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Chapter 9 - Middle Childhood: Personality and Sociocultural Development 1. What component of social cognition refers to the customs and conventions used in a social setting or group? a. social regulations b. social inference c. social relationships d. social realism Answer: a Rationale: Social regulations encompass the rules, norms, and conventions that dictate behavior within a social context or group. These regulations guide individuals on how to behave appropriately in various social situations, shaping their interactions with others. 2. According to the text, when does ethnic awareness begin to develop? a. in infancy b. in early childhood c. during the elementary school years d. during adolescence Answer: b Rationale: Ethnic awareness typically begins to develop in early childhood as children become increasingly aware of their own ethnicity and that of others around them. This awareness is influenced by interactions with family, peers, and exposure to cultural practices and traditions. 3. In 1948, about ______ percent of mothers of school-aged children worked outside the home; today about ________ percent of these mothers work. a. 13; 26 b. 26; 52 c. 26; 77 d. 52; 77 Answer: c Rationale: In 1948, approximately 26 percent of mothers of school-aged children worked outside the home, while today about 77 percent of these mothers work. This reflects a significant increase in the number of mothers participating in the workforce over the years. 4. The major difference between the terms self-concept and self-esteem is that self-esteem includes which of the following? a. a sense of who you are b. a sense of how good (or bad) you are c. a sense of where you came from d. a sense of what you can do Answer: b Rationale: Self-concept refers to the overall perception and understanding of oneself, including beliefs about personal characteristics, abilities, and identity. Self-esteem, on the other hand, specifically involves the evaluation of one's self-worth or value, including feelings of self-respect and confidence. 5. Which of the following most accurately expresses the relative emphasis given to moral attitudes versus moral behavior in Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development? a. Kohlberg’s theory focuses on explaining moral attitudes, but not moral behavior. b. Kohlberg’s theory focuses on explaining moral behavior, but not moral attitudes. c. Kohlberg’s theory focuses on explaining both moral attitudes and moral behavior. d. Kohlberg’s theory focuses on explaining theoretical ethics, not moral attitudes or behavior. Answer: a Rationale: In Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development, the primary emphasis is on explaining the development of moral reasoning and attitudes rather than directly addressing moral behavior. Kohlberg proposed a series of stages through which individuals progress in their moral reasoning, with a focus on understanding the reasoning behind moral judgments. 6. Selman’s view of how friendships develop in middle childhood would be most consistent with which of the following theoretical perspectives? a. the psychoanalytic perspective b. the behavioral perspective c. the social-behavioral perspective d. the cognitive perspective Answer: d Rationale: Selman's view of how friendships develop in middle childhood aligns most closely with the cognitive perspective. He proposed that children's understanding of friendship undergoes cognitive development, progressing through stages characterized by increasing sophistication in perspective-taking and understanding of others' thoughts and feelings. 7. Children who are able to overcome difficult environments and lead socially competent lives are described by psychologists with which of the following terms? a. self-regulation b. coregulation c. resilient d. self-monitoring Answer: c Rationale: Psychologists describe children who can overcome adverse circumstances and develop positively despite challenges as resilient. Resilience refers to the ability to adapt, cope, and thrive in the face of adversity, demonstrating social competence and psychological well-being. 8. Melanie is always commenting on how she is not as smart as other people and how she is not good at anything in particular. Melanie likely suffers from which of the following? a. moral realism b. low self-esteem c. moral relativism d. high self-concept Answer: b Rationale: Melanie's persistent negative self-evaluation and feelings of inadequacy indicate low self-esteem. Low self-esteem involves a negative evaluation of one's own worth or value, leading to feelings of inferiority, self-doubt, and lack of confidence. 9. Lorraine says, “I don’t like those people because they are different from me and my friends.” Using psychological terminology, Lorraine’s comment has identified the people she doesn’t like as: a. an in-group b. an out-group c. a side-group d. a dumped group Answer: b Rationale: In psychological terms, Lorraine's statement categorizes the people she dislikes as an out-group. An out-group refers to a social group with which an individual does not identify or feels a sense of opposition or conflict. 10. When Jeremy learns to direct his own behavior, rather than behave in strict accordance with the directions of his parents and teachers, psychologists would say he has developed: a. coregulation b. peer status c. self-regulated behavior d. self-monitoring Answer: c Rationale: When Jeremy learns to regulate his own behavior independently, rather than relying solely on external guidance from parents and teachers, psychologists would describe this as the development of self-regulated behavior. Self-regulated behavior involves the ability to manage and control one's actions, emotions, and impulses autonomously. 1. Erik Erikson defined the period of middle childhood as revolving around which of the following developmental crises? a. trust versus mistrust b. generativity versus stagnation c. initiative versus guilt d. industry versus inferiority Answer: d Rationale: Erik Erikson identified the developmental crisis of middle childhood as "industry versus inferiority." This stage involves children developing a sense of competence and mastery over skills and tasks, or experiencing feelings of inadequacy and inferiority. 2. According to Selman, the primary force behind developmental changes in children’s friendships is which of the following? a. the child’s age b. the child’s intelligence level c. the child’s ability to understand the difference between right and wrong d. the child’s ability to take another person’s perspective Answer: d Rationale: According to Robert Selman, the primary force behind developmental changes in children's friendships is their ability to take another person's perspective. As children develop this ability, their friendships become more sophisticated and involve greater levels of understanding and empathy. 3. Today, in comparison with women who do not have children, women with school-age children are: a. much less likely to work outside the home b. slightly less likely to work outside the home c. about equally likely to work outside the home d. more likely to work outside the home Answer: d Rationale: Women with school-age children today are more likely to work outside the home compared to women who do not have children. This shift reflects changing social norms and economic pressures that encourage women to participate in the workforce while balancing family responsibilities. 4. Some critics suggest that teachers who provide too much praise create children: a. with negative self-images b. who are critical of others and lack empathy c. who have no sense of boundaries d. who do not have a realistic sense of their own strengths and weaknesses Answer: d Rationale: Critics suggest that teachers who provide excessive praise may contribute to children lacking a realistic sense of their own strengths and weaknesses. Overpraise can lead to inflated self-esteem and a diminished ability to accurately assess one's abilities and accomplishments. 5. Which of the following statements is most likely to have been made by a boy, rather than a girl? a. She broke the rules and she got what she deserved. b. The punishment should be lenient because she has to take care of her children. c. She should not be punished because she was trying to help. d. She should be punished because she didn’t care about what happened to the other people. Answer: a Rationale: Research suggests that boys are more likely to base moral reasoning on principles of justice and fairness, as reflected in the statement "She broke the rules and she got what she deserved." 6. As children move from early to middle childhood, their peer groups generally become: a. less formal, with members moving in and out of the group frequently b. less structured, with fewer rules for group membership c. less gender segregated, with most groups having both boys and girls d. more conformist, with stricter expectations about how group members should behave Answer: d Rationale: As children transition from early to middle childhood, their peer groups generally become more conformist, with stricter expectations about how group members should behave. Peer pressure and conformity become more significant influences on behavior during this time. 7. Which of the following best describes the relationship between age and a child’s likelihood of having friends from a different racial or ethnic group? a. Older children are more likely to have friends from different racial/ethnic groups. b. Younger children are more likely to have friends from different racial/ethnic groups. c. 7-year-old children are more likely to have friends from different racial/ethnic groups than are children who are older or younger. d. Age is unrelated to the likelihood of having friends from different racial/ethnic groups. Answer: b Rationale: Research suggests that younger children are more likely to have friends from different racial/ethnic groups compared to older children. Younger children may be less influenced by social norms and stereotypes related to race and ethnicity. 8. Dean realizes that rules are agreements that may be changed if necessary. He is in which of Piaget’s stages of moral reasoning? a. moral realism b. moral relativism c. preconventional stage d. conventional stage Answer: b Rationale: Dean's understanding that rules are agreements that may be changed if necessary aligns with Piaget's stage of moral relativism. In this stage, children recognize that rules are created by people and can be adjusted based on social agreements and circumstances. 9. George and Ramona want to help their son develop self-regulated behavior. They will be most successful if they: a. gradually increase the child's involvement in family decisions b. gradually decrease the child's involvement in family decisions c. use power-assertive socialization d. allow the child to set his own behavior limits and experience the consequences Answer: a Rationale: Gradually increasing the child's involvement in family decisions empowers the child and helps foster self-regulated behavior. This approach allows the child to develop decision-making skills and understand the consequences of their actions. 10. If you know that Bob is a highly resilient child, even though he has grown up under stressful circumstances, your best guess is that his early life was characterized by: a. insecure attachment to his mother b. insecure attachment to his father c. difficult temperament d. easy temperament Answer: d Rationale: Resilience in the face of stressful circumstances is often associated with having an easy temperament during early life. Children with easy temperaments are typically adaptable, positive, and able to effectively regulate their emotions, which contributes to their resilience. Multiple Choice questions: Personality Development in an Expanding Social World 1. If you believe that children develop morality as a defense against anxiety, guilt, and shame, your views most closely match those of: a. social-learning theory b. psychodynamic theory c. cognitive theory d. information-processing theory Answer: b Rationale: According to the psychodynamic view, children must learn to cope with powerful emotions, such as anxiety, in socially acceptable ways. In middle childhood, children turn their emotional energies toward peers, creative efforts, and learning the culturally prescribed tasks of the school and community. 2. This perspective on middle childhood emphasizes children’s habits and attitudes obtained by observing and imitating others. a. cognitive-developmental view b. social-learning view c. psychodynamic view d. all of the above Answer: b Rationale: According to the social-learning view, children in middle childhood develop habits and attitudes through observing and imitating models; these models are often peers. 3. If Margie views development in the period of middle childhood as being importantly influenced by role models, by reinforcement of the behavior parents want to encourage, and by learning by imitating others, Margie’s view would fit best with which of the following theoretical orientations? a. psychodynamic view b. cognitive-development view c. social-learning view d. latency view Answer: c Rationale: According to the social-learning view, children in middle childhood develop habits and attitudes through observing and imitating models. Reinforcement is an important influence on how children behave, although parental control often weakens, being replaced by the need for social approval of peers, teachers, and coaches. 4. If a psychologist states, “Middle childhood centers on changes in how children think about themselves and the world around them,” she is most likely a proponent of which of the following theoretical views? a. psychodynamic view b. cognitive-development view c. social-learning view d. latency view Answer: b Rationale: According to the cognitive-development view, the emphasis during middle childhood is on the development of self-concept—how children think about themselves and how they establish their attitudes and values in the context of their society. 5. Keesha views herself as having many fine qualities and she likes who she is. Psychologists would describe her as having: a. a sense of industry b. a positive self-concept c. unconditional positive regard d. conditional positive regard Answer: b Rationale: Self-concept is defined as the way in which children think about themselves and how they establish their attitudes and values in the context of their society. 6. As children move through middle childhood, their definitions of “self” generally become more: a. optimistic b. realistic c. simplified d. concrete Answer: b Rationale: During middle childhood, children's self-concept tends to become more realistic as they develop a better understanding of their abilities, strengths, and limitations. They become more aware of their own competencies and characteristics, leading to a more accurate perception of themselves and their place in the world. 