the day and more prolonged periods of sleep at night. Additionally, newborns become more alert and responsive when awake, showing increasing periods of quiet alertness where they are attentive to their surroundings and engage in social interactions. By 6 months, infants typically have a more predictable sleep schedule and display a wider range of states of arousal, including increased periods of active play and exploration. 194. Describe how the habituation method could be used to study whether an infant prefers to look at black-and-white photographs or color photographs. Answer: Researchers could use the habituation method to assess an infant's preference for black-and-white versus color photographs by presenting them with alternating images in each category. Initially, the infant would be shown a series of either black-and-white or color photographs until they habituate to the stimuli, as evidenced by a decrease in attention or arousal. Then, researchers would introduce a novel stimulus from the other category (e.g., if habituated to black-and-white, a color photograph would be presented). If the infant prefers the novel stimulus, they are expected to demonstrate renewed interest, indicated by increased attention or arousal. By measuring the infant's response to the novel stimulus, researchers can infer their preference for black-and-white or color photographs. 195. Describe the Newborn Behavioral Observation system and describe how and why it might be used. Answer: The Newborn Behavioral Observation (NBO) system is a structured observational tool used by healthcare professionals to assess and understand the behavioral repertoire of newborns. It involves systematically observing the newborn's behaviors, including motor activity, state regulation, responses to stimuli, and social interactions, during the first days of life. The NBO is designed to promote positive parent-infant interactions, identify individual differences in newborn behavior, and provide tailored support and guidance to parents based on their infant's needs and cues. It may be used in clinical settings to enhance parent-infant bonding, detect early signs of developmental issues or challenges, and offer interventions or resources to support optimal infant development and family well-being. Physical and Motor Development 196. Are maturational processes influenced by environmental circumstances? Provide an example to demonstrate your answer. Answer: Yes, maturational processes can be influenced by environmental circumstances. For example, the development of language skills in children is heavily influenced by both genetic factors and environmental factors such as exposure to language input, social interactions, and opportunities for practice. While genetic factors play a significant role in the maturation of neural structures involved in language processing, the richness and complexity of a child's linguistic environment can significantly impact the pace and proficiency of language development. 197. Why is the visually guided reach often considered one of the developmental milestones achieved in the period of infancy? Why is this behavior important in a developmental sense? Answer: The visually guided reach is often considered a developmental milestone achieved in infancy because it demonstrates the integration of visual perception and motor coordination. This behavior is important in a developmental sense because it signifies the infant's ability to use visual information to guide their actions and interact with their environment. Mastering visually guided reaching opens up opportunities for infants to explore and manipulate objects, fostering cognitive development and the refinement of motor skills. 198. Karen Adolph and her colleagues investigated the capabilities of infants as they crawled or walked up and down “slopes” of various angles. Describe the differences these researchers identified in the behavior of 8 ½-month-olds versus 14-month-olds, and suggest what these results tell us about how motor development may contribute to cognitive development. Answer: In their study, Karen Adolph and her colleagues found that 8 ½-month-old infants displayed cautious behavior when crawling or walking down steep slopes, often resorting to a "bottom-first" strategy to maintain stability. In contrast, 14-month-olds demonstrated more confident and adaptive behaviors, such as adjusting their speed and gait pattern to navigate slopes more efficiently. These results suggest that motor development plays a crucial role in cognitive development. As infants gain more experience and proficiency in controlling their movements, they become better equipped to explore and interact with their environment. The ability to navigate slopes reflects not only advancements in motor skills but also an improved understanding of spatial relationships and environmental affordances. This integration of motor and cognitive abilities facilitates learning and problem-solving as infants encounter new challenges in their exploration of the world around them. 199. The text describes a study of children in Barbados who were healthy at birth but subjected to malnutrition in childhood. What two forces appeared to account for the poorer academic performance of these children in school when they were age 11? Answer: In the study of children in Barbados who experienced childhood malnutrition, two forces appeared to contribute to their poorer academic performance at age 11: cognitive deficits resulting from malnutrition-related brain damage and the socioemotional effects of poverty, such as inadequate stimulation and support at home. 200. Why is breastfeeding typically the recommendation that most mothers receive with respect to feeding their newborn? Suggest two different reasons why mothers might prefer to bottle-feed their infant instead of breastfeed. Answer: Breastfeeding is typically recommended for newborns due to its numerous benefits, including providing optimal nutrition and immune support for the baby and promoting bonding between mother and child through skin-to-skin contact and suckling. However, some mothers might prefer bottle-feeding for reasons such as convenience, allowing others to share feeding responsibilities, or personal discomfort with breastfeeding. Sensory and Perceptual Development 201. What types of visual stimuli do newborns seem to prefer? What does research on this topic suggest about the biological nature of attachment to caregivers? Answer: Newborns seem to prefer visual stimuli characterized by high contrast, such as black-and-white patterns or faces with distinct features. Research on this topic suggests that this preference reflects the biological predisposition to seek out and attend to stimuli associated with caregivers, indicating an innate foundation for attachment formation and social interaction from birth. 