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Chapter 8 - Middle Childhood: Physical and Cognitive Development 1. At what age does the human brain reach 95% of its adult size? a. age 4 b. age 6 c. age 9 d. age 14 Answer: b Rationale: The human brain reaches approximately 95% of its adult size by the age of 6. While brain development continues throughout childhood and adolescence, the majority of brain growth occurs in the early years of life. 2. Control processes are strategies and techniques that enhance __________. a. memory b. self-control c. empathy d. overall intelligence Answer: a Rationale: Control processes, such as attention, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility, are cognitive functions that help regulate and enhance various mental processes, including memory. 3. In a study investigating the time public school teachers spend in various classroom activities, teachers were found to spend about ____ % of the time in a 30-minute lesson on academic work. a. 10-15 b. 30-40 c. 55-70 d. 85-90 Answer: a Rationale: In the study, teachers were found to spend approximately 10-15% of the time in a 30-minute lesson on academic work. This highlights the importance of efficient classroom management and instructional strategies to maximize academic learning time. 4. Generalizing from data presented in the text, which of the following children would have the greatest chance of suffering from asthma? a. Linnea, a middle-class white girl who lives in northern Minnesota b. Rollin, a poor African American boy who lives in St. Louis, Missouri c. Jose, a Hispanic middle-class Hispanic boy who lives in rural California d. Jeff, a poor white boy who lives on a farm in New York state Answer: b Rationale: Research suggests that socioeconomic factors, such as poverty and environmental conditions, contribute to the prevalence of asthma. Therefore, Rollin, a poor African American boy living in an urban area with potentially higher pollution levels, would likely have a greater chance of suffering from asthma. 5. The text discusses research about Southeast Asian immigrant families. The results of this study suggest that which of the following factors is important in determining children’s IQs? a. race and skin color b. ethnicity and first language learned c. how long the family has lived in the U. S. d. family emphasis on education and success Answer: d Rationale: The research suggests that family emphasis on education and success is an important factor in determining children's IQs among Southeast Asian immigrant families. This highlights the significance of socio-cultural factors in academic achievement. 6. According to Carol Dweck, which of the following statements represents the most effective way to praise a child? a. “You are a very, very smart little girl.” b. “You are so cute, who could think you wouldn’t do well in school?” c. “You have a natural ability in mathematics; no wonder you do so well.” d. “You did a nice job in writing that story. I especially like the way you described the clown.” Answer: d Rationale: According to Carol Dweck's research on mindset, praising children for their effort and specific aspects of their performance, such as their strategies or persistence, fosters a growth mindset and leads to greater motivation and resilience. 7. Which of the following would be LEAST likely to contribute positively to the development of literacy? a. enrolling a child in a formal program of reading and writing in which they are drilled on correct techniques and rewarded when they succeed b. reading to children and talking with them about what was read c. having children play together and make up stories and plays d. allowing children a lot of pressure-free time to draw, even if their work is no more than scribbling on paper Answer: a Rationale: Enrolling a child in a formal program of reading and writing focused on drills and rewards may not contribute positively to the development of literacy. Such an approach may lead to rote learning and undermine intrinsic motivation for reading and writing. 8. If you were to look at a boy and a girl of average size in two different age groups, age 8 and age 10, who would you expect to be taller in each age group? a. The 8-year-old girl would be taller than the 8-year-old boy, but the 10-year-old boy would be taller than the 10-year-old girl. b. The 8-year-old boy would be taller than the 8-year-old girl, but the 10-year-old girl would be taller than the 10-year-old boy. c. The boys would be taller than the girls at both 8 and 10 years of age. d. The girls would be taller than the boys at both 8 and 10 years of age. Answer: b Rationale: Typically, girls experience a growth spurt earlier than boys, so at age 8, the average boy would likely be taller than the average girl, but by age 10, the average girl would likely surpass the average boy in height. 9. If a 5-year-old girl watches an adult pour juice from a tall, thin glass into a short, wide glass, and then she is asked, “Which glass has more juice?” she would typically: a. conclude that either the short, wide glass has more juice or that the tall, thin glass has more juice b. conclude that since no juice was spilled, the glasses have the same amount of juice c. become very confused and ask to see the juice poured again and again d. not be able to answer the question because she would be confused about why the adult was asking such an obvious question Answer: a Rationale: A 5-year-old's understanding of conservation is still developing, so she may conclude that either the short, wide glass has more juice (based on volume) or that the tall, thin glass has more juice (based on height), showing a lack of conservation of volume. 10. Suppose you conducted a study of pairs of identical twins, one of whom was diagnosed with ADHD. Now you examine whether or not the other twins in each pair also have ADHD. In comparison to pairs of unrelated children, you would expect that the other twin in your study would be _______ likely to also be diagnosed with ADHD. a. much less b. somewhat less c. equally d. more Answer: d Rationale: Research suggests a strong genetic component to ADHD, with identical twins having a higher concordance rate for the disorder compared to unrelated children. Therefore, the other twin in the study would be more likely to also be diagnosed with ADHD. 1. Higher level cognitive functions, such as attention, emotion, language, and memory, are thought to be associated most closely to activity in: a. the myelin surrounding axons b. the cell axons themselves, but not the cell bodies c. the gray matter of the brain d. the white matter in the left cerebral hemisphere Answer: c Rationale: Higher level cognitive functions are associated with activity in the gray matter of the brain, where neuronal cell bodies, dendrites, and synapses are primarily located. Gray matter plays a crucial role in processing information, regulating emotions, and facilitating complex cognitive processes. 2. The original purpose for developing the first intelligence tests in the early part of the twentieth century was: a. to identify children who would not do well in school b. to provide a reason to discriminate against children from African descent c. to give the French government a means of selecting especially talented children for placement in state-funded educational programs for the gifted d. to study how physical health and intelligence were related Answer: a Rationale: The original purpose of developing the first intelligence tests was to identify children who might struggle academically and require additional educational support. These tests were designed to assess cognitive abilities and identify individuals who may need special assistance in learning. 3. Which of the following is the primary goal of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA)? a. to train teachers to deal with children who have mental retardation and behavioral disorders b. to fund special schools that provide education to children with disabilities c. to raise the public’s awareness of the unfairness being done to individuals with disabilities d. to provide all children with a free and appropriate education Answer: d Rationale: The primary goal of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) is to provide all children with disabilities with a free and appropriate public education tailored to their individual needs. This legislation ensures that children with disabilities have access to educational services and supports that facilitate their academic and social development. 4. Suppose you learn that two children, a 10-year-old boy and a 10-year-old girl, have brains of quite different sizes, with the boy’s brain being about 40% larger than the girl’s brain. Which of the following conclusions would be the best to draw from this data? a. The girl most likely has something wrong with her brain, because it should be at least 10% larger than the boy’s brain. b. The girl’s brain most likely has something wrong with it, because it should be very close to the same size as the boy’s brain at this age. c. The girl most likely was malnourished in early childhood, giving rise to a smaller-than-average brain. d. There is no reason for concern, since children’s brain sizes can vary by as much as 50% without any appreciable difference in cognitive skills. Answer: d Rationale: There is no reason for concern, since children's brain sizes can vary significantly without necessarily indicating any cognitive impairment or abnormality. Variations in brain size among individuals are normal and do not necessarily correlate with cognitive abilities or health. 5. Addition and subtraction math problems rely on a child’s ability to understand which of the following Piagetian concepts? a. formal operations b. reversibility c. metacognition d. scripts Answer: b Rationale: Addition and subtraction math problems rely on a child's understanding of reversibility, a concept proposed by Piaget. Reversibility refers to the ability to mentally reverse actions and understand that a change in one direction can be reversed by an opposite change. 6. Tommy appears to not care at all about the quality of the school work he does. When asked, he says things like: “School is stupid. No one should try hard. Learning is useless.” Using the terms identified by David McClelland, you would conclude that Tommy has: a. very low achievement motivation b. very high need for excellence c. very low autonomy d. a low “pride” quotient Answer: a Rationale: According to David McClelland's theory of needs, Tommy's attitude suggests very low achievement motivation. Achievement motivation refers to the desire to excel, accomplish challenging tasks, and strive for success. Tommy's lack of interest in school work and dismissive attitude toward learning indicate a lack of motivation to achieve academic success. 7. The text states that there has been a gradual evolution in how mental retardation is regarded. In general, what change is at the center of that evolution in thinking? a. Today, each person is considered to be more an individual with specific needs for accommodations. b. Today, mental retardation is considered to be a biological, rather than a psychological, disability. c. Today, mental retardation is diagnosed according to a person’s IQ score, rather than to an assessment of that person’s abilities. d. Today, people understand that individuals with mental retardation cannot be expected to achieve at the same levels as people who do not have intellectual disabilities. Answer: a Rationale: The gradual evolution in how mental retardation is regarded centers on the understanding that each person is considered more as an individual with specific needs for accommodations rather than being solely defined by their disability. This shift emphasizes the importance of recognizing and addressing the unique strengths and challenges of individuals with intellectual disabilities. 8. Which of the following people would be most likely to get an erroneous estimate of obesity when using the BMI method of calculation? a. Susie, an overweight 12-year-old girl who is African American b. Barbara, an underweight 12-year-old girl who has not yet hit the adolescent growth spurt c. Mike, an overweight 16-year-old boy who gets very little exercise d. Jeremy, a competitive athlete with very large muscles Answer: d Rationale: Jeremy, a competitive athlete with very large muscles, would be most likely to get an erroneous estimate of obesity when using the BMI method of calculation. BMI (Body Mass Index) does not differentiate between muscle mass and fat mass, so individuals with high muscle mass, like Jeremy, may be classified as overweight or obese even though they have low body fat percentage. 9. Heidi has a series of events that she follows every morning: she takes a shower, dresses, eats breakfast, and rides the bus to school. Her memory of this sequence of events would most likely be organized in the form of: a. a series of retrieval cues b. a script for “morning events” c. a series of mental images d. semantic elaboration of common events Answer: b Rationale: Heidi's memory of the sequence of events she follows every morning would most likely be organized in the form of a script for "morning events." A script is a mental representation of a typical sequence of actions or events, such as daily routines, and helps organize and guide behavior. 10. Lynn tells the teacher, “I don’t care if I learn anything; I just want to get an A.” According to research conducted by Carol Dweck, you should conclude that Lynn has what type of motivation? a. learning motivation b. performance motivation c. social motivation d. anti-learning motivation Answer: b Rationale: According to research conducted by Carol Dweck, Lynn's statement indicates performance motivation. Performance motivation refers to the desire to demonstrate competence and receive external rewards or recognition, such as getting an A Multiple Choice questions: Physical and Motor Development 1. According to the text, in Western nations, middle childhood extends from about age: a. 4 to 8 years b. 5 to 10 years c. 6 to 12 years d. 8 to 12 years Answer: c Rationale: Middle childhood typically extends from around ages 6 to 12 years in Western nations. This period is characterized by significant physical, cognitive, and social development. 2. Compared to the first two years of life, growth during middle childhood is: a. faster and steadier b. slower, but more erratic c. faster, but more erratic d. slower and steadier Answer: d Rationale: Growth during middle childhood is slower and steadier compared to the rapid growth experienced in the first two years of life. While growth is still occurring, it is not as rapid or erratic as during infancy and early childhood. 3. Which of the following children would you expect to grow the least during a 6-month period of time? a. Renee, who is an 8-month-old girl b. Rex, who is an 8-month old boy c. Sara, who is a 2-year old girl d. Babette, who is a 7-year-old girl Answer: d Rationale: Growth is slower during middle childhood than earlier in life, so Babette would be expected to grow the least. The distinction between Renee and Rex is not important, since 8 months of age is a fast growth period compared with middle childhood. 4. If you were to look at a boy and a girl of average size in two different age groups, age 8 and age 10, who would you expect to be taller in each age group? a. The 8-year-old girl would be taller than the 8-year-old boy, but the 10-year-old boy would be taller than the 10-year-old girl. b. The 8-year-old boy would be taller than the 8-year-old girl, but the 10-year-old girl would be taller than the 10-year-old boy. c. The boys would be taller than the girls at both 8 and 10 years of age. d. The girls would be taller than the boys at both 8 and 10 years of age. Answer: b Rationale: Boys are slightly taller and heavier than girls until about age 9, when girls typically experience an adolescent growth spurt and grow faster than boys. Boys catch up and go on to exceed girl’s size when they hit their adolescent growth spurt at about age 11. 8.5 At what age does the human brain reach 95% of its adult size? a. age 4 b. age 6 c. age 9 d. age 14 Answer: b Rationale: The human brain reaches approximately 95% of its adult size by the age of 6. While brain development continues throughout childhood and adolescence, the majority of brain growth occurs in the early years of life. 6. Based on information presented in the text, which of the following individuals would you expect to have the largest brain, as measured by brain size (or volume)? a. Jackie, a 6-year old girl b. Lucille, an 11-year-old girl c. Andrea, a 27-year-old woman d. Margaret, a 54-year-old woman Answer: b Rationale: Brain mass peaks at age 10 ½ for girls and at age 14 ½ for boys, and brain size continues to diminish after those ages. Although male brains are about 10% larger, all of the people in this example are women. 