7. Seven-year-old John has an overly optimistic idea about how good he is at soccer. As be grows older, his self-perception will likely become: a. more realistic b. even more optimistic, but only if his parents reinforce his positive self-view c. even more optimistic, but only if he actually gets better d. even more optimistic, but only if he plays on a team that includes both boys and girls Answer: a Rationale: During the period of middle childhood, children form increasingly stable pictures of themselves, and self-concept becomes more realistic. Children also come to understand their skills and limitations more accurately, and their understanding of themselves organizes and orients their behavior. 8. Jeffrey is writing a paper in which he wishes to use a word to describe “stable personality characteristics.” According to the text, the word he should use is: a. personality loci b. qualities c. attributes d. traits Answer: d Rationale: The book defines traits as stable personality characteristics. 9. Erik Erikson defined the period of middle childhood as revolving around which of the following developmental crises? a. trust versus mistrust b. generativity versus stagnation c. initiative versus guilt d. industry versus inferiority Answer: d Rationale: Erik Erikson described middle childhood as the stage where the psychosocial conflict of industry versus inferiority occurs. This stage, typically occurring from ages 6 to 12, involves children developing a sense of competence and mastery over tasks. Success in this stage leads to feelings of industry and competence, while failure may result in feelings of inferiority and inadequacy. 10. According to Erikson’s view, middle childhood centers on the concept of: a. trust b. success c. intimacy d. dependability Answer: b Rationale: According to Erikson’s theory, in middle childhood children are faced with the crisis called industry versus inferiority. In this third stage of development, according to Erikson, the child attempts to establish a sense of personal competence and mastery (i.e., success). 11. If a child experiences repeated failures during the period of middle childhood, Erikson believes that the likely consequence would be the development of a sense of: a. mistrust b. stagnation c. loneliness d. inferiority Answer: d Rationale: According to Erikson’s theory, in middle childhood children are faced with the crisis called industry versus inferiority. In this third stage of development, according to Erikson, the child attempts to establish a sense of personal competence and mastery (i.e., success). Children who do not establish a sense of competence are likely to feel inferior compared to their peers. 12. Andy is in his middle childhood years. Despite his efforts to do well in school, he failed two subjects and was held back a year. According to Erikson, if Andy is allowed to continue to fail, he is at risk for developing a sense of: a. shame and doubt b. stagnation c. isolation d. inferiority Answer: d Rationale: According to Erikson’s theory, in middle childhood children are faced with the crisis called industry versus inferiority. In this third stage of development, according to Erikson, the child attempts to establish a sense of personal competence and mastery (i.e., success). Children who do not establish a sense of competence are likely to feel inferior compared to their peers. 13. Which of the following psychologists viewed middle childhood as involving a conflict between industry vs. inferiority? a. Piaget b. Kohlberg c. Erikson d. Freud Answer: c Rationale: Erik Erikson is the psychologist who viewed middle childhood as involving a conflict between industry versus inferiority. According to his psychosocial theory, this stage is characterized by children's efforts to master skills and tasks, leading to feelings of competence (industry) or inadequacy (inferiority). 14. According to Erikson, what is the psychosocial conflict of middle childhood? a. autonomy versus shame and doubt b. industry versus inferiority c. trust versus mistrust d. identity versus identity confusion Answer: b Rationale: Erik Erikson identified the psychosocial conflict of middle childhood as industry versus inferiority. During this stage, children strive to accomplish tasks and develop a sense of competence. Success leads to feelings of industry, while failure can result in feelings of inferiority. 15. Your ability to see yourself as someone with positive characteristics defines: a. self-esteem b. self-image c. self-confidence d. self-concept Answer: a Rationale: Self-esteem refers to whether people see themselves positively (high self-esteem), negatively (low self-esteem), or somewhere in between. For example, when people have high self-esteem this means that they basically like themselves and typically feel competent in their social skills as well as in their other skills. 16. Melanie is always commenting on how she is not as smart as other people and how she is not good at anything in particular. Melanie likely suffers from which of the following? a. moral realism b. low self-esteem c. moral relativism d. high self-concept Answer: b Rationale: Self-esteem refers to whether people see themselves positively (high self-esteem), negatively (low self-esteem), or somewhere in between. For example, when people have high self-esteem this means that they basically like themselves and typically feel competent in their social skills as well as in their other skills. 17. The major difference between the terms self-concept and self-esteem is that self-esteem includes which of the following? a. a sense of who you are b. a sense of how good (or bad) you are c. a sense of where you came from d. a sense of what you can do Answer: b Rationale: Self-concept is defined as the way in which children think about themselves and how they establish their attitudes and values in the context of their society. Self-esteem, on the other hand, refers to whether people see themselves positively (high self-esteem), negatively (low self-esteem), or somewhere in between. For example, when people have high self-esteem this means that they basically like themselves and typically feel competent in their social skills as well as in their other skills. 18. Luke views himself negatively, believing that he is not very smart, that he is not good at sports or music, and that other children don’t like to play with him. Psychologists would describe Luke as having: a. low self-esteem b. a poor sense of industry c. a “type B” personality d. depression Answer: a Rationale: Self-esteem refers to whether people see themselves positively (high self-esteem), negatively (low self-esteem), or somewhere in between. For example, when people have high self-esteem this means that they basically like themselves and typically feel competent in their social skills as well as in their other skills. 19. Laurie is a child whose self-esteem develops as follows: the better she does, the more positively she thinks about herself, which leads her to try harder and do even better. Laurie’s self-esteem development highlights which of the following characteristics about self-esteem development? a. It is easier for girls than boys. b. It is a reciprocal process. c. It depends on context. d. It becomes more complex as children grow older. Answer: b Rationale: For better or worse, development of self-esteem is a reciprocal process. Children tend to do well when they are confident in their own abilities; their success then bolsters and increases their self-esteem. In the same way, when children perform poorly, their confidence in their own ability decreases; their failures then tend to decrease their self-esteem still further. 20. If a child is having a great deal of trouble learning to read, and if you wanted to encourage him in the development of positive self-esteem, the best way you might do this is to: a. punish him when he makes reading mistakes b. make sure he works on his reading homework before he is allowed to do something more fun c. keep telling him he is a good reader, even though he isn’t d. have him get involved in something he is good at, such as music or sports Answer: d Rationale: As noted in the text, one thing parents can do to encourage the development of positive self-esteem is to seek out activities in which their children can be successful. 21. In using praise to help a child develop a positive self-esteem, it is important to remember that praise must be: a. verbal, meaning that you must tell the child he or she has done well b. physical, meaning that you must hug the child when he or she has done well c. realistic, meaning that it should be given only when it is deserved d. consistent, meaning that it should be given regardless of how well the child does, so long as he or she has tried hard Answer: c Rationale: Praise can help to build self-esteem. Used in moderation, and given for legitimate accomplishments, praise can be quite effective. Praise, however, also can be a double-edged sword. Too much praise or praise that does not reflect real accomplishments can prevent children from developing an accurate sense of their weaknesses as well as their strengths. 22. When a child is praised excessively, this is linked to the development of all of the following EXCEPT: a. unrealistically high expectations b. confusion about what is right and what is wrong c. frustration and demoralization d. a much stronger self-concept and positive sense of self-esteem Answer: d Rationale: Excessive praise can lead to unrealistic expectations, confusion about standards, and potentially frustration and demoralization if the child fails to meet those expectations. However, excessive praise is not linked to a much stronger self-concept and positive sense of self-esteem; in fact, it may undermine genuine self-esteem by creating dependency on external validation. 23. Some critics suggest that teachers who provide too much praise create children: a. with negative self-images b. who are critical of others and lack empathy c. who have no sense of boundaries d. who do not have a realistic sense of their own strengths and weaknesses Answer: d Rationale: Praise can help to build self-esteem. Used in moderation, and given for legitimate accomplishments, praise can be quite effective. Praise, however, also can be a double-edged sword. Too much praise or praise that does not reflect real accomplishments can prevent children from developing an accurate sense of their weaknesses as well as their strengths. Social Knowledge and Reasoning 24. Which one of the following concepts is made up from the combination of the other three? a. social cognition b. social responsibility c. social regulations d. social inferences Answer: a Rationale: Social cognition encompasses various aspects of social understanding, including social responsibility, social regulations, and social inferences. Social cognition involves how individuals perceive, interpret, and respond to social situations and stimuli. 25. Betty wants to describe how a person’s knowledge and understanding of the social world influences development. The term that she should use to express this idea is: a. social inference b. social cognition c. social responsibility d. social regulations Answer: b Rationale: By definition, social cognition includes a person’s knowledge and understanding of the social world. 26. According to the text, one’s obligations to family, friends, and society at large is termed: a. social inference b. social self-esteem c. social responsibility d. self-regulation Answer: c Rationale: Social responsibility refers to one's sense of obligation and duty toward others in their social environment, including family, friends, and society at large. It involves understanding and fulfilling roles and duties within social relationships and communities. 27. Making assumptions about what a friend is feeling illustrates the concept called: a. social inference b. social cognition c. social regulation d. self-regulated behavior Answer: a Rationale: Social inference involves guesses and assumptions about what another person is feeling, thinking, or intending. 28. When 10-year-old Emily overheard two girls laughing and whispering to each other, she assumed that they were talking about her. Emily’s assumption represents the concept called: a. social regulations b. social relationship c. social inference d. social regulation Answer: c Rationale: Social inference involves guesses and assumptions about what another person is feeling, thinking, or intending. 29. What component of social cognition refers to the customs and conventions used in a social setting or group? a. social regulations b. social inference c. social relationships d. social realism Answer: a Rationale: Social regulations pertain to the rules, customs, and norms that govern social behavior within a particular setting or group. It involves understanding and adhering to societal expectations and conventions. 30. Customs, such as raising your hand to speak in class, are called: a. social laws b. self-regulated behaviors c. social regulations d. standards Answer: c Rationale: Social regulations refer to the customs and conventions that govern social interactions. 31. When meeting a person for the first time in the work place, it is customary to shake hands. Shaking hands in this context is an example of a: a. social law b. self-regulated behavior c. social regulation d. cognitive standard Answer: c Rationale: Social regulations refer to the customs and conventions that govern social interactions. 32. An individual’s ideas about right and wrong are described by the term: a. cognitive dissonance b. social inferences c. morality d. social responsibility Answer: c Rationale: Morality refers to an individual's beliefs, values, and principles concerning what is right and wrong, good and bad behavior. It guides ethical decision-making and behavior in social contexts. 33. Piaget's view of morality is based in: a. social learning theory b. psychodynamic theory c. cognitive-developmental theory d. information-processing theory Answer: c Rationale: Piaget's view of morality is grounded in cognitive-developmental theory. He proposed that moral reasoning develops in stages as children grow and mature, progressing from a focus on external consequences to internalized principles of justice and fairness. 34. Which of the following theorists held that children's morality develops in two stages: moral realism and moral relativism? a. Piaget b. Selman c. Freud d. Kohlberg Answer: a Rationale: Piaget proposed a theory of moral development that includes two stages: moral realism and moral relativism. In moral realism, children believe that rules are absolute and unchangeable, whereas in moral relativism, they understand that rules are created by people and can be changed if necessary. 