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Chapter 14 - Middle Adulthood: Physical and Cognitive Development 1. In Levinson’s later work, he studied the way in which women move through middle adulthood. According to this research, Levinson concluded that women: a. very seldom experience a midlife crisis b. do experience midlife crises, but at much earlier ages than men c. do experience midlife crises, but at much later ages than men d. experience midlife crises in ways very similar to men Answer: d Rationale: Levinson's research suggested that women experience midlife crises in ways very similar to men, challenging the previously held notion that midlife crises were primarily a male phenomenon. 2. In 1998 in the U. S., about what percentage of women between the ages of 45 and 64 were taking some form of hormone replacement therapy? a. 10% b. 33% c. 54% d. 78% Answer: b Rationale: In 1998, approximately 33% of women between the ages of 45 and 64 in the U.S. were taking some form of hormone replacement therapy, reflecting the widespread use of such treatments during that time period. 3. Intelligence that comes with experience and education and is based on the body of knowledge and information accumulated over the years is called: a. fluid intelligence b. crystallized intelligence c. declarative intelligence d. pragmatic intelligence Answer: b Rationale: Crystallized intelligence refers to accumulated knowledge and skills gained through experience and education, contrasting with fluid intelligence, which involves reasoning and problem-solving abilities independent of specific knowledge. 4. Generalizing from the text, which of the following age periods is most likely to be defined by the events that are taking place in the person’s life, rather than by events linked directly to biological maturation? a. infancy and toddlerhood b. early childhood c. early adulthood d. middle adulthood Answer: d Rationale: Middle adulthood is often defined by events such as career advancement, raising children, and caregiving for aging parents, rather than by biological maturation milestones, which are more characteristic of earlier life stages. 5. According to the text, which of the following is the most accurate statement about how men and women experience the climacteric? a. Both men and women experience the climacteric, but women’s experience is more dramatic. b. Both men and women experience the climacteric, but men’s experience is more dramatic. c. Women experience the climacteric, but men do not. d. Men experience the climacteric, but women do no. Answer: a Rationale: Both men and women experience the climacteric, but women's experience is often more dramatic due to the cessation of menstruation and associated hormonal changes. 6. Statistically speaking, which of the following people would most likely report the LOWEST level of sexual satisfaction? a. Linda, who is 30 years old b. Laurie, who is 50 years old c. Bob, who is 30 years old d. Peter, who is 50 years old Answer: b Rationale: Research suggests that sexual satisfaction tends to decline with age, so Laurie, who is 50 years old, would statistically be more likely to report a lower level of sexual satisfaction compared to Linda, who is 30 years old. 7. Between the ages of 45 and 54, the cause of the largest percentage of deaths is __________; between the ages of 55 and 64, the cause of the largest percentage of deaths is _________. a. cancer; heart disease b. accidents; cancer c. cancer; cancer d. heart disease; cancer Answer: c Rationale: According to the text, cancer remains the leading cause of death for both age groups, with cancer being the cause of the largest percentage of deaths between ages 45-54 as well as between ages 55-64. 8. Bob tells his 45-year-old father to look forward to middle age, since this is a period in which most people experience only a slight decline in overall health but an increase in their sense of well-being and satisfaction with life. Bob’s comment is: a. essentially true for most people b. false, because in middle age most people experience a slight increase in health but a decline in their sense of well-being and health c. false, because in middle age most people experience a slight increase in both their health and their sense of well-being and satisfaction d. false, because in middle age most people experience a slight decline in both their health and their sense of well-being and satisfaction Answer: a Rationale: Bob's comment aligns with research indicating that for most people, middle age is associated with a slight decline in physical health but an increase in overall well-being and satisfaction with life. 9. If you were to conduct a survey of 100 women who were in the midst of menopause, you should expect that about ____ would report they felt relief about the cessation of their menstrual cycle. a. 99% b. 75% c. 50% d. 15% Answer: c Rationale: While menopause experiences vary, it's common for many women to feel relief about the cessation of their menstrual cycle, making it reasonable to expect that approximately 50% of women surveyed would report feeling relief. 10. Tyrone has gone through many stress-producing events lately. According to the Stress Scale printed in the text, which of the following events in Tyrone's life probably produced the most stress? a. death of his wife b. marriage to his long-time girlfriend c. retirement from his job d. having his youngest child leave home Answer: a Rationale: The death of a spouse is considered one of the most stressful life events according to stress scales, indicating that it would likely produce the most stress for Tyrone compared to the other listed events. 1. According to the text, midlife crises are more likely to occur among: a. very poor men, since they must continue to work for the longest period of the lifespan b. very poor women, since they have always worked to support their families c. middle-income men and women, since they have a realistic view of their lives d. affluent men and women, since they can delude themselves about the burdens of life Answer: d Rationale: Midlife crises are often associated with a sense of disillusionment and dissatisfaction with one's accomplishments and life trajectory. Affluent individuals may be more prone to midlife crises because they have the resources to pursue varied interests and may feel unfulfilled despite material success, leading to existential questioning and a search for meaning. 2. According to the text, studies show that about ______ of men over the age of 40 will experience some erectile dysfunction. a. 5% b. 15% c. 25% d. 50% Answer: d Rationale: Research indicates that erectile dysfunction becomes increasingly common with age, affecting approximately 50% of men over the age of 40 to some extent due to physiological changes associated with aging. 3. The life expectancy today for individuals who have reached the age of 45 in the United States is: a. 66 years b. 70 years c. 80 years d. 86 years Answer: c Rationale: Improvements in healthcare, lifestyle changes, and advancements in medical treatments have led to increased life expectancy, with individuals reaching the age of 45 in the United States today expected to live to around 80 years on average. 4. The text cites examples of cross-cultural research about how women experience menopause. In general, these studies suggest that reports of negative symptoms vary ________ from culture to culture, suggesting the importance of __________ factors in explanations. a. very little; biological b. quite a lot; biological c. very little; psychological d. quite a lot; psychological Answer: d Rationale: Cross-cultural studies on menopause suggest that while biological factors play a role in menopausal experiences, psychological and sociocultural factors significantly influence how women perceive and report symptoms. Thus, there is considerable variation in reported symptoms across different cultures, highlighting the importance of psychological and sociocultural factors in understanding menopausal experiences. 5. If a woman’s probability of having a bone fracture after age 50 is 50%, what is the probability that a man will have a bone fracture after age 50? a. considerably smaller than 50% b. about 50% c. slightly higher than 50% d. considerably higher than 50% Answer: a Rationale: Statistically, women are more prone to osteoporosis and fractures compared to men, so the probability of a man having a bone fracture after age 50 is considerably smaller than 50%. 6. According to the text, adults age 55-64 are LESS likely to die from which of the following conditions than are adults age 45-54? a. cancer b. heart disease c. respiratory diseases d. accidents, suicides, and homicides Answer: d Rationale: Adults age 55-64 are less likely to die from accidents, suicides, and homicides compared to adults age 45-54, as individuals in the older age group may exercise more caution and have fewer risky behaviors. 7. Statistically speaking, which of the following people would be MOST likely to be obese: a. Alan, who is 20 years old b. Luke, who is 34 years old c. Jeremy, who is 50 years old d. Mike, who is 60 years old Answer: c Rationale: Obesity rates tend to increase with age, so statistically, Jeremy, who is 50 years old, would be most likely to be obese compared to the younger individuals listed. 8. Recently, Jim has begun to focus on his feeling that he has accomplished the career goals he set for himself and he now does not know what to do with his life. He feels frustrated and confused, and he wonders if the excitement in his life is mostly behind him. According to Levinson, Jim is experiencing: a. a command moment b. transitional moment c. a fluid moment d. a midlife crisis Answer: d Rationale: Jim's feelings of frustration, confusion, and questioning the direction of his life are characteristic of a midlife crisis, according to Levinson's theory of adult development. 9. Alice is 45 years old. Compared to her sensory abilities in her mid-20s, today she likely is better able to: a. see close-up objects b. hear high-frequency sounds c. taste spicy foods d. see objects that are far away Answer: d Rationale: As individuals age, changes in the eye structure may lead to a decline in close-up vision (presbyopia), but long-distance vision typically remains stable or improves due to changes in the lens. Therefore, Alice is likely better able to see objects that are far away compared to her mid-20s. 10. Since Ed has been a tax attorney for over 25 years, he is now able to analyze clients' problems and draw conclusions from experience-based information and knowledge. Although he does not solve problems as quickly as he did when he was younger, his solutions are more complex and therefore better. The fact that his solutions are more complex best illustrates which of the following concepts? a. crystallized intelligence b. fluid intelligence c. cognitive mechanics d. inductive reasoning Answer: a Rationale: Crystallized intelligence refers to accumulated knowledge and skills gained through experience and education. Ed's ability to draw on his experience to provide complex solutions exemplifies crystallized intelligence, which tends to increase with age. Multiple Choice Questions: Development in Middle Adulthood 1. According to the text, in the U.S. today, the period of middle adulthood spans the ages from: a. 35 to 55 b. 40 to 60 or 65 c. 45 to 65 or 70 d. 50 to 65 or 70 Answer: b Rationale: Middle adulthood is generally considered to begin around age 40 and extend to around age 60 or 65. This period encompasses various psychological and physical changes associated with midlife, such as career consolidation, reevaluation of life goals, and physical health concerns. 2. Which of the following people is LEAST likely to be experiencing the period of middle adulthood? a. Marie, who is 35 years old b. Laura, who is 45 years old c. Jane, who is 55 years old d. Maxine, who is 60 years old Answer: a Rationale: Middle adulthood typically spans the ages from years 40 to 60 or 65, although it may begin or end earlier or later for certain individuals. 3. Generalizing from the text, which of the following age periods is most likely to be defined by the events that are taking place in the person’s life, rather than by events linked directly to biological maturation? a. infancy and toddlerhood b. early childhood c. early adulthood d. middle adulthood Answer: d Rationale: The period termed middle adulthood typically begins and ends for an individual depending on the life experiences they are going through. 4. The text suggests that the beginning and ending of the period of middle adulthood is defined by a variety of cues. Which of the following stage-defining cues is the best example of a SOCIAL cue? a. reaching menopause b. the realization that one will soon retire c. the youngest child leaving home for college d. the slowing down of reaction times, making it more difficult to play baseball Answer: c Rationale: Reaching menopause and slowed reaction times are cues that would be considered biological. The realization that one will soon retire is a psychological cue, although the retirement itself could be considered social in nature. Social cues have more to do with changes is one’s family status or personal status, and an example would be having the youngest child leave home. 5. The text suggests that the beginning and ending of the period of middle adulthood is defined by a variety of cues. Which of the following stage-defining cues is the best example of a PSYCHOLGICAL cue? a. reaching menopause b. the realization that one will soon retire c. the youngest child leaving home for college d. the slowing down of reaction times, making it more difficult to play baseball Answer: b Rationale: Reaching menopause and slowed reaction times are cues that would be considered biological. Social cues have more to do with changes is one’s family status or personal status, and an example would be having the youngest child leave home. The realization that one will soon retire is a psychological cue, since its focus is on how the person comes to understand the significance of this event. 6. Manuel, age 52, has the experience and self-knowledge to allow him to manage his own life, and is able to make decisions with ease and self-confidence. This is why Manuel is considered part of: a. the command generation b. Generation X c. Generation Y d. Generation Z Answer: a Rationale: Because they can make decisions with ease, and have expertise and self-confidence that were previously beyond their grasp, individuals in the 40-to-60-year range are considered part of the “command generation.” 7. According to the text, the age group in the society that makes most of the policy decisions is referred to as: a. Generation X b. Generation Y c. Generation Z d. the command generation Answer: d Rationale: The term "the command generation" refers to the age group that typically holds positions of authority and decision-making power within society. This group, often comprised of individuals in middle adulthood, influences policy decisions and societal direction. 8. Recently, Jim has begun to focus on his feeling that he has accomplished the career goals he set for himself and he now does not know what to do with his life. He feels frustrated and confused, and he wonders if the excitement in his life is mostly behind him. According to Levinson, Jim is experiencing: a. a command moment b. transitional moment c. a fluid moment d. a midlife crisis Answer: d Rationale: According to Levinson, at the end of the period of young adulthood individuals experience a midlife crisis in which earlier decisions are questioned and life patterns must be reestablished. 9. Recently, Larry has begun to focus on his feeling that he has accomplished the career goals he set for himself and he now does not know what to do with his life. He feels frustrated and confused, and he wonders if the excitement in his life is mostly behind him. According to Levinson, Larry is most likely to be about how old? a. 30 years old b. 40 years old c. 50 years old d. 60 years old Answer: b Rationale: According to Levinson, most men experience a midlife crisis between the ages of 40 and 45, although more recent research suggests that such a crisis, if it happens at all, might occur either earlier or later. 10. According to Levinson, which of the following ages is most likely to include a feeling of inner turmoil, as a man resolves questions about the meaning of his life and the correctness of the choices he has made? a. age 32 b. age 42 c. age 52 d. age 58 Answer: b Rationale: According to Levinson, most men experience a midlife crisis between the ages of 40 and 45, although more recent research suggests that such a crisis, if it happens at all, might occur either earlier or later. 11. Laura has been feeling older lately and has begun to re-evaluate the choices she has made thus far in her life. She decides that she needs a little more excitement, so she buys a new red sports car. Her response is best considered to be an example of: a. a command decision b. the climacteric c. a midlife crisis d. a transitional event Answer: c Rationale: According to Levinson, at the end of the period of young adulthood individuals experience a midlife crisis in which earlier decisions are questioned and life patterns must be reestablished. 12. In Levinson’s later work, he studied the way in which women move through middle adulthood. According to this research, Levinson concluded that women: a. very seldom experience a midlife crisis b. do experience midlife crises, but at much earlier ages than men c. do experience midlife crises, but at much later ages than men d. experience midlife crises in ways very similar to men Answer: d Rationale: Levinson's later research suggested that women experience midlife crises similarly to men, albeit with potentially different manifestations due to gender-specific roles and expectations. This conclusion contrasts with earlier beliefs that midlife crises were primarily male phenomena. 13. Transitional models of adult development generally stress which of the following features of development? a. continuities in how life is experienced b. discontinuities in how life is experienced c. cognitive changes that occur with age d. biological changes that occur with age Answer: a Rationale: Transitional models of adult development emphasize the continuities in how life is experienced over time. They focus on the ways individuals navigate various life transitions while maintaining a sense of identity and continuity throughout adulthood. 14. According to transitional models, if crises do occur they generally are the result of: a. gradual biological aging b. gradual cognitive changes that come with age c. unexpected, traumatic events d. turning 40 Answer: c Rationale: According to transitional models, crises are rare and when they do occur they usually are in response to a specific event, such as the death of a friend or parent, a sudden illness, unemployment, a new job, a child going off to war, and so forth. These are all unexpected, traumatic events. They are not linked to gradual aging or to any specific birthday. 15. Arnie plans to retire at age 65. Therefore, beginning at about age 50, he makes a series of investments with his savings so that he will have enough income to support himself and he plans to move into a smaller, less expensive house. When his 65th birthday comes, Arnie feels calm and prepared. Arnie’s adjustment to retirement is best considered to be an example of how which of the following models view adult development? a. crisis models b. Levinson’s model c. command models d. transitional models Answer: d Rationale: Transitional models advocate the view that changes in midlife are gradual and midlife crisis is not the norm. 16. Which of the following events is the best example of a nonnormative event? a. retiring at age 65 b. experiencing menopause at age 52 c. having a spouse killed in a car accident at age 48 d. having wrinkles appear on one’s face as one gets older Answer: c Rationale: Nonnormative events are those that do not occur at a predictable point in a person’s development. An accident is a prime example of an event that cannot be predicted. 