202. Describe the mechanism by which mirror neurons operate and suggest how they may help us explain the neurological basis of imitation learning. Answer: Mirror neurons operate by firing both when an individual performs a specific action and when they observe someone else performing the same action. These neurons enable individuals to understand and imitate the actions, intentions, and emotions of others. In imitation learning, mirror neurons play a crucial role by allowing individuals to mimic observed behaviors by internally simulating the actions they witness. This neurological mechanism provides a basis for social learning, empathy, and the transmission of skills and knowledge through imitation. 203. Describe the apparatus used in “visual cliff” experiments and describe the typical method used to study depth perception using this apparatus. Answer: The apparatus used in "visual cliff" experiments typically consists of a transparent surface that creates the illusion of a sudden drop-off or cliff edge. Beneath the transparent surface, there is a solid surface, creating a shallow and deep side. To study depth perception using this apparatus, researchers place infants or animals on the shallow side of the visual cliff and encourage them to crawl or walk onto the deep side. They observe the behavior of the participants to determine whether they perceive the drop-off as a threat. Typically, if participants hesitate or avoid crossing onto the deep side, it suggests that they perceive depth and understand the potential danger of falling. 204. Which of the senses appear to be especially well developed at birth? Which appear to be relatively underdeveloped? What might this suggest about the role that experience plays in the development of sensation and perception? Answer: At birth, the senses of touch and taste appear to be especially well developed, as evidenced by newborns' responsiveness to tactile stimulation and their preference for sweet tastes. On the other hand, vision and hearing are relatively underdeveloped, with newborns exhibiting limited visual acuity and auditory discrimination. This pattern suggests that early sensory experiences, particularly those related to touch and taste, play a crucial role in newborns' initial interactions with the environment. As infants engage in sensory exploration and receive feedback from their interactions, their sensory systems undergo refinement and development through experience. This underscores the importance of early sensory experiences in shaping the neural circuits involved in sensation and perception. 205. Describe how you might conduct an experiment aimed at discovering whether or not infants are capable of sensory integration. What method would you use? What results would you expect? Answer: One method to explore infants' capability of sensory integration could involve presenting them with stimuli involving multiple sensory modalities simultaneously, such as sound and touch. For example, researchers might stroke an infant's hand while simultaneously playing a specific sound. By observing the infant's reactions, such as looking toward the source of the sound or displaying a physical response to the touch, researchers can assess whether infants integrate information from different senses. Expectations for results would include evidence of coordinated responses to the multisensory stimuli, indicating sensory integration abilities in infants. Cognitive Development 206. Suppose you observe a 2-year-old sorting blocks into piles of different shapes – circles, squares, and triangles. Now you present the child with a group of blocks that have one side that looks like one shape (say, a circle) but the other side that looks like a different shape (say, a triangle). You observe to see what the child does with the new blocks. What would you expect the child to do if she engages in assimilation? What would she do if she accommodated her scheme to fit the new blocks? Answer: If the child engages in assimilation, they would likely attempt to categorize the blocks based on the dominant shape visible, likely placing them with the pile that matches the prominent shape (in this case, with the circles). However, if the child accommodates her scheme to fit the new blocks, she would recognize the discrepancy between the two shapes and might create a new category or adapt the existing categories to incorporate the new information, perhaps sorting the blocks based on the shape visible on each side. 207. Give an example of what Piaget referred to as the development of “object permanence.” Comment on how the development of this concept might likely be tied to the development of memory capabilities. Answer: An example of the development of object permanence is when an infant realizes that an object continues to exist even when it's out of sight. For instance, when a caregiver hides a toy under a blanket and the infant actively searches for it. This development is likely tied to memory capabilities because it involves recalling the existence and location of the object even when it's not directly observable. As infants develop memory capacities, they can retain mental representations of objects, leading to the understanding of object permanence. 208. Describe how you might perform an experiment to determine if 10-month-old infants were capable of deferred imitation. Answer: To investigate if 10-month-old infants are capable of deferred imitation, researchers could use a simple procedure. First, they would expose the infants to a novel action or series of actions, such as pressing a button with their forehead. After a delay, perhaps ranging from a few minutes to a day, researchers would observe whether the infants imitate the action they previously observed. This could be done in a controlled laboratory setting using video recordings to capture the infants' responses accurately. 