35. According to Piaget’s view of moral development, during which of the following stages do children think that all rules must be obeyed as if they were written in stone? a. moral relativism b. moral regulation c. moral realism d. social responsibility Answer: c Rationale: Piaget termed the stage where children believe that all rules must be obeyed as if they were written in stone as "moral realism." In this stage, children view rules as absolute and unchangeable. 36. According to Piaget’s view of moral development, during which of the following stages do children come to realize that rules are created and agreed upon cooperatively by individuals and can change if necessary? a. moral relativism b. cooperative morality c. moral realism d. social morality Answer: a Rationale: Piaget referred to the stage where children realize that rules are created and agreed upon cooperatively by individuals and can change if necessary as "moral relativism." In this stage, children understand that rules are not absolute and can vary depending on the situation. 37. A child who believes in rules as real, indestructible things is in what Piagetian stage of morality? a. conventional b. preconventional c. moral realism d. moral relativism Answer: c Rationale: According to Piaget, moral development occurs across two stages. The first stage, called moral realism, emerges in early middle childhood. In this stage children think that all rules must be obeyed as if they were written in stone. 38. Dean realizes that rules are agreements that may be changed if necessary. He is in which of Piaget’s stages of moral reasoning? a. moral realism b. moral relativism c. preconventional stage d. conventional stage Answer: b Rationale: According to Piaget, moral development occurs across two stages: the second is called moral relativism. During this stage, children understand that rules are created and agreed upon cooperatively by individuals and that they can be changed if necessary. 39. Jason was hit by a baseball thrown by Rick. Jason understands that Rick didn't intentionally hit him, and doesn't blame him for his injury. According to Piaget’s view, Jason’s reaction would be considered typical of the stage of: a. moral realism b. moral relativism c. preconventional morality d. postconventional morality Answer: b Rationale: According to Piaget, moral development occurs across two stages: the second is called moral relativism. During this stage, children understand that rules are created and agreed upon cooperatively by individuals and that they can be changed if necessary. 40. Which of the following researchers wrote most extensively about the development of moral reasoning? a. Erikson and Freud b. Selman and Hetherington c. Piaget and Kohlberg d. Gilligan and Selman Answer: c Rationale: Piaget described moral development as occurring across two stages: moral realism and moral relativism. Piaget’s two-stage theory of moral development was expanded by Lawrence Kohlberg. 41. If you were asked to solve one of Kohlberg’s “moral dilemmas,” this would involve: a. answering questions about your own moral (or immoral) behavior b. judging a logical argument to determine if a moral principle is being correctly described c. determining how a misbehaving child should be punished d. reading a story and judging whether the characters’ actions are moral or immoral Answer: d Rationale: In developing his now-classic theory, Kohlberg (1969) asked individuals (children, adolescents, and adults) to read stories involving moral dilemmas and then asked them questions about whether a central character’s behavior was moral or immoral. 42. Suppose that children participating in a research study were asked to answer the following question: If a child sees a classmate cheating on a test, should the child tell the teacher, or not? This study is employing a technique referred to as: a. a moral dilemma b. moral ambiguity c. moral absolutism d. egocentric thinking Answer: a Rationale: Within the context of Kohlberg’s research, moral dilemmas are stories in which individuals are asked to judge whether a character’s behavior was moral or immoral. 43. According to Kohlberg, as children develop, their moral reasoning becomes ______ abstract and ________ tied to the consequences of their behavior. a. more; more b. more; less c. less; more d. less; less Answer: b Rationale: Kohlberg identified two ways in which moral reasoning develops in middle childhood. First, as development proceeds, moral decisions increasingly become based on internalized moral principles rather than on external consequences, such as getting caught. Second, moral judgments become less concrete and more abstract as children develop. 44. Kohlberg proposed that there are ___ broad levels of moral development, each of which can be broken into ___ substages, for a total of ____ stages. a. 4; 2; 8 b. 3; 3; 9 c. 3; 2; 6 d. 2; 3; 6 Answer: c Rationale: Kohlberg proposed three broad levels of moral development, each consisting of two substages, resulting in a total of six stages. 45. According to Kohlberg’s view of moral development, if Marty decides a behavior is right or wrong on the basis of whether it is rewarded or punished, he is using reasoning that is typical of which of the following? a. the conventional level of moral reasoning b. the individual principles stage of moral reasoning c. the social conformity stage of moral reasoning d. the preconventional level of moral reasoning Answer: d Rationale: In Kohlberg’s theory, preconventional reasoning is defined as obeying rules to avoid punishments or to obtain rewards. 46. Which of the following most accurately expresses the relative emphasis given to moral attitudes versus moral behavior in Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development? a. Kohlberg’s theory focuses on explaining moral attitudes, but not moral behavior. b. Kohlberg’s theory focuses on explaining moral behavior, but not moral attitudes. c. Kohlberg’s theory focuses on explaining both moral attitudes and moral behavior. d. Kohlberg’s theory focuses on explaining theoretical ethics, not moral attitudes or behavior. Answer: a Rationale: A critique of Kohlberg’s theory is that his research assesses moral attitudes, not moral behavior; there can be a substantial difference between thinking about moral questions and behaving morally. 47. Dr. Ramirez is critical of Kohlberg’s theory because it emphasizes a Western view of moral values. His criticism suggests that Kohlberg’s theory is too heavily influenced by: a. moral absolutism b. conventional morality c. postconventional morality d. moral dilemma Answer: a Rationale: Moral absolutism refers to any theory of morality that disregards cultural differences in moral beliefs. 48. Which of Kohlberg’s stages is most vulnerable to criticisms involving moral absolutism? a. preconventional stage b. conventional stage c. postconventional stage d. moral relativism stage Answer: c Rationale: Moral absolutism refers to any theory of morality that disregards cultural differences in moral beliefs. Kohlberg himself acknowledged that his sixth stage (postconventional level) of moral development may not apply to all people in all cultures, but rather may reflect Western values. 49. Suppose that researchers in China and researchers in England find that children in these two countries view moral decisions in very different ways. These findings would best demonstrate the meaning of the term: a. postconventional morality b. moral realism c. moral dilemma d. moral absolutism Answer: d Rationale: Moral absolutism refers to any theory of morality that disregards cultural differences in moral beliefs. 50. Carol Gilligan challenged the theory of moral development advanced by Lawrence Kohlberg because it was based on: a. moral reasoning, not moral behavior b. research conducted only with men, and not women c. a non-Christian understanding of morality and moral principles d. legal, rather than ethical, principles defining right and wrong Answer: b Rationale: Carol Gilligan and her colleagues challenged Kohlberg’s theory on the grounds of gender bias, noting that females’ responses to Kohlberg’s moral dilemmas often placed them at lower levels in his stage-based model (e.g., Gilligan, 1993; 1994). According to Gilligan, these gender differences arise because males and females use different criteria in making moral judgments. 51. According to Carol Gilligan, boys are more likely to base moral reasoning on principles involving ________, whereas girls are more likely to rely on principles emphasizing ________. a. punishment; reward b. reward; punishment c. justice; caring d. caring; justice Answer: c Rationale: Carol Gilligan proposed that boys are more likely to base moral reasoning on principles of justice, while girls are more likely to emphasize caring and relationships in their moral reasoning. 52. Which of the following statements is most likely to have been made by a boy, rather than a girl? a. She broke the rules and she got what she deserved. b. The punishment should be lenient because she has to take care of her children. c. She should not be punished because she was trying to help. d. She should be punished because she didn’t care about what happened to the other people. Answer: a Rationale: Based on her research of women’s moral judgments, Gilligan proposed that there are two distinct types of moral reasoning, neither of which is superior to the other. One is based primarily on the concept of justice, the other primarily on human relationships and caring. As a consequence of early gender-specific experiences, the justice perspective becomes characteristic of traditional masculine thinking; caring for others is more common in traditionally feminine thought. 53. Which of the following statements is most likely to have been made by a girl, rather than a boy? a. He knew what the rule was and he broke it, so he should be punished. b. If everyone was excused for bad behavior, all we would have is bad behavior. c. He was trying to the right thing, so he should receive no punishment. d. He is usually right, so he is probably right this time too. Answer: c Rationale: Based on her research of women’s moral judgments, Gilligan proposed that there are two distinct types of moral reasoning, neither of which is superior to the other. One is based primarily on the concept of justice, the other primarily on human relationships and caring. As a consequence of early gender-specific experiences, the justice perspective becomes characteristic of traditional masculine thinking; caring for others is more common in traditionally feminine thought. 54. According to the text, gender differences in moral reasoning begin to emerge: a. in the first year of life b. when children first enter school and have to contend with discipline c. at about age 9 to 12 d. only after they reach the postconventional stage of moral reasoning Answer: c Rationale: Gender differences in moral reasoning typically begin to emerge around the ages of 9 to 12, as children become more socially aware and begin to internalize societal norms and values associated with gender roles. 55. In evaluating Carol Gilligan’s contributions to theories that explain moral development, it would be most accurate to note that her primary contribution was to emphasize the role of: a. punishment b. reward c. parents d. culture Answer: d Rationale: Based on her research of women’s moral judgments, Gilligan proposed that there are two distinct types of moral reasoning: justice and caring. As a consequence of early gender-specific experiences, the justice perspective becomes characteristic of traditional masculine thinking; caring for others is more common in traditionally feminine thought. Gilligan’s work points out the important role that culture plays in shaping how individuals form their value systems. Peer Relationships 56. As children move from early childhood into middle childhood, they become _____ likely to share secrets with parents and ______ likely to share secrets with friends. a. more; less b. less; more c. more; more d. less; less Answer: b Rationale: As children transition from early childhood to middle childhood, they typically become less likely to share secrets with parents and more likely to share secrets with friends, as peer relationships become increasingly important. 57. What research method did Robert Selman use to study the friendships of children? a. case studies of children with no friends b. case studies of children with lots of friends c. questionnaires asking children to respond to stories about relationships d. naturalistic observation Answer: c Rationale: Robert Selman used questionnaires asking children to respond to stories about relationships to study the friendships of children. 58. The research method used by Robert Selman in his study of friendship development was most similar to that used by which of the following people? a. Jean Piaget b. Sigmund Freud c. Mary Ainsworth d. Lawrence Kohlberg Answer: d Rationale: Selman’s approach was similar to the method used in Kohlberg’s studies of moral development: Tell children stories involving a “relationship” dilemma, then ask them questions to assess their concepts of other people, their self-awareness and ability to reflect, their concepts of personality, and their ideas about friendship. 59. According to Robert Selman's theory of friendship development, the first stage of friendship is based on: a. trust b. reciprocity c. give-and-take d. physical or geographical considerations Answer: d Rationale: In Selman’s first stage (ages 6 and under), a friend is just a playmate—someone who lives nearby, goes to the same school, or has desirable toys. 60. According to Robert Selman's stage view of friendship development, children in which stage are most likely to define their friends based on geographical considerations? a. Stage 1 b. Stage 2 c. Stage 3 d. Stage 4 Answer: a Rationale: In Robert Selman's stage view of friendship development, children in Stage 1 are most likely to define their friends based on geographical considerations, such as who lives nearby or attends the same school. 61. Roger's friend lives next door and is a good playmate who goes to the same school and has great toys that they play with together. This example best illustrates what stage of friendship? a. Stage 1 b. Stage 2 c. Stage 3 d. Stage 4 Answer: a Rationale: In Selman’s first stage (ages 6 and under), a friend is just a playmate—someone who lives nearby, goes to the same school, or has desirable toys. 62. The idea of reciprocity and an awareness of another person's feelings begin to form during which of Robert Selman’s stages of friendship? a. Stage 1 b. Stage 2 c. Stage 3 d. Stage 4 Answer: b Rationale: In Robert Selman's stage view of friendship development, the idea of reciprocity and an awareness of another person's feelings begin to form during Stage 2. This stage is characterized by a more reciprocal exchange of emotions and perspectives between friends. 