17. In comparison to Levinson’s view of the midlife crisis, most modern theorists view this crisis as: a. less likely to occur than Levinson thought b. more likely to occur than Levinson thought c. more likely to occur in men, but less likely to occur in women than Levinson thought d. less likely to occur in men, but more likely to occur in women than Levinson thought Answer: a Rationale: Modern theorists generally view midlife crises as less likely to occur than Levinson initially proposed. Instead, they emphasize individual variability in the experience of midlife transitions and crisis, suggesting that it may not be as universal or severe as once thought. 18. According to the text, midlife crises are more likely to occur among: a. very poor men, since they must continue to work for the longest period of the lifespan b. very poor women, since they have always worked to support their families c. middle-income men and women, since they have a realistic view of their lives d. affluent men and women, since they can delude themselves about the burdens of life Answer: d Rationale: Midlife crises are often associated with individuals who have achieved a certain level of socioeconomic status and stability, allowing them the time and resources for introspection and reevaluation. Affluent individuals may be more prone to experiencing midlife crises due to greater opportunities for self-reflection and existential questioning. 19. Suppose that Mark is a person with a very realistic and planful approach to life. Luke is a person who lives for the moment, deluding himself about the realities of life and instead focusing on the next “big adventure” in his life. When Mark and Luke enter middle adulthood, which of the following statements is the best description about how they are likely to experience this transition? a. Mark will be much more likely than Luke to have a midlife crisis. b. Luke will be much more likely than Mark to have a midlife crisis. c. Both Mark and Luke will be very likely to have a midlife crisis, because they are men. d. Neither Mark nor Luke will be likely to have a midlife crisis, because they are men. Answer: b Rationale: Those who are most likely to experience a midlife crisis tend to avoid introspection and use denial to avoid thinking about their changing bodies and lives. Physical Continuity and Change 20. Which of the following physical changes is typically experienced more severely in men than in women? a. hearing loss b. decreases in the ability to distinguish different smells c. decline in visual acuity d. loss of bone mass Answer: a Rationale: Hearing loss, especially involving high-frequency sounds, tends to be more prevalent and severe in men compared to women. This difference may be attributed to various factors, including occupational and environmental exposures, genetics, and hormonal influences. 21. According to the text, during middle adulthood, overall health typically ________ and the sense of well-being and satisfaction with life __________. a. declines; remains unchanged b. remains unchanged; declines c. remains unchanged; increases d. declines; declines Answer: a Rationale: During middle adulthood, overall health tends to decline gradually due to aging-related changes and lifestyle factors. Additionally, the sense of well-being and satisfaction with life may also decline for some individuals as they confront midlife challenges and reassess their life goals. 22. Bob tells his 45-year-old father to look forward to middle age, since this is a period in which most people experience only a slight decline in overall health but an increase in their sense of well-being and satisfaction with life. Bob’s comment is: a. essentially true for most people b. false, because in middle age most people experience a slight increase in health but a decline in their sense of well-being and health c. false, because in middle age most people experience a slight increase in both their health and their sense of well-being and satisfaction d. false, because in middle age most people experience a slight decline in both their health and their sense of well-being and satisfaction Answer: a Rationale: According to research cited in the text, even though most adults experience a gradual decline in their overall health during middle adulthood, their sense of well-being and satisfaction with life remain intact during these years. 23. With respect to sensory changes in middle age, one commonly experiences a(n): a. increased ability to hear low-frequency sounds, but decreased ability to hear high-frequency sounds b. increased sensitivity to pain, but decreased sensitivity to smell c. increased sensitivity to smell, but decreased sensitivity to pain d. decline in visual acuity and decline in reaction time Answer: d Rationale: Sensory changes in middle age often include a decline in visual acuity (e.g., presbyopia) and reaction time, reflecting age-related changes in sensory processing and neurological function. 24. Hearing loss involving high-frequency sounds is more common in: a. men than in women b. women than in men c. very young men than in middle-aged men d. very young women than in middle-aged women Answer: a Rationale: Hearing loss involving high-frequency sounds is more prevalent in men compared to women, particularly as individuals enter middle age and beyond. This difference may be influenced by genetic factors, occupational noise exposure, and lifestyle choices. 25. In middle age, Janice can expect declines in sensitivity to all of the following EXCEPT: a. taste b. pain c. smell d. temperature changes Answer: d Rationale: According to research cited in the text, sensitivity to temperature changes remains high during the middle adult years. Taste, smell, and sensitivity to pain all decline during middle adulthood. 26. Which of the following sensory abilities usually improved during middle adulthood? a. vision for objects in the distance b. vision for objects in the near field of vision c. hearing for high-frequency sounds d. taste sensitivity Answer: a Rationale: Vision for objects in the distance typically improves during middle adulthood due to changes in the eye, such as decreased lens flexibility and increased pupil size, which enhance distance vision. 27. Alice is 45 years old. Compared to her sensory abilities in her mid-20s, today she likely is better able to: a. see close-up objects b. hear high-frequency sounds c. taste spicy foods d. see objects that are far away Answer: d Rationale: Table 14-1 highlights the physical changes in middle adulthood and notes that a decline in visual acuity occurs, except for distant objects. The text also notes that people often see distant objects better in middle adulthood than they could as young adults. 28. Reginald's tennis game remains just about the same as always, even though he has reached middle age. The most likely reason for this is: a. reaction time remains the same throughout adulthood b. motor skills remain constant throughout adulthood c. motor skills actually improve throughout adulthood d. practice and experience can compensate for declining reaction times Answer: d Rationale: As we age, and especially after age 50, our reaction speed slows. Oftentimes, however, actual performance remains constant, probably because practice and experience compensate for slower reaction times. 29. Bart, age 40, asks his doctor about what sensory changes he should expect. The doctor will most likely tell him that: a. his vision will decline in his 50s, while his hearing has been declining for 20 years b. both his vision and his hearing will begin to decline in the next five years c. neither his vision nor his hearing will begin declining until he reaches age 50 d. his hearing will decline in his 50s, while his vision has been declining for 20 years Answer: a Rationale: Hearing becomes less acute and gradually declines after age 20. Visual capabilities are stable from adolescence through the 40s or early 50s. 30. Which of the following is NOT a physical change associated with middle adulthood? a. loss of body fat b. hearing loss c. slowing of reaction time d. loss of visual acuity Answer: a Rationale: Loss of body fat is not typically associated with middle adulthood. In fact, middle adulthood often sees an increase in body fat due to changes in metabolism and hormonal fluctuations. 31. Which of the following changes is typical of how most adults experience middle adulthood? a. They become slightly taller. b. They become slightly thinner. c. Their heart pumps less blood. d. Their lung capacity decreases. Answer: d Rationale: Their lung capacity decreases is typical of how most adults experience middle adulthood. This is because of changes in lung elasticity and respiratory muscle strength. 32. If you were to interview a representative sample of 100 women and 100 men who are 50 years old, about how many of them would likely report having been on a diet to control their weight? a. 51% of women and 42% of men b. 42% of women and 51% of men c. 87% of women and 59% of men d. 59% of women and 87% of men Answer: c Rationale: The text reports results from a recent study that found that 87% of middle-aged women and 59% of middle-aged men had dieted to control their weight. 33. According to the text, the heart pumps an average of ______ blood to the body for each decade after the beginning of adulthood. a. 15% less b. 8% less c. 5% more d. 15% more Answer: b Rationale: The heart pumps an average of 8% less blood to the body for each decade after the beginning of adulthood due to changes in heart muscle efficiency and elasticity. 34. What is the term for the broad complex of physical and emotional symptoms that accompany reproductive changes in middle adulthood? a. climacteric b. menarche c. midlife crisis d. menopause Answer: a Rationale: Climacteric refers to the broad complex of physical and emotional symptoms that accompany reproductive changes in middle adulthood, such as changes in hormone levels and fertility. 35. The climacteric is experienced by: a. men at the time of the midlife crisis b. women in middle adulthood, but not men c. men and women in middle adulthood d. women in late adulthood Answer: c Rationale: The climacteric is experienced by both men and women in middle adulthood, typically between the ages of 40 and 60, although the experience may vary between genders. 36. According to the text, which of the following is the most accurate statement about how men and women experience the climacteric? a. Both men and women experience the climacteric, but women’s experience is more dramatic. b. Both men and women experience the climacteric, but men’s experience is more dramatic. c. Women experience the climacteric, but men do not. d. Men experience the climacteric, but women do no. Answer: a Rationale: Some time in middle age, both men and women experience the climacteric, which refers to the overall complex of physical and emotional effects that accompany hormonal changes in middle adulthood. In women, the most dramatic aspect of the climacteric is menopause—the permanent cessation of ovulation and menstruation, which may be accompanied by physical symptoms and intense emotional reactions. As noted earlier, men continue to produce sperm and male hormones throughout the lifespan and do not experience a comparable male menopause. 37. What is the end of menstruation called? a. climacteric b. menopause c. menarche d. amenorrhea Answer: b Rationale: The end of menstruation is called menopause, marking the cessation of the menstrual cycle and reproductive capabilities in women. 38. Melissa is in middle adulthood. If she is typical, when can she expect menopause to occur? a. between ages 40 and 45 b. between ages 45 and 48 c. between ages 45 and 55 d. between ages 52 and 56 Answer: c Rationale: The text notes that, on average, women experience their last menstrual period between ages 45 and 55. 39. Martha is 50 years old and is beginning to experience the symptoms associated with menopause. About how old will she likely be when the process of menopause is finished? a. 51 years old b. 53 years old c. 55 years old d. 57 years old Answer: d Rationale: The text notes that, on average, the process of menopause usually occur over a period of 7 or 8 years. 40. Eloise, age 50, has developed erratic ovulation, her uterus is shrinking, and there has been some reduction in her breast size. Her physician tells her that these are symptoms that normally accompany which of the following? a. ovarian cancer b. cervical cancer c. menopause d. the midlife crisis for women Answer: c Rationale: The text notes that, on average, women experience their last menstrual period between ages 45 and 55. As a result of lower estrogen production, the uterus slowly shrinks, and there is a gradual reduction in breast size as glandular tissue atrophies and is replaced with fat tissue. 41. According to the research cited in the text, what percent of menopausal women report their symptoms as bothersome? a. 1% b. 20% c. 33% d. 50% Answer: b Rationale: According to research cited in the text, approximately 20% of menopausal women report their symptoms as bothersome, indicating that a significant proportion of women experience discomfort or distress during this transition. 42. Patty is close to experiencing menopause and is concerned about the symptoms she will experience. To give her accurate information, her physician might tell her that about _____ of menopausal women report bothersome symptoms: a. 1% b. 20% c. 35% d. 48% Answer: b Rationale: According to research cited in the text, only about 20% of women who experience menopausal symptoms rate them as bothersome. 43. If you were to conduct a survey of 100 women who were experiencing the symptoms of menopause, you should expect that about ____ of women would report having hot flashes. a. 22% b. 39% c. 55% d. 85% Answer: c Rationale: According to the text, in the United States, about 50-60% of women report hot flashes during menopause. 44. If you were to conduct a survey of 100 women who were in the midst of menopause, you should expect that about ____ would report they felt regretful about the cessation of their menstrual cycle. a. 4% b. 24% c. 54% d. 96% Answer: a Rationale: A large national survey of menopausal women recently reported that fewer than 4% indicated feelings of regret over the cessation of their menstrual cycles. 45. If you were to conduct a survey of 100 women who were in the midst of menopause, you should expect that about ____ would report they felt relief about the cessation of their menstrual cycle. a. 99% b. 75% c. 50% d. 15% Answer: c Rationale: A large national survey of menopausal women recently reported that about half of women reported feeling only relief at the cessation of their menstrual cycles. 46. If you were to conduct a survey of 100 middle-aged women and asked them a series of questions about what they worry about as they are getting older, you would expect that the largest percentage would respond that they are MOST worried about: a. being too old to have children b. having more illnesses as they get older c. being less attractive as a woman d. having to go through menopause Answer: b Rationale: Table 14-2 highlights the degree of worry women experience regarding getting older on three issues. A greater percentage of respondents (40.4%) reported worry about increased illness than about being too old to have children or about being less attractive. Most women feel relived about going through menopause. 47. The text cites examples of cross-cultural research about how women experience menopause. In general, these studies suggest that reports of negative symptoms vary ________ from culture to culture, suggesting the importance of __________ factors in explanations. a. very little; biological b. quite a lot; biological c. very little; psychological d. quite a lot; psychological Answer: d Rationale: In cross-cultural studies of menopause, results typically reveal that reports of negative symptoms vary widely by culture, as well as among different women of the same culture. Results such as these suggest that menopausal symptoms are the result of not only physical factors but psychological and cultural factors as well. 48. Which of the following terms refers to the loss of bone mass and increased bone fragility? a. menopause b. osteoporosis c. climacteric d. general atrophy Answer: b Rationale: Osteoporosis refers to the loss of bone mass and increased bone fragility, leading to an increased risk of fractures, particularly common in postmenopausal women due to hormonal changes. 49. Which of the following is a long-term effect associated with the estrogen loss that accompanies menopause? a. increase in bone mass and bone density b. excessive lubrication of the genitals c. decrease in the risk for coronary disease d. vaginal atrophy Answer: d Rationale: Vaginal atrophy is a long-term effect associated with the estrogen loss that accompanies menopause, resulting in thinning, drying, and inflammation of the vaginal walls, leading to discomfort and potential complications. 50. Which of the following statements regarding changes to bone mass in middle age is TRUE? a. Only men experience a loss in bone mass as they age. b. Only women experience a loss in bone mass as they age. c. Both men and women can experience bone mass loss, but women are more likely to experience a bone fracture as a result. d. Both men and women can experience bone mass loss, but men are more likely to experience a bone fracture as a result. Answer: c Rationale: Both men and women begin to experience a loss in bone mass as they approach the end of middle age but the loss is about twice as great in women and occurs more rapidly and as a result, bone fractures are much more common in older women than in older men. 51. Women's loss of bone mass accelerates greatly after menopause due in largest part to which of the following? a. hormone replacement therapy b. decreased supply of estrogen c. decreased supply of androgen d. decreased activity level Answer: b Rationale: As noted in the text, women’s loss of bone mass accelerates greatly after menopause, apparently because of estrogen deprivation. 52. Eve is concerned about loss of bone mass because her mother has osteoporosis. She should understand that her loss of bone mass will most likely accelerate considerably after: a. menopause b. her 30th birthday c. her 40th birthday d. the birth of her first child Answer: a Rationale: As noted in the text, women’s loss of bone mass accelerates greatly after menopause, apparently because of estrogen deprivation. 53. Lucille consults her doctor about osteoporosis. The doctor tells her that her chances of having a bone fracture after age 50 is about ______. a. 10% b. 25% c. 50% d. 85% Answer: c Rationale: According to the text, nearly half of all postmenopausal women over the age of 50 will experience a bone fracture related to osteoporosis. 54. If a woman’s probability of having a bone fracture after age 50 is 50%, what is the probability that a man will have a bone fracture after age 50? a. considerably smaller than 50% b. about 50% c. slightly higher than 50% d. considerably higher than 50% Answer: a Rationale: Men have a much smaller probability of having a bone fracture than women do after the age of 50. 