7. If you were babysitting for a 9-year-old child who complained of “growing pains” in his legs, what would be the appropriate thing to do: a. give him an aspirin and tell his parents when they return b. call an ambulance c. massage the sore area and apply a heating pad d. tell him that the pains are not real and are “all in his head” Answer: c Rationale: Growing pains are normal for children and adolescents and can best be addressed by applying massage and gentle heat. 8. At what age do children typically begin to lose their primary teeth? a. 3 b. 6 c. 8 d. 10 Answer: b Rationale: Children typically begin to lose their primary teeth, also known as baby teeth, around the age of 6. This process continues until around the age of 12 when all permanent teeth have usually erupted. 9. According to the text, many studies find that boys are more athletic than girls during middle childhood. Research suggests that the major reason for this difference is: a. much greater muscle mass in boys than girls, even before puberty b. the male growth spurt occurs a few years earlier for boys than girls, giving them greater strength as well as size c. opportunity and expectations about athletic activities are greater for boys than girls d. brain growth occurs much earlier for boys, giving them much better fine and gross motor control than girls during middle childhood Answer: c Rationale: The text states that the sex difference is largely the result of greater expectations placed on boys. Furthermore, girls do not have less muscle mass before puberty, the male growth spurt occurs later than the female, and brain development is earlier for girls than boys; thus making the other answer choices all incorrect. 10. According to the text, most of the fine motor skills required for writing develop between the ages of: a. 3 and 4 b. 4 and 5 c. 5 and 6 d. 6 and 7 Answer: d Rationale: Most of the fine motor skills required for writing, such as hand-eye coordination and pencil grip, develop between the ages of 6 and 7. This is when children typically begin to learn and refine their writing abilities. 11. Suppose you are playing with a 6-year-old child and you ask the child to draw three different shapes: a triangle, a circle, and a square. Which shape would you expect the child to have the most difficulty drawing? a. the triangle b. the circle c. the square d. A 6-year-old can easily draw them all. Answer: a Rationale: The text notes that complex fine motor skills develop sequentially in middle childhood and that the circle is the easiest, and first, shape a child can draw, followed by a square, and then a triangle. 12. The process in which specific functions, such as speech, develop in specific regions of the brain is called: a. neural integration b. differentiation c. functional fixation d. lateralization Answer: d Rationale: The process in which specific functions become localized to specific regions of the brain is called lateralization. This specialization allows different areas of the brain to perform specific tasks efficiently. 13. If you were to observe a sample of brain tissue that was mostly composed of myelin and contained relatively few cell bodies, you would refer to this type of brain tissue as: a. white matter b. gray matter c. cell body mass extract d. pruned excess Answer: a Rationale: Gray matter differs from white matter in that white matter is comprised mostly of fatty myelin that surrounds axons whereas gray matter has little white myelin and instead is mostly cell bodies. “Cell body mass extract” and “pruned excess” are meaningless terms that are not mentioned in the text, but that do vaguely refer to neural concepts and may seem like correct answers to students who do not know the basic definitions of gray and white matter. 14. Higher level cognitive functions, such as attention, emotion, language, and memory, are thought to be associated most closely to activity in: a. the myelin surrounding axons b. the cell axons themselves, but not the cell bodies c. the gray matter of the brain d. the white matter in the left cerebral hemisphere Answer: c Rationale: Higher-level cognitive functions are associated most closely with activity in the gray matter of the brain, where neural cell bodies are located. Gray matter plays a key role in processing information and controlling cognitive functions. 15. Suppose you learn that two children, a 10-year boy and a 10-year old girl, have brains of quite different sizes, with the boy’s brain being about 40% larger than that girl’s brain. Which of the following conclusions would be the best to draw from this data? a. The girl most likely has something wrong with her brain, because it should be at least 10% larger than the boy’s brain. b. The girl’s brain most likely has something wrong with it, because it should be very close to the same size as the boy’s brain at this age. c. The girl most likely was malnourished in early childhood, giving rise to a smaller-than-average brain. d. There is no reason for concern, since children’s brain sizes can vary by as much as 50% without any appreciable difference in cognitive skills. Answer: d Rationale: Although male brains are on average about 10% larger than female brains throughout childhood and adulthood, brain volumes vary considerably among healthy individuals. A volume difference of 50%, while it seems large and significant, is not generally accompanied by different levels of cognitive abilities. Therefore, a size difference of 30% is within the normal range of brain size differentials. 16. During adolescence and adulthood, cognitive functions such as memory and judgment generally become more complex. According to the text, the neurological event most closely associated with such changes is: a. an increase in the number of neurons in the brain b. an increase in the overall size of the neurons in the cortex of the brain c. a decrease in the amount of myelin present in the brain d. a decline in gray matter that occurs after childhood Answer: d Rationale: The neurological event most closely associated with the increased complexity of cognitive functions during adolescence and adulthood is a decline in gray matter. This decline represents a pruning process where unnecessary connections are eliminated, allowing for more efficient neural processing. 17. Suppose you walk into a typical 6th grade classroom in a predominantly White, middle-class, suburban school in the United States. If the children there are typical, about what percent would you expect to be wearing glasses or contact lenses to improve their vision? a. 75% b. 50% c. 33% d. 25% Answer: d Rationale: The text notes that about 25% of White middle-class 6th graders have been fitted with glasses or contact lenses; generalizing from that figure, 25% is the best of the answer choices presented. 18. Mr. Martinez teaches third-grade physical education. To meet national health objectives, he should try to engage students in active physical exercise for at least what percent of their time in his physical education class? a. 30% b. 50% c. 75% d. 90% Answer: b Rationale: The text states that national health objectives call for physical education classes to meet every day and for 50% of that time to be spent in active physical exercise. 19. Which of the following is NOT one of the four aspects of physical fitness conditioning? a. flexibility b. muscle strength c. BMI of less than 28 d. cardiovascular efficiency Answer: c Rationale: Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based on height and weight and is not considered one of the aspects of physical fitness conditioning. The correct aspects include flexibility, muscle strength, and cardiovascular efficiency. 20. Currently about what percent of school-age children in the United States are obese? a. 5 percent b. 19 percent c. 31 percent d. 48 percent Answer: b Rationale: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), approximately 19 percent of school-age children in the United States are obese. This statistic highlights the significant prevalence of obesity among children, which has become a major public health concern. 21. Of the children who are obese at ages 10 to 13, about what percent will go on to become seriously overweight as adults? a. 33% b. 50% c. 70% d. 90% Answer: c Rationale: Research suggests that approximately 70 percent of children who are obese between the ages of 10 to 13 will go on to become seriously overweight as adults. This statistic underscores the long-term implications of childhood obesity on adult health outcomes. 22. What two factors are considered in computing a child’s BMI (Body Mass Index)? a. age and weight b. gender and age c. gender and percent body fat d. weight and height Answer: d Rationale: BMI is computed as a person’s weight in pounds, divided by square of that person’s height in inches, multiplied by 703. It is computed the same way for all individuals, regardless of age. 23. Which of the following people would be most likely to get an erroneous estimate of obesity when using the BMI method of calculation? a. Susie, an overweight 12-year-old girl who is African American b. Barbara, an underweight 12-year-old girl who has not yet hit the adolescent growth spurt c. Mike, an overweight 16-year-old boy who gets very little exercise d. Jeremy, a competitive athlete with very large muscles Answer: d Rationale: The BMI method does not consider the proportion of body weight due to fat versus muscle. Because muscle is very dense and therefore heavy tissue, when a person is highly muscular, this high proportion of muscle-to-fat can put the person in an overweight category according to BMI calculations, even though the person does not have much body fat. The BMI index is not biased according to ethnicity, gender, or age, so answers a, b, and c would not lead to faulty calculations. 24. The most prevalent chronic disease among children living in the United States is ___________; and the percentage of children affected by this disease is ____________. a. diabetes; increasing b. diabetes; decreasing c. asthma; increasing d. asthma; decreasing Answer: c Rationale: The most prevalent chronic disease among children living in the United States is asthma, and the percentage of children affected by this disease is increasing. Asthma rates have been rising over the past few decades, making it a significant health concern for children and their families. 25. Which of the following statements about asthma is false: a. Asthma affects more African American than Hispanic or White children. b. Asthma can be severe enough to cause death. c. Asthma affects more boys than girls. d. Children with asthma are less likely to suffer from other childhood diseases. Answer: d Rationale: Foils a, b, and c are correct, but children with asthma are more likely to suffer from other childhood diseases, making d the false statement. 26. Generalizing from data presented in the text, which of the following children would have the greatest chance of suffering from asthma? a. Linnea, a middle-class white girl who lives in northern Minnesota b. Rollin, a poor African American boy who lives in St. Louis, Missouri c. Jose, a middle-class Hispanic boy who lives in rural California d. Jeff, a poor white boy who lives on a farm in New York state Answer: b Rationale: Asthma is more common among African Americans, those who live in the South or Midwest regions in the U.S., those raised in poverty, and those in urban areas. 27. What is the number one cause of death in middle childhood? a. pneumonia or influenza b. accidents c. birth defects d. cancer Answer: b Rationale: Accidents, such as motor vehicle accidents, drowning, and falls, are the number one cause of death in middle childhood. This highlights the importance of safety education and injury prevention measures for children in this age group. 28. According to the Surgeon General’s report, about what percent of children and adolescents age 9 to 17 are estimated to have mental disorders with at least mild functional impairment? a. 2% b. 5% c. 10% d. 20% Answer: d Rationale: According to the Surgeon General's report, approximately 20 percent of children and adolescents aged 9 to 17 are estimated to have mental disorders with at least mild functional impairment. This emphasizes the need for mental health services and support for children and adolescents. 29. Of the children in the United States who have a mental disorder, about what percent receive appropriate diagnosis and treatment? a. 20% b. 50% c. 75% d. over 95% Answer: a Rationale: The text states that only 1 in 5 U.S. children with mental illness disorders receives treatment. 30. Luke’s parents are concerned about him because, beginning at about age 2, he began to show little affection toward other people, his speech became very limited to the point where he seldom talked, and he began to engage in repetitive behavior, such as spinning his crayons and rocking back and forth. If you were to guess what Luke’s diagnosis might be, the best choice would be: a. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder b. childhood depression c. autism d. child-onset schizophrenia Answer: c Rationale: The symptoms of autism include general aloofness and detachment from caregivers and others, little need for contact with others, limited affection, limited verbal communication, and engagement in repetitive actions. The other disorders do not show this pattern of symptoms. Cognitive Development 31. In Piaget’s terms, the type of thought that is characteristic of children during the elementary school years is called: a. formal operational thought b. preoperational thought c. sensorimotor thought d. concrete operational thought Answer: d Rationale: In Piaget's terms, the type of thought that is characteristic of children during the elementary school years is concrete operational thought. This stage is marked by the ability to think logically about concrete events and objects. 32. If all you know about Rashon is that he is a typical 6-year-old, you would guess that his thinking is undergoing a transition between which of Piaget’s stages? a. preoperational to concrete operational thought b. concrete operational to preoperational thought c. concrete operational to formal operational thought d. preoperational to formal operational thought Answer: a Rationale: The transition from preoperational to concrete operations thought typically occurs between the ages of 5 and 7. 33. If a 5-year-old girl watches an adult pour juice from a tall, thin glass into a short, wide glass, and then she is asked, “Which glass has more juice?” she would typically: a. conclude that either the short, wide glass has more juice or that the tall, thin glass has more juice b. conclude that since no juice was spilled, the glasses have the same amount of juice c. become very confused and ask to see the juice poured again and again d. not be able to answer the question because she would be confused about why the adult was asking such an obvious question Answer: a Rationale: At 5 years of age, the child is in Piaget’s sensorimotor stage and would therefore see this problem as a perceptual problem. As such, since the two glasses are not filled with juice at the same time, and since the child cannot reverse her thinking, she usually will focus on either the height of the juice (and judge the tall, thin glass as having more) or the width of the juice (and judge the short, wide glass as having more). 34. Suppose you line up two rows of marbles, each of which has 6 marbles in it. In Row A, the marbles are spaced closely together; in Row B, the marbles are spread out farther apart. If you asked a 5-year-old and an 8-year-old, “Which row has more marbles?” you should expect the 5-year-old to say __________ and the 8-year-old to say _____________. a. Row A; Row B b. Row B; Row A c. Row B; they are the same d. they are the same; they are the same Answer: c Rationale: This problem is like Piaget’s matchstick problem. The child in the preoperational stage will focus on the perceptual aspects of the problem, and conclude that the row that takes up the most space has more marbles. The child in the stage of formal operations will correctly understand that space is unrelated to number and will correctly conclude that there are the same number of marbles in each row. 35. Which of the following changes is characteristic of the transition from Piaget’s preoperational stage into the stage of concrete operations? a. thinking becomes more egocentric b. thinking becomes more logical and less focused on perception of objects c. thinking becomes less reversible d. thinking becomes less focused on the future and more focused on the present Answer: b Rationale: As children move into the stage of concrete operations, their thinking becomes less bound by their perception of objects and they begin to think more flexibly, thus they focus less on the “here and now” and less on the perceptual characteristics of objects. Their use of logic to solve problems increases; they become capable of thinking “backwards” (reversibility). They also become less egocentric. 