63. According to Robert Selman, the concept of trust appears for the first time during friendships among children of about what age? a. 6 years old b. 8 years old c. 10 years old d. 13 years old Answer: c Rationale: In Selman’s third stage (ages 9 to 12), friends are seen as people who help each other, and the concept of trust appears. 64. Debbie and Jackie are both 10 years old. Their friendship is based on give-and-take. According to Robert Selman, Debbie and Jackie’s friendship is characteristic of which stage of friendship? a. Stage 1 b. Stage 2 c. Stage 3 d. Stage 4 Answer: c Rationale: In Selman’s third stage (ages 9 to 12), friends are seen as people who help each other, and the concept of trust appears. 65. Shauna’s friends are all children she interacts with on a regular basis. When asked what a friend is, she says, “A friend is someone who will play a game with me that I want to play.” Based on Selman’s view of friendship development, your best guess is that Shauna is about ___ years old and is in Stage ___ of Selman’s theory. a. 5; 1 b. 9; 3 c. 4; 5 d. 10; 2 Answer: a Rationale: In Selman’s first stage (ages 6 and under), a friend is just a playmate—someone who lives nearby, goes to the same school, or has desirable toys. 66. Marcus defines a friend as “someone you can trust with your secrets and who will help you out when you need support.” He understands that to have friends, one also needs to be a good friend to others. Based on Selman’s view of friendship development, your best guess is that Marcus is about ___ years old and is in Stage ___ of Selman’s theory. a. 6; 3 b. 11; 3 c. 16; 6 d. 9; 6 Answer: b Rationale: In Selman’s third stage (ages 9 to 12), friends are seen as people who help each other, and the concept of trust appears. 67. Which of the following children is probably the oldest, based on how their definitions of what a friend is fit into Selman’s view of friendship development? a. Yvonne, who says “a friend it the person you play with” b. Greg, who says “a friend is someone who you can help you build things” c. Mike, who says “a friend is someone who you can trust and depend on” d. Gloria, who says “a friend is the person you spend the most time with” Answer: c Rationale: In Selman’s first stage (ages 6 and under), a friend is just a playmate—someone who lives nearby, goes to the same school, or has desirable toys. Yvonne, Greg, and Gloria all appear to be in this stage. In Selman’s third stage (ages 9 to 12), friends are seen as people who help each other, and the concept of trust appears. 68. According to Selman, the primary force behind developmental changes in children’s friendships is which of the following? a. the child’s age b. the child’s intelligence level c. the child’s ability to understand the difference between right and wrong d. the child’s ability to take another person’s perspective Answer: d Rationale: Robert Selman, a developmental psychologist, proposed that the primary force behind developmental changes in children's friendships is their ability to take another person's perspective. This perspective-taking ability allows children to understand and empathize with their friends' thoughts, feelings, and experiences, leading to more complex and meaningful friendships. 69. Selman’s view of how friendships develop in middle childhood would be most consistent with which of the following theoretical perspectives? a. the psychoanalytic perspective b. the behavioral perspective c. the social-behavioral perspective d. the cognitive perspective Answer: d Rationale: Selman proposed a means for understanding how cognitive advances set the stage for social and personality development. Thus, his view is most consistent with the cognitive perspective. 70. A group of two or more people of similar status who interact with each other and who share norms and goals is the text’s definition of: a. clique b. peer group c. reference group d. marginal group Answer: b Rationale: A peer group is defined as a social group consisting of individuals of similar age, status, and interests who interact with each other regularly and share common norms and goals. This definition aligns with the description provided in the question. 71. Cindy’s peer group would be considered very informal, and its members change quite frequently. Although the group plays games like soccer that involve specific rules, the group itself operates with few rules that define its membership. Cindy is most likely about how old? a. 8 years old b. 10 years old c. 12 years old d. 14 years old Answer: a Rationale: In early middle childhood, peer groups are relatively informal. The peer group takes on greater significance for its members when they reach the ages of 10 to 12, and peer groups typically develop a more formal structure during this period. 72. Which of the following features is most likely to characterize peer groups of children who are ages 10 to 12? a. informal group structure b. having few operating rules c. a rapid turnover in membership d. strong conformity to group norms Answer: d Rationale: In later middle childhood, peer pressure becomes an important force, and conformity to group norms becomes extremely important. The strict attitudes about rules, conformity, and sex segregation that are characteristic of many peer groups composed of 10- to 12-year-olds usually do not diminish until mid-adolescence. 73. Children in which of the following age groups are most likely to have peer groups that consist of only children of their same gender? a. children age 4-6 b. children age 7-9 c. children age 10-12 d. children age 13-15 Answer: c Rationale: When children reach the age of 10 to 12, separation of the sexes becomes especially noticeable. Peer groups are now almost invariably composed of one sex, and boy groups and girl groups maintain different interests, activities, and styles of interaction. 74. As children move from early to middle childhood, their peer groups generally become: a. less formal, with members moving in and out of the group frequently b. less structured, with fewer rules for group membership c. less gender segregated, with most groups having both boys and girls d. more conformist, with stricter expectations about how group members should behave Answer: d Rationale: In later middle childhood, peer pressure becomes an important force, and conformity to group norms becomes extremely important. The strict attitudes about rules, conformity, and sex segregation that are characteristic of many peer groups composed of 10- to 12-year-olds usually do not diminish until mid-adolescence. 75. According to a study cited in the text, when aggressive children in fourth to sixth grade were asked to nominate the “coolest” children in their class, they most frequently mentioned children who were: a. aggressive b. physically attractive c. intelligent d. older Answer: a Rationale: The study cited in the text indicates that aggressive children in fourth to sixth grade often perceive other aggressive children as the "coolest" individuals in their class. This suggests a social preference for aggression within certain peer groups during this developmental period. 76. Suppose you selected a group of highly aggressive fifth grade boys and girls and asked them who the “coolest” person in their class is. Generalizing from research cited in the text, you would expect them to choose: a. Sam, who is very attractive physically b. Matthew, who is very smart c. Les, who is very aggressive d. Rob, who is very tall Answer: c Rationale: In one study of fourth- to sixth-graders, aggressive children were often nominated as the “coolest” members of their class by other aggressive children, and this was true for girls as well as boys (Rodkin, Farmer, Pearl, & Van Aker, 2006). 77. Which of the following children is least likely to be popular with friends? a. Albert, who is of above-average intelligence b. Alex, who is a very good student and earns good grades c. Allen, who is a shy, timid child d. Abe, who is very good at sports Answer: c Rationale: Once children enter school, academic performance and athletic ability are particularly important predictors of popularity. Few children like a bully, so the overly aggressive child is shunned. 78. Which of the following children is most likely to be popular with friends? a. Meg, who is a very good student b. Molly, who is shy c. Middie, who is aggressive d. Matty, who is below average in intelligence Answer: a Rationale: Once children enter school, academic performance and athletic ability are particularly important predictors of popularity. Few children like a bully, so the overly aggressive child is shunned. Timid children often suffer the most from peer rejection, at least in the U.S. majority culture. 79. Generalizing from the text, which of the following children would be most likely to suffer from peer rejection in the United States? a. a child who is very bright b. a child who is mildly aggressive c. a child who is a very good athlete d. a child who is very timid Answer: d Rationale: Once children enter school, academic performance and athletic ability are particularly important predictors of popularity. Few children like a bully, so the overly aggressive child is shunned. Timid children often suffer the most from peer rejection, at least in the U.S. majority culture. 80. According to the text, the term “prejudice” should be considered to be _________ and the term “discrimination” should be considered to be ____________. a. a positive behavior; a negative behavior b. behavior directed at in-group members; behavior directed at out-group members c. an attitude; behavior d. socially acceptable; socially unacceptable Answer: c Rationale: The term "prejudice" refers to an attitude or belief held about a group of people based on stereotypes or preconceived notions. It involves prejudging individuals or groups without sufficient evidence. On the other hand, "discrimination" refers to behavior or actions that result in unfair treatment of individuals or groups based on characteristics such as race, gender, or ethnicity. Discrimination is the manifestation of prejudicial attitudes in action. 81. Lorraine says, “I don’t like those people because they are different from me and my friends.” Using psychological terminology, Lorraine’s comment has identified the people she doesn’t like as: a. an in-group b. an out-group c. a side-group d. a dumped group Answer: b Rationale: As defined, an out-group includes people who are perceived to be different and therefore undesirable. 82. Barbara holds negative attitudes about people who belong to groups that differ from her according to some noticeable attributes such as race, religion, or ethnicity. Psychologists would define Barbara’s situation as an example of what is meant by the term: a. racial/ethnic identity b. ethnic awareness c. discrimination d. prejudice Answer: d Rationale: Prejudice is defined as a negative attitude formed without adequate reason and usually directed toward people because of their membership in a certain group. 83. Excluding or teasing members of a particular group are best thought of as examples of which of the following? a. discrimination b. prejudice c. both discrimination and prejudice d. neither discrimination nor prejudice Answer: a Rationale: Discrimination is defined as treating others in a prejudiced manner. 84. If all of Jane’s friends like each other and see themselves as being quite similar to each other, a psychologist would most likely describe this group as: a. an in-group b. an out-group c. a side-group d. a popular group Answer: a Rationale: An in-group is a group of people who we view as being similar to us and as possessing desirable characteristics. 85. According to the text, when does ethnic awareness begin to develop? a. in infancy b. in early childhood c. during the elementary school years d. during adolescence Answer: b Rationale: Ethnic awareness begins to develop in early childhood as children become aware of differences in appearance, culture, and language among people in their environment, including their own ethnic group and others. 86. From a developmental perspective, which of the following is the first step to occur when developing an ethnic identity? a. learning which ethnic group one belongs to b. learning who the leaders of one’s ethnic group are c. learning the rules of group membership for one’s ethnic group d. learning to behave in a manner that doesn’t violate the rules of one’s ethnic group Answer: a Rationale: The first step in developing an ethnic identity is typically learning which ethnic group one belongs to. This initial awareness lays the foundation for further exploration and understanding of cultural norms, values, and practices associated with that ethnic identity 87. Suppose that Germaine, who is African American, attends a school where about half the students are African American and half are white. Generalizing from research reported in the text, in which of the following grades should you expect Germaine to be least likely to have a white friend? a. 4th grade b. 5th grade c. 6th grade d. 7th grade Answer: d Rationale: A study in a California town in which the schools were about half African American and half White found that older children actually were less likely than younger ones to have a friend of a different ethnicity: Interethnic friendships declined steadily from the fourth through the seventh grade. 88. Which of the following best describes the relationship between age and a child’s likelihood of having friends from a different racial or ethnic group? a. Older children are more likely to have friends from different racial/ethnic groups. b. Younger children are more likely to have friends from different racial/ethnic groups. c. 7-year-old children are more likely to have friends from different racial/ethnic groups than are children who are older or younger. d. Age is unrelated to the likelihood of having friends from different racial/ethnic groups. Answer: b Rationale: A study in a California town in which the schools were about half African American and half white found that older children actually were less likely than younger ones to have a friend of a different ethnicity. Interethnic friendships declined steadily from the fourth through the seventh grade. The researchers concluded that as children grow older, ethnic or racial similarity becomes an increasingly powerful basis for friendship (Ocampo, Knight, & Bernal, 1997). Family Influences in Middle Childhood 89. According to the text, during middle childhood the most important socializing influence on children is: a. the peer group b. the child’s best friend c. the child’s teachers d. the family Answer: d Rationale: During middle childhood, the family remains the most significant socializing influence on children. Although peer interactions become increasingly important, the family continues to provide the primary context for socialization, transmitting cultural values, beliefs, and norms to children. 