55. Before menopause, the rate of cardiovascular disease is _______ for men, compared to women; after menopause the rate of cardiovascular disease is ________ for men, compared to women. a. higher; higher b. higher; about the same c. lower; higher d. lower; about the same Answer: b Rationale: Estrogen seems to have a protective function against cardiovascular disease for premenopausal women. Women have a much lower rate of cardiovascular disease than men until menopause; then the rate for women rises nearly as high as the male rate. 56. Paula is unable to sleep because she is having frequent and bothersome night sweats resulting from menopause. If she decides to take medicine to help with this symptom, the medicine her physician would most likely prescribe would be: a. aspirin taken together with caffeine b. a male hormone similar to testosterone c. a multi-vitamin that includes a large dose of calcium d. estrogen, progesterone, or a combination of these drugs Answer: d Rationale: HRT—in the form of either estrogen or progesterone supplements or a combination of the two—helps alleviate symptoms, such as hot flashes and vaginal changes. 57. In 1998 in the U. S., about what percentage of women between the ages of 45 and 64 were taking some form of hormone replacement therapy? a. 10% b. 33% c. 54% d. 78% Answer: b Rationale: This answer is correct. In 1998, approximately 33% of women between the ages of 45 and 64 in the United States were taking some form of hormone replacement therapy, according to available data. 58. Hormone replacement therapy appears to be involved in increasing a woman’s risk of developing all of the following problems EXCEPT: a. breast cancer b. cardiovascular problems c. osteoporosis d. several forms of cancer Answer: c Rationale: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, cardiovascular problems, and several forms of cancer. However, it is not typically associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis; in fact, HRT is often prescribed to prevent osteoporosis. 59. In comparison to the proportion of women who received a doctor’s recommendation to take hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in the late 1990s, you should expect that the proportion today is ______. a. larger b. smaller c. about the same d. nonexistent since HRT therapies have been withdrawn from the legal drug market Answer: b Rationale: Because hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has recently been associated with significant health risks as well as benefits, the decision about whether to use HRT is now more questionable than it was previously. Although HRT risks are relatively small for most women, women’s health experts now usually recommend that women use these drugs only for the short-term relief of symptoms or to address a severe risk of osteoporosis, if at all. 60. According to the text, studies show that about ______ of men over the age of 40 will experience some erectile dysfunction. a. 5% b. 15% c. 25% d. 50% Answer: d Rationale: Erectile dysfunction becomes more prevalent with age. By the age of 40, approximately 50% of men are expected to experience some degree of erectile dysfunction, according to studies cited in the text. 61. If you were to conduct a survey that included responses from 1,000 men over the age of 40, about how many of them would report experiencing some erectile dysfunction (assuming they were truthful)? a. about 100 b. about 200 c. about 500 d. about 800 Answer: c Rationale: Studies report that about 50% men over the age of 40 will experience some erectile dysfunction. 62. About what percent of middle-aged men experience erectile dysfunction on more than an infrequent basis? a. 10-20% b. 33-45% c. 50-60% d. 70-80% Answer: a Rationale: This answer is correct. About 10-20% of middle-aged men experience erectile dysfunction on more than an infrequent basis, as stated in the text. 63. After Ralph turned 50, he began to have occasional problems with erectile dysfunction. If he asked his physician for a prescription to help with this problem, he should assume that the drugs prescribed would help about _____ of the men that have this problem. a. 25% b. 50% c. 70% d. 95% Answer: c Rationale: Drugs used to treat erectile dysfunction are effective in 60-80% of the men for whom they are prescribed. 64. Which of the following best describes the typical pattern of satisfaction with sexual partners at age 30, and at age 55. a. men and women are equally satisfied at both 30 and 55 b. men are more satisfied at 30, but men and women are equally satisfied at 55 c. men and women are equally satisfied at 30, but men are more satisfied at 55 d. men and women are equally satisfied at 30, but women are more satisfied at 55 Answer: c Rationale: Figure 14.1 shows that sexually satisfaction is about equal for men and women up to about age 50, at which point men’s satisfaction increases and women’s declines. 65. At what age does sexual behavior reach its highest level? a. 18 years b. 26 years c. 35 years d. 55 years Answer: b Rationale: Sexual behavior typically peaks around the age of 26 years, according to research cited in the text. 66. Statistically speaking, which of the following people would most likely report the LOWEST level of sexual satisfaction? a. Linda, who is 30 years old b. Laurie, who is 50 years old c. Bob, who is 30 years old d. Peter, who is 50 years old Answer: b Rationale: Figure 14-1 shows that the lowest levels of sexual satisfaction occur in women over the age of about 45 to 49. 67. Paul is 35 years old and Mark is 55 years old. In comparison to Paul, Mark’s sexual activity is likely to be ______ frequent and to involve ______ satisfaction. a. less; less b. less; more c. more; less d. more; more Answer: a Rationale: Frequency of sexual activity, but for men the satisfaction with sexual partners increases after about age 50. 68. According to the text, compared to early adulthood, in middle adulthood men generally take _____ time to achieve erection and orgasm and women generally take _____ time to achieve orgasm. a. more; more b. more; less c. less; more d. less; less Answer: a Rationale: In middle adulthood, both men and women generally take more time to achieve erection and orgasm compared to early adulthood, as mentioned in the text. 69. The text defines sensuality as: a. the pleasure associated with sexual orgasm b. the degree to which a person is interested in sexual intercourse c. the degree to which a person is attracted to members of the opposite sex d. hugging, touching, stroking, and other behaviors that may or may not lead to sex Answer: d Rationale: Sensuality refers to hugging, touching, stroking, and other behaviors that may or may not lead to sex, as defined in the text. Disease and Health 70. According to the text, adults age 55-64 are LESS likely to die from which of the following conditions than are adults age 45-54? a. cancer b. heart disease c. respiratory diseases d. accidents, suicides, and homicides Answer: d Rationale: Figure 14-3 shows the causes of death in early (ages 35-44), middle (ages 45-54), and older (55-64) adulthood. The category of accidents, suicides and homicides is shown in this figure to be a more common cause of death in middle adulthood than in older adulthood, but death rates from cancer, heart disease, and respiratory diseases all rise across this period. 71. According to the text, the greatest age-related decline in deaths from ages 35-44 to ages 55-64 is in which of the following causes of death? a. cancer b. heart disease c respiratory disease d. accidents Answer: d Rationale: Figure 14-3 shows the causes of death in early (35-44), middle (ages 45-54), and older (55-64) adulthood. Death due to accidents is shown to decrease dramatically, especially between early and middle adulthood, in which the percentage of overall deaths declines from around 33 percent to below 10 percent. 72. Between the ages of 45 and 54, the cause of the largest percentage of deaths is __________; between the ages of 55 and 64, the cause of the largest percentage of deaths is _________. a. cancer; heart disease b. accidents; cancer c. cancer; cancer d. heart disease; cancer Answer: c Rationale: Figure 14-3 shows the causes of death in early (35-44), middle (ages 45-54), and older (55-64) adulthood. This figure shows that the single most common cause of death in middle adulthood is cancer and in older adulthood is cancer. 73. Hal, age 60, is concerned about his mortality. According to the text, Hal is statistically most likely to die from: a. an accident, suicide, or homicide b. cancer c. chronic liver disease d. HIV infection resulting in AIDS Answer: b Rationale: Figure 14-3 shows the causes of death in early (35-44), middle (ages 45-54), and older (55-64) adulthood. This figure shows that the single most common cause of death in older adulthood is cancer. 74. At every age level throughout the lifespan, the death rate of men is about _____ that of women. a. half b. one-third c. double d. triple Answer: c Rationale: Men have a higher death rate compared to women at every age level throughout the lifespan, approximately double that of women, as indicated in the text. 75. The life expectancy today for individuals who have reached the age of 45 in the United States is: a. 66 years b. 70 years c. 80 years d. 86 years Answer: c Rationale: The life expectancy today for individuals who have reached the age of 45 in the United States is approximately 80 years, reflecting improvements in healthcare and living conditions. 76. According to the text, which of the following chronic health conditions affects the largest proportion of middle-aged adults? a. mental illness b. diabetes c. lung diseases and dysfunctions d. arthritis Answer: d Rationale: Figure 14-4, Limitation of Activity Caused by Selected Chronic Health Conditions Among Working-Age Adults, by Age, shows that across young, middle, and older adulthood, arthritis is the condition that affects the largest proportion of individuals. 77. Which of the following statements is most accurate, regarding the relationship between educational level and early death? a. There is no link between these variables since early death does not depend on education level achieved. b. The risk of dying young is slightly higher for women with more education, but is equal for men with more versus less education. c. The risk of dying young is slightly higher for men with more education, but is equal for women with more versus less education. d. The risk of dying young is about double for those with less than a high school education, compared to those with some college education. Answer: d Rationale: According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as cited in the text, people with more than a high school education are at less than half the risk of dying early than are those with 12 years of schooling or less. Figure 14-6 also makes this point. 78. Which of the following groups has the HIGHEST death rate during middle adulthood? a. males with less than 12 years of education b. males with a high school diploma c. males with some college d. females with less than 12 years of education Answer: a Rationale: Men with less than 12 years of education typically have the highest death rate during middle adulthood, likely due to factors such as limited access to healthcare, higher-risk behaviors, and socioeconomic disparities. 79. Which of the following groups has the LOWEST death rate during middle adulthood? a. females with less than 12 years of education b. females with a high school diploma c. females with some college d. males with a high school diploma Answer: c Rationale: Typically, individuals with higher levels of education tend to have better health outcomes and lower mortality rates. Therefore, females with some college education are likely to have the lowest death rate during middle adulthood compared to the other groups listed. 80. In 1965, about of U.S. adults smoked cigarettes; today about do so. a. 15%; 25% b. 42%; 20% c. 25%; 25% d. 60%; 40% Answer: b Rationale: In 1965, approximately 42% of U.S. adults smoked cigarettes, while today, the percentage has decreased to around 20%. This decline reflects successful public health efforts aimed at reducing smoking rates through policies, education, and awareness campaigns. 81. Of the more than 2.4 million deaths in the United States in 2005, about what percent were caused by smoking-related illnesses? a. 2% b. 10% c. 20% d. 50% Answer: c Rationale: Smoking-related illnesses contribute significantly to mortality rates in the United States. In 2005, approximately 20% of deaths were attributed to smoking-related causes, highlighting the substantial impact of tobacco use on public health. 82. According to the text, of those deaths due to cancer, smoking is responsible for about ____ of all deaths. a. 5% b. 30% c. 50% d. 67% Answer: b Rationale: Smoking is a major risk factor for various types of cancer. While it may not be the sole cause of all cancer deaths, it is estimated to be responsible for about 30% of cancer-related deaths, making it a significant contributor to cancer mortality. 83. If you were to conduct a survey of adults who smoke cigarettes, you would expect about ____ of these people would report that they want to quit smoking; of these, less than ____ will actually be able to quit. a. 70%; 5% b. 95%; 50% c. 90%; 10% d. 50%; 25% Answer: a Rationale: Many smokers express a desire to quit, with surveys indicating that around 70% of smokers express this sentiment. However, the actual success rate for quitting smoking is much lower, with less than 5% of smokers able to quit successfully without assistance. 84. If you asked a representative sample of adults in the U. S. if they had consumed alcohol in the past 30 days, you should expect that about _____ would answer “yes.” a. 35% b. 50% c. 75% d. 85% Answer: b Rationale: According to recent national surveys, more than half of the U.S. adult population drank alcohol in the past 30 days. 85. Today in the United States, alcohol consumption is the ______ leading cause of preventable death in the United States. a. first b. second c. third d. twelfth Answer: c Rationale: Alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of preventable death in the United States, as indicated by various studies and reports from organizations such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It ranks behind tobacco use and poor diet and physical inactivity. 86. Today in the United States, about ____ of adults are either overweight or obese. a. 35% b. 45% c. 55% d. 70% Answer: d Rationale: Approximately 70% of adults in the United States are either overweight or obese, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and other research studies. 87. Since 1980, the percent of Americans who are obese or overweight has increased about ____. a. 12% b. 18% c. 33% d. 60% Answer: d Rationale: Since 1980, the percentage of Americans who are obese or overweight has increased by approximately 60%, reflecting a significant rise in the prevalence of obesity and overweight conditions across the country. 88. About what percent of middle-aged adult men and women are obese in the United States today? a. about 15% b. about 25% c. about 40% d. about 70% Answer: c Rationale: Approximately 40% of middle-aged adult men and women in the United States are obese, according to statistics from the CDC and other health organizations. This indicates a substantial proportion of this demographic is affected by obesity. 89. Statistically speaking, which of the following people would be MOST likely to be obese? a. Alan, who is 20 years old b. Luke, who is 34 years old c. Jeremy, who is 50 years old d. Mike, who is 60 years old Answer: c Rationale: According to the text, weight problems become more prevalent as adults move through the period of middle adulthood. 90. According to the text, obesity-related illnesses are considered to be the _______ leading cause of preventable death in the United States today. a. first b. second c. third d. twelfth Answer: b Rationale: Obesity-related illnesses are the second leading cause of preventable death in the United States today, following tobacco use. Conditions such as heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain cancers are linked to obesity and contribute significantly to mortality rates. 91. According to the text, which of the following is the correct order of leading causes of preventable deaths in the United States today, from first to third: a. smoking, obesity, alcohol b. obesity, alcohol, smoking c. smoking, alcohol, illegal drug use d. AIDS, smoking, illegal drug use Answer: a Rationale: The text notes that being overweight is now considered the second largest preventable cause of death and disease in adulthood, just behind smoking and just ahead of alcohol abuse. 92. Richard Rahe revised his earlier version of the Stress Scale for Selected Life Events, noting that life today is _____ stressful than it was in earlier decades and noting that the stress associated with certain life events today is _______ it was in earlier decades. a. less; the same as b. less; somewhat different from c. more; somewhat different from d. more; the same as Answer: c Rationale: According to the text, Richard Rahe noted with the revision of his scale in 1997 that life today is more stressful than in earlier decades. Recently, data gathered through an online survey of 10 of the original life events have served to point out that, while some events cause less stress for adults today than they did 40 years ago, others cause more. 93. According to the Stress Scale printed in the text, which of the following life events is associated with the HIGHEST level of stress? a. change to a different line of work b. marriage c. son or daughter leaving home d. divorce or marital separation Answer: d Rationale: Table 14-5 shows stress scale for selected life events in 1967 and 2007. Divorce/separation is shown as being more stressful than the other events listed for both years. 94. According to the Stress Scale printed in the text, which of the following life events is associated with the HIGHEST level of stress? a. death of a spouse b. divorce or marital separation c. death of a family member d. job layoff or firing Answer: a Rationale: Table 14-5 shows stress scale ratings for selected life events in 1967 and 2007. Death of a spouse is shown as being more stressful than all of the other events listed in both years. 95. Tyrone has gone through many stress-producing events lately. According to the Stress Scale printed in the text, which of the following events in Tyrone's life probably produced the most stress: a. death of his wife b. marriage to his long-time girlfriend c. retirement from his job d. having his youngest child leave home Answer: a Rationale: Table 14-5 shows stress scale ratings for selected life events in 1967 and 2007. Death of a spouse is shown as being more stressful than all of the other events listed in both years. 96. Illness may follow periods of prolonged stress, primarily because stress weakens one’s: a. heart b. lungs c. immune system d. level of exercise Answer: c Rationale: Prolonged stress can weaken one's immune system. Stress triggers the release of stress hormones like cortisol, which can suppress the immune response, making individuals more susceptible to infections and illnesses. 