36. According to Piaget, what would be the best way to teach children in kindergarten about the mathematical concept of addition: a. Explain to them in words how addition problems should be solved and then ask them to explain back to you in their own words. b. Give them objects, such as blocks, to manipulate so they can see how moving blocks from one pile to another represents changes in number (e.g., addition). c. Read stories about math problems to them to enhance their motivation to learn mathematical concepts. d. There is no good way to teach children in the preoperational stage about mathematics because this topic requires the ability to understand reversibility, which develops later. Answer: b Rationale: Because Piaget believed that young children’s thought is closely tied to concrete experiences, he believed that their understanding of concepts such as addition is best taught by having them manipulate objects they can see and touch. Describing abstract concepts in words would not be useful. Motivation is not a limiting factor in most cases. Although children acquire the ability to reverse order gradually as then enter the stage of concrete operations, when objects manipulation is involved, they can see how objects move and are able to understand the transfer operations that addition requires. 37. Addition and subtraction math problems rely on a child’s ability to understand which of the following Piagetian concepts? a. formal operations b. reversibility c. metacognition d. scripts Answer: b Rationale: Addition and subtraction do not require the use of formal, hypothetical logic but they do require that the child understands reversibility – the ability to mentally reverse the order of operations and think “backwards.” Metacognition refers to self-monitoring of thought, which also is not required. Scripts involve remembering sequences of common events and also are not required for understanding simple mathematics. 38. Piaget's theory of cognitive development suggests that elementary school education should: a. allow children to discover principles by doing rather than by being shown b. spend more of the class day on math and science instruction and less on free play activities c. not be expected to learn mathematics or science until about the 3rd or 4th grade d. emphasize the use of verbal rewards such as praise in order to increase motivation for learning Answer: a Rationale: Piaget emphasized that children are active, motivated learners who learn best by experimenting and discovering knowledge through their own inquiries. He thought free play was very valuable, that mathematical concepts could be learned by even young children if object manipulation was used, and that children were intrinsically motivated to learn, making teachers’ praise unnecessary and even counterproductive in some instances. 39. Control processes are strategies and techniques that enhance __________. a. memory b. self-control c. empathy d. overall intelligence Answer: a Rationale: Control processes are strategies and techniques that enhance memory. These processes help individuals encode, store, and retrieve information effectively, leading to improved memory performance. 40. Strategies, such as mental imagery and scripts, which elementary schoolchildren use to help them remember things are called: a. metacognition b. reconstructions c. reviews d. control processes Answer: d Rationale: Strategies such as mental imagery and scripts, which elementary schoolchildren use to help them remember things, are called control processes. These processes aid in organizing and encoding information to facilitate memory retrieval. 41. Remembering the details about a family dinner, such as helping set the table, washing hands before eating, saying grace at the dinner table, eating the food, and clearing off the dishes, best illustrates what memory control process? a. mental imagery b. the use of a script c. semantic elaboration d. organization Answer: b Rationale: A script is a standard sequence of events that comprise a familiar event. Because this example clearly emphasizes the events associated with “family dinners,” it would be considered a good example of a script, even though other control processes might be involved. 42. Memory for routine events, such as getting ready for bed, is most likely to be organized by using: a. mental imagery b. rehearsal c. scripts d. semantic elaboration Answer: c Rationale: Scripts are standard sequences of events that comprise a familiar event, such as getting ready for bed. Although other memory strategies can be employed in remembering routine events, because the question emphasizes the memory for routine events and it gives an example that would involve a script, the choice of scripts is the best answer for this question. 43. Heidi has a series of events that she follows every morning: she takes a shower, dresses, eats breakfast, and rides the bus to school. Her memory of this sequence of events would most likely be organized in the form of: a. a series of retrieval cues b. a script for “morning events” c. a series of mental images d. semantic elaboration of common events Answer: b Rationale: A script is a standard sequence of events that comprise a familiar event. Because this example clearly emphasizes the events associated with “morning events before school,” it would be considered a good example of a script, even though other control processes might be involved. 44. The intellectual process that allows people to monitor their own thoughts and thinking processes is called: a. a control process b. metacognition c. mental elaboration d. a personal script Answer: b Rationale: The intellectual process that allows people to monitor their own thoughts and thinking processes is called metacognition. Metacognition involves awareness and understanding of one's cognitive processes, including monitoring and regulating thought processes. 45. Maria is asked to create and tell a story about how a lost dog was able to find its home. She talks and talks about the dog, and about its home, but is never able to figure out how to end the story or what would be required to make the story complete. In terms of her control processes, her problem in finishing her work would be described as a failure of: a. motivation b. retrieval c. metacognition d. rehearsal Answer: c Rationale: This example points to Maria’s lack of awareness about what the problem involves and what a correct solution requires. Thus, she in not able to “think about her thinking,” which is the essence of metacognition. Motivation is not a problem, as evidenced by her continued effort. The example does not indicate that she has trouble remembering (retrieval) or repeating relevant details (rehearsal). 46. Restructuring the material to be learned so that it is arranged categorically is the major feature of the control process called: a. scripts b. organization c. mental imagery d. semantic elaboration Answer: b Rationale: Restructuring the material to be learned so that it is arranged categorically is the major feature of the control process called organization. This process involves grouping related information together to facilitate encoding and retrieval of information. 47. Nine-year-old Kimberly is presented with a list of words to memorize. She groups the words by common features. For instance, she groups the words “dog,” “cat,” and “horse” as animals. What strategy does she use to help her remember the list? a. organization b. mental imagery c. scripts d. semantic elaboration Answer: a Rationale: Organization typically involves categorization of similar items, which is what this example describes. Mental imagery involves imagination, scripts rely on memory of common events, and semantic elaboration involves logical inferences about things that would have occurred, even if such things were not experienced directly. 48. Samuel tells his little brother an elaborate story about imaginary creatures with three heads and sharp tails who can fly like helicopters by rotating a huge wing that comes out of their back. Samuel’s ability to imagine these creatures and describe them to his brother is a good example of which of the following control processes? a. mental imagery b. semantic elaboration c. organization d. scripts Answer: a Rationale: The best answer is mental imagery, since this example emphasizes Samuel’s ability to construct a mental image of an imaginary object. Semantic elaboration emphasizes the use of logical inferences, and Samuel’s memory does not rely on logic about missing information. Samuel’s ability to describe an imaginary creature also does not emphasize the organization of his memory, nor does it emphasize common events associated with a particular event, which is the core concept associated with memory scripts. 49. Jude learns the concept of subtraction by forming a picture in his mind of removing blocks from one stack and adding them to another stack. His memory strategy is best considered an example of the use of: a. mental imagery b. rehearsal c. organization d. semantic elaboration Answer: a Rationale: Mental imagery involves the ability to construct mental images, which is what this example emphasizes. Rehearsal involves repetition of to-be-remembered events; organization emphasizes categorization of information into meaningful units; and semantic elaboration the ability to make logical inferences about missing information. 50. Eleven-year-old Susan overheard her father say, "I drove to the store." She is able to infer the presence of a car even though he never mentioned the word. This example best illustrates what memory strategy? a. retrieval b. mental imagery c. organization d. semantic elaboration Answer: d Rationale: Although retrieval of information is involved in any memory problem, it is not the central event here, nor is organization (since categorization is not the central aspect of this problem). Mental imagery is involved, since Susan must be able to create a mental image of driving to the store, but the example focuses not only on her ability to imagine the scene but also on her ability to logically infer that there was a car involved. Thus, because the central point of the example pertains to logical inference, semantic elaboration is the best answer to this question. 51. The term literacy refers to: a. the use of control processes in thinking and problem solving b. the skills involved in reading and writing c. the percentage of people in a group who can read at least at the 4th-grade level d. the ability to monitor and understand one’s own thoughts and thinking processes Answer: b Rationale: Literacy encompasses the skills related to reading and writing, including the ability to comprehend written text, decode words, and express oneself through written communication. It involves both basic reading and writing skills as well as higher-order literacy skills such as critical thinking and textual analysis. 52. Whole-language theorists focus on the concept of: a. metacognition b. emergent literacy c. logical inference d. cooperative learning Answer: b Rationale: Whole-language theorists emphasize the concept of emergent literacy, which acknowledges that literacy skills develop naturally over time through exposure to language and meaningful experiences with written text. This approach contrasts with traditional phonics-based instruction and emphasizes the importance of immersion in language-rich environments for developing literacy skills. 53. According to whole-language theory, the skills associated with oral and written language acquisition develop over a period of years, beginning in: a. infancy b. the preschool years c. about 1st grade d. about 3rd grade Answer: a Rationale: Whole-language theory posits that the foundation for oral and written language acquisition begins in infancy, as children are exposed to language through interactions with caregivers and their environment. This early exposure sets the stage for the gradual development of literacy skills over time. 54. Which of the following is the most accurate statement about the whole-language viewpoint about literacy? a. Children must learn to read correctly before they can learn to speak correctly. b. Children must learn to read short sentences before they can learn to read long sentences. c. Children can only learn to read when they are “ready” from a biological point of view. d. Early language skills like listening form the basis for later language skills like reading. Answer: d Rationale: The whole-language view is based on the idea that literacy skills begin in infancy with understanding of spoken language, and these early skills are modified through experience with language to become more complex and to transition into speaking and writing. This view also emphasizes that language learning occurs in a sociocultural context and that language learning occurs naturally, without the need of formal expectations or rewards. 55. The essential idea encompassed by the term emergent literacy is that: a. language learning is best done in the home, rather than in school b. learning to read “emerges” when the child is “ready” to learn c. learning to read is an entirely different process than learning to speak d. language learning is a continuous and gradual process Answer: d Rationale: According to the concept of emergent literacy, the skills associated with oral and written language acquisition begin to develop in infancy and gradually improve over a period of years. 56. Suppose that 7-year-old Anna is having trouble learning to read in school. Her teacher investigates how her family encourages reading, how her friends interact with her during play, and how she uses oral language to communicate. The teacher concludes that her reading will likely develop in its own time, and encourages Anna to continue to interact verbally. The teacher’s approach would be very compatible with which of the following points of view? a. the metacognitive viewpoint b. the whole-language viewpoint c. the preoperational viewpoint d. the formal operational viewpoint Answer: b Rationale: The whole-language viewpoint emphasizes the role of social interactions in developing literacy, and also suggests that reading emerges from earlier language skills of speaking and understanding. The metacognitive, preoperational, and formal operational “viewpoints” are not meaningful in this context, since they do not pertain directly to literacy. 57. Which of the following would be LEAST likely to contribute positively to the development of literacy? a. enrolling a child in a formal program of reading and writing in which they are drilled on correct techniques and rewarded when they succeed b. reading to children and talking with them about what was read c. having children play together and make up stories and plays d. allowing children a lot of pressure-free time to draw, even if their work is no more than scribbling on paper Answer: a Rationale: Several factors contribute to the development of literacy, but a common feature is that the child is able to progress at his or her own speed and without formal expectations or pressure to perform in a particular way. 58. The first tests of intelligence were developed in France by: a. Louis Terman and his colleagues b. Robert Sternberg c. Alfred Binet d. Jean Piaget Answer: c Rationale: The first tests of intelligence were developed in France by Alfred Binet and his colleague Theodore Simon in the early 20th century. The Binet-Simon Scale, later revised by Lewis Terman in the United States, aimed to assess children's intellectual abilities and identify those in need of educational support. 59. The original purpose for developing the first intelligence tests in the early part of the twentieth century was: a. to identify children who would not do well in school b. to provide a reason to discriminate against children from African descent c. to give the French government a means of selecting especially talented children for placement in state-funded educational programs for the gifted d. to study how physical health and intelligence were related Answer: a Rationale: Although intelligence tests have served to select gifted children, they have been used to support discriminatory policies and practices, and they do help researchers understand the relationships between intelligence and wide range of other variables, their original purpose in France was to allow the government to select children who would be less likely to benefit from formal education. 