90. According to the text, as Abbey moves through middle childhood, her parents would be expected to become less concerned with her ____________ and more concerned with her _____________. a. industry; trust b. industry; intimacy needs c. achievement; autonomy d. autonomy; achievement Answer: d Rationale: As noted in the text, when children begin their formal education, parents become less concerned with promoting autonomy and establishing daily routines and more concerned with their children’s work habits and achievement. 91. When Jeremy learns to direct his own behavior, rather than behave in strict accordance with the directions of his parents and teachers, psychologists would say he has developed: a. coregulation b. peer status c. self-regulated behavior d. self-monitoring Answer: c Rationale: Self-regulated behavior is defined as children’s ability to control and direct their own behavior and to meet the requirements that parents and others impose upon them. 92. Self-regulated behavior is best encouraged when parents: a. use mild, but never harsh, physical punishment b. use verbal reasoning to discipline the child c. set strict rules and make few, if any, exceptions d. allow the child to learn by trial and error, with little guidance Answer: b Rationale: As noted in the text, self-regulation is encouraged when parents use verbal reasoning and suggestion rather than strict approaches to discipline. 93. When parents use a reasoning-based set of parenting skills to discipline their child, this encourages all of the following EXCEPT: a. better self-regulation for the child b. more prosocial behavior from the child c. better compliance with the rules that are set d. lesser popularity with other children in the peer group Answer: d Rationale: As noted in the text, a reasoning-based approach leads to more prosocial behavior and to better compliance with social rules. Also, parents who remind their children of the effects of their actions on others tend to have children who are more popular and whose moral standards are internalized more fully. Self-regulation is also encouraged when parents use verbal reasoning and suggestion rather than strict approaches to discipline. 94. Suppose that Mary and Dave want to increase their son's self-regulated behavior. Which of the following discipline practices is most closely linked to this outcome? a. authoritarian practices b. indifferent practices c. permissive practices d. authoritative practices Answer: d Rationale: Self-regulation is encouraged when parents use verbal reasoning and suggestion rather than strict approaches to discipline. Authoritative parents use such tactics: They encourage communication and negotiation in rule setting within the family. 95. As Greta grows older, her parents gradually increase her involvement in family decisions, such as where to go on vacation and how to spend the weekends together. Her parents are developing Greta’s: a. scaffolding behaviors b. power-assertive socialization skills c. other-oriented induction skills d. self-regulated behaviors Answer: d Rationale: Self-regulation is encouraged when parents use verbal reasoning and suggestion rather than strict approaches to discipline. 96. The development of a sense of shared responsibility between parents and their children defines the concept of: a. self-monitoring b. coregulation c. self-regulation d. reciprocity Answer: b Rationale: Coregulation refers to the development of a cooperative relationship between parents and children where responsibilities and decision-making are shared. It involves parents gradually transferring control and guidance to their children while maintaining a supportive and guiding role. 97. When parents develop a sense of shared responsibility with their children, the term used to describe this activity is: a. coadministration b. cooperation c. codirection d. coregulation Answer: d Rationale: Coregulation is defined as the development of a sense of shared responsibility between parents and their children. 98. George and Ramona want to help their son develop self-regulated behavior. They will be most successful if they: a. gradually increase the child's involvement in family decisions b. gradually decrease the child's involvement in family decisions c. use power-assertive socialization d. allow the child to set his own behavior limits and experience the consequences Answer: a Rationale: One way that parents can encourage self-regulated behavior is to gradually increase the child’s involvement in family decisions. By engaging in frequent discussions and negotiations with their children, parents can encourage greater independence while still providing support and guidance. 99. Development of a sense of shared responsibility between parents and children, such as negotiating a curfew, is called a. scaffolding b. coregulation c. moral relativism d. moral absolutism Answer: b Rationale: Coregulation involves the development of a sense of shared responsibility between parents and their children. 100. When planning a family vacation, Emma and her parents shared responsibility and cooperated together on the details. Psychologists would generally refer to practices such as this by using the term: a. coregulation b. scaffolding c. social regulation d. self-regulation Answer: a Rationale: Coregulation involves the development of a sense of shared responsibility between parents and their children. 101. Jill’s parents want her to become more responsible, so they buy her the puppy she wants and they expect her to perform simple care-taking tasks, like putting its food in its bowl. By asking Jill to perform tasks that are difficult for her, but providing her advice and support to make sure she learns these tasks, Jill’s parents are: a. engaging in coregulation b. teaching Jill autonomy c. using scaffolding d. teaching Jill to self-monitor Answer: c Rationale: Scaffolding involves the concept of presenting children with tasks just beyond their level of competence and then providing support and assistance that allows them to accomplish these tasks. 102. Today, about what percent of children born in the United States were born to unmarried mothers? a. 9% b. 16% c. 24% d. 40% Answer: d Rationale: As of recent data, approximately 40% of children born in the United States are born to unmarried mothers, indicating a significant shift in family structure and dynamics over recent decades. 103. Over the past 25 years, how has the percent of children born to unmarried mothers changed? a. There are about half as many children born to unmarried mothers today as in 1985. b. There are about the same number of children born to unmarried mothers today as in 1985. c. There are slightly more children born to unmarried mothers today compared to 1985. d. There are many more children born to unmarried mothers today compared to 1985. Answer: d Rationale: Today, nearly 40% of children born were born to unmarried mothers, an increase of about 60% since 1985. 104. In 1948, about ___ % of mothers of school-aged children worked outside the home; today about ___ % of these mothers work. a. 13; 26 b. 26; 52 c. 26; 77 d. 52; 77 Answer: c Rationale: In 1948, around 26% of mothers of school-aged children worked outside the home. Today, approximately 77% of these mothers work, reflecting the substantial increase in maternal employment over the past decades. 105. In the United States in 2010, what percent of mothers with school-aged children worked outside the home? a. 26% b. 51% c. 77% d. 89% Answer: c Rationale: According to the text, in 2010, 77% of mothers with school-aged children worked outside the home. This statistic reflects a significant portion of mothers balancing employment alongside their roles as caregivers. 106. Today, in comparison with women who do not have children, women with school-age children are: a. much less likely to work outside the home b. slightly less likely to work outside the home c. about equally likely to work outside the home d. more likely to work outside the home Answer: d Rationale: The text indicates that women with school-age children are more likely to work outside the home compared to women who do not have children. This shift in societal dynamics reflects the increasing presence of mothers in the workforce. 107. In the United States today, in about _____ of two-parent families, both parents work outside the home. a. one-quarter b. one-third c. one-half d. two-thirds Answer: d Rationale: According to the text, in approximately two-thirds of two-parent families in the United States today, both parents work outside the home. This highlights the prevalence of dual-income households in contemporary society. 108. Which of the following women is most likely to work outside the home? a. Mary, who is a single mother b. Judy, who is a mother who is married c. Linda, who is a mother and who is widowed d. Mary, Judy, and Linda are equally likely to work outside the home Answer: c Rationale: According to the text, 72% of single mothers, 70% of married mothers with husbands present, and 79% of divorced, separated, or widowed mothers were in the labor force. 109. Suppose that Jillian has been living in a situation characterized by a high level of chronic and severe stress. Which of the following behaviors would Jillian be LEAST likely to express? a. blunted emotions b. difficulty developing affections for others c. extremely docile, unaggressive behavior d. depression Answer: c Rationale: Young children who live with the chronic stress and severe stress associated with constant violence tend to be fearful, depressed, and anxious. Many have trouble concentrating in school and suffer other school-related problems. Children may fear being abandoned and may become overly aggressive and insolent to disguise their fears. Many children develop blunted emotions—they are afraid to develop affection for people who may be killed or who may abandon them. 110. According to the text, if a child experiences a high level of chronic and severe stress, that child is at risk for developing: a. posttraumatic stress disorder b. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder c. antisocial personality disorder d. overly secure attachments with caregivers Answer: a Rationale: The text suggests that children experiencing high levels of chronic and severe stress are at risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This highlights the adverse effects of prolonged stress on child development. 111. The text describes a study in which children in stressful environments in Hawaii were studied. Those who were resilient were more likely than others to: a. have difficult temperaments b. have slow-to-warm-up temperaments c. have insecure attachment to their mothers but secure attachment to their fathers d. shift attachments if the parent or grandparent was no longer available Answer: d Rationale: According to the study mentioned in the text, resilient children in stressful environments were more likely to shift attachments if a parent or grandparent was no longer available. This adaptability suggests a protective factor against the negative effects of stress. 112. According to a study of resilient Hawaiian children reported in the text, children who coped well even in stressful circumstances were more likely to have been temperamentally "easy" babies and to have: a. grown up in a two-parent family b. had at least one sibling of each sex c. had a close attachment to a parent or grandparent in the first year of life d. been separated in age by at least two years from other children in the family Answer: c Rationale: The text indicates that resilient children in the study were more likely to have been temperamentally "easy" babies and to have developed close attachments to a parent or grandparent in their first year of life. This early attachment may contribute to resilience later in life. 113. Children who are able to overcome difficult environments and lead socially competent lives are described by psychologists with which of the following terms? a. self-regulation b. coregulation c. resilience d. self-monitoring Answer: c Rationale: Resilient children are children who are able to overcome difficult environments to lead socially competent lives. 114. If you know that Bob is a highly resilient child, even though he has grown up under stressful circumstances, your best guess is that his early life was characterized by: a. insecure attachment to his mother b. insecure attachment to his father c. difficult temperament d. easy temperament Answer: d Rationale: In one study of Hawaiian children, those who had overcome difficult environments to lead socially competent lives (i.e., resilient children), shared certain characteristics. As babies, they had been temperamentally “easy” and had developed secure attachments to a parent or grandparent in the first year of life. 115. Ricca had an extremely stressful childhood, having been raised in a series of foster homes, one of which involved child abuse. Yet, Ricca is a confident, well-adjusted teenager. Psychologists would describe Ricca by saying that she was: a. high in self-monitoring b. high in coregulation c. resilient d. egocentric Answer: c Rationale: Resilient children are children who are able to overcome difficult environments to lead socially competent lives. 116. In the United States today, about ______ of families are single-parent families headed by men. a. 1% b. 3% c. 9% d. 12% Answer: b Rationale: According to the text, approximately 3% of families in the United States today are single-parent families headed by men. This highlights the comparatively smaller proportion of such families in society. 117. What percent of single-parent families headed by mothers live in poverty? a. 10% b. 25% c. 40% d. 65% Answer: c Rationale: The text states that around 40% of single-parent families headed by mothers live in poverty. This statistic underscores the economic challenges faced by many single-parent households. 118. According to the text, which of the following statements about how girls and boys benefit from their mothers’ working outside the home is most accurate? a. Boys generally benefit more than girls. b. Girls generally benefit more than boys. c. Boys and girls both generally benefit, and in about the same amount. d. Neither boys nor girls benefit, and all children suffer when their mothers have to work. Answer: b Rationale: The text suggests that girls generally benefit more than boys from their mothers' working outside the home. This benefit may stem from the positive role modeling and increased exposure to diverse experiences that working mothers provide. 119. According to the text, about what proportion of marriages in the United States end in divorce? a. about one-third b. about 40% c. about 55% d. about 65% Answer: b Rationale: The text indicates that approximately 40% of marriages in the United States end in divorce. This statistic reflects the prevalence of divorce in contemporary American society. 