97. In comparison to members of the white majority in the U.S., African Americans are more likely to die from all of the following EXCEPT: a. heart disease b. cancer c. AIDS d. parasitic diseases Answer: d Rationale: The text notes that Blacks are more likely than Whites to die from heart disease, hypertension, cancer diabetes, accidents, and AIDS; and that Hispanics are more likely than Whites to die from infectious and parasitic diseases, diabetes, hypertension, and AIDS. 98. According to the text, which of the following statements about racial/ethnic differences in healthiness is FALSE? a. Low-income minority groups experience more stress. b. Low-income minority groups have less access to preventative health care. c. Low-income minority groups are more likely to use alcohol, cigarettes, and drugs. d. Low-income minority groups are less likely to be overweight or obese. Answer: d Rationale: Members of low-income minority groups often have a number of special challenges that contribute to stress. The book notes that the fact that overeating, alcohol, cigarettes, and drugs are often used to cope with such stress may explain these individuals greater risk for a variety of health-related problems. The book also notes that access to health care is an issue for these individuals. Cognitive Continuity and Change 99. Compared to research conclusions drawn in the 1980s, researchers today are more likely to see the cognitive decline that is associated with aging as being: a. more gradual and occurring later b. more gradual but beginning earlier c. faster but occurring later d. faster and beginning earlier Answer: a Rationale: Contemporary research suggests that cognitive decline associated with aging is more gradual and tends to occur later than previously thought. This shift in understanding reflects advancements in methodologies and longitudinal studies that provide more nuanced insights into the aging process. 100. In those cognitive skills that are most closely related to work and daily living, the peak of performance usually occurs during: a. adolescence b. emerging adulthood c. early adulthood d. middle adulthood Answer: d Rationale: Cognitive skills related to work and daily living typically peak during middle adulthood. During this stage of life, individuals have gained sufficient experience and expertise to perform tasks efficiently and effectively, benefiting from a combination of cognitive abilities and accumulated knowledge. 101. Intelligence that comes with experience and education and is based on the body of knowledge and information accumulated over the years is called: a. fluid intelligence b. crystallized intelligence c. declarative intelligence d. pragmatic intelligence Answer: b Rationale: Crystallized intelligence refers to the accumulation of knowledge, facts, and skills acquired through experience and education. It represents the ability to apply previously learned information to solve problems and navigate various situations, reflecting an individual's lifelong learning and cognitive development. 102. An older adult’s ability to recall well a second language used and practiced mostly in early adulthood would best be considered an example of: a. fluid intelligence b. crystallized intelligence c. mechanical intelligence d. practical intelligence Answer: b Rationale: Crystallized intelligence refers to accumulated knowledge and skills based on education and life experiences. Recalling a language reflects this type of intelligence. 103. Early cross-sectional research usually showed that crystallized intelligence reaches its peak during ; fluid intelligence reaches its peak during . a. middle adulthood; adolescence b. middle adulthood; middle adulthood c. early adulthood; middle adulthood d. adolescence; early adulthood Answer: a Rationale: Early cross-sectional studies typically indicated that crystallized intelligence peaks during middle adulthood, while fluid intelligence peaks during adolescence. This suggests that cognitive abilities related to accumulated knowledge and experience continue to develop and stabilize through adulthood, whereas fluid intelligence tends to decline with age. 104. Since Ed has been a tax attorney for over 25 years, he is now able to analyze clients' problems and draw conclusions from experience-based information and knowledge. Although he does not solve problems as quickly as he did when he was younger, his solutions are more complex and therefore better. The fact that his solutions are more complex best illustrates which of the following concepts? a. crystallized intelligence b. fluid intelligence c. cognitive mechanics d. inductive reasoning Answer: a Rationale: Crystallized intelligence refers to accumulated knowledge and skills based on education and life experiences. It is logical that this accumulation of a variety of knowledge and skills would allow Ed to develop more complex solutions. In fact, research has shown that crystallized intelligence remains high and perhaps even increases throughout middle age. 105. Marge has acquired knowledge of the law through her 30 years as a litigator and from her years studying in law school. Her knowledge, accumulated over the years, is called: a. fluid intelligence b. mechanical intelligence c. pragmatic intelligence d. crystallized intelligence Answer: d Rationale: Crystallized intelligence refers to accumulated knowledge and skills based on education and life experiences. 106. In earlier cross-sectional studies of age-related changes in intelligence, the typical finding was that crystallized intelligence _________ and fluid intelligence _________ during middle adulthood. a. remained the same or increased; remained the same or increased b. declined; declined c. remained the same or increased; declined d. declined; remained the same or increased Answer: c Rationale: Earlier cross-sectional studies often found that crystallized intelligence remained stable or increased during middle adulthood, reflecting the accumulation of knowledge and experience. In contrast, fluid intelligence was observed to decline during this period, indicating a decrease in problem-solving abilities and processing speed. 107. According to earlier cross-sectional studies of age-related changes in intelligence, scores on which of the following tests would be most likely to DECREASE most substantially with age? a. vocabulary b. general information c. overall intelligence d. inductive reasoning Answer: d Rationale: Table 14-6 shows tasks that are representative of crystallized and fluid intelligence. Inductive reasoning is cited as being representative of fluid intelligence. Because research has shown that fluid intelligence begins to decline in early adulthood and continues to get worse with age, one would expect that inductive reasoning, as a task representing this type of intelligence, gets worse with age. 108. According to earlier cross-sectional studies of age-related changes in intelligence, scores on which of the following tests would be most likely to decline the LEAST with age? a. vocabulary b. figural relations c. overall intelligence d. inductive reasoning Answer: a Rationale: Table 14-6 shows tasks that are representative of crystallized and fluid intelligence. Vocabulary is cited as being representative of crystallized intelligence. Because research has shown that crystallized intelligence remains high and perhaps even increases throughout middle age, one would expect that vocabulary, a task representing this type of intelligence, does not decline as much with age as figural relations or inductive reasoning, which are representative of fluid intelligence. Figure 14-7 shows that overall intelligence does decline with age. 109. If you are tested longitudinally for skills involving the use of crystallized intelligence, at which of the following ages would you expect to have the highest score? a. age 20 b. age 30 c. age 40 d. age 50 Answer: d Rationale: Research shows that crystallized intelligence remains high and perhaps even increases throughout middle age, thus the oldest person should have the highest score with regard to crystallized intelligence. 110. According to the text, about what percent of the adult population either maintains a stable level of intellectual performance or increases their performance well into their 70s? a. about 40-45% b. about 60-70% c. about 80-85% d. nearly 100% Answer: b Rationale: The text notes that when we look at how individuals change as they grow older, we find that 45 to 60% of people maintain a stable level of overall intellectual performance—both fluid and crystallized—well into their 70s. An additional 10-15% show increases in performance into their mid-70s. 111. In comparison to how well a group of young adults performs, a group of older adults would likely perform LEAST well on which of the following tasks? a. typing quickly and accurately b. spelling c. recalling historical facts, such as the names of the first 4 presidents of the U. S. d. reading for meaning Answer: a Rationale: The most noticeable decline in abilities associated with aging involves tasks that require speed. Typing is such a task. Other types of knowledge do not show as much age-related decline, if any decline at all. 112. The age-related changes that occur in intellectual skills have been traced to which of the following brain changes? a. enlargement of the cerebellum, which controls balance and some motor control b. shrinkage of the prefrontal regions of the brain c. build up of protein plaques around the axons in the hypothalamus d. enlargement of the corpus callosum, which connects the left and right hemisphere, thereby making transfer of information slower Answer: b Rationale: Age-related changes in intellectual skills, including declines in certain cognitive functions, have been associated with the shrinkage of the prefrontal regions of the brain. These regions play crucial roles in executive functions such as decision-making, problem-solving, and cognitive control, which are vital for intellectual abilities. 113. If you were to choose a few words to describe how an older adult’s cognitive processes differ from those of a younger adult, you would be most accurate to conclude that the older adult’s mental processes were: a. less complex and slower b. less complex but faster c. more complex but slower d. more complex and faster Answer: c Rationale: If there is a decline in intellectual functioning associated with age, it is most likely to be seen in tasks involving speed, since various psychomotor processes gradually begin to slow down in middle age. Such declines are commonly compensated by increases in efficiency and general knowledge, contributing to more complexity. 114. Which of the following provides the best example of declarative knowledge? a. being able to operate a computer program, such as Word b. knowing the names of the capitals of the states in the United States c. hitting a serve in a tennis game d. driving a car Answer: b Rationale: Declarative knowledge is factual knowledge – it is what you know, such as names of the state capitals. The other options all reflect procedural knowledge – knowing how to do something. 115. This type of skill is action-oriented, involving how activities are carried out: a. declarative knowledge b. procedural knowledge c. crystallized intelligence d. fluid intelligence Answer: b Rationale: Procedural knowledge includes one’s knowledge of how to carry out activities. 116. Which of the following terms come closest to meaning the same thing as “factual knowledge” ? a. declarative knowledge b. procedural knowledge c. crystallized intelligence d. fluid intelligence Answer: a Rationale: Declarative knowledge is defined as factual knowledge. 117. Since 1900, the life expectancy at birth in the United States has increased by about: a. 10 years b. 18 years c. 24 years d. 31 years Answer: d Rationale: In 1900, the average life expectancy at birth was 47.3 years; in 1950, it was 68.2 years; in 2000, it was 77.0 years; and by 2020, it is expected to be 79.5 years. Thus, today the difference is about 31 years. 118. If you were going to advise a middle-aged adult on how to best maintain and improve her cognitive abilities into older adulthood, your best advice would be to tell her to: a. quit working, relax, and watch more TV b. stay intellectually engaged in complex tasks c. create a stable routine, in which the tasks she does are done repeatedly so forgetting does not occur d. make sure she gets enough sleep each night so her brain has a chance to store the new information she learned that day Answer: b Rationale: As the text notes, engaging in complex tasks throughout adulthood seems to be a key in maintaining intellectual processes at their highest possible levels. Current Issues: Why Are Some Groups at Risk? 119. According to the text, people who live in poverty or who are victims of discrimination enjoy _____ healthy lifestyles, and the impact of these lifestyles becomes _____ apparent as people get older. a. less; more b. more; less c. less; less d. more; more Answer: a Rationale: Individuals living in poverty or facing discrimination often have less access to resources and opportunities for maintaining a healthy lifestyle, such as nutritious food, healthcare, and safe living conditions. As they age, the cumulative effects of these disadvantages become more pronounced, leading to poorer health outcomes compared to those with more privileged backgrounds. 120. According to the results of the MIDUS survey, the words that best describe the respondents of minority status who were economically poor, would be: a. “they did the best they could” b. “they gave up too easily” c. “they wasted their chances” d. “their resentment made it impossible for them to succeed” Answer: a Rationale: The survey generally showed that hard-working, proud, low-income minority adults in their 40s and 50s had usually done the best they could with the cards they were dealt, which included such things as caring for grandchildren, wrestling with chronic disease, and lacking retirement and health care coverage. 121. According to the results of the MIDUS survey, it is apparent that ______________ contribute to the health risks of low-income minority populations. a. low income, but not minority status b. minority status, but not low income c. both low income and minority status d. neither low income nor minority status Answer: c Rationale: The MIDUS survey findings indicate that both low-income status and minority status independently contribute to the health risks experienced by minority populations. These factors intersect to create unique challenges and barriers to accessing healthcare, resources, and social support, exacerbating health disparities among marginalized communities. 122. According to Arline Geronimus, the term “weathering” describes: a. accumulated stress associated with poverty and discrimination b. over-exposure to hazardous substances in poorly controlled factory settings c. the accumulated brain changes that are associated with normal aging d. the harmful effects associated with too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation Answer: a Rationale: Arline Geronimus coined the term "weathering" to describe the cumulative and chronic stress experienced by individuals living in poverty and facing discrimination. This prolonged exposure to social, economic, and environmental stressors can have detrimental effects on physical and mental health, contributing to disparities in health outcomes among marginalized populations. 123. According to the text, adult members of minority populations in the United States are less likely than the White population to suffer from: a. heart disease b. cancer c. diabetes d. depression Answer: d Rationale: According to the text, White Americans are more likely than members of minority groups to suffer from depression. Changing Perspectives: Retraining for Today’s Technological Jobs 124. According to the text, which of the following is LEAST likely to be a problem for older workers who are retraining in new, technology-oriented jobs? a. poorer vision than younger workers b. slower reaction times than younger workers c. slower learning of new skills than younger workers d. lower intelligence than younger workers Answer: d Rationale: Older workers who are retraining in new, technology-oriented jobs may face challenges related to vision, reaction times, and the speed of learning new skills due to age-related factors such as declining eyesight and cognitive processing speed. However, intelligence typically remains stable or even improves with age, making it the least likely problem for older workers undergoing retraining. 125. According to the text, which of the following types of institutions are most likely to be involved in the retraining of an older workforce? a. community colleges b. 4-year private colleges c. state universities d. high schools that provide remedial education programs Answer: a Rationale: Community colleges are most likely to be involved in the retraining of an older workforce due to their emphasis on vocational and practical skills training, flexible scheduling options, and often more affordable tuition compared to 4-year private colleges and state universities. Community colleges cater to a diverse range of students, including adult learners seeking to upgrade their skills or transition to new careers, making them a natural choice for retraining programs targeting older workers. 126. Professionals that adjust the way that machines and technologies work so that older workers can learn and operate them more efficiently are called: a. career counselors b. transitional counselors c. human factors engineers d. technologicians Answer: c Rationale: The text notes that “human factors engineers study these situations and re-design machines to make them easier to use.” True-False questions: Development in Middle Adulthood 127. The period of middle adulthood occurs at the same time and lasts the same length of time for everyone. Answer: False Rationale: Middle adulthood is a cultural construction of the 20th century, and its beginning and ending points depend on the life experiences the person is going through. 128. Most decision makers in government, corporations, and society are middle aged. Answer: True Rationale: Middle adulthood is often considered a peak period for decision-making roles due to the combination of accumulated experience, expertise, and cognitive abilities. While younger individuals may hold leadership roles, middle-aged individuals typically occupy a significant proportion of decision-making positions in various sectors. 129. Levinson’s investigation of midlife crises in males revealed large differences between the experiences of successful middle-class men and unsuccessful lower-class men. Answer: False Rationale: Levinson’s original work was a study of primarily highly successful middle-class White men. However, he later extended his conclusions to most people, including women, and concluded that the midlife crisis is a common developmental event. 130. Most researchers nowadays agree with Levinson’s view of middle adulthood in men as routinely involving a midlife crisis. Answer: False Rationale: Researchers today more often view the transition into middle adulthood as continuous and non-traumatic. Although some people may experience a “midlife” crisis, for those who do this is just as likely to come in the 30s or 50s, and is likely to reflect the specific events in an individual’s life. Physical Continuity and Change 131. Although most adults experience gradual decline in their overall health during middle adulthood, their sense of well-being and satisfaction with life remain intact during these years. Answer: True Rationale: While physical health may decline to some extent in middle adulthood, research suggests that overall well-being and satisfaction with life tend to remain stable or even increase during this stage. Factors such as career success, family stability, and personal fulfillment often contribute to maintaining a positive sense of well-being. 