209. Suggest the relationship between symbolic representation, deferred imitation, and the development of pretend play. Answer: Symbolic representation, deferred imitation, and the development of pretend play are interconnected aspects of cognitive development in children. Symbolic representation involves the ability to mentally represent objects, actions, and concepts with symbols, such as words or mental images. Deferred imitation, on the other hand, refers to the ability to remember and replicate actions observed in the past. As children develop symbolic representation and deferred imitation skills, they become better able to engage in pretend play, where objects and actions are used symbolically to represent other objects or scenarios. For example, a child might use a stick as a make-believe sword, demonstrating an understanding of symbolic representation and the ability to imitate actions observed at a different time. 210. In contrast to Piaget’s description of cognitive development in infancy and toddlerhood, describe 3 ways in which modern researchers might view development differently from Piaget. Answer: Modern researchers might view development differently from Piaget in several ways: 1. Continuous Development: Unlike Piaget's stage theory, which suggests distinct stages of development, modern researchers often view development as a continuous process with gradual and overlapping changes. Instead of abrupt shifts from one stage to another, they emphasize the gradual accumulation of skills and knowledge over time. 2. Individual Differences: Piaget's theory tends to generalize developmental milestones for all children within a particular stage. However, modern researchers recognize that children develop at different rates and may exhibit individual variations in their cognitive abilities, influenced by factors such as genetics, environment, and cultural context. 3. Social and Cultural Influences: Piaget's theory focused largely on the child's individual interactions with the physical environment. In contrast, modern perspectives highlight the importance of social and cultural influences on cognitive development. They emphasize the role of social interactions, cultural practices, and language in shaping children's cognitive processes and understanding of the world. Language Development 211. What does research on the babbling of deaf babies tell researchers about the importance of biological and environmental forces in language development? Answer: Research on the babbling of deaf babies underscores the significance of both biological and environmental factors in language development. Despite being unable to hear spoken language, deaf babies still engage in babbling behavior. This indicates a biological predisposition for language development, as babbling is an innate aspect of human communication. However, the content and structure of babbling can be influenced by environmental factors, such as exposure to sign language or visual communication cues. This suggests that while biological factors set the foundation for language development, environmental input plays a crucial role in shaping linguistic abilities. 212. Children’s speech sometimes includes the use of overextension. Give an example of a language overextension and suggest what these types of speech errors tell researchers about the role that biology plays in language development. Answer: An example of language overextension is when a child refers to all four-legged animals as "doggy." This type of speech error tells researchers that biology plays a role in language development by highlighting the innate tendency of children to generalize and categorize information based on limited linguistic input. Overextensions often occur as children attempt to apply rules or patterns they have learned to new contexts, demonstrating their cognitive and linguistic abilities. This suggests that biological mechanisms, such as cognitive processes involved in language acquisition, influence the development of language, even as children make errors in their speech. 213. Children’s early speech is sometimes characterized as being “economical” in that children use a few words to convey complex meaning. What implications might this suggest for researchers who are considering the development of thought and language? Answer: The characterization of children's early speech as "economical" suggests that even with a limited vocabulary, children are capable of conveying complex meanings and concepts. For researchers considering the development of thought and language, this implies that linguistic abilities may develop in tandem with cognitive and conceptual understanding. Despite their linguistic limitations, young children demonstrate a remarkable capacity to express themselves and comprehend abstract ideas using the words and structures available to them. This suggests a close relationship between language development and cognitive development, with language serving as a tool for expressing and shaping thoughts and concepts. 214. Suppose you were studying two groups of young children, one group raised in upper-middle-income homes where the mother did not work outside the home and one raised in poverty where child care was provided in a large, underfunded childcare center. Generalizing from research presented in the text, describe how you would expect these two groups of children to develop their language skills. Where would you expect to see differences between the groups? Where would you expect to see no differences? Answer: In the group raised in upper-middle-income homes with a stay-at-home mother, one would expect to see children exposed to rich linguistic environments with ample opportunities for language stimulation and interaction. Consequently, these children may develop larger vocabularies, more advanced syntactic structures, and stronger language skills compared to children raised in poverty who attend underfunded childcare centers. Differences between the groups may be evident in measures of vocabulary size, grammatical complexity, and expressive language abilities. Conversely, similarities may be observed in basic language milestones and the acquisition of fundamental linguistic concepts, as both groups of children are likely to receive some degree of linguistic input, albeit varying in quality and quantity. Test Bank for Understanding Human Development Wendy L. Dunn, Grace J. Craig 9780205989522, 9780135164204, 9780205233878, 9780205753079

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