120. Based on general trends, which of the following children is likely to experience the least amount of disruption as the result of her parents’ divorce? a. Ellen, who is sent to live with her grandparents in a different state b. Julia, whose mother just “leaves” and disappears from the family c. Jackie, whose father just “leaves” and disappears from the family d. Lucy, who continues to live with her mother in her same home, and whose father stays in contact with the family Answer: d Rationale: The consequences of divorce for children are more problematic when the divorce involves major changes in the child’s living arrangements and when one or both parents fail to maintain strong emotional attachments and stay involved in their children’s lives. 121. A family in which a mother or father with children has remarried is referred to as what type of family? a. nuclear family b. reconstituted family c. extended family d. double-parent family Answer: b Rationale: A reconstituted family, also known as stepfamily, is a family where a mother or a father with children has remarried to produce a new family. 122. Mae’s mother recently married a man with two children. Her family’s situation is best described as which of the following? a. double-parented b. reconstituted c. extended d. foster Answer: b Rationale: A reconstituted family, also known as stepfamily, is a family where a mother or a father with children has remarried to produce a new family. Current Issues: Friends and Enemies, Bullies and Victims – The Social Life of School 123. Repeated and intentional aggression directed by an aggressive child against a less powerful victim is the definition of: a. bullying b. prejudice c. discrimination d. provocation Answer: a Rationale: Bullying involves repeated and deliberate aggressive behavior targeted towards someone who is perceived as less powerful or unable to defend themselves. It often manifests as a power dynamic where the bully seeks to assert dominance over the victim through various forms of aggression or harassment. 124. According to research cited in the text, which of the following children would be most likely to be bullied via physical aggression? a. a 7-year-old girl b. a 7-year-old boy c. an 11-year-old girl d. an 11-year old boy Answer: b Rationale: According to research cited in the text, about one-half of school-age children report that they have been teased or bullied in the past month, and younger children report bullying more often than do older children. Girls and boys both report teasing, taunting, and other forms of physical abuse, although physical bullying is more common among boys. 125. According to research cited in the text, which of the following children would be most likely to be bullied by being physically pushed around or hit? a. a 7-year-old girl b. a 7-year-old boy c. an 11-year-old girl d. an 11-year old boy Answer: b Rationale: According to research cited in the text, about one-half of school-age children report that they have been teased or bullied in the past month, and younger children report bullying more often than do older children. Girls and boys both report teasing, taunting, and other forms of physical abuse, although physical bullying is more common among boys. Changing Perspectives: Families Coping in Difficult Circumstances 126. Based on results from a study of 419 families in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, you would predict that as the economic pressure felt by parents increased, which of the following was likely to result? a. parents used less punishment when their children misbehaved b. parents turned to their children for support, becoming more affectionate c. children turned to other children for support, becoming more prosocial in their play d. teachers rated children as having higher levels of behavioral problems Answer: d Rationale: Economic pressure on parents can lead to increased stress within the family environment. This stress may exacerbate behavioral problems in children as parents may have less time, resources, or emotional capacity to address these issues effectively. Consequently, teachers are more likely to observe and rate children as having higher levels of behavioral problems when families experience economic pressure. 127. Based on research presented in the text, you would expect that an economic recession might be linked to which of the following? a. higher school performance among children b. more affection being shown between parents and children c. more behavioral problems in the schools d. less use of physical punishment by parents to discipline children Answer: c Rationale: Results of a research study cited in the text showed that when economic pressure mounted, parents became more distressed. Their stress then contributed to a more punishment-oriented style of discipline and to a less affectionate relationship with their children. Less than optimal parenting, in turn, was linked to lower teacher ratings of the children’s prosocial behavior and to higher ratings of their behavioral problems (Mistry et al., 2002). True-False questions: Personality Development in an Expanding Social World 128. The social-learning view sees the period of middle childhood as a period of latency, during which children turn their emotional energies toward peers, creative efforts, and learning the culturally prescribed tasks of the school and community. Answer: False Rationale: This description is consistent with the psychodynamic view, not the social-learning view. The social learning view sees middle childhood as a time when children develop habits and attitudes through observing and imitating models, who often are peers. 129. A child’s gender identity and gender stereotypes typically emerge during the period of middle childhood. Answer: True Rationale: During middle childhood, typically between the ages of 6 and 12, children develop a stronger understanding of gender identity and begin to internalize societal gender stereotypes. This period is characterized by increased awareness of gender roles, expectations, and behaviors, which contribute to the formation of gender identity. 130. Erik Erikson viewed the period of middle childhood as involving the crisis of establishing autonomy versus shame and doubt. Answer: False Rationale: In Erikson’s view, the central crisis of middle childhood is between industry versus inferiority. 131. A child who feels generally unable to perform most important tasks well is likely to have low self-esteem. Answer: True Rationale: Low self-esteem often results from a pervasive sense of inadequacy and incompetence in various aspects of life, including tasks considered important by the individual. When a child consistently feels unable to meet expectations or perform tasks successfully, it can contribute to a negative self-evaluation and, consequently, low self-esteem. 132. Used in excess, praise can be quite effective at building realistic self-esteem. Answer: False Rationale: When used in excess, praise usually has negative effects, since it prevents children from developing a realistic sense of their weaknesses and strengths. Social Knowledge and Social Reasoning 133. The term social inference refers to the child’s ability to understand his or her own feelings, thoughts, and knowledge about the world. Answer: False Rationale: This is a definition of social cognition. Social inference refers to the individual’s guesses and assumptions about what another person is felling, thinking, or intending. 134. According to Jean Piaget, moral development occurs in two stages, moral realism and moral relativism. Answer: True Rationale: Jean Piaget proposed a two-stage theory of moral development. In the first stage, known as moral realism or heteronomous morality (typically occurring during early childhood), children believe that rules are absolute and unchangeable. In the second stage, moral relativism or autonomous morality (emerging during middle childhood), children understand that rules are socially constructed and can be modified based on mutual agreement. 135. If a child is judging the wrongness of an action according to whether the actor intended to do harm or was simply involved in an accident, this would be an example of what Piaget meant by moral realism. Answer: False Rationale: When children judge actions according to intentions rather than outcomes, their thinking displays what Piaget termed as moral relativism. 136. Kohlberg’s research method involved watching children act to see if they behaved morally and truthfully. Answer: False Rationale: Kohlberg presented children with stories involving moral dilemmas and asked children to explain what the characters in the story should do and why they should act that way. 137. According to Kohlberg, as children move through childhood, they first are in a preconventional stage, then a conventional stage, and finally a postconventional stage of moral reasoning. Answer: True Rationale: Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development proposes three levels, each consisting of two stages. The preconventional level (typically seen in early childhood) is characterized by obedience and self-interest, followed by the conventional level (seen in middle childhood and adolescence), where moral reasoning is based on conformity and social norms. The postconventional level (emerging in adolescence and adulthood) involves moral reasoning based on abstract principles and universal ethical values. 138. Kohlberg himself concluded that his sixth stage of moral development may not apply to all people in all cultures, but merely reflect Western values. Answer: True Rationale: Kohlberg acknowledged that his theory of moral development, particularly the proposed sixth stage focusing on universal ethical principles, might not be universally applicable across cultures. He recognized that cultural differences could influence moral reasoning and that his theory might be more reflective of Western cultural values. 139. According to Carol Gilligan, in making moral decisions, traditional U.S. culture teaches boys to strive for a perspective of justice, while caring for others is taught to girls. Answer: True Rationale: Carol Gilligan's research suggested that traditional U.S. culture socializes boys and girls differently in terms of moral development. Boys are often encouraged to prioritize principles of justice and fairness in moral decision-making, while girls are socialized to prioritize caring and compassion for others. This difference in socialization can lead to distinct moral orientations among boys and girls. Peer Relationships 140. During middle childhood, most children have more friends of the opposite gender than of their same gender. Answer: False Rationale: During middle childhood, most of children’s friends are of their same gender. 141. According to Robert Selman, children between the ages of 9 and 12 develop friendships that are based on genuine give-and-take. Answer: True Rationale: Robert Selman's theory of friendship development suggests that during middle childhood (approximately ages 9 to 12), children progress to a stage characterized by reciprocal friendships based on mutual trust, cooperation, and sharing. This stage reflects genuine give-and-take in friendships as children become increasingly capable of understanding and meeting the needs of others. 142. The research method used by Robert Selman had much more in common with that used by Jean Piaget than that used by Lawrence Kohlberg. Answer: False Rationale: Selman used a “relationship” dilemma approach in his research that was very similar to the moral dilemma approach taken by Kohlberg. Piaget’s work was based mostly on case study and naturalistic observation, for the most part of his own children. 143. Today, most researchers studying friendship development view Robert Selman’s theory as much too complex. Answer: False Rationale: Most researchers today view friendship development as a more complex process than the one Selman described. In particular, Selman dealt more with cognitive aspects of friendship development, and today researchers recognize the important role that emotional development also plays. 144. Children who are high on the trait called self-monitoring are more likely to conform to the expectations of the peer group than are those who are lower on this trait. Answer: True Rationale: Self-monitoring refers to the ability to regulate and adjust one's behavior in social situations to meet the expectations of others. Individuals high in self-monitoring are more attuned to social cues and norms, making them more likely to conform to peer expectations in order to fit in and maintain social acceptance. 145. Popularity in middle childhood is often linked to both academic and athletic ability, with good athletes being more popular than other children but good students being less popular than others. Answer: False Rationale: Both academic and athletic ability are positively related to popularity in middle childhood. 146. Unpopular children are usually different in some way from other members of their peer group. Answer: True Rationale: Unpopular children often exhibit characteristics or behaviors that set them apart from their peers, such as social awkwardness, shyness, or aggressive tendencies. These differences may lead to rejection or exclusion by the peer group, contributing to their status as unpopular within the social hierarchy. 147. Discrimination is a word that describes the negative attitudes that some people hold against others because of their group membership; prejudice describes negative behaviors that are the result of discrimination. Answer: False Rationale: Prejudice refers to negative attitudes, whereas discrimination involves the actual behavior that is based in prejudice. 148. The first step in acquiring an ethnic identity is to learn which group one belongs to. Answer: True Rationale: Acquiring an ethnic identity typically begins with an individual's recognition of the ethnic group to which they belong. This initial step involves understanding and identifying with the cultural practices, traditions, and values associated with one's ethnic background, laying the foundation for the development of a cohesive ethnic identity. 149. Children usually do not become aware of their ethnic identity until after the age of 12. Answer: False Rationale: Ethnic identity begins to develop in early childhood, as children become aware that they belong to a group defined by ethnicity. 150. Because children develop increasingly more complex cognitive abilities as they move through middle childhood, older children are more likely to have friends of ethnicities different from their own than are younger children. Answer: False Rationale: Older children are more subject to conformity pressure, which is often based on ethnic prejudice. Thus, even though they can think with more complexity, they actually are less likely to have friends of different ethnicities than are younger children. 