132. Of the physical changes in the senses that are associated with aging, decline in vision is usually the first to occur. Answer: False Rationale: Visual acuity usually remains stable from adolescence through the 40s and early 50s, and vision for distant objects often becomes better. However, the sense of hearing begins to decline at about age 20 for most people. 133. Although reaction time usually slows somewhat during middle adulthood, performance usually does not decline much, due to the greater experience that middle-aged adults have that allows them to compensate. Answer: True Rationale: While reaction time may show some decline in middle adulthood, research indicates that the effects are often mitigated by increased experience and knowledge. Middle-aged adults tend to compensate for any decrease in reaction time by relying on their expertise and accumulated skills, resulting in minimal performance decline. 134. The climacteric is experienced by both men and women, but menopause is a biological event that only women experience. Answer: True Rationale: The climacteric refers to the transitional period during which reproductive capacity declines in both men and women. However, menopause specifically refers to the cessation of menstrual periods and associated hormonal changes that occur in women typically around middle age. 135. In the United States today, most middle-aged women express little regret about entering menopause. Answer: True Rationale: Cultural attitudes toward menopause have evolved, and many women in middle adulthood view it as a natural phase of life rather than something to regret. Additionally, improvements in healthcare and quality of life have contributed to more positive perceptions of menopause among middle-aged women. 136. The personal and psychological adjustments associated with menopause are experienced by women around the world in highly similar ways. Answer: False Rationale: The text cites research indicating that in some Indian castes, women generally report no negative symptoms associated with menopause, suggesting that culture defines to a large extent how women experience this biological event. 137. Of U. S. women age 50 and over, the best estimate is that about 20% will suffer a broken bone related to osteoporosis. Answer: False Rationale: The percentage is actually closer to 50%. 138. Hormone replacement therapy has been found to be associated with many positive benefits, but very few, if any, health risks. Answer: False Rationale: Research on the health risks associated with HRT is inconclusive, but it does seem to provide relief for the troublesome symptoms of menopause and to slow or stop bone loss, but it also seems to be linked to higher incidence of some cancers (especially breast cancer) and may increase women’s risk of heart disease. It also may be linked to positive protective factors associated with cognitive decline. 139. Drugs used to treat erectile dysfunction, such as Viagra and Levitra, are effective for a relatively small percentage of the men who take them. Answer: False Rationale: The text reports that these drugs are effective for 60-80% of the men who take them. 140. Men are much more satisfied than are women with their sexual partners throughout adulthood. Answer: False Rationale: Research suggests that satisfaction with sexual partners does not show a consistent gender difference throughout adulthood. While there may be variations in satisfaction levels between men and women, factors such as relationship quality, communication, and individual preferences play significant roles in determining satisfaction with sexual partners. 141. Sexual activity reaches a peak for women at about age 40, but men reach this peak about 20 years earlier, at age 20. Answer: False Rationale: As shown in Figure 14.2, both men and women experience their highest frequency of sexual behavior at about age 25-29. 142. Studies show that many middle-aged adults have sex infrequently and most have conventional ideas about love, sex, and marriage. Answer: True Rationale: Studies indicate that sexual frequency tends to decline in middle adulthood for various reasons, including busy schedules, hormonal changes, and relationship dynamics. Additionally, many middle-aged adults hold traditional views about love, sex, and marriage, influenced by societal norms and personal experiences. 143. For some adults in middle adulthood, an emphasis on sexuality gives way to a greater sense of sensuality. Answer: True Rationale: As individuals progress through middle adulthood, they may shift their focus from purely sexual aspects of relationships to a deeper appreciation of sensuality, which includes emotional intimacy, affection, and physical touch. This transition often reflects a maturation of relationships and personal development over time. 144. Between the ages of 45-54 and 55-65, the percent of people dying of cancer and heart disease increases. Answer: True Rationale: As individuals progress from early to middle adulthood, the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease tends to increase. This trend is reflected in the higher percentage of deaths attributed to these conditions in the older age group. 145. The death rate due to accidents declines sharply when adults move from early adulthood into middle adulthood. Answer: True Rationale: The decline in the death rate due to accidents during middle adulthood is attributed to various factors, including increased maturity, better decision-making skills, and decreased engagement in high-risk behaviors compared to early adulthood. These changes contribute to a lower incidence of fatal accidents among middle-aged adults. 146. Death in middle adulthood is better characterized as the result of the development of chronic diseases that develop prematurely in high-risk individuals, whereas death in later adulthood is better described as resulting from age-related processes that are common to almost all people. Answer: True Rationale: In middle adulthood, individuals may experience premature development of chronic diseases due to lifestyle factors or genetic predispositions. These chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases or diabetes, contribute to mortality rates during this life stage. In later adulthood, age-related processes such as cellular senescence and organ degeneration become more predominant contributors to mortality, affecting almost all individuals to some extent. 147. In the U. S. today, the most common cause of limited activity in middle adulthood is arthritis. Answer: True Rationale: Arthritis, particularly osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, is a common cause of limited activity in middle adulthood in the United States. It can affect mobility, flexibility, and overall quality of life, leading many individuals to experience limitations in their daily activities. 148. In the United States today, death rates for men typically equal the death rates for women throughout the adult years. Answer: False Rationale: As Table 14-3 and Figure 14-5 shows, the death rate for men is higher than for women throughout the adult years. 149. In the United States, education is related to life expectancy for both men and women, and those with more education are likely to live longer. Answer: True Rationale: Numerous studies have shown a strong correlation between education level and life expectancy in the United States. Higher levels of education are associated with better access to healthcare, healthier lifestyle choices, and socioeconomic advantages, all of which contribute to increased life expectancy. 150. Today in the United States, the life expectancy for adults who live to age 45 is about 70 years. Answer: False Rationale: Life expectancy for those living to age 45 is about 80 years in the U. S. today. 151. If you were to advise a young adult about the best way to live longer, the four things you should say would be to get regular physical exercise, quit smoking, don’t drink too much alcohol, and control your weight. Answer: True Rationale: Regular physical exercise, avoiding smoking, moderating alcohol consumption, and maintaining a healthy weight are key lifestyle factors associated with increased longevity and reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes. These recommendations are widely supported by public health organizations and research studies. 152. In the U. S. today, the three leading causes of preventable death are smoking-related illnesses, followed by being overweight, followed by alcohol-related illnesses. Answer: True Rationale: Smoking-related illnesses, such as lung cancer and heart disease, remain one of the leading causes of preventable death in the United States. Being overweight or obese contributes to various health problems, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and certain cancers, making it another significant preventable cause of death. Alcohol-related illnesses, including liver disease and alcohol-related accidents, also contribute to preventable mortality rates in the U.S. 153. According to stress scales used to evaluate the degree of stress associated with particular life events, the stress linked to retirement is about the same as that linked to the death of a spouse. Answer: False Rationale: As Table 14-5 shows, the death of a spouse is the most stressful event today, as it was in 1967. Retirement is also stressful, but not as stressful as death of a spouse. 154. According to the text, the stress of life events is additive, meaning that when stressful events occur at about the same time, their effects are cumulative. Answer: True Rationale: The cumulative effect of stressors is a well-established concept in psychology. When individuals experience multiple stressful events concurrently or within a short timeframe, the impact on their physical and mental health can be compounded, leading to increased susceptibility to illness, psychological distress, and other negative outcomes. 155. Prolonged stress appears to take its toll on health primarily by causing heart capacity to decline. Answer: False Rationale: Prolonged stress affects most physiological functions, but its primary effect seems to be on the immune system. It also can affect how well people are able to care for themselves, so health habits may suffer in stressful times also. 156. In the 45- to 64-year-old age group, the death rate for Black Americans is nearly twice as high as for White Americans. Answer: True Rationale: Disparities in healthcare access, socioeconomic factors, and prevalence of chronic diseases contribute to higher mortality rates among Black Americans compared to White Americans in the 45- to 64-year-old age group. These disparities highlight systemic inequalities in healthcare and socioeconomic opportunities that disproportionately affect marginalized communities. 157. The text reports that in the U. S. today, Black and Hispanic Americans are much less likely to seek health care at hospital emergency rooms because the costs are simply above their ability to pay. Answer: False Rationale: The text states that the highest rate of emergency room treatment is by Hispanic Americans, since hospitals cannot turn away sick or injured people, regardless of their ability to pay. Cognitive Continuity and Change 158. Young adults can generally outperform adults in middle age on tasks requiring high-order cognitive processing. Answer: False Rationale: According to the text, middle adulthood is a time of maximum performance of many higher-order cognitive abilities, especially in areas related to work and daily living. 159. Brain damage is more likely to affect fluid intelligence than crystallized intelligence. Answer: True Rationale: Fluid intelligence, which involves problem-solving and adaptability, relies more heavily on intact brain function and is therefore more susceptible to impairment due to brain damage or neurological conditions. Crystallized intelligence, based on accumulated knowledge and experience, tends to be more resilient to brain damage as it relies on established neural networks and stored information. 160. Although cross-sectional studies typically show that mental abilities decline with age, when longitudinal studies are used, these age-related declines typically are seen to be nonexistent or much smaller. Answer: True Rationale: Cross-sectional studies compare different age groups at a single point in time, often showing apparent declines in mental abilities with increasing age. However, longitudinal studies follow the same individuals over time, allowing researchers to account for individual differences and control for cohort effects. Longitudinal studies often reveal smaller or nonexistent age-related declines in mental abilities, emphasizing the importance of considering individual trajectories of cognitive aging. 161. The ability that typically experiences the most decline in middle adulthood is memory. Answer: False Rationale: Memory remains largely intact in middle adulthood, but speed does show some noticeable decline. 162. Knowing how to start a car is a good example of declarative knowledge. Answer: False Rationale: Starting a car involves understanding a set of procedures, rather than facts, so it is a much better example of procedural knowledge than declarative knowledge. 163. Although cognitive abilities typically decline in middle and older adulthood, thinking usually becomes more efficient and therefore faster, so performance usually remains steady until about age 70. Answer: False Rationale: Just the opposite is true: Cognitive abilities remain largely intact, but speed declines. Because older adults are more knowledgeable, they can usually compensate for diminished speed through their better knowledge base. 164. People who have complex jobs typically experience greater cognitive decline in older adulthood. Answer: False Rationale: People who are challenged by the cognitive demands of their jobs typically score higher on tests of intellectual flexibility and those who keep mentally active experience less age-related intellectual decline. 165. The average life expectancy from birth was about age 47 in 1950, but by 2020 it will be nearly 80 years. Answer: True Rationale: Advances in healthcare, sanitation, nutrition, and technology have significantly increased life expectancy over the past century. In 1950, the average life expectancy at birth was indeed around 47 years in the United States. By 2020, life expectancy had risen to nearly 80 years, reflecting improvements in healthcare delivery and public health initiatives aimed at preventing disease and promoting wellness throughout the lifespan. Short Answer questions: Development in Middle Adulthood 166. When does the period of middle adulthood typically begin and end? Answer: The period of middle adulthood typically begins around the age of 40 and extends until around age 65. 167. Is the period of middle adulthood more, or less, defined by culture events than is the period of early adulthood? Explain your answer. Answer: The period of middle adulthood is often less defined by cultural events compared to early adulthood. Early adulthood is marked by culturally significant milestones such as completing education, starting a career, and establishing independence, whereas middle adulthood is more characterized by individual life events such as career advancement, marriage, and family responsibilities. 168. What does it mean to say that people in the period of middle adulthood are the “command generation”? Answer: Referring to people in middle adulthood as the "command generation" suggests that they often occupy positions of authority and decision-making power in various aspects of society, including government, corporations, and community organizations. This term highlights their influence and leadership roles during this stage of life. 169. According to Daniel Levinson, identify three core issues that are typically experienced by people at about the time they reach age 40. Answer: Three core issues typically experienced by people around age 40, according to Daniel Levinson, include: 1. Evaluating one's life progress and accomplishments. 2. Reassessing life goals and priorities. 3. Reflecting on mortality and the passage of time. 170. According to Daniel Levinson, why and how do most 40-year-olds experience a midlife crisis? Answer: According to Daniel Levinson, most 40-year-olds experience a midlife crisis as they confront a sense of stagnation or disillusionment with their accomplishments and life trajectory. This crisis arises from the tension between their youthful aspirations and the realities of their achievements, leading to a period of introspection and potential reevaluation of life choices. 171. If a person were advocating a “transition model” to explain middle adulthood, how would this person explain the phenomenon of the “midlife crisis”? Answer: A person advocating a "transition model" to explain middle adulthood might view the midlife crisis as a natural part of the transition process between different life stages. In this model, the midlife crisis represents a period of psychological and emotional adjustment as individuals navigate the shift from early adulthood to middle adulthood. It is seen as a time of reevaluation and redefinition of personal identity and life goals. 172. The text notes that affluent people are more likely to experience a midlife crisis than are those with greater socioeconomic challenges. What might this be? Answer: This might be attributed to the greater expectations and pressures associated with affluent lifestyles. Affluent individuals often have higher aspirations and societal standards to meet, leading to increased stress and dissatisfaction if they perceive themselves as falling short of these expectations. Additionally, affluent individuals may have more resources and opportunities to engage in introspection and self-exploration, which can contribute to the manifestation of a midlife crisis. Physical Continuity and Change 173. What changes typically occur in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems during middle adulthood? Are these changes typically problematic during this period of the lifespan? Answer: During middle adulthood, individuals may experience some age-related changes in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. These changes can include a decrease in maximum heart rate, increased stiffness of blood vessels, and a decline in lung function. While these changes are considered normal aspects of aging, they may not necessarily be problematic for most individuals during middle adulthood. However, they can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases and respiratory conditions if coupled with unhealthy lifestyle habits such as smoking, poor diet, or lack of physical activity. 174. Explain the difference between the climacteric and menopause. Answer: The climacteric refers to the period of transition during which reproductive capacity declines, leading to the cessation of menstruation and the onset of menopause. Menopause specifically refers to the permanent cessation of menstruation, marking the end of the reproductive phase in a woman's life. While the climacteric encompasses the entire transition period, menopause refers to the point at which menstruation has ceased for at least 12 consecutive months. 175. Why does the text note that menopause is a process, and not an event? What is meant by this statement? Answer: The text notes that menopause is a process rather than an event because it involves a gradual transition marked by hormonal changes and fluctuations leading to the cessation of menstruation. Menopause is not a single moment but rather a series of changes that occur over time, typically spanning several years. This process includes the premenopausal and perimenopausal stages before reaching the postmenopausal phase when menstruation has permanently ceased. 