60. Suppose that Lucy is 6 years old and she is answers the same number of questions on an intelligence test as the average 8-year-old. Her mental age would be: a. 6 years b. 7 years c. 8 years d. none of the above, since there is not enough information given to determine it Answer: c Rationale: Mental age is determined according to the number of questions a person answers correctly and has nothing to do with a person’s chronological age. If a person answers the same number of questions correctly as the average 8-year-old, that person’s mental age is 8 years, irrespective of how old the person is. 61. If Greg is 10 years old, and if he answers the same number of intelligence test questions correctly as the average 9-year-old, his computed IQ would be: a. 111 b. 100 c. 90 d. An answer cannot be determined because not enough information is given to compute his IQ. Answer: c Rationale: IQ has been defined as mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100. In this case, 9 divided by 10 multiplied by 100 is equal to 90. 62. The major advantage of using the ratio method of computing IQ, rather than reporting only a child’s mental age, is which of the following? a. The ratio method provides a more accurate method of measuring mental age. b. The ratio method allows for children of different chronological ages to be compared more meaningfully. c. The ratio method provides a less racially biased method of measuring mental age. d. The ratio method provides a less racially biased method of computing IQ. Answer: b Rationale: Reporting only mental age does not provide any information about chronological age, thus there is no basis for comparing a child to same-age peers. For example, two children who have a mental age of 9 might be the same age or might be of very different ages. The IQ method converts mental age by dividing it by chronological age. Therefore, IQ allows for comparisons of same-age children with respect to intelligence (as measured by their mental ages). For example, if two 9-year-olds have IQs of 90 and 100, respectively, we know that the child with the higher IQ scored higher relative to his age-peers than did the child with the IQ of 90. 63. The average 10-year-old child has an IQ of ______; and the average 50-year-old adult has an IQ of_______: a. 80; 100 b. 90; 100 c. 100; 100 d. 100; 150 Answer: c Rationale: By definition, the average IQ for people of any age is 100. IQ averages do not vary by age. 64. Why has the ratio method of computing IQ been replaced by the deviation method? a. The deviation method accommodates the fact intelligence does not keep increasing at the same rate as chronological age throughout adulthood. b. The deviation method is less culturally biased than is the ratio method. c. Newer tests have made the ratio method of computing IQ obsolete, since the number of questions answered correctly is no longer an important consideration in determining a person’s intelligence. d. Computers can now automatically score tests so the computation of mental age can be done much faster. Answer: a Rationale: The problem with using the ratio method of IQ is that intelligence levels off in adulthood (e.g., an average 30-year-old would perform about the same as an average 50-year-old). If mental age remains the same, but is divided by increasingly large chronological age, IQ becomes smaller, even though the adult does not become less intelligent with age. (For example, if the people above both have a mental age of 30, the 30-year-old’s ratio IQ would be 100; the 50-year-old’s ratio IQ would be 60.) As intelligence testing became useful for adults, a different method of computing IQ needed to be developed. 65. About what percent of the U. S. population would have IQ scores that would fall between 85 and 115? a. 55% b. 75% c. 68% d. 96% Answer: c Rationale: In a normal distribution, approximately 68% of the population falls within one standard deviation above and below the mean. Since IQ scores are typically distributed in a bell curve with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, about 68% of the population would have IQ scores falling between 85 and 115. 66. About 96% of the general U.S. population score between IQs of: a. 2 and 98 b. 4and 96 c. 85 and 115 d. 70 and 130 Answer: d Rationale: IQ scores are distributed in a bell curve with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. Approximately 96% of the population falls within two standard deviations above and below the mean, resulting in IQ scores ranging from 70 to 130 for the majority of the population. 67. If Paul tells you that he is 15 years old and that his measured IQ is 150, which of the following should you conclude? a. Paul is highly intelligent, according to this test. b. Paul is of slightly above-average intelligence, according to this test. c. Paul is of average intelligence, according to this test. d. Paul is of below-average intelligence, according to this test. Answer: a Rationale: Most IQ tests set the average IQ at 100, and only about 2% of the population score above an IQ of 130. Thus, Paul’s IQ of 150 is very high. Paul’s chronological age of 15 years is irrelevant to his IQ calculation, since 150 is not his mental age; rather it is his IQ score. 68. Generalizing from the text’s discussion about the distribution of intelligence in the population, about what percept of the population would you expect to be diagnosed as having an intellectual disability? a. about 10% b. about 5% c. about 2% c. about one-tenth of 1% Answer: c Rationale: Intellectual disability is typically defined as having an IQ below 70, which corresponds to approximately two standard deviations below the mean in the normal distribution of IQ scores. This accounts for about 2% of the population according to the bell curve model. 69. One goal for constructing an intelligence test is to write the test such that if a person took it multiple times, that person’s score would always be the same. This goal represents the concept of test: a. reliability b. bias c. potential d. deviation IQ Answer: a Rationale: Test reliability refers to the consistency with which the test measures. If a test were perfectly reliable, a person would always get the same test score every time he or she took the test. No test is perfectly reliable (that is, there is always some error in testing); however, test reliability is an important goal for test construction. 70. Which of the following is NOT one of Gardner’s eight types of intelligence? a. charismatic b. intrapersonal c. linguistic d. spatial Answer: a Rationale: Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences includes intrapersonal intelligence, linguistic intelligence, and spatial intelligence among others. However, "charismatic" is not recognized as one of the distinct types of intelligence proposed by Gardner. 71. Who proposed a theory of intelligence that identified eight distinct intelligences, including linguistic intelligence and logical-mathematical intelligence? a. Alfred Binet b. Jean Piaget c. Robert Sternberg d. Howard Gardner Answer: d Rationale: Howard Gardner proposed the theory of multiple intelligences, which identifies eight distinct types of intelligence, including linguistic intelligence (related to language) and logical-mathematical intelligence (related to reasoning and problem-solving). 72. Who proposed the triarchic concept of intelligence? a. Robert Sternberg b. Howard Gardner c. Alfred Binet d. Jean Piaget Answer: a Rationale: Robert Sternberg proposed the triarchic theory of intelligence, which suggests that intelligence consists of three aspects: analytical intelligence (problem-solving ability), creative intelligence (innovative thinking), and practical intelligence (adaptability to real-life situations). 73. Which of the following is NOT a type of intelligence as defined by Sternberg's three-part theory of intelligence? a. spatial intelligence b. contextual intelligence c. componential intelligence d. experiential intelligence Answer: a Rationale: Sternberg's three-part theory of intelligence includes contextual intelligence, componential intelligence, and experiential intelligence. Spatial intelligence is not explicitly included in Sternberg's model of intelligence, which focuses more on practical and adaptive aspects of cognition. 74. In Sternberg’s model, the type of intelligence measured by typical IQ tests is called: a. practical intelligence b. contextual intelligence c. componential intelligence d. experiential intelligence Answer: c Rationale: Componential intelligence, also known as analytical intelligence, corresponds to the type of intelligence measured by typical IQ tests. It involves the ability to analyze and solve problems systematically, often through logical reasoning and pattern recognition. 75. According to Sternberg’s model, the capacity to adapt to the environment is called: a. logico-mathematical intelligence b. contextual intelligence c. componential intelligence d. experiential intelligence Answer: b Rationale: Contextual intelligence, also known as practical intelligence or street smarts, refers to the capacity to adapt to the environment effectively. It involves the ability to understand and navigate real-world situations, including social and cultural contexts. 76. Which of the following types of intelligence did Robert Sternberg view as being particularly important? a. logico-mathematical intelligence b. spatial intelligence c. practical intelligence d. psychomotor intelligence Answer: c Rationale: Robert Sternberg viewed practical intelligence as particularly important. Practical intelligence involves the ability to apply knowledge and skills to real-life situations and adapt to the demands of the environment effectively. 77. Which of the following abilities would Robert Sternberg view as being especially important? a. the ability to solve complex mathematical problems correctly b. the ability to solve complex mathematical problems quickly c. the ability to read quickly d. the ability to deal effectively with the practical problems in everyday life Answer: d Rationale: Sternberg emphasized the role of practical intelligence over the other skills, which all fit into his concept of componential intelligence – what is typically measured in an intelligence test. 78. The text discusses a study in which African American families in poor neighborhoods were given a chance to move to a better neighborhood. In comparison to children whose families moved instead to another poor neighborhood, the children in families who moved to a better neighborhood: a. were more likely to have poorer attendance b. were more likely to get into more “race-based” school fights c. were more likely to have difficulty in forming a secure ethnic identity d. had higher achievement test scores Answer: d Rationale: Children in families who moved to better neighborhoods had higher achievement test scores compared to those who moved to another poor neighborhood. This suggests that living in a better neighborhood may provide children with access to resources and opportunities that positively influence their academic performance. 79. The text discusses a study in which African American families in poor neighborhoods were given a chance to move to a better neighborhood. The results of this study emphasize the importance of what factor(s) as a determinant of school achievement and test performance? a. socioeconomic factors b. racial factors c. one-parent versus two-parent families d. teacher preparation for handling issues of diversity Answer: a Rationale: The results of this study demonstrate that moving to a better neighborhood with better schools led to students’ improvement in completing homework, attendance, and achievement test scores. Thus, socioeconomic factors do make a difference. No discussion of racial factors, one- versus two-parent families, or teacher preparation was presented in the context of this study. 80. The text discusses research about Southeast Asian immigrant families. The results of this study suggest that which of the following factors is important in determining children’s IQs? a. race and skin color b. ethnicity and first language learned c. how long the family has lived in the U. S. d. family emphasis on education and success Answer: d Rationale: Despite poor economic circumstances, problems with language, ethnic status, and substandard educational opportunities, children in these families performed well in school and on standardized tests. The most likely explanation is that the families emphasized educational achievement and success and made accommodations so children would spend time on school work. 81. The best way of understanding the relationship between genetic and environmental influences on the development of intelligence is to conclude that: a. genes are much more important than environment b. the environment is much more important than genes c. genetic and environmental factors interact and influence each other d. genetic and environmental factors operate independently, but both influence intelligence development Answer: c Rationale: Genetic and environmental factors interact, which is to say they influence each other. There is no clear evidence that either is much more important than the other in determining intelligence, although in a particular individual’s case, one might be especially important. The question asks about a general conclusion, not the case of a specific individual. Learning and Thinking in School 82. Today, in developed economies about _______ of adolescents can read; in sub-Saharan Africa, this percentage is about _______: a. 99%; 70% b. 90%; 60% c. 95%; 40% d. 95%; 33% Answer: a Rationale: In developed economies, approximately 99% of adolescents can read, while in sub-Saharan Africa, this percentage is around 70%. This highlights disparities in educational access and literacy rates between developed and developing regions. 83. In a study investigating the time public school teachers spend in various classroom activities, teachers were found to spend about ____ % of the time in a 30-minute lesson on academic work. a. 10-15 b. 30-40 c. 55-70 d. 85-90 Answer: a Rationale: In the study, public school teachers were found to spend approximately 10-15% of the time in a 30-minute lesson on academic work. This suggests that a significant portion of classroom time may be allocated to non-academic activities or classroom management. 84. Generalizing from conclusions drawn in the text, if you were to advise a new elementary school teacher about how she would spend her time, you would suggest that she try to ________ her time spent on classroom management and __________ her time spent on teaching and learning activities. a. maximize; maximize b. minimize; minimize c. maximize; minimize d. minimize; maximize Answer: d Rationale: The text states that children learn more in classes where the time spent on teaching and learning activities is maximized and the times spent on classroom management is minimized. 85. The text concludes that group learning has been found to positively affect students’ self-esteem, especially when the students are: a. boys b. girls c. younger d. older Answer: b Rationale: Group learning has been found to positively affect students' self-esteem, especially among girls. Working collaboratively in groups can enhance social interactions, communication skills, and feelings of competence, which may contribute to increased self-esteem, particularly for girls who often value relational connections. 86. If you were interested in increasing the self-esteem of grade school students, and you wanted to promote effective learning, you should recommend using all of the following techniques EXCEPT: a. creating a highly competitive environment, so that children had to perform or they would fail b. using cooperative learning strategies, where students had to work together c. assigning small-group projects and activities d. assigning projects that require in-depth inquiry, where students have to persist in the learning task in order to complete it successfully Answer: a Rationale: When children are placed in a competitive environment, their self-esteem sometimes suffers. Also, critical thinking skills are best advanced when cooperative, group learning projects are assigned and when these projects require in-depth inquiry. 87. According to David McClelland, all children seek to be successful. He referred to this need for success and excellence as: a. excellence orientation b. achievement motivation c. persistence motivation d. the need for success Answer: b Rationale: David McClelland referred to the need for success and excellence as achievement motivation. He proposed that individuals are motivated to achieve success and strive for excellence in their endeavors, which drives their behavior and goal-directed actions. 