151. A challenge that some African American students face is that some members of their ethnic group may view any academic achievement as being disloyal to the group, because school is seen as a white institution. Answer: True Rationale: Some African American students may face pressure or criticism from within their own ethnic group for excelling academically, as academic achievement may be perceived as assimilating into a white-dominated society or betraying cultural identity. This phenomenon is known as "acting white" and has been documented in research on African American academic achievement. Family Influences in Middle Childhood 152. During the period of middle childhood, most parents stress the development of autonomy over the development of initiative. Answer: False Rationale: In middle childhood, parents generally become less concerned with autonomy and more concerned with helping their child develop a sense of initiative and achievement. 153. When children develop the ability to control their own behavior, this is called coregulation. Answer: False Rationale: The development of behavioral control is called self-regulation. Coregulation refers to the development of a sense of shared responsibility between parents and their children. 154. Single parenthood has become more common in the United States in the past 25 years. Answer: True Rationale: Over the past few decades, the prevalence of single parenthood has increased in the United States due to various factors such as changing social norms, increased divorce rates, and more births to unmarried women. This trend has been well-documented in demographic studies. 155. Most children whose parents both work felt that their parents gave too much priority to their work. Answer: False Rationale: Research suggests that children whose parents work are often pleased and proud of their parents’ accomplishments. This is especially true for girls. 156. In severe cases, children who live with constant violence may develop posttraumatic stress disorder. Answer: True Rationale: Exposure to constant violence, whether in the home or community, can have severe psychological effects on children. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a recognized psychological disorder that can develop in individuals who have experienced or witnessed traumatic events, including ongoing violence. 157. All children with high self-esteem will also be resilient. Answer: False Rationale: Although high self-esteem is associated with resilience, not all children with high self-esteem will be resilient. Resilience is associated with having an easy temperament and secure attachments to parents or grandparents in the first year of life. 158. Single-parent households are much more likely to be headed by women than by men. Answer: True Rationale: Single-parent households are indeed more likely to be headed by women than by men. This is often attributed to factors such as women being more likely to have custody of children after divorce or separation, as well as higher rates of single motherhood compared to single fatherhood. 159. If a mother treats her children harshly when she is stressed and then they behave badly, causing her more stress, and this leads to even harsher treatment, this situation would be thought of as involving an interaction among forces. Answer: True Rationale: This scenario illustrates a dynamic interaction between multiple factors, including the mother's stress levels, her parenting behavior, and the children's behavior. The escalating cycle of stress and harsh treatment demonstrates how various forces can influence and reinforce each other within a family system. 160. Divorce usually is harder for children whose parents express a great deal of hostility toward each other. Answer: True Rationale: High levels of parental conflict and hostility during divorce can significantly impact children's well-being and adjustment. Research consistently shows that children fare better when their parents can manage conflict constructively and maintain positive co-parenting relationships post-divorce. Short Answer questions: Personality Development in an Expanding Social World 161. What do psychologists mean when they use the term self-concept? Answer: Psychologists refer to self-concept as the individual's perception, beliefs, and evaluations about themselves. It encompasses various aspects such as physical appearance, abilities, values, roles, and relationships. 162. Explain the difference between industry and inferiority and suggest two circumstances that might help a child develop a sense of industry. Answer: Industry, according to Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, refers to the sense of competence and productivity that develops during middle childhood. It involves mastering skills and tasks. Conversely, inferiority arises when children feel incompetent and incapable of meeting the demands of their environment. Circumstances fostering a sense of industry could include supportive and encouraging environments, where children are given opportunities to succeed and receive positive feedback. Another circumstance could be the presence of mentors or role models who inspire and guide children towards achieving their goals. 163. How does self-esteem differ from self-concept? Answer: Self-esteem and self-concept are related but distinct constructs. Self-esteem refers to the subjective evaluation or overall sense of worth that individuals attribute to themselves. It involves feelings of self-worth, self-respect, and self-acceptance. On the other hand, self-concept encompasses the broader set of beliefs and perceptions individuals hold about themselves, including their abilities, characteristics, and identities. 164. How might parents of a child who is having trouble succeeding academically help that child develop positive self-esteem? Answer: Parents of a child facing academic challenges can support the development of positive self-esteem through several strategies. Firstly, they can provide unconditional love and acceptance, emphasizing that their worth is not solely determined by academic performance. Encouraging the child to focus on their strengths and efforts rather than solely on grades can also bolster self-esteem. Additionally, parents can help the child set realistic goals, celebrate achievements, and provide constructive feedback to foster a growth mindset. Creating a nurturing and supportive environment where the child feels safe to express themselves and seek help when needed is crucial for cultivating positive self-esteem. Social Knowledge and Reasoning 165. Explain the difference between social inferences and social regulations and describe how they both contribute to the development of social cognition. Answer: Social Inferences: Social inferences involve understanding and interpreting others' thoughts, feelings, and intentions based on cues such as facial expressions, tone of voice, and situational context. It's the ability to make assumptions or draw conclusions about others' mental states. Social Regulations: Social regulations refer to the rules, norms, and expectations governing social interactions. These include explicit rules (e.g., laws, social norms) and implicit rules (e.g., politeness, turn-taking) that guide behavior in social contexts. Both social inferences and social regulations play crucial roles in the development of social cognition. Social inferences help individuals understand others' perspectives, which is essential for effective social interaction and communication. On the other hand, social regulations provide the framework within which social interactions occur, helping individuals learn appropriate behaviors and understand the consequences of their actions in social contexts. Together, these processes contribute to the development of social cognition by enabling individuals to navigate complex social environments, understand others' intentions and emotions, and regulate their own behavior accordingly. 166. How are the concepts of social inferences, social responsibility, social regulations, and social cognition related to each other? Answer: Social inferences involve understanding others' thoughts and intentions, which is essential for navigating social responsibilities effectively. Social regulations provide the rules and norms guiding social behavior, influencing how individuals perceive and fulfill their social responsibilities. Social cognition encompasses the broader processes involved in understanding and navigating social interactions, incorporating elements of both social inferences and social regulations. Essentially, social cognition is the overarching framework within which social inferences, social regulations, and social responsibility operate, as individuals use cognitive processes to interpret social cues, adhere to social norms, and fulfill their social obligations. 167. Explain the difference between moral realism and moral relativism and suggest which develops first. Answer: Moral Realism: Moral realism posits that moral principles exist independently of human perception or belief and are objective truths that apply universally. In other words, moral realists believe that certain actions are inherently right or wrong, regardless of cultural or individual differences. Moral Relativism: Moral relativism, on the other hand, asserts that moral principles are not universally applicable but are instead dependent on cultural, societal, or individual perspectives. According to moral relativism, what is considered morally right or wrong can vary across different cultures, societies, or individuals. The development of moral realism or moral relativism can vary among individuals and is influenced by factors such as cultural upbringing, religious beliefs, and exposure to diverse perspectives. However, moral relativism is often considered to develop later in cognitive and moral development, as individuals become more capable of understanding and appreciating cultural diversity and moral complexity. Initially, children tend to exhibit more absolutist thinking, which aligns with aspects of moral realism, but as they mature cognitively and gain exposure to diverse moral viewpoints, they may adopt more relativistic perspectives. 168. Describe how a child in Kohlberg’s preconventional stage of moral development would determine whether taking candy from a dish was morally right or wrong. What reasoning would this child most likely use? Answer: In Kohlberg's preconventional stage of moral development, characterized by obedience and self-interest, a child would likely determine whether taking candy from a dish was morally right or wrong based on personal consequences and external rewards or punishments. The child's reasoning would be egocentric, focusing primarily on avoiding punishment or obtaining rewards for themselves. They might view taking the candy as morally right if they believe they can do so without getting caught or facing negative consequences, or if they perceive it as a means to satisfy their own desires. Conversely, they might consider taking the candy as morally wrong if they fear punishment or believe it violates rules imposed by authority figures. Overall, the child's moral judgment would be guided by self-interest and immediate consequences rather than considerations of broader ethical principles or the perspectives of others. 169. What is a moral dilemma and how did Kohlberg employ moral dilemmas in his study of moral development? Answer: A moral dilemma is a situation in which a person is faced with a choice between two or more conflicting moral principles or values, where adhering to one principle would result in violating another. Lawrence Kohlberg employed moral dilemmas in his study of moral development by presenting subjects with hypothetical scenarios, such as the famous Heinz dilemma, which involved a conflict between obeying the law and saving a loved one's life. He used responses to these dilemmas to assess participants' moral reasoning and stage of moral development. 170. What is moral absolutism and why is this charge sometimes made against Kohlberg’s research on moral development? Answer: Moral absolutism is the belief that certain actions are inherently right or wrong, regardless of context or consequences. Critics sometimes accuse Kohlberg's research on moral development of being morally absolutist because it tends to emphasize the importance of universal moral principles and the progression toward higher stages of moral reasoning, which may overlook cultural differences and situational factors in moral decision-making. Critics argue that this approach fails to adequately account for moral diversity and context-specific considerations. 171. Briefly suggest how boys and girls differ in how they make moral judgments. Answer: Research suggests that boys and girls may differ in their approaches to moral judgments. Boys tend to prioritize justice and fairness, often focusing on rules and abstract principles in their decision-making. On the other hand, girls often consider relationships, empathy, and care-based reasoning, emphasizing the importance of maintaining harmony and considering the feelings of others. These differences reflect broader societal norms and gender socialization processes, though it's essential to recognize individual variation within genders and the influence of cultural factors on moral development. Peer Relationships 172. Describe the method Robert Selman used to investigate how children move through the stages of friendship development. Answer: Robert Selman employed longitudinal studies and structured interviews to investigate how children progress through the stages of friendship development. He conducted interviews with children across various age groups to understand their perspectives on friendship and how these perspectives evolve over time. 173. Describe the main feature associated with each of Selman’s four stages of friendship development. Answer: • Stage 1 (Ages 3-6): Momentary Playmates: Children view friendship in terms of shared activities and enjoyment in the present moment. Friendship is based on proximity and common interests. • Stage 2 (Ages 6-9): One-Way Assistance: Friendship involves recognition of others' perspectives and the idea of giving and receiving help, but it's still relatively one-sided. • Stage 3 (Ages 9-15): Two-Way Fair-Weather Cooperation: Friendship includes mutual sharing and understanding. Children begin to consider their own needs alongside those of their friends, but their perspective-taking is limited. • Stage 4 (Ages 12-15+): Intimate, Mutually Shared Relationships: Friendship becomes characterized by deep emotional bonds, empathy, and understanding of each other's inner experiences. Perspective-taking becomes more sophisticated. 174. Identify two ways that children’s peer groups usually change as they move from early childhood into middle childhood. Answer: 1. Increase in Group Size: Peer groups tend to expand in middle childhood, with children forming friendships with a larger number of peers compared to early childhood when friendships may be more one-on-one. 2. Stability and Consistency: Peer groups become more stable and consistent over time, with children gravitating towards peers who share similar interests, values, and social characteristics. 