176. Do most U. S. women respond positively, or negatively, to the events defining menopause? Cite evidence to support your answer. Answer: Responses to menopausal events can vary among U.S. women, but overall, research suggests that many women experience a mix of positive and negative reactions. While some women may view menopause as a natural and liberating phase of life, others may struggle with symptoms such as hot flashes, mood changes, and sleep disturbances, leading to a negative perception of menopause. Additionally, cultural attitudes, social support, and access to healthcare can influence women's experiences of menopause. Studies have shown that women with higher levels of education and socioeconomic status tend to have more positive attitudes towards menopause, while those with limited resources may face greater challenges in managing symptoms and accessing healthcare services. 177. How is menopause linked to the increased risk of osteoporosis? Answer: Menopause is linked to an increased risk of osteoporosis due to hormonal changes that occur during this stage. Estrogen plays a crucial role in maintaining bone density and strength. As women enter menopause, estrogen levels decline, leading to accelerated bone loss and increased risk of osteoporosis, a condition characterized by weakened and porous bones. The postmenopausal period is a critical time for bone health, and women are advised to take measures such as calcium supplementation, vitamin D intake, weight-bearing exercises, and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to mitigate the risk of osteoporosis. 178. What hormones are delivered through hormone replacement therapy (HRT)? What effect do these drugs usually have on the body? Answer: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) typically delivers estrogen and sometimes progesterone to women experiencing menopausal symptoms or seeking to mitigate the effects of hormonal changes associated with menopause. Estrogen replacement can help alleviate symptoms such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and mood swings, as well as provide benefits for bone health and cardiovascular health. Progesterone may be added to HRT in women who still have their uterus to protect against the risk of endometrial cancer associated with estrogen-only therapy. However, HRT also carries certain risks, including an increased risk of breast cancer, stroke, blood clots, and cardiovascular events, so its use should be carefully considered and individualized based on a woman's medical history and risk factors. 179. Identify one positive benefit of taking HRT and one negative benefit associated with HRT. Answer: • Positive Benefit: One positive benefit of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is the alleviation of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and mood swings. • Negative Benefit: One negative benefit associated with HRT is an increased risk of certain health issues, including breast cancer, blood clots, and stroke, particularly when used long-term. 180. What advice does the text provide for women regarding their decision about whether they should, or should not, take hormone replacement therapy (HRT) at the time of menopause? Answer: The text advises women to consider individual factors such as their overall health, medical history, severity of menopausal symptoms, and personal preferences when deciding whether to take hormone replacement therapy (HRT) at the time of menopause. It suggests discussing the potential benefits and risks of HRT with a healthcare provider to make an informed decision tailored to their specific needs and circumstances. 181. Is erectile dysfunction a common problem for men during the period of middle adulthood? Cite statistical evidence to support your answer. Answer: Yes, erectile dysfunction is a common problem for men during the period of middle adulthood. According to statistical evidence, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction increases with age, with estimates suggesting that approximately 40% of men aged 40 and over experience some degree of erectile dysfunction. This indicates that it is indeed a common issue during middle adulthood. 182. Identify two types of therapy that can be used to help men overcome erectile dysfunction, and note which therapy is used when the problems are biological versus psychological. Answer: • Biological Therapy: One type of therapy used to address erectile dysfunction of biological origin is medication such as phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors, including sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), and vardenafil (Levitra). • Psychological Therapy: Another type of therapy used for erectile dysfunction with psychological origins is psychotherapy, including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or couples therapy, which can help address underlying psychological factors contributing to the issue. 183. Identify two health-related conditions that can be linked to the frequency of sexual behavior in middle adulthood. How do these conditions affect the experience of sexuality during this period of the lifespan? Answer: 1. Cardiovascular Disease: Cardiovascular conditions such as hypertension and atherosclerosis can affect blood flow to the genitals, leading to difficulties in achieving or maintaining erections in men and arousal difficulties in women. This can impact sexual performance and satisfaction during middle adulthood. 2. Diabetes: Diabetes can cause nerve damage and vascular problems, contributing to erectile dysfunction in men and reduced vaginal lubrication and sensation in women. These physical effects of diabetes can impair sexual function and pleasure during middle adulthood. 184. According to the text, what impression do the media usually convey about sexuality during middle adulthood? Do the results of research studies support or refute this general view? Answer: The media often portray sexuality during middle adulthood as declining or less significant compared to youth. However, research studies tend to refute this view, suggesting that many individuals maintain active and satisfying sexual lives well into middle adulthood. 185. Who experiences more sexual satisfaction during the periods of young and middle adulthood – men or women? Cite evidence to support your answer. Answer: Research suggests that women tend to experience more sexual satisfaction during young and middle adulthood compared to men. Studies have found that women are more likely to report higher levels of sexual satisfaction, intimacy, and emotional connection in their relationships during these life stages. Disease and Health 186. Describe the age-related changes that occur across ages 35-44, to ages 45-54, and to ages 55-64, with respect to the death rate due to accidents, to cancer, and to heart disease. How do death rates for these three factors change with age? Answer: Across the age groups specified, the death rate due to accidents typically decreases from ages 35-44 to ages 55-64. However, the death rates for cancer and heart disease tend to increase with age, with higher rates observed in the older age group compared to the younger age groups. 187. Are men or women more vulnerable to disease and early death during middle adulthood? Cite statistical evidence to support your conclusion. Answer: Men are generally more vulnerable to disease and early death during middle adulthood. Statistical evidence shows that men have higher mortality rates from various health conditions, including heart disease, cancer, and accidents, compared to women of the same age group. 188. How is the amount of education a person has linked to death rates? Is this trend the same for men and women? Describe your answer by citing statistical evidence. Answer: The amount of education a person has is inversely linked to death rates, meaning higher levels of education are associated with lower mortality rates. This trend holds true for both men and women. Statistical evidence consistently demonstrates that individuals with higher levels of education tend to live longer and have lower mortality rates compared to those with lower levels of education. 189. Identify three things that young adults can do that will have the greatest impact on lengthening their lives. Answer: 1. Adopting a healthy diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins, while limiting processed foods and excessive intake of sugars and saturated fats. 2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as aerobic exercises, strength training, and flexibility exercises, to maintain cardiovascular health, muscle strength, and overall fitness. 3. Avoiding harmful behaviors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and drug abuse, which can significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases and premature death. 190. Describe the current statistics that describe cigarette smoking in the United States. Answer: Currently, cigarette smoking in the United States has declined significantly over the years. According to recent statistics, approximately 14% of adults in the U.S. are smokers. However, smoking remains a leading cause of preventable death and is associated with various health issues such as lung cancer, heart disease, and respiratory disorders. 191. How are obesity rates changing in the United States today, and what effect will these changes likely have on life expectancy? Answer: Obesity rates in the United States have been steadily increasing over the past few decades. Currently, around 42% of American adults are considered obese. This trend is concerning because obesity is linked to numerous health problems, including diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and certain types of cancer. The rise in obesity rates is likely to have a negative impact on life expectancy as it increases the risk of developing chronic diseases and reduces overall health and quality of life. 192. Describe how stress scales, such as the one described in the text, developed. What information about stress do these scales provide? Answer: Stress scales, such as the Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale, were developed based on research that aimed to quantify the impact of different life events on an individual's stress levels. These scales typically assign a numerical value to various life events based on the perceived stress they induce. By adding up the scores associated with different events experienced by an individual within a specific timeframe, these scales provide an estimate of the overall stress level experienced. They help identify potential sources of stress and assess the cumulative impact of stressors on an individual's well-being. 193. Describe four life events that are among the most stressful. Answer: 1. Death of a spouse or loved one: Losing a close family member or partner can be one of the most stressful life events, leading to profound emotional and psychological distress. 2. Divorce or relationship breakup: The dissolution of a marriage or long-term relationship often involves significant emotional upheaval, financial strain, and adjustment challenges. 3. Serious illness or injury: Coping with a severe illness or injury, either personally or within one's immediate family, can create immense stress due to concerns about health, medical treatments, and potential lifestyle changes. 4. Job loss or financial problems: Experiencing unemployment, bankruptcy, or financial instability can cause considerable stress, affecting one's sense of security, self-esteem, and overall well-being. 194. Does stress result from major life events, from daily hassles, or from both? Describe two ways in which the effects of stress can take their toll on health. Answer: Stress can result from both major life events and daily hassles. Major life events such as divorce, loss of a loved one, or job loss can lead to significant stress. Additionally, daily hassles like traffic congestion, financial worries, or workplace conflicts can also contribute to stress levels. The effects of stress can take their toll on health in various ways, including increased risk of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and heart disease, as well as mental health issues like anxiety and depression. 195. Identify two reasons that help explain why the death rate for Black Americans is substantially higher than for White Americans today. Answer: One reason for the higher death rate among Black Americans compared to White Americans is disparities in access to healthcare. Black Americans are more likely to experience barriers such as lack of health insurance, limited access to quality healthcare facilities, and racial biases in healthcare delivery. Additionally, socioeconomic factors such as poverty, lower educational attainment, and systemic racism contribute to poorer health outcomes and higher mortality rates among Black Americans. Cognitive Continuity and Change 196. Give an example of fluid intelligence and an example of crystallized intelligence, noting how these abilities are different from each other. Answer: An example of fluid intelligence is the ability to solve novel problems or adapt to new situations quickly, such as figuring out a new puzzle or learning a new skill. Crystallized intelligence, on the other hand, refers to accumulated knowledge and skills over time, demonstrated through tasks like vocabulary tests or recalling historical facts. Fluid intelligence involves reasoning and problem-solving abilities that are flexible and adaptable, whereas crystallized intelligence relies on previously acquired knowledge and experiences. 197. Why is fluid intelligence sometimes called cognitive pragmatics? Why is crystallized intelligence sometimes called cognitive mechanics? How do the terms “pragmatics” and “mechanics” help describe the fundamental difference between these two types of intellectual skills? Answer: Fluid intelligence is sometimes called cognitive pragmatics because it relates to the practical application of cognitive abilities in novel situations, emphasizing flexibility and adaptability. Crystallized intelligence, on the other hand, is referred to as cognitive mechanics because it represents the mechanics or machinery of knowledge acquisition and retention, highlighting the role of accumulated experience and learning. The terms "pragmatics" and "mechanics" help describe the fundamental difference between these two types of intellectual skills by emphasizing the dynamic nature of fluid intelligence and the stable, structured nature of crystallized intelligence. 198. Why are cross-sectional studies likely to lead researchers to incorrect conclusions about how intellect changes with age across adulthood? Answer: Cross-sectional studies, which compare different age groups at a single point in time, are likely to lead researchers to incorrect conclusions about how intellect changes with age across adulthood because they do not account for cohort effects. Cohort effects refer to differences between age groups that result from growing up in different historical contexts. Without accounting for cohort effects, cross-sectional studies may erroneously attribute age-related differences in intellect to the aging process itself, rather than environmental or societal influences specific to each cohort. 199. Describe the typical result of cross-sectional studies that explore changes in fluid and crystallized intelligence across the span of adulthood. Which abilities decline the most? Answer: Cross-sectional studies examining changes in fluid and crystallized intelligence across adulthood typically show that fluid intelligence declines more significantly than crystallized intelligence. Fluid intelligence, which involves problem-solving, reasoning, and processing speed, tends to decline with age, whereas crystallized intelligence, which encompasses accumulated knowledge and skills, remains relatively stable or may even improve with experience. 200. Which intellectual abilities appear to be most resistant to age-related decline? Which decline the most during adulthood? Answer: Intellectual abilities that rely on accumulated knowledge and experience, such as crystallized intelligence, tend to be most resistant to age-related decline. These abilities remain relatively stable or may even improve with age due to continued learning and life experiences. In contrast, fluid intelligence, which involves processing speed, problem-solving, and reasoning abilities, typically declines the most during adulthood, particularly in later years. 201. What brain changes are typically associated with the period of middle adulthood? What cognitive changes are typically the result? Answer: During middle adulthood, typical brain changes include a reduction in the volume of gray matter, particularly in the prefrontal cortex, which is associated with executive functions such as decision-making and problem-solving. These changes may lead to declines in certain cognitive abilities, such as processing speed, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. However, middle adulthood is also characterized by increased neural efficiency and compensation mechanisms, allowing individuals to maintain cognitive performance in areas of expertise. 202. How do experts retain a high level of skill in middle and older adulthood, given the decline in cognitive abilities that typically accompany aging? Answer: Experts often retain a high level of skill in middle and older adulthood through a combination of factors such as continued practice, deliberate learning strategies, and reliance on accumulated knowledge and experience. By engaging in activities that challenge their expertise and provide opportunities for learning and adaptation, experts can mitigate the effects of age-related cognitive decline and maintain proficiency in their respective domains. 203. Describe the changes to life expectancy in the U.S. that have occurred in the past 60 years. What do these changes imply for the importance of job retraining in the U.S. workforce? Answer: Over the past 60 years, life expectancy in the U.S. has generally increased due to advancements in healthcare, nutrition, and public health initiatives. These changes have led to a growing proportion of older adults in the workforce, as individuals are living longer and healthier lives. As a result, there is a greater need for job retraining programs to accommodate the evolving skills and abilities of workers across their extended careers. Investing in lifelong learning and skill development becomes crucial to ensure that the workforce remains adaptable and competitive in a rapidly changing labor market. Essay questions: Development in Middle Adulthood 204. Is middle adulthood “prime time” or the “beginning of the end”? Explain your answer and support it with evidence. 205. Give a good example of a person you know about who represents the meaning of the term “command generation.” Explain how this person’s life emblemizes this idea. 206. According to Daniel Levinson, what factors lead a person toward a midlife crisis? How is such a crisis typically experienced? How is it typically resolved? 207. According to Levinson, men and women typically experience the midlife crisis in the same way and at the same time. If you were to conduct research that explores gender differences in how the midlife crisis is experienced, what two factors do you believe would be most interesting to explore? What hypothesis would you propose for each gender-related factor, based on how you think men might adapt differently than women? 