88. Tommy appears to not care at all about the quality of the school work he does. When asked, he says things like: “School is stupid. No one should try hard. Learning is useless.” Using the terms identified by David McClelland, you would conclude that Tommy has: a. very low achievement motivation b. very high need for excellence c. very low autonomy d. a low “pride” quotient Answer: a Rationale: According to McClelland, the basic concept involved in achievement motivation is the desire for success and excellence. Tommy’s comments reflect the lack of achievement motivation. 89. Which of the following statements best summarizes the findings about gender differences in school success: a. Girls outperform boys in quantitative and spatial tasks; boys outperform girls in verbal skills. b. Girls outperform boys in verbal skills and boys outperform girls in quantitative and spatial tasks. c. Girls outperform boys in verbal skills and quantitative and spatial tasks. d. Boys outperform girls in verbal skills and quantitative and spatial tasks. Answer: b Rationale: Research findings suggest that girls tend to outperform boys in verbal skills, while boys tend to outperform girls in quantitative and spatial tasks. This pattern of gender differences in academic achievement is consistent with broader trends observed in educational research. 90. Generalizing from research cited in the text, if a high-achieving child suddenly began to focus on social popularity rather than academic achievement, the best guess is that this child was: a. a second grade boy b. a second grade girl c. a sixth grade boy d. a sixth grade girl Answer: d Rationale: Fitting in socially becomes an especially important goal for girls during the preadolescent and adolescent years. 91. Based on average school performance of boys and girls, if you knew that a student was especially interested and talented in mathematics, you would conclude that this student is more likely to be a _______; if you knew that a student was especially interested and talented in literature and language, you would conclude that this student is more likely to be a ________. a. boy; girl b. girl; boy c. boy; boy d. girl; girl Answer: a Rationale: Although it is not possible to generalize group findings to individual students, in general boys do better and are more interested in mathematics; girls do better and are more interested in literature and language. Because this question gives no information about the specific individuals described, the best answer is to generalize from group data, in which the gender differences noted are obtained. 92. Suppose that a friend tells you that he is concerned about “gender bias” in his daughter’s classroom. Which of the following is the best description of what is typically meant by this term: a. Boys and girls are treated too much the same, and real gender differences are being ignored. b. Too many of the teachers are of one gender (in grade school, usually there are more women teachers). c. School policies encourage too much segregation based on gender, with groups usually divided into “girls” and “boys.” d. Boys and girls are treated differently, oftentimes with different expectations placed on boys compare to girls. Answer: d Rationale: The term gender bias typically refers to the concern that children are treated differently, based on their gender. Thus, girls are treated differently than are boys, and oftentimes different types of expectations are placed on girls as compared to boys. 93. According to research conducted by Carol Dweck, boys are more motivated by an orientation that emphasizes __________, whereas girls are more motivated by an orientation that emphasizes _________. a. achievement; learning b. learning; performance c. performance; learning d. social success; academic success Answer: b Rationale: Carol Dweck's research on mindset suggests that boys tend to be more motivated by a learning orientation, focusing on the process of learning itself, while girls are more motivated by a performance orientation, emphasizing the demonstration of abilities and skills. 94. Lynn tells the teacher, “I don’t care if I learn anything; I just want to get an A.” According to research conducted by Carol Dweck, you should conclude that Lynn has what type of motivation: a. learning motivation b. performance motivation c. social motivation d. anti-learning motivation Answer: b Rationale: According to Dweck, a performance motivation involves the emphasis of success (performance) over learning. A learning motivation emphasizes learning over performance. Dweck does not discuss either a “social” motivation or an “anti-learning” motivation. 95. If a child has a performance motivation and fails at a task, what is the most likely result, according to Carol Dweck: a. The child will persist until success is achieved. b. The child will become emotionally unstable and probably have a tantrum. c. The child will quit trying and self-esteem will suffer. d. The child will persist, even when persistence continues to result in failure. Answer: c Rationale: A child with a performance orientation values success over learning. When the child is not successful, the most likely result is that the child will quit trying, and oftentimes the child’s self-esteem suffers. Self-esteem is at risk because the child comes to believe that he or she can’t perform successfully. 96. Little Maria believes that if she just works hard enough, she can learn anything she sets her mind to. According to Carol Dweck, Maria has: a. low self-efficacy b. an unrealistic self-concept c. a learning orientation d. a performance orientation Answer: c Rationale: Children with a learning orientation view their lack of success as the result of too little effort. Thus, when they fail, they respond by trying harder. Children with a performance orientation view their lack of success as the result of too little ability. Because they view ability as a fixed characteristic, they oftentimes give up trying when they fail at a task. 97. Joshua tries to learn to solve a mathematics problem, but he does not get the correct answer on his first attempt. He tells his teacher, “I just can’t do math. Can I go play now?” According to Carol Dweck, Joshua has: a. a performance orientation b. a learning orientation c. high self-efficacy d. a strong defense mechanism Answer: a Rationale: Children with a learning orientation view their lack of success as the result of too little effort. Thus, when they fail, they respond by trying harder. Children with a performance orientation view their lack of success as the result of too little ability. Because they view ability as a fixed characteristic, they oftentimes give up trying when they fail at a task. 98. According to Carol Dweck, which of the following statements represents the LEAST effective way to praise a child: a. “You are very, very smart child.” b. “You worked very hard on that project and it turned out very well.” c. “That problem was difficult and even though you didn’t solve it the first time, you learned a lot.” d. “You did a good job picking up your toys.” Answer: a Rationale: Dweck argues that praise should be given for performance and persistence, not for having an innate ability that the child cannot change. Thus, she would argue that praising a child for intelligence is less effective, making “a” the correct answer. Dweck also argues that praise should be specific and directed to a particular achievement, not be general and global. 99. According to Carol Dweck, which of the following statements represents the MOST effective way to praise a child: a. “You are a very, very smart little girl.” b. “You are so cute, who could think you wouldn’t do well in school?” c. “You have a natural ability in mathematics; no wonder you do so well.” d. “You did a nice job in writing that story. I especially like the way you described the clown.” Answer: d Rationale: Dweck argues that praise should be given for performance and persistence, not for having an innate ability that the child cannot change. She also argues that praise should be specific and directed to a particular achievement, not be general and global. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 100. Which of the following is the primary goal of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA): a. to train teachers to deal with children who have mental retardation and behavioral disorders b. to fund special schools that provide education to children with disabilities c. to raise the public’s awareness of the unfairness being done to individuals with disabilities d. to provide all children with a free and appropriate education Answer: d Rationale: The primary goal of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) is to ensure that all children with disabilities have access to a free and appropriate public education tailored to their individual needs. 101. What is an “IEP”: a. an “incentive for excellent performance” program that rewards individual teachers who spend extra time with disabled children for extra pay b. an “incentive for excellent performance” program that rewards schools or school districts who devote extra resources to educating disabled students c. an “individual education plan” that specifies the type of instruction a particular child should receive d. an “individual education plan” that sets goals for individual school districts about how much money they must devote to the instruction of disabled students Answer: c Rationale: An IEP is an “individual education plan.” IDEIA requires that schools develop an IEP for every disabled student which identifies appropriate learning goals for that student and notes support services that will be provided to have that students meet these learning goals. 102. The IDEIA requires that school districts include children with special needs in regular classrooms and activities as much as is possible. The term used to describe this policy is: a. individual education plan b. least restrictive environment c. most open programming d. best case instruction Answer: b Rationale: The “least restrictive environment” provision of the IDEIA requires that school districts include children with special needs in regular classrooms and activities as much as is possible. This is the specific term used to describe this mandate. 103. About what percent of U. S. school children today are receiving some sort of special educational service? a. 1-2% b. 5% c. 12% d. 27% Answer: c Rationale: Approximately 12% of U.S. school children today are receiving some sort of special educational service, according to data available at the time of this question. 104. Today, the term most often used instead of “mental retardation” is: a. learning disability b. intellectual disability c. intellectual educational personality d. failure to thrive syndrome Answer: b Rationale: "Intellectual disability" is the term most commonly used today instead of "mental retardation" due to its more respectful and accurate portrayal of the condition. 105. The cause that produces an intellectual disability can be determined in about what percent of such cases? a. 25% b. 50% c. 67% d. more than 90% Answer: c Rationale: The text states that the causes of mental retardation cannot be identified in about one-third of cases. Thus, in about 67% of cases, the cause is known. 106. Which of the following is NOT one of the three factors considered in making a diagnosis of intellectual disability? a. the person’s IQ score b. the person’s score on an assessment of adaptive behavior c. an assessment of the cultural factors that might be involved d. the person’s age Answer: d Rationale: The person's age is not a factor considered in making a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The three primary factors considered are IQ score, adaptive behavior assessment, and cultural factors. 107. The text states that there has been a gradual evolution in how intellectual disability is regarded. In general, what change is at the center of that evolution in thinking? a. Today, each person is considered to be more an individual with specific needs for accommodations. b. Today, intellectual disability is considered to be a biological, rather than a psychological, disability. c. Today, intellectual disability is diagnosed according to a person’s IQ score, rather than to an assessment of that person’s abilities. d. Today, people understand that individuals with intellectual disability cannot be expected to achieve at the same levels as people who do not have intellectual disabilities. Answer: a Rationale: The major changes in thinking over the past few decades are to view those diagnosed with mental retardation to be unique individuals, who will benefit best from individualized accommodations. Also, people today recognize that intellectual disabilities can be quite specific, and an individual may need considerable support in some areas of functioning, but little support in others. 108. Ben has an IQ of 20, which most likely would place him in which category of retardation? a. mild b. moderate c. severe d. profound Answer: d Rationale: The IQ range of “below 25” is typically associated with the level of mental retardation defined as “profound.” 109. Which of the following categories of mental retardation would include the largest number of individuals? a. profound retardation b. mild retardation c. moderate retardation d. severe retardation Answer: b Rationale: There are many more people at the highest level of functioning, which in the categorization scheme presented in the text would be labeled “mild retardation.” 110. Robert is in 5th grade. He scores at the average on a test of intelligence, is doing math problems at the 7th grade level, but is reading at the 1st grade level, despite his efforts to learn. Robert would most likely qualify for a diagnosis of: a. intellectual disability b. mental retardation c. reading unreadiness d. learning disability Answer: d Rationale: Both intellectual disability and mental retardation refer to general learning problems. Because Robert has difficulty in only one area of intellectual functioning, his likely diagnosis would be learning disability. Reading unreadiness is not a diagnostic term. 111. For reasons that remain unclear, up to 80% of children with learning disorders are _____. a. male b. female c. from low socioeconomic backgrounds d. from high socioeconomic backgrounds Answer: a Rationale: Research indicates that up to 80% of children with learning disorders are male, though the reasons for this disparity are not entirely clear. 112. Which of the following is NOT one of the three main learning disorders recognized in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders? a. mathematics disorder b. reading disorder c. disorder of written expression d. speech disorder Answer: d Rationale: Speech disorder is not considered one of the three main learning disorders recognized in the DSM. The three main learning disorders are dyslexia (reading disorder), dyscalculia (mathematics disorder), and dysgraphia (disorder of written expression). 113. Ron remains stuck in the early stages of reading, making errors such as confusing the letters "b" and "d." What learning disability does he most likely have? a. dyslexia b. dysgraphia c. dyscalculia d. attention-deficit disorder Answer: a Rationale: The term used for the reading disorder in which children incorrectly perceive letters is dyslexia. 114. Based on information presented in the text, which of the following is the best explanation for the cause of dyslexia? a. being left-handed along with having stronger vision in one eye than the other b. poor coordination of the brain regions involved in visual perception c. difficulties in the way the brain processes speech sounds d. low levels of motivation for learning along with poor eyesight Answer: c Rationale: The text outlines several findings about children with dyslexia, including that they have broader problems with language, they are often delayed in learning to speak, they have trouble naming letters and written words, they are slower in recalling words, and they may have trouble hearing the difference between similar sounds. Thus, the problem seems not to be in the way vision works, but rather in the way the brain processes speech. 115. Children with dyslexia have difficulty: a. learning how to read b. with writing c. with math d. with focusing attention on anything long enough to learn it Answer: a Rationale: Dyslexia is a learning disability characterized generally by problems with reading. 116. Many children with attention-deficit disorder are also: a. dyslexic b. mentally retarded at a mild level c. right handed d. hyperactive Answer: d Rationale: Many children with attention-deficit disorder (ADD) are also hyperactive. In fact, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) includes symptoms of inattention as well as hyperactivity-impulsivity. 117. Which of the following is NOT a common symptom typically associated with ADHD? a. hyperactivity b. difficulty paying attention c. impulsivity d. difficulty hearing all of the sounds of speech Answer: d Rationale: Difficulty hearing all of the sounds of speech is not a common symptom typically associated with ADHD. Common symptoms include hyperactivity, difficulty paying attention, and impulsivity. 118. Jill is extremely inattentive, has poor impulse control, and is highly active. Based on these symptoms, what developmental disorder might Jill have? a. autism b. schizophrenia – childhood onset c. ADHD d. dyslexia Answer: c Rationale: Jill’s symptoms are those that define attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 119. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder has been linked to irregularities in the way which of the following neurotransmitters operates in the brain? a. dopamine b. serotonin c. acetylcholine d. GABA Answer: a Rationale: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with abnormalities in dopamine neurotransmission in the brain. Dopamine plays a crucial role in regulating attention, motivation, and reward processing, and dysregulation in its function has been implicated in the symptoms of ADHD. 120. Suppose you conducted a study of pairs of identical twins, one of whom was diagnosed with ADHD. Now you examine whether or not the other twins in each pair also have ADHD. In comparison to pairs of unrelated children, you would expect that the other twin in your study would be _______ likely to also be diagnosed with ADHD. a. much less b. somewhat less c. equally d. more Answer: d Rationale: ADHD has a genetic component, making it more likely for individuals whose identical twin was diagnosed with ADHD to also have this diagnosis. 121. If a child who is diagnosed with ADHD is put on prescription drugs, these drugs would most likely belong to the category of: a. anti-depressants b. stimulants c. anti-anxiety medicines d. tranquilizers Answer: b Rationale: The typical drug treatment for ADHD is to prescribe stimulant, amphetamine-type drugs, including drugs such as Ritalin, Adderol, and Strattera. This seems counterintuitive, since these drugs speed up neural activity and one of the primary symptoms of ADHD is overactivity in behavior. However, the stimulant drugs typically act to quiet a child with ADHD. 122. The fact that stimulant drugs are often effective in calming children diagnosed with ADHD suggests that this disorder may involve: a. a chronic understimulation in the child’s nervous system b. problems in the brain pathways that regulate attachment behavior c. a hypersensitivity to the presence of sugar in the bloodstream d. too much activity in the parts of the brain that control behavior Answer: a Rationale: Stimulant medications like methylphenidate and amphetamines, which are commonly prescribed for ADHD, increase the levels of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain. The effectiveness of these drugs in calming individuals with ADHD suggests that there may be an underlying deficit in neural stimulation, which is alleviated by these medications. 123. If an applied behavior analysis approach is used to treat ADHD, it would likely include all of the following except: a. reducing distractions from the environment b. provide rewards to controlled behavior c. keeping expectations vague so they do not pressure the child d. clearly specifying rules and expectations Answer: c Rationale: Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a therapeutic approach that focuses on modifying behavior through systematic techniques. ABA typically involves clearly specifying rules and expectations, providing rewards for desired behavior, and reducing environmental distractions to promote attention and focus. Keeping expectations vague would not align with the principles of ABA, as clarity and consistency are essential for effective behavior modification. 124. The disorder characterized by disturbances in social interaction, communication, and behavior is: a. attention deficit b. hyperactivity c. dyslexia d. autism Answer: d Rationale: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication, and behavior. Individuals with ASD may exhibit challenges in understanding and expressing emotions, maintaining relationships, and engaging in repetitive behaviors or narrow interests. 125. Jack is 6 years old, but does not communicate with speech, is not able to interact with other children, does not engage in normal forms of social play, and seems caught up in his own internal world. The most likely diagnosis for Jack is: a. autism spectrum disorder b. dyslexia c. attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder d. mental retardation Answer: a Rationale: Austism spectrum disorders range from mild to severe, and include symptoms of impaired social interaction (including play), communication, and behavior. 126. Today, about 1 in __ U.S. children has some form of autism spectrum disorder a. 88 b. 300 c. 800 d. 1,800 Answer: a Rationale: According to recent estimates, approximately 1 in 88 children in the United States is diagnosed with some form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This prevalence rate highlights the significance of ASD as a developmental disorder affecting a notable portion of the population. Current Issues: Obesity in Childhood – An Outcome of Our Changing Lifestyle? 127. Todd's father is at his ideal weight, but his mother is obese. Generalizing from research presented in the text, what chance does Todd have of becoming obese? a. 10% b. 20% c. 40% d. 80% Answer: c Rationale: Research cited in the text suggests that a child with one obese parent has a 40% chance of becoming obese; a child with two obese parents has an 80% chance of becoming obese. 128. Gina's mother and father are both obese. Generalizing from research presented in the text, what chance does Gina have of becoming obese? a. 10% b. 20% c. 40% d. 80% Answer: d Rationale: Research cited in the text suggests that a child with one obese parent has a 40% chance of becoming obese; a child with two obese parents has an 80% chance of becoming obese. 129. The “ditch the fizz” campaign discussed in the text helped overweight children lose weight by: a. using an advertising campaign that encouraged children in school to reduce their use of carbonated beverages b. placing smaller portions of food on their lunch trays, and donating the unused food to a low-income food program in the community c. changing the curriculum so that all children spent at least 1 hour per day in physical education programs that emphasized active sports d. substituting healthier foods for those rich in carbohydrates and fat in the school lunch program Answer: a Rationale: The “ditch the fizz” campaign was part of a British study of 7- to-11-year-old children who were exposed to an advertising campaign in their school aimed at encouraging children to restrict their intake of carbonated beverages. Changing Perspectives: Early Experience – Do Adverse Environments Cause Permanent Effects? 130. In a study of severely impoverished Romanian children who were adopted into British families, the group that showed the least amount of improvement was the group that was: a. youngest at the time of adoption b. oldest at the time of adoption c. adopted by older parents d. adopted by younger parents. Answer: b Rationale: The children who were adopted at younger ages fared better than those adopted at older ages. The study did not consider the age of parents who adopted the Romanian children. 131. In a study of severely impoverished Romanian children who were adopted into British families, a particular adjustment problem was seen among several of the children. This problem centered on the Romanian children’s difficulties with: a. learning mathematics b. learning to read English c. learning to speak in full sentences d. forming secure attachments to the adoptive parents Answer: d Rationale: Although there was generally some cognitive impairment among some of the Romanian adoptees, the impairment was not specific to one academic area. Rather, the specific impairment was in the adoptees’ social and emotional functioning; in particular, some of the adoptees had a problem in forming a secure attachment to the adoptive parents. It should be noted that not all adoptees experienced this problem. True-False Questions: Physical and Motor Development 132. Physical pain associated with rapid growth is both common and normal in middle childhood and adolescence. Answer: True Rationale: During periods of rapid growth, such as middle childhood and adolescence, it's common for children to experience physical discomfort or even pain due to the rapid changes happening in their bodies. This discomfort is often attributed to growing pains, which typically occur in the legs but can affect other areas as well. While the exact cause of growing pains is not fully understood, they are generally considered a normal part of development. 133. By age 6, the brain has typically reached about 50% of its maximum size. Answer: False Rationale: By age 6, the brain has typically reaches about 95% of its maximum size. 134. Because of the way that Body Mass Index (BMI) is calculated, highly muscular athletes will necessarily have a low BMI. Answer: False Rationale: Because muscle is denser, and hence heavier than fat, muscular athletes may have a higher-than-expected BMI, even though they do not have an excess of fat in their bodies. 135. The leading cause of death in childhood is asthma. Answer: False Rationale: The leading cause of death in childhood is accidents. Cognitive Development 136. Children make the transition from Piaget’s preoperational stage to the stage of concrete operations about age 5 to 7. Answer: True Rationale: Piaget's theory of cognitive development outlines stages of development that children go through as they grow. The preoperational stage, characterized by egocentrism and lack of conservation, typically occurs in children aged 2 to 7 years. Around the ages of 5 to 7, children begin to transition into the concrete operational stage, marked by the ability to think logically about concrete events and objects. This transition is gradual and varies from child to child, but the age range provided is generally accurate for this developmental milestone. 137. Piaget believed that schools should be highly structured and children should be encouraged to advance as quickly as possible through the stages of cognitive development. Answer: False Rationale: Piaget believed that children should be allowed to explore in largely unstructured environments, learning at their own speed. He noted that development is best when children develop at their own rate, without being pushed to develop faster. 138. The terms that describes a person’s ability to monitor his or her own thinking is called metacognition. Answer: True Rationale: Metacognition refers to the ability to monitor, control, and regulate one's own thinking processes. It involves awareness and understanding of one's cognitive abilities and strategies, such as problem-solving, decision-making, and memory. Metacognitive skills are essential for effective learning and problem-solving, as individuals who are adept at metacognition can reflect on their own thought processes, evaluate their strategies, and make adjustments as needed to improve performance. 139. The whole-language approach to literacy emphasizes that learning to read is an entirely different task than learning to speak. Answer: False Rationale: Whole-language theorists view the development of literacy as a continuum, where early language skills learned in infancy undergo progressive elaboration as children learn to speak, and then to read and write. 140. Most researchers today believe that IQ tests measure an individual’s intellectual potential – thereby they can predict which children will be more successful in school in the future. Answer: False Rationale: Most researchers today believe that IQ tests measure current intellectual functioning, and they recognize that IQ scores can change, sometimes substantially, depending on the environment in which a child is raised. 141. Even when social and economic disparities are taken into account, there still is a large difference in the average IQ scores of minority and majority groups. Answer: False Rationale: When factors such as social and economic circumstances are taken into account, IQ score difference between minority and majority groups all but disappear. Learning and Thinking in School 142. It is not unusual for a teacher to spend only 10 to 15% of a 30-minute class period on academic work. Answer: True Rationale: In many educational settings, especially in early childhood or elementary education, teachers often need to allocate a significant portion of class time to various activities beyond direct academic instruction. These activities may include transitions between tasks, classroom management, addressing students' individual needs, providing instructions, and facilitating group discussions or activities. Therefore, it's not uncommon for only a fraction of class time, such as 10 to 15%, to be devoted explicitly to academic work, while the rest of the time is utilized for other essential aspects of teaching and learning. 143. Although in earlier decades, it was true that boys did better at quantitative and spatial tasks and girls did better at tasks involving verbal skills, today these gender differences have disappeared. Answer: False Rationale: These gender differences have gotten smaller over recent decades, but they still exist. 144. According to Carol Dweck, children with a “performance” motivation generally persist longer at difficult tasks. Answer: False Rationale: Dweck noted that children with “learning” motivation persisted longer, because they viewed their failures as the result of lack of effort, rather than the lack of ability. Intellectual and Developmental Disorders 145. Most people with intellectual disability fall into the category of mild retardation. Answer: True Rationale: Intellectual disability is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which manifest during the developmental period. The severity of intellectual disability is typically categorized into mild, moderate, severe, or profound, based on the individual's level of impairment. While there can be variations within each category, it is true that the majority of individuals with intellectual disability fall into the mild category. However, it's essential to recognize that intellectual disability is a spectrum disorder, and each person's abilities and challenges are unique. 146. Sometimes intellectual disability is not identified until the child enters formal education. Answer: True Rationale: Intellectual disability may not always be apparent in early childhood, especially if the child's environment or circumstances do not provide opportunities for comprehensive assessment or if the disability is mild and not readily noticeable. It is possible for intellectual disabilities to go undetected until a child enters formal education, where academic expectations and social interactions may reveal challenges that prompt further evaluation and diagnosis. Early identification and intervention are crucial for supporting individuals with intellectual disabilities, but in some cases, the condition may only become apparent as the child grows older and encounters the demands of structured learning environments. 147. Children with learning disorders tend to have below-average general intellectual ability. Answer: False Rationale: Children with learning disorders may have average or above-average general intellectual ability, since learning disabilities are specific to certain academic skills but not others. 148. Most children with dyslexia have problems with their visual system. Answer: False Rationale: Most children with dyslexia do not have problems with their visual system, although a few do. Dyslexia appears to be caused by problems in how the language centers in the brain process speech sounds. 149. Children with learning disorders often have difficulty with social skills as well as with academic skills. Answer: True Rationale: Learning disorders can affect various aspects of a child's development, including academic skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics. However, they can also impact social skills, communication abilities, and emotional regulation. Children with learning disorders may struggle to understand social cues, maintain friendships, or engage in appropriate social interactions due to underlying difficulties in processing information or interpreting social situations. Therefore, it's not uncommon for children with learning disorders to experience challenges not only in academic settings but also in social contexts, highlighting the importance of comprehensive support and intervention strategies. 150. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is sometimes treated with medication that slows down the activity of the child’s nervous system. Answer: False Rationale: When medication is used to treat ADHD, the typical choice is to give a stimulant drug, which increases activity in the nervous system. Short Answer Questions: Physical and Motor Development 151. Give an example of how a child’s fine motor skills develop during the period of middle childhood. Answer: During middle childhood, fine motor skills continue to refine. An example of this development is seen in improved handwriting abilities. Children in this stage can write more neatly and legibly as they gain better control over their hand movements and coordination. 152. Briefly describe the changes that occur during middle childhood in the brain’s corpus callosum, its “white matter” and its “gray matter.” Answer: During middle childhood, the corpus callosum, which connects the brain's hemispheres, undergoes continued growth and myelination, enhancing communication between brain regions. White matter increases due to myelination, facilitating faster transmission of nerve impulses. Gray matter decreases as synaptic pruning occurs, refining neural networks and increasing efficiency in processing information. 153. Suggest at least three different reasons for why childhood obesity is becoming increasingly common in the U. S. and other developed nations. Answer: 1. Sedentary Lifestyle: With the prevalence of electronic devices and screen time, children are engaging in less physical activity, leading to weight gain. 2. Poor Dietary Habits: Availability of high-calorie, low-nutrient foods, coupled with busy lifestyles, leads to increased consumption of processed foods and sugary beverages. 3. Environmental Factors: Neighborhoods lacking safe outdoor spaces for physical activity and limited access to affordable, healthy foods contribute to obesity rates. 154. Suggest at least two different reasons for why asthma is becoming increasingly common among U. S. children. Answer: 1. Environmental Factors: Exposure to air pollution, secondhand smoke, and allergens such as dust mites or pet dander can trigger asthma attacks and exacerbate symptoms. 2. Hygiene Hypothesis: Reduced exposure to microbes and early childhood infections due to improved hygiene practices may lead to an overactive immune response, increasing susceptibility to asthma and allergies. Cognitive Development 155. Describe a “conservation” problem (such as the matchstick problem) and discuss how a child in the preoperational stage would solve this problem different from a child in the stage of concrete operations. Answer: A conservation problem involves demonstrating that certain properties of objects remain constant despite changes in their appearance. For instance, in the matchstick problem, a child is shown two rows of matchsticks, one with the sticks spread out and the other with them close together. A child in the preoperational stage might focus solely on the perceptual differences, unable to understand that the quantity remains the same regardless of arrangement. In contrast, a child in the concrete operational stage would grasp conservation, recognizing that the number of matchsticks remains constant irrespective of their arrangement. 156. Describe how a classroom would be conducted from a Piagetian point of view. What types of activities would children engage in? What learning goals would be of highest priority? Answer: From a Piagetian perspective, a classroom would emphasize hands-on, experiential learning activities that promote active exploration and discovery. Children would engage in tasks that encourage them to construct their understanding of concepts through direct experience and interaction with materials. Learning goals would prioritize the development of cognitive structures such as classification, seriation, and conservation. Activities might include sorting objects by various attributes, engaging in seriation tasks like arranging objects by size, and participating in conservation experiments to understand that quantity remains constant despite changes in appearance. 157. Describe how the control processes associated with memory develop during the period of middle childhood, using one particular control process (such as scripts, organization, or mental imagery) as an example. Answer: During middle childhood, control processes associated with memory become more refined and sophisticated. Take organization, for example. Children develop better strategies for organizing information, allowing them to categorize and store it more effectively. They may create mental frameworks or "scripts" for routine activities, like getting ready for school, which help them retrieve and execute tasks more efficiently. With increased practice and experience, children become better at using these organizational strategies to enhance memory performance. 158. Identify the core idea behind the concept of emergent literacy and describe how this perspective helps us understand how language and literacy skills develop in middle childhood. Answer: The core idea behind emergent literacy is that literacy development begins before formal instruction and involves a range of skills and experiences that lay the groundwork for later reading and writing abilities. This perspective emphasizes the importance of early language experiences, exposure to print materials, and the development of foundational skills such as phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge. Understanding emergent literacy helps us recognize that language and literacy skills develop gradually and are influenced by various factors, including social interactions, environmental stimuli, and individual differences in children's experiences and abilities. In middle childhood, continued exposure to literacy-rich environments and opportunities for language use further support the development of advanced reading and writing skills. 159. State the major difference between the ratio method and the deviation method for computing IQ and comment on why the shift was made to adopt the deviation method. Answer: The major difference between the ratio method and the deviation method for computing IQ lies in how they handle the calculation of intelligence scores. The ratio method divides mental age by chronological age and multiplies by 100 to obtain the IQ score, whereas the deviation method compares an individual's performance to the average performance of their age group, assigning a score based on the deviation from the mean. The shift to adopt the deviation method was made because it provided a more accurate representation of intelligence relative to peers within the same age group, allowing for better comparison and interpretation of intelligence scores across different age ranges. 160. Consider Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences and Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence and identify the main idea that these theories have in common. Answer: The main idea that Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences and Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence have in common is the rejection of the notion of a single, unitary intelligence (often measured by traditional IQ tests). Instead, both theories propose that intelligence is multifaceted and can manifest in various forms. Gardner suggests that there are multiple independent intelligences, such as linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic intelligences. Similarly, Sternberg's triarchic theory emphasizes three aspects of intelligence: analytical (problem-solving), creative (novel thinking), and practical (adaptation to real-life situations). Both theories recognize the diversity of human abilities and emphasize the importance of considering a broader range of cognitive skills and capacities beyond those typically assessed by traditional intelligence tests. Learning and Thinking in School 161. State three major adjustments that children must make when they enter school and describe how these adjustments are related to the concept of autonomy. Answer: Three major adjustments children must make when entering school include adapting to structured routines and schedules, following rules and instructions, and interacting with peers and authority figures. These adjustments are related to the concept of autonomy because they require children to navigate increased independence and responsibility within the school environment. Adapting to routines and rules fosters self-regulation and self-discipline, while interacting with peers and authority figures allows children to develop social skills and assert their autonomy in social contexts. 162. Describe three different reasons that could account for the gender differences typically observed in school success and identify whether each is the product of biological forces, social forces, or both. Answer: (1) Differences in cognitive abilities: Some argue that gender differences in cognitive abilities, such as spatial skills or verbal fluency, may contribute to variations in school success. These differences may stem from a combination of biological and social factors. (2) Societal expectations and stereotypes: Gendered expectations and stereotypes regarding academic abilities and interests can influence educational outcomes. These social forces shape children's perceptions of their own capabilities and influence their educational choices and behaviors. (3) Gendered experiences within the educational system: Factors such as teacher biases, classroom dynamics, and educational resources may affect boys and girls differently, contributing to gender disparities in school success. These experiences are primarily driven by social forces but can also interact with biological factors. 163. Describe the distinction Carol Dweck makes between a “learning” orientation and a “performance” orientation and suggest which contributes most favorably to learning. Answer: Carol Dweck distinguishes between a "learning" orientation and a "performance" orientation in the context of motivation and achievement. A learning orientation focuses on developing competence and acquiring new skills, with an emphasis on effort, persistence, and learning from mistakes. In contrast, a performance orientation prioritizes demonstrating ability and achieving favorable outcomes, often through seeking validation or avoiding failure. Research suggests that a learning orientation contributes most favorably to learning because it fosters a growth mindset, resilience, and a willingness to take on challenges. In contrast, a performance orientation can lead to a fixed mindset, fear of failure, and a tendency to avoid tasks that may not result in immediate success. 164. Give an example of ineffective praise and an example of effective praise and describe how these two statements differ. Answer: Ineffective praise: "You're so smart!" Effective praise: "I appreciate how you worked through that problem step by step. Your effort really paid off!"These two statements differ in their focus and impact on the recipient. Ineffective praise focuses on innate traits or abilities, such as intelligence, which can foster a fixed mindset and undermine motivation when faced with challenges. In contrast, effective praise acknowledges specific efforts or behaviors, such as perseverance or problem-solving skills, which encourages a growth mindset and reinforces the value of effort and improvement. Effective praise promotes intrinsic motivation and a belief in one's ability to overcome obstacles through effort and perseverance. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 165. Describe the main idea behind the passage of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act. Answer: The main idea behind the passage of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) is to ensure that children with disabilities have access to a free and appropriate public education tailored to their individual needs. IDEA mandates that eligible children receive special education services and related supports to help them succeed academically and develop the skills necessary for independent living and employment. It also emphasizes the importance of providing early intervention services to infants and toddlers with disabilities to support their developmental progress. 166. Describe how intellectual disability is diagnosed today. Answer: Intellectual disability is diagnosed through a comprehensive assessment process that evaluates a person's intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior. This assessment typically involves standardized tests of intellectual abilities, such as IQ tests, to determine the individual's cognitive functioning level. Additionally, clinicians assess adaptive behavior, which includes conceptual, social, and practical skills necessary for daily functioning. Diagnosis of intellectual disability also considers the onset of deficits during the developmental period and the degree of impairment in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior. The diagnostic criteria are outlined in diagnostic manuals such as the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition) or the ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision). 167. What is the best explanation for the cause of dyslexia? Answer: The cause of dyslexia is believed to involve a combination of genetic, neurological, and environmental factors. Genetic factors play a significant role, as dyslexia often runs in families. Neurological differences in brain structure and function, particularly in areas associated with language processing and phonological awareness, are also implicated in dyslexia. Environmental factors such as early language experiences and educational opportunities may contribute to the development or exacerbation of dyslexia. Dyslexia is not caused by vision problems, lack of intelligence, or inadequate educational opportunities, but rather results from underlying differences in brain structure and function that affect reading and language processing abilities. 168. Suggest two different ways in which stimulants might act to relieve the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Answer: Stimulants may act to relieve the symptoms of ADHD by increasing the levels of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which are involved in regulating attention, focus, and impulse control. Additionally, stimulants may enhance communication between different brain regions involved in executive functions, such as the prefrontal cortex, improving cognitive control and decision-making processes. 169. What are the primary symptoms associated with autism? Answer: The primary symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include difficulties with social communication and interaction, restricted interests, repetitive behaviors, and sensory sensitivities. Individuals with autism may struggle with understanding and using nonverbal communication cues, such as gestures and facial expressions, have difficulty forming and maintaining relationships, engage in repetitive movements or rituals, and may have hypersensitivities or hyposensitivities to sensory stimuli. 170. What is meant when autism is described as a “spectrum disorder?” Give an example to support your answer. Answer: When autism is described as a "spectrum disorder," it means that individuals with autism can vary widely in terms of their symptoms, severity, and level of impairment. The autism spectrum encompasses a broad range of characteristics and abilities, from mild to severe. For example, one individual with autism may have relatively mild social difficulties and excel in certain areas, such as mathematics, while another individual may have significant challenges with communication and require substantial support in daily functioning. This spectrum-based understanding recognizes the diversity and complexity of autism and acknowledges that each person's experience with autism is unique. Essay Questions: Physical and Motor Development 171. Describe the major changes in brain growth and development that occur during middle childhood. Answer: During middle childhood, the brain undergoes significant changes in growth and development. One major change is the continued development of the prefrontal cortex, which is involved in higher-order cognitive functions such as decision-making, impulse control, and problem-solving. This development contributes to improved cognitive abilities and executive functioning during middle childhood. Additionally, there is continued myelination of neural pathways, leading to increased efficiency in information processing and communication between different brain regions. Middle childhood is also characterized by synaptic pruning, where unnecessary or unused neural connections are eliminated, allowing for more specialized and efficient neural networks. 