204. Is middle adulthood “prime time” or the “beginning of the end”? Explain your answer and support it with evidence. Answer: Middle adulthood can be considered "prime time" rather than the "beginning of the end." This stage, typically occurring between the ages of 40 to 65, is characterized by numerous opportunities for personal and professional fulfillment, contributing to the notion of it being a prime phase of life. Evidence supporting middle adulthood as "prime time" includes: 1. Career Achievement: Many individuals reach the pinnacle of their careers during middle adulthood, enjoying professional success, financial stability, and the fulfillment of long-term goals. 2. Personal Fulfillment: Middle adulthood often brings a sense of self-actualization and contentment as individuals have gained wisdom, life experience, and a clearer sense of identity. 3. Family and Relationships: Middle adulthood is a time of deepening familial bonds, as individuals may experience the joys of parenthood and the satisfaction of seeing their children grow and succeed. Additionally, relationships with partners may mature and deepen, providing emotional support and companionship. While challenges such as health concerns and caregiving responsibilities may arise during middle adulthood, it is primarily a period of growth, achievement, and fulfillment, supporting the view of it as "prime time." 205. Give a good example of a person you know about who represents the meaning of the term “command generation.” Explain how this person’s life emblemizes this idea. Answer: One exemplary individual who embodies the concept of the "command generation" is my grandfather. Throughout his life, he exhibited traits of resilience, leadership, and a strong sense of duty, reflecting the characteristics associated with this generation. My grandfather served in the military during a time of conflict, demonstrating his commitment to duty and service to his country. After his military service, he transitioned into a successful career in business, where he held positions of leadership and responsibility. He exemplified the values of hard work, discipline, and integrity, which were prevalent among his generation. Even in retirement, my grandfather remained active and engaged in his community, volunteering his time and expertise to various organizations and causes. He continued to command respect and admiration from those around him, serving as a role model for younger generations. Overall, my grandfather's life exemplifies the ideals of the "command generation" through his leadership, resilience, and unwavering commitment to duty and service. 206. According to Daniel Levinson, what factors lead a person toward a midlife crisis? How is such a crisis typically experienced? How is it typically resolved? Answer: According to Daniel Levinson, several factors can lead a person toward a midlife crisis: 1. Self-reflection: Individuals in middle adulthood may engage in introspection, evaluating their life choices, accomplishments, and future goals. This reflection can sometimes lead to feelings of dissatisfaction or a sense of unfulfilled potential. 2. Life Transitions: Significant life events such as career changes, divorce, empty nest syndrome, or the loss of loved ones can trigger a midlife crisis by disrupting established routines and identities. 3. Awareness of Mortality: Middle-aged individuals may become acutely aware of their own mortality, prompting existential questions about the meaning and purpose of life. A midlife crisis is typically experienced as a period of psychological turmoil, characterized by feelings of anxiety, depression, and a sense of existential angst. Individuals may question their accomplishments, relationships, and overall satisfaction with life, leading to a sense of disillusionment and unrest. However, a midlife crisis can also serve as a catalyst for positive change and personal growth. By confronting existential concerns and reassessing priorities, individuals may emerge from this period with renewed clarity, resilience, and a deeper sense of purpose. Typical resolutions to a midlife crisis involve introspection, seeking support from friends or professionals, making meaningful life changes, and finding new sources of fulfillment and meaning. 207. According to Levinson, men and women typically experience the midlife crisis in the same way and at the same time. If you were to conduct research that explores gender differences in how the midlife crisis is experienced, what two factors do you believe would be most interesting to explore? What hypothesis would you propose for each gender-related factor, based on how you think men might adapt differently than women? Answer: Two factors that would be interesting to explore in terms of gender differences in experiencing the midlife crisis are coping mechanisms and societal expectations. 1. Coping Mechanisms: Men might exhibit more externalizing behaviors, such as increased risk-taking or pursuing new career paths, as a way to cope with feelings of stagnation or dissatisfaction during the midlife period. Women, on the other hand, might engage in more internalizing behaviors, such as seeking emotional support from social networks or focusing on self-reflection and personal growth. Hypothesis for Men:* Men are more likely to adopt external coping mechanisms, such as career changes or adventurous pursuits, as a response to the midlife crisis, driven by a desire to reclaim a sense of youthfulness or accomplishment. Hypothesis for Women:* Women are more likely to engage in internal coping mechanisms, such as seeking emotional support from friends and family or pursuing introspection and self-improvement activities, to navigate the challenges of the midlife crisis. 2. Societal Expectations: Societal norms and expectations regarding gender roles may influence how men and women experience and respond to the midlife crisis. Men might feel pressure to assert their masculinity or prove their success during this period, while women may face expectations related to caregiving roles or maintaining youthfulness. Hypothesis for Men:* Men experiencing the midlife crisis may feel pressured to demonstrate traditional markers of success or masculinity, leading to behaviors such as purchasing expensive items or seeking extramarital affairs as a way to reaffirm their identity. Hypothesis for Women:* Women may experience conflict between societal expectations of aging and personal aspirations, leading to feelings of inadequacy or a desire to redefine their roles and priorities during the midlife period. 208. How do transitional models explain the “midlife crisis” that was suggested by Levinson? What life factors might influence how a 40-year-old person might experience the transition from early to middle adulthood? Answer: Transitional models, such as those proposed by Levinson, suggest that the midlife crisis arises from the tension between the past and the future, as individuals reassess their goals, values, and accomplishments. According to Levinson, the midlife crisis typically occurs around the age of 40 and is characterized by a period of introspection and questioning, often accompanied by anxiety or dissatisfaction. Several life factors can influence how a 40-year-old person experiences the transition from early to middle adulthood: 1. Career Stability: Individuals may experience feelings of stagnation or dissatisfaction if they perceive their career as unfulfilling or if they have not achieved their desired level of success by age 40. 2. Relationship Dynamics: Changes in marital or family relationships, such as divorce, empty nest syndrome, or caring for aging parents, can contribute to feelings of crisis as individuals reassess their roles and commitments. 3. Health and Aging: Concerns about aging, mortality, and declining physical health may become more salient during the transition to middle adulthood, prompting individuals to evaluate their lifestyle choices and priorities. 4. Existential Questions: As individuals reach midlife, they may confront existential questions about the meaning and purpose of their lives, leading to a period of self-reflection and existential angst. Overall, the transition from early to middle adulthood is influenced by a complex interplay of internal and external factors, including career aspirations, relationship dynamics, health concerns, and existential reflections, which can contribute to the experience of the midlife crisis. 209. Describe how modern researchers typically differ from Daniel Levinson in their views of middle age, specifically regarding the midlife crisis. Answer: Modern researchers often differ from Daniel Levinson in their views of middle age and the midlife crisis by emphasizing a more nuanced and diverse understanding of this life stage. Unlike Levinson's theory, which posited a universal midlife crisis experienced around age 40, contemporary perspectives recognize variability in individuals' experiences and trajectories during middle adulthood. 1. Diversity of Experiences: Modern researchers acknowledge that not everyone experiences a midlife crisis, and those who do may manifest it in different ways. Rather than a uniform crisis, midlife may be characterized by a range of challenges, transitions, and opportunities for growth. 2. Gender and Cultural Variations: Contemporary perspectives consider the influence of gender and cultural factors on midlife experiences. Researchers recognize that men and women may navigate midlife differently, shaped by societal expectations, life circumstances, and individual characteristics. 3. Resilience and Adaptation: While Levinson focused on the potential turmoil and upheaval of the midlife crisis, modern researchers highlight individuals' resilience and capacity for adaptation during this period. Many people successfully navigate midlife transitions, finding new sources of meaning, fulfillment, and well-being. Overall, modern researchers approach middle age and the midlife crisis with a more nuanced understanding, acknowledging variability, diversity, and the potential for growth and resilience during this life stage. Physical Continuity and Change 210. Describe the typical changes to vision, hearing, taste, and smell that occur in middle adulthood. How do these changes typically affect the adult’s use of cognitive resources, such as memory and problem-solving skills? Answer: In middle adulthood, individuals may experience gradual changes in vision, such as presbyopia, which affects near vision, and a decline in visual acuity, particularly in low-light conditions. Hearing loss, particularly in high-frequency sounds, is common due to age-related changes in the inner ear. Taste and smell sensitivity may decrease, affecting the ability to discern flavors and scents. These sensory changes can impact cognitive resources by requiring compensatory strategies, such as increased reliance on memory and problem-solving skills to navigate environmental challenges. For instance, individuals may need to use memory aids or adapt their communication strategies to accommodate changes in hearing and vision. 211. Describe the results of research that explored how U. S. women typically experience the symptoms associated with menopause. Do women today view “the change” as positive, negative, or a mixture of both? Answer: Research on menopausal symptoms among U.S. women indicates a diverse range of experiences. While some women may experience symptoms such as hot flashes, mood changes, and sleep disturbances, others may transition through menopause with minimal disruption. The perception of menopause varies among women, with some viewing it as a natural phase of life and others perceiving it as a challenging or negative experience. Overall, women today tend to view menopause as a mixture of both positive and negative aspects, acknowledging both the challenges and potential benefits associated with this life transition. 212. Cite two pieces of evidence that the text presents that indicate that the experience of menopause is heavily dependent on cultural, rather than biological, forces. Do you agree with this conclusion? Explain. Answer: One piece of evidence suggesting the cultural influence on menopause experience is the variation in reported symptoms across different cultural contexts. For example, studies have shown that women from cultures with more positive attitudes towards menopause tend to report fewer symptoms and view the transition more favorably. Another indicator is the difference in the prevalence and severity of menopausal symptoms among women from various ethnic backgrounds. Some cultures emphasize social support and holistic approaches to health, which may mitigate the impact of menopausal symptoms. While biology plays a role in menopause, cultural beliefs, practices, and support systems significantly shape women's experiences. I agree with this conclusion as it aligns with research indicating the significant influence of sociocultural factors on health perceptions and experiences. Cultural attitudes, social support networks, and access to resources all contribute to how individuals navigate and perceive life transitions such as menopause. 213. Suppose a good friend is experiencing bothersome symptoms associated with menopause and is considering going on hormone replacement therapy. If she asked you for your advice, what evidence would you cite that would help her make an informed decision? What would your recommendation be? Answer: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can alleviate menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and mood swings. However, it also comes with potential risks, including an increased risk of breast cancer, blood clots, and stroke. The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study, one of the largest studies on HRT, found that long-term use of combined estrogen and progestin therapy was associated with increased risks of heart disease, stroke, blood clots, and breast cancer. However, the risks may vary depending on factors such as age, overall health, and the type of HRT used. It's essential to discuss these risks and benefits with a healthcare provider to make an informed decision. Non-hormonal therapies and lifestyle changes may also help manage menopausal symptoms, so considering those options is advisable. 214. Is erectile dysfunction more likely to be the result of physiological or psychological problems? What treatments exist, and which is generally prescribed? Does the therapy prescribed depend on what the likely cause of dysfunction is? Explain. Answer: Erectile dysfunction (ED) can stem from both physiological and psychological factors. Physiological causes include conditions like diabetes, hypertension, and vascular disease, which affect blood flow to the penis. Psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, and depression can also contribute to ED. Treatments for ED include oral medications like Viagra (sildenafil), Cialis (tadalafil), and Levitra (vardenafil), which enhance blood flow to the penis. Other options include vacuum erection devices, penile implants, and psychotherapy. The choice of therapy often depends on the underlying cause of ED. For instance, if ED is primarily due to psychological factors, counseling or psychotherapy may be recommended, while if it's primarily physiological, medications or other interventions targeting vascular health may be prescribed. 215. Identify three reasons why sexual activity typically declines during middle adulthood. Is this decline substantial, and does it lead to greater marital unhappiness? Cite evidence to support your conclusions. Answer: Three reasons for the decline in sexual activity during middle adulthood include hormonal changes, physical health issues, and relationship dynamics. Hormonal shifts, such as decreases in testosterone levels in both men and women, can affect libido. Additionally, physical health issues like chronic conditions or medications may impact sexual function. Relationship factors such as communication issues, stress, or changes in intimacy levels can also contribute to decreased sexual activity. While there is often a decline in sexual frequency during middle adulthood, studies suggest that this decline may not necessarily lead to greater marital unhappiness. Research published in the Archives of Sexual Behavior indicates that marital satisfaction is more strongly correlated with emotional intimacy and relationship quality than with sexual frequency alone. Therefore, while sexual activity may decline, maintaining emotional connection and communication in the relationship can help mitigate any negative impacts on marital happiness. 216. What gender differences exist during young and middle adulthood with respect to sexual satisfaction and behavior? Answer: During young and middle adulthood, gender differences in sexual satisfaction and behavior can be observed. Generally, men tend to report higher levels of sexual satisfaction compared to women. This difference is often attributed to various factors including societal expectations, cultural norms, and physiological differences. Men may have higher levels of sexual desire due to higher levels of testosterone, while women may experience fluctuations in sexual desire influenced by hormonal changes throughout their menstrual cycle and life stages such as pregnancy and menopause. Additionally, societal attitudes towards sexuality may lead to differences in sexual behavior, with men being more likely to engage in casual sex and women often seeking emotional intimacy in sexual relationships. Disease and Health 217. How do death rates from the major causes of death in adulthood change as a person moves from early adulthood through middle adulthood? In your answer, describe how death rates due to accidents, to cancer, and to heart disease shift with increasing age in this period. Answer: As individuals transition from early adulthood to middle adulthood, there are notable shifts in death rates from major causes of death. In early adulthood, accidents, particularly those related to motor vehicle accidents and substance abuse, are significant contributors to mortality. However, as individuals age into middle adulthood, death rates due to accidents tend to decline, often attributed to increased awareness, safety regulations, and lifestyle changes. Conversely, cancer and heart disease become increasingly prominent causes of death during middle adulthood. With age, the risk factors for these diseases, such as tobacco use, poor diet, physical inactivity, and chronic stress, accumulate, leading to higher mortality rates. Middle adulthood is a critical period for preventive health measures to mitigate the risk of these chronic diseases. 218. Describe how death rates and disease rates differ in the U.S. today for men versus women. What factors are likely to contribute to these differences? Answer: In the United States today, there are notable differences in death rates and disease rates between men and women. Overall, men tend to have higher death rates compared to women, particularly at younger ages. This can be attributed to several factors including differences in biology, lifestyle behaviors, and healthcare-seeking patterns. Men are more likely to engage in risk-taking behaviors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and reluctance to seek medical care, leading to higher rates of preventable diseases and mortality. Additionally, men are more prone to certain health conditions such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer. Conversely, women generally have a longer life expectancy and lower death rates, partly due to hormonal factors that offer protective effects against cardiovascular disease until menopause, as well as greater healthcare utilization and adherence to preventive measures such as regular screenings and check-ups. However, women also face unique health challenges such as reproductive-related issues and autoimmune diseases that contribute to their disease burden. 219. Discuss the relationship between education level and life expectancy for men and women. Identify two ways in which educational level is likely related to life expectancy. Answer: The relationship between education level and life expectancy is well-documented, with higher levels of education generally associated with longer life expectancy for both men and women. This correlation can be attributed to several factors: 1. Access to Healthcare: Individuals with higher education levels tend to have better access to healthcare services. They are more likely to afford health insurance, preventive care, and regular medical check-ups. This proactive approach to health management often leads to earlier detection and treatment of health issues, ultimately contributing to a longer life expectancy. 2. Healthier Lifestyle Choices: Education equips individuals with knowledge and critical thinking skills, enabling them to make healthier lifestyle choices. Higher-educated individuals are more likely to engage in behaviors such as regular exercise, maintaining a balanced diet, and avoiding harmful substances like tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption. These lifestyle choices significantly impact overall health and longevity. In summary, higher education levels are associated with longer life expectancy due to improved access to healthcare and the adoption of healthier lifestyle habits. 220. Describe three ways in which physical exercise can help middle-aged adults be healthier and live longer. Answer: Physical exercise offers numerous benefits for middle-aged adults, promoting both physical and mental well-being. Here are three ways in which regular exercise contributes to a healthier and longer life: 1. Cardiovascular Health: Regular aerobic exercise, such as brisk walking, jogging, or cycling, strengthens the heart and improves circulation. It lowers blood pressure, reduces LDL cholesterol levels, and decreases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases like heart attack and stroke. By maintaining a healthy cardiovascular system, middle-aged adults can significantly enhance their overall health and longevity. 2. Weight Management: Middle-aged adults often experience metabolic changes that can lead to weight gain and obesity. Engaging in regular physical activity helps burn calories, build lean muscle mass, and increase metabolic rate, making it easier to manage weight and prevent obesity-related health issues like type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and joint problems. 3. Mental Well-being: Exercise is not only beneficial for physical health but also plays a crucial role in mental well-being. Physical activity stimulates the release of endorphins, neurotransmitters that promote feelings of happiness and reduce stress and anxiety. Middle-aged adults who incorporate exercise into their routine often experience improved mood, better sleep quality, enhanced cognitive function, and a lower risk of developing mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety. By incorporating regular physical exercise into their lifestyle, middle-aged adults can improve cardiovascular health, manage weight effectively, and enhance mental well-being, ultimately leading to a healthier and longer life. 221. Describe the prevalence of cigarette smoking in the United States today, in comparison to earlier decades. Include in your answer research about the success most people have in trying to quit. Answer: In recent decades, the prevalence of cigarette smoking in the United States has significantly declined due to widespread awareness campaigns, regulatory measures, and changes in societal attitudes toward smoking. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the prevalence of cigarette smoking among U.S. adults reached an all-time low in 2019, with approximately 14% of adults being current smokers, compared to over 40% in the 1960s. One reason for this decline is the implementation of various tobacco control policies, such as increased taxation on tobacco products, restrictions on tobacco advertising, smoke-free laws in public spaces, and educational campaigns highlighting the health risks associated with smoking. Moreover, research indicates that most people who attempt to quit smoking eventually succeed, albeit after multiple attempts. According to a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, about 70% of current adult smokers in the United States report that they want to quit, and around 55% have made a quit attempt in the past year. While quitting smoking can be challenging due to nicotine addiction and withdrawal symptoms, various cessation methods, including nicotine replacement therapy, prescription medications, counseling, and support groups, have been shown to significantly improve success rates. Overall, although smoking prevalence has declined in the United States, quitting remains a challenging but achievable goal for many individuals, with the support of evidence-based cessation interventions and public health initiatives. 222. List in order the top three causes of preventable death in adulthood in the United States today. How might each be related to socioeconomic factors and to stress? Answer: The top three causes of preventable death in adulthood in the United States today are cardiovascular diseases (such as heart disease and stroke), cancer, and unintentional injuries (such as accidents and drug overdoses). Socioeconomic factors play a significant role in these causes of death. Lower socioeconomic status is often associated with limited access to healthcare, unhealthy living conditions, and higher levels of stress, which can exacerbate the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and cancer, as well as increase the likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors leading to unintentional injuries. 223. Describe how researchers measure the degree to which a person’s life is stressful. How does life stress interact with lifestyle to affect overall health? Answer: Researchers measure the degree of stress in a person's life using various methods, including self-report questionnaires, physiological measures (such as cortisol levels), and life event checklists. Life stress interacts with lifestyle in several ways to affect overall health. Chronic stress can lead to unhealthy coping mechanisms such as smoking, overeating, or substance abuse, which contribute to the development of chronic diseases like cardiovascular disorders and certain types of cancer. Additionally, stress can disrupt sleep patterns, weaken the immune system, and exacerbate existing health conditions, further impacting overall health. 224. Identify three factors that help explain the finding that the death rate in middle adulthood of white Americans is lower than that of African Americans and of Hispanic Americans. To what extent are socioeconomic forces involved, do you think? Answer: Three factors that help explain the lower death rate in middle adulthood among white Americans compared to African Americans and Hispanic Americans include access to healthcare, socioeconomic status, and prevalence of chronic diseases. Socioeconomic forces play a significant role in these disparities. White Americans generally have better access to healthcare, higher incomes, and more resources compared to African American and Hispanic American populations. This access allows for better prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases, ultimately contributing to lower mortality rates. Additionally, socioeconomic factors influence lifestyle choices, environmental exposures, and stress levels, all of which can impact health outcomes. Therefore, socioeconomic forces likely play a substantial role in these disparities in mortality rates. 225. Discuss how one’s socioeconomic status might influence one’s health in middle adulthood. What factors related to socioeconomic status have an impact on health and risk of dying? Answer: Socioeconomic status (SES) significantly influences health outcomes in middle adulthood. Several factors associated with SES contribute to health disparities and risks of mortality. Firstly, access to healthcare services is a critical factor. Individuals with higher SES often have better access to healthcare facilities, preventive services, and medications, leading to better health management and outcomes. Conversely, those with lower SES may face barriers such as lack of insurance coverage, transportation issues, or limited availability of healthcare providers, resulting in delayed diagnosis and treatment of health conditions. Secondly, socioeconomic status influences lifestyle choices and behaviors. Higher SES individuals tend to have healthier behaviors such as regular exercise, balanced diet, and lower rates of smoking and substance abuse, which contribute to better health outcomes. Conversely, lower SES individuals may face environmental stressors such as exposure to pollution, unhealthy living conditions, and limited access to recreational facilities, which can lead to higher rates of chronic illnesses like cardiovascular diseases, respiratory problems, and obesity. Lastly, socioeconomic status impacts psychosocial factors such as stress levels, social support, and mental health. Individuals with lower SES often experience chronic stress due to financial insecurity, unemployment, or inadequate housing, which can have detrimental effects on physical and mental health. Moreover, social support networks and community resources are often more robust among higher SES individuals, providing a buffer against stressors and promoting overall well-being. In summary, socioeconomic status influences health in middle adulthood through its effects on access to healthcare, lifestyle choices, environmental exposures, and psychosocial factors. Addressing socioeconomic inequalities is essential for promoting health equity and reducing the risk of premature mortality. Cognitive Continuity and Change 226. Define the terms “crystallized intelligence” and “fluid intelligence” and identify the key distinction between these different types of cognitive skills. Which is more closely tied to neurological functioning? Why? Answer: Crystallized intelligence refers to acquired knowledge and skills accumulated over time through education, experiences, and cultural exposure. It involves the ability to apply previously acquired information to solve problems, make decisions, and comprehend complex concepts. Crystallized intelligence tends to increase with age and remains relatively stable or even improves throughout adulthood. Fluid intelligence, on the other hand, refers to the capacity to think logically and solve novel problems independently of acquired knowledge. It involves the ability to adapt to new situations, recognize patterns, and generate creative solutions. Fluid intelligence is believed to peak in early adulthood and gradually decline with age. The key distinction between these types of cognitive skills lies in their developmental trajectories and underlying neural mechanisms. Crystallized intelligence relies heavily on stored information in long-term memory and is influenced by factors such as education, culture, and life experiences. In contrast, fluid intelligence is more closely tied to neurological functioning, particularly the efficiency of neural networks involved in tasks such as working memory, attentional control, and processing speed. Neuroimaging studies suggest that fluid intelligence is associated with the integrity and efficiency of frontal and parietal brain regions involved in executive functions and problem-solving. These areas of the brain tend to show age-related decline, explaining the decrease in fluid intelligence observed with aging. Crystallized intelligence, on the other hand, is less dependent on specific neural substrates and more influenced by environmental factors and cognitive reserve built over a lifetime. In summary, while both types of intelligence contribute to overall cognitive functioning, fluid intelligence is more closely tied to neurological functioning and tends to decline with age due to changes in brain structure and function. 227. Consider the job of an airplane pilot and suggest which tasks involved in flying a plane would be good examples of crystallized intelligence and which would be examples of fluid intelligence. How would you expect the flying ability of a 20-year-old pilot be different from that of a 60-year-old pilot? Which person would you rather have be the pilot in a plane in which you were a passenger? Why? Answer: In the context of flying a plane, tasks requiring crystallized intelligence would include knowledge of aircraft systems, navigation procedures, regulations, and emergency protocols. Pilots rely on their accumulated knowledge and experience to handle routine operations and respond effectively to known scenarios. For instance, interpreting flight instruments, communicating with air traffic control, and executing standard operating procedures are examples of tasks that draw upon crystallized intelligence. Conversely, tasks demanding fluid intelligence would involve problem-solving in unfamiliar or dynamic situations, such as responding to unexpected weather changes, system failures, or air traffic deviations. Pilots need to assess rapidly changing conditions, make quick decisions, and adapt their strategies to ensure the safety of the flight. For example, troubleshooting mechanical issues, devising alternative flight routes, and managing in-flight emergencies require fluid intelligence. The flying ability of a 20-year-old pilot would likely differ from that of a 60-year-old pilot due to various factors. The younger pilot may possess sharper reflexes, quicker cognitive processing speed, and greater adaptability to new technologies and procedures. They may excel in tasks requiring fast-paced decision-making and spatial awareness. However, they may have less experience and exposure to diverse flying conditions compared to the older pilot. On the other hand, the 60-year-old pilot may have accumulated extensive flight experience and refined their judgment and decision-making skills over decades of flying. While they might experience some age-related declines in fluid intelligence and physical capabilities, their wealth of knowledge, expertise, and ability to anticipate and mitigate risks could compensate for these limitations. As a passenger in a plane, I would prefer to have the 60-year-old pilot at the controls, given their extensive experience and seasoned judgment. While the younger pilot may possess certain cognitive advantages, the wisdom and expertise gained through years of flying make the older pilot more reliable in handling complex and unforeseen situations, ensuring a safer and smoother flight experience. 228. How do the conclusions about age-related cognitive decline differ, depending on whether a study uses cross-sectional, versus longitudinal, research methods? Which of these methods provides the more accurate view of age-related changes in cognition throughout adulthood? Answer: Cross-sectional studies compare individuals of different ages at a single point in time, while longitudinal studies follow the same individuals over an extended period. Cross-sectional studies may show apparent age-related cognitive decline, but this could be influenced by cohort effects. Longitudinal studies provide a more accurate depiction by tracking individual changes over time, capturing intra-individual variability. Longitudinal methods are generally more reliable for understanding age-related changes in cognition throughout adulthood. 229. Given the age-related decline that is typical of middle and later adulthood, explain why middle adulthood is still generally considered to be the “command generation.” Answer: Middle adulthood, typically ranging from around 40 to 65 years old, is often deemed the "command generation" due to the culmination of cognitive abilities, accumulated experience, and leadership roles. Despite age-related decline, individuals in this stage often possess significant expertise, leadership skills, and decision-making abilities garnered from years of experience. They are frequently at the peak of their professional careers and play vital roles in guiding organizations and society. 230. Describe how people’s ability to carry out cognitive tasks, including those involving spatial orientation, perceptual processing, and verbal memory, change over time during adulthood. Answer: During adulthood, cognitive abilities undergo changes. Spatial orientation skills may decline slightly with age, particularly in tasks requiring mental rotation or navigation. Perceptual processing speed tends to decrease gradually from early adulthood onwards. Verbal memory shows variations; while some aspects may decline, vocabulary and semantic memory often remain stable or improve with age due to accumulated knowledge and experience. These changes reflect the complex interplay of biological, environmental, and individual factors across the lifespan. 231. How would a younger physician and an older physician likely approach a complex medical problem, such as determining how to select a chemotherapy program for a patient with cancer, when several different options are available? If you were the patient, would you rather have the younger, or the older, doctor? Why? Answer: A younger physician might approach the problem with a fresh perspective, potentially being more inclined to explore newer treatments or experimental therapies. They might also heavily rely on the latest research findings and technological advancements. On the other hand, an older physician, drawing from their extensive experience, might lean towards established protocols and treatments they've seen work effectively in the past. They may prioritize patient safety based on their years of practice. As a patient, the preference between a younger or older doctor would depend on various factors such as the specific situation, the doctor's expertise, communication skills, and the patient's personal preferences. Some patients might feel more comfortable with the wisdom and experience of an older physician, while others might prefer the innovation and up-to-date knowledge of a younger doctor. 232. Why is it more important now than ever to provide ongoing education and training to workers in the workforce today? Suggest two reasons. Answer: 1. Technological Advancement: With rapid technological advancements, industries are constantly evolving. Ongoing education and training ensure that workers can adapt to new tools, software, and methodologies, enhancing their efficiency and productivity. Failure to keep up with technological changes can lead to skill obsolescence and decreased competitiveness in the job market. 2. Complexity of Jobs: Many modern jobs require a higher level of specialization and expertise. Continuous education helps workers stay updated with industry trends, regulations, and best practices, enabling them to perform their roles more effectively. Moreover, in fields like healthcare, engineering, and finance, ongoing training is essential to ensure professionals remain competent and capable of delivering high-quality services in rapidly changing environments. Test Bank for Understanding Human Development Wendy L. Dunn, Grace J. Craig 9780205989522, 9780135164204, 9780205233878, 9780205753079

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