172. Several social changes are contributing to increases in the prevalence of both asthma and obesity. Identify three such changes and suggest how they may be leading to an increase in these conditions. Answer: 1. Sedentary lifestyles: With the rise of technology and increased screen time, children are engaging in less physical activity, leading to sedentary lifestyles. Sedentary behavior is associated with obesity as it reduces energy expenditure and promotes weight gain. Additionally, sedentary lifestyles may contribute to asthma by limiting opportunities for outdoor physical activity, which can help improve lung function and respiratory health.2. Changes in dietary habits: There has been a shift towards diets high in processed foods, sugary beverages, and unhealthy fats. Poor dietary habits contribute to obesity by providing excess calories and promoting weight gain. Moreover, certain dietary factors, such as high intake of processed foods and additives, may exacerbate asthma symptoms and contribute to the development of the condition.3. Environmental pollution: Increased industrialization and urbanization have led to higher levels of air pollution in many areas. Exposure to air pollutants such as particulate matter, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide is associated with an increased risk of both asthma and obesity. Air pollution can trigger asthma symptoms and exacerbate respiratory conditions, while long-term exposure to pollutants may also contribute to weight gain and metabolic disturbances, increasing the risk of obesity-related health problems. Cognitive Development 173. The text suggests that, when solving a conservation problem, children in Piaget’s preoperational stage focus on its perceptual qualities, whereas children in the stage of concrete operations focus on the logical problem implied. Using the matchstick problem as an example, explain the distinction between perceptual and logical orientations. Answer: In the matchstick problem, children are presented with two rows of matchsticks, one with the sticks spread out and the other with them close together. A child in the preoperational stage might focus solely on the perceptual qualities, noting the visual differences in the arrangements of the matchsticks. They may perceive the row with the spread-out sticks as having more or the same as the row with the sticks close together based on perceptual cues alone. In contrast, a child in the concrete operations stage would focus on the logical problem implied, recognizing that the number of matchsticks remains the same regardless of their arrangement. They would understand that the spacing of the matchsticks does not change the total quantity, demonstrating a more sophisticated understanding of conservation. 174. Describe how children’s metacognitive understanding develops as they move through middle childhood. Answer: Metacognitive understanding refers to children's awareness and control of their own thinking processes. During middle childhood, metacognitive understanding develops significantly. Children become more aware of their cognitive abilities, strengths, and limitations, and they develop strategies for monitoring and regulating their thinking and learning. They become better at planning and organizing their thoughts, setting goals, and evaluating their progress. Additionally, they gain insight into effective learning strategies and develop a greater appreciation for the importance of effort and persistence in achieving success. Overall, metacognitive understanding becomes more sophisticated, allowing children to become more independent and effective learners. 175. How might a 3rd grade classroom in a school that advocates a whole-language approach to literacy differ from one in which the whole-language approach was not used? Answer: In a 3rd grade classroom that advocates a whole-language approach to literacy, instruction would focus on fostering a love of reading and writing through authentic, meaningful activities. Students would be exposed to a wide variety of literature and given opportunities to engage in reading and writing activities that reflect real-world contexts and purposes. Instruction would emphasize the use of context cues, phonics, and sight words to develop reading skills, with a focus on comprehension and fluency. Writing instruction would emphasize the writing process, including prewriting, drafting, revising, and editing, and students would be encouraged to express themselves creatively and authentically through their writing. In contrast, in a classroom that does not use a whole-language approach, instruction may be more focused on isolated skills and drills, with an emphasis on phonics instruction and decoding skills. Reading materials may be more structured and controlled, with less emphasis on student choice and autonomy in reading and writing activities. 176. Why was the ratio method of computing IQ replaced by the deviation method? What advantage does the deviation method have? Answer: The ratio method of computing IQ was replaced by the deviation method because it had several limitations, including issues with comparing IQ scores across different age groups and difficulty in accurately measuring intelligence differences at extreme ends of the IQ scale. The deviation method, on the other hand, compares an individual's score to the scores of others in the same age group, providing a more accurate representation of their intelligence relative to their peers. Additionally, the deviation method allows for more precise measurement and comparison of intelligence across populations. 177. Identify two ways in which Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence is similar to Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence. State two ways in which they differ. Answer: Similarities: 1. Both Gardner's theory of multiple intelligence and Sternberg's triarchic theory acknowledge the existence of different forms or aspects of intelligence beyond traditional measures of IQ. 2. Both theories emphasize the idea that intelligence is not a unitary construct but rather comprises multiple components or dimensions. Differences: 1. Gardner's theory proposes the existence of multiple distinct intelligences, such as linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal intelligences, whereas Sternberg's theory focuses on three main aspects: analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence. 2. Gardner's theory suggests that individuals may excel in different intelligences independently of each other, while Sternberg's theory integrates these aspects into a unified model where they interact dynamically. 178. Describe two different factors that might explain why there is a disparity in the average intelligence test scores between majority and minority groups in the U.S. today. Answer: 1. Socioeconomic Factors: Minority groups in the U.S. often face socio-economic disadvantages such as lower access to quality education, limited resources, and exposure to adverse environmental conditions. These factors can negatively impact cognitive development and performance on intelligence tests, contributing to score disparities between majority and minority groups. 2. Cultural Bias in Testing: Intelligence tests are often developed and normed based on the cultural experiences and norms of the majority population, which may not accurately reflect the experiences and abilities of minority groups. This cultural bias can lead to unfair advantages for the majority group and disadvantages for minority groups, resulting in score disparities. Learning and Thinking in School 179. What challenges does entering school imply for the young child’s developing autonomy and independence? Give examples to support your answer. Answer: Entering school can pose challenges to a young child's developing autonomy and independence as they transition from the familiar environment of home to a structured school setting. For example, children may struggle with following a set schedule dictated by the school, adhering to rules and regulations imposed by teachers, and relying less on parental guidance for decision-making. Additionally, tasks such as dressing themselves, organizing their belongings, and completing assignments independently may present new challenges as they navigate the demands of the school environment. 180. Why are small-group projects and activities an effective way to encourage critical thinking? Answer: Small-group projects and activities are effective for encouraging critical thinking because they foster collaboration, discussion, and diverse perspectives among students. When working in small groups, students are often tasked with solving complex problems or completing projects that require them to analyze information, evaluate different strategies, and communicate their ideas effectively. Through this process, students learn to consider alternative viewpoints, defend their reasoning, and think critically about the task at hand, ultimately enhancing their problem-solving skills and ability to think critically in various contexts. 181. How is a child's academic success in school related to that child’s developing self-concept? What can teachers do to ensure that the relationship between these variables is a positive one? Answer: A child's academic success in school is closely linked to their developing self-concept because achievement in the classroom can significantly impact how they perceive themselves academically and overall. When children experience success in their academic endeavors, it can bolster their confidence, self-esteem, and belief in their capabilities. Conversely, repeated failures or challenges may lead to feelings of inadequacy or low self-worth. To ensure a positive relationship between academic success and self-concept, teachers can provide opportunities for students to experience success at various levels, offer constructive feedback that emphasizes effort and growth, and create a supportive classroom environment where students feel valued and encouraged to take risks in their learning. Additionally, promoting a growth mindset and emphasizing the importance of resilience and perseverance can help students develop a positive self-concept that is resilient to setbacks and challenges. 182. What is the essential distinction between effective and ineffective praise, according to Carol Dweck? How does effective praise lead the child to develop a learning, rather than a performance, orientation? Answer: Effective praise, as defined by Carol Dweck, focuses on effort, strategy, and process rather than inherent traits or abilities. It emphasizes praising the process of learning and effort rather than fixed attributes such as intelligence or talent. This type of praise encourages a growth mindset in children, where they believe that their abilities can be developed through dedication and hard work. In contrast, ineffective praise often revolves around praising innate talent or intelligence, which can lead children to adopt a fixed mindset, where they believe abilities are static and unchangeable. Effective praise fosters a learning orientation by encouraging children to see challenges as opportunities for growth and improvement, rather than as threats to their self-esteem or intelligence. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 183. Describe the purpose of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEIA) and state three specific ways in which schools have adjusted to comply with this act. Answer: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEIA) aims to ensure that all children with disabilities have access to a free and appropriate public education. Three specific ways in which schools have adjusted to comply with this act include: 1. Individualized Education Plans (IEPs): Schools develop personalized plans for students with disabilities, outlining their educational goals, special services, and accommodations necessary for their success. 2. Inclusion Programs: Many schools have implemented inclusive education programs, where students with disabilities are educated alongside their non-disabled peers to promote social integration and academic progress. 3. Specialized Support Services: Schools provide various support services, such as speech therapy, occupational therapy, and counseling, to address the unique needs of students with disabilities and help them access the curriculum effectively. 184. Describe how the diagnosis of intellectual disability has changed in recent decades and how these changes have led to a different way of treating those with these impairments. Answer: In recent decades, the diagnosis of intellectual disability has shifted from being solely based on IQ scores to a more comprehensive assessment that considers adaptive functioning and individual strengths and weaknesses. This change has led to a more holistic understanding of intellectual disability, recognizing that it encompasses not just cognitive abilities but also adaptive skills such as communication, self-care, and social functioning. As a result, treatment approaches have become more individualized, focusing on developing skills and providing support tailored to each person's specific needs and abilities. Additionally, there has been a greater emphasis on inclusion and integration, with efforts to ensure that individuals with intellectual disabilities have access to education, employment, and community participation opportunities. 185. How does a learning disability differ from an intellectual disability? How would schools typically accommodate individuals with each of these disabilities? Answer: Learning Disability vs. Intellectual Disability: A learning disability primarily affects a person's ability to acquire specific academic skills such as reading, writing, or math, despite having average or above-average intelligence. On the other hand, an intellectual disability involves limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviors, affecting overall cognitive abilities and daily functioning. Accommodations in Schools: For individuals with learning disabilities, schools typically provide accommodations such as extra time for tests, modified assignments, specialized instruction, and assistive technology to help them overcome specific challenges in learning. In contrast, individuals with intellectual disabilities may receive accommodations such as individualized education plans (IEPs), modified curriculum, life skills training, and additional support services to address their overall cognitive and adaptive needs. 186. Describe two different treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and suggest how each can be effective. Answer: Treatment 1: Behavioral Therapy Behavioral therapy for ADHD involves teaching individuals skills to manage their symptoms, such as improving organizational abilities, impulse control, and problem-solving strategies. Techniques like behavioral modification, reinforcement strategies, and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are commonly used. This treatment can be effective by providing individuals with practical tools and strategies to better regulate their behavior and attention. Treatment 2: Medication (e.g., Stimulants) Medication, particularly stimulants like methylphenidate (e.g., Ritalin) or amphetamine-based drugs (e.g., Adderall), is often prescribed to manage ADHD symptoms. These medications work by increasing dopamine and norepinephrine levels in the brain, improving focus, attention, and impulse control. When used as part of a comprehensive treatment plan, medication can be effective in reducing ADHD symptoms and improving daily functioning. 187. Describe what autism and Asperger’s syndrome have in common, and also how they differ from each other. Answer: Commonalities: Autism and Asperger's syndrome are both neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by challenges in social interaction, communication difficulties, and restricted or repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. Individuals with both conditions may also experience sensory sensitivities and struggle with changes in routine or environment. Differences: Asperger's syndrome was previously considered a subtype of autism but is now classified under the broader diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). One key difference lies in language development and cognitive abilities: individuals with Asperger's syndrome typically have normal to above-average intelligence and develop language skills without significant delay, whereas individuals with autism may exhibit a wide range of intellectual abilities and may experience delays or difficulties in language acquisition. Additionally, individuals with Asperger's syndrome may have more subtle social difficulties and may display intense interests in specific topics. Test Bank for Understanding Human Development Wendy L. Dunn, Grace J. Craig 9780205989522, 9780135164204, 9780205233878, 9780205753079

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