175. Explain how peer group conformity changes as children move through middle childhood. Answer: Peer group conformity tends to increase during middle childhood as children become more aware of social norms and desire acceptance within their peer groups. They may conform to group norms regarding behavior, appearance, and interests to maintain social cohesion and avoid rejection. However, as children progress through middle childhood, they also begin to develop a stronger sense of individual identity and autonomy, leading to instances where they may resist conformity and assert their unique preferences and opinions within their peer groups. 176. Identify three factors that contribute to a child’s popularity during the period of middle childhood. Answer: Three factors that contribute to a child's popularity during middle childhood include: 1. Social skills: Children who possess good social skills such as communication, cooperation, and empathy tend to be more popular among their peers. 2. Likability: Being kind, helpful, and approachable increases a child's likability among their peers, thereby contributing to their popularity. 3. Shared interests: Having common interests with peers, such as sports, hobbies, or activities, can enhance a child's popularity as it provides opportunities for bonding and camaraderie. 177. Describe how a teacher’s behavior in the classroom can improve the popularity for an aggressive child and for a timid child. What things might the teacher do in each of these cases? Answer: For an aggressive child: The teacher can improve the popularity of an aggressive child by: • Encouraging and modeling positive conflict resolution skills. • Providing opportunities for the child to channel their energy into constructive activities like sports or leadership roles. • Offering praise and recognition when the child demonstrates self-control and appropriate behavior towards peers. For a timid child: The teacher can improve the popularity of a timid child by: • Creating a supportive and inclusive classroom environment where all students feel valued and accepted. • Pairing the timid child with more outgoing peers during group activities to foster social interaction and build confidence. • Offering gentle encouragement and positive reinforcement to help the child step out of their comfort zone and engage with others. 178. Explain the difference between prejudice and discrimination. Answer: Prejudice refers to preconceived opinions or attitudes held towards a person or group based on stereotypes or inadequate information. It involves making judgments about individuals or groups without considering individual differences or merits. Discrimination, on the other hand, is the actual behavior or actions that stem from prejudice. It involves treating individuals or groups unfairly or differently based on characteristics such as race, ethnicity, gender, or religion. Discrimination can manifest in various forms, including exclusion, harassment, or unequal treatment in opportunities and resources. 179. Briefly describe how a child comes to develop a sense of ethnic identity. Answer: A child develops a sense of ethnic identity through a combination of factors including: • Family influence: Parents and extended family members play a crucial role in transmitting cultural traditions, values, and language to the child, shaping their ethnic identity. • Peer interactions: Interactions with peers from similar ethnic backgrounds provide opportunities for the child to explore and affirm their cultural identity through shared experiences and celebrations. • Cultural experiences: Exposure to cultural events, traditions, and practices within the community contributes to the child's understanding and appreciation of their ethnic heritage. • Media representation: Positive representation of their ethnic group in media and literature can reinforce a child's sense of pride and belonging to their cultural community. Family Influences in Middle Childhood 180. Explain the difference between self-regulated behavior and coregulation. Answer: Self-regulated behavior refers to an individual's ability to manage their own thoughts, emotions, and actions independently, without external guidance. Coregulation, on the other hand, involves a collaborative process where individuals regulate their behavior with the help of external support, such as guidance from parents, caregivers, or peers. 181. Note two important ways that family structure in the United States has changed over the past three decades. Answer: Over the past three decades, two significant changes in family structure in the United States include the rise in single-parent households and an increase in non-traditional family arrangements such as cohabitation and blended families. 182. Suggest three outcomes that are commonly associated when children live in a chronic and highly stressful environment. Answer: Children living in chronic and highly stressful environments often experience adverse outcomes such as increased risk of mental health disorders (e.g., anxiety, depression), academic difficulties, and behavioral problems (e.g., aggression, delinquency). 183. Based on findings from a study of resilient children growing up in Hawaii, identify the two characteristics that contribute most to the development of resilience in children. Answer: The study of resilient children growing up in Hawaii highlighted two characteristics that contribute significantly to the development of resilience in children: a strong sense of cultural identity and a supportive social network, including family and community connections. 184. List five guidelines for parents to follow to improve their effectiveness as parents. Answer: 1. Communication: Open and honest communication between parents and children fosters trust and understanding. Encourage dialogue, actively listen, and validate their feelings. 2. Consistency: Establish clear rules and boundaries and ensure they are consistently enforced. Predictability and routine provide stability for children. 3. Positive reinforcement: Acknowledge and praise good behavior to encourage positive development. Celebrate achievements, no matter how small. 4. Quality time: Dedicate meaningful time to spend with your children. Engage in activities they enjoy, and prioritize family bonding. 5. Lead by example: Be a role model for your children by demonstrating positive behaviors, empathy, and resilience. Show them how to handle challenges and conflicts constructively. 185. Identify three important factors that strongly influence how children react to divorce and suggest how parents can minimize the negative impact of divorce on their children. Answer: 1. Parental conflict: High levels of conflict between parents during and after divorce significantly impact children's adjustment. Parents should strive to minimize conflict, communicate respectfully, and shield children from parental disputes. 2. Parental support: The level of emotional and practical support children receive from their parents during the divorce process affects their well-being. Parents should prioritize maintaining a supportive and nurturing environment for their children, reassuring them of their love and involvement in their lives. 3. Stability and routine: Divorce often disrupts children's sense of stability and security. Parents can minimize this impact by maintaining consistent routines, providing reassurance about the future, and ensuring children feel secure in their relationships with both parents. 186. What is a reconstituted family? Answer: A reconstituted family, commonly known as a stepfamily or blended family, is formed when one or both partners in a couple have children from previous relationships and come together to form a new family unit. In a reconstituted family, children may live with one biological parent and their stepparent, or both partners may bring children from previous relationships into the household. This dynamic introduces unique challenges as family members adjust to new roles, relationships, and dynamics. Successful integration often requires open communication, mutual respect, and patience from all family members. Essay questions: Personality Development in an Expanding Social World 187. Describe three ways in which children’s self-concepts are likely to change as they move from early childhood through middle childhood. Answer: 1. Social Comparison: As children grow, they become more adept at comparing themselves to their peers, which can influence their self-concept. In early childhood, self-concept tends to be more concrete and based on immediate experiences, but as they progress into middle childhood, they start comparing themselves more broadly and may develop a more nuanced self-concept. 2. Competence and Skills: As they acquire new skills and competencies through experiences and education, children's self-concept can change. In early childhood, they might primarily view themselves in terms of basic abilities, but in middle childhood, they might develop a more differentiated understanding of their strengths and weaknesses. 3. Social Roles and Identities: With increasing social interactions and exposure to various social roles, children's self-concepts become more influenced by their perceptions of themselves in different contexts. They may start to define themselves in terms of roles such as student, friend, or team member, leading to a more complex self-concept. 188. How might a child’s experiences in kindergarten affect how she negotiates the crisis of industry versus inferiority? What sorts of things might lead to the development of a sense of industry? Which could lead to a sense of inferiority? Answer: Kindergarten experiences can significantly impact a child's negotiation of the industry versus inferiority crisis. Positive experiences such as encouragement from teachers, successful completion of tasks, and recognition for effort can foster a sense of industry by instilling confidence in one's abilities and fostering a belief in one's capacity to achieve goals. Conversely, negative experiences such as consistent failure, lack of support, or comparison with peers can lead to feelings of inferiority. Teachers who provide opportunities for success, constructive feedback, and a supportive environment can greatly contribute to the development of a sense of industry in kindergarten. 189. In what ways might children who belong to disadvantaged ethnic groups have more difficulty developing a positive sense of self-esteem than children in the majority culture? How can parents of minority children help them develop a strong sense of self-worth and self-esteem? Answer: Children from disadvantaged ethnic groups may face challenges in developing positive self-esteem due to various factors such as discrimination, stereotype threat, socioeconomic disparities, and cultural marginalization. They may encounter negative messages about their ethnic identity, which can undermine their confidence and self-worth. Parents of minority children can help by fostering a strong sense of cultural identity and pride, providing positive role models from their ethnic group, teaching resilience in the face of adversity, promoting academic and extracurricular achievements, and creating a supportive home environment where their children feel valued and accepted. Additionally, involving children in activities that celebrate their cultural heritage and providing opportunities for them to connect with their ethnic community can also contribute to building a strong sense of self-esteem. 190. Describe in detail how excessive praise might influence child development in negative ways. Answer: Excessive praise, although well-intentioned, can have detrimental effects on child development. When children receive excessive praise, they may develop a dependency on external validation and become less intrinsically motivated. Instead of focusing on intrinsic satisfaction from their accomplishments, they may constantly seek external validation, which can hinder their ability to develop a strong sense of self-esteem and self-worth. Moreover, constant praise for every action can lead to a distorted perception of reality, where children may struggle to differentiate between genuine achievements and mediocre efforts. This can hinder their ability to set realistic goals and persevere in the face of challenges. Additionally, excessive praise may contribute to the development of a fixed mindset rather than a growth mindset. Children who are constantly praised for their intelligence or talent may come to believe that these qualities are innate and unchangeable. As a result, they may avoid challenges or tasks that could potentially threaten their self-image, fearing failure and criticism. This can impede their ability to take risks, learn from mistakes, and develop resilience. Furthermore, excessive praise may undermine the development of intrinsic motivation and autonomy. When children receive praise for completing tasks or behaving in certain ways, they may become more focused on seeking external rewards rather than engaging in activities for their inherent enjoyment or satisfaction. This can inhibit their ability to develop a sense of autonomy and self-regulation, as they may rely on external cues to guide their behavior rather than their own internal motivations and values. In summary, excessive praise can have negative consequences on child development by fostering dependency on external validation, promoting a fixed mindset, undermining intrinsic motivation, and impeding the development of autonomy and self-esteem. Social Knowledge and Reasoning 191. Describe how the child’s ability to use social inferences and understand social responsibilities change as that child moves through middle childhood. Answer: As children progress through middle childhood, typically between the ages of 6 to 12 years old, their ability to use social inferences and understand social responsibilities undergoes significant development. During this period, children become increasingly adept at interpreting social cues, understanding others' perspectives, and adhering to social norms and expectations. In early middle childhood, children begin to grasp the complexities of social interactions more effectively. They become more skilled at recognizing and interpreting facial expressions, body language, and vocal cues, allowing them to better understand the emotions and intentions of others. This enhanced ability to use social cues enables children to navigate social situations more successfully and develop more sophisticated interpersonal relationships with peers and adults. Moreover, as children progress through middle childhood, they also become more aware of social responsibilities and expectations placed upon them by society. They start to internalize societal norms, rules, and moral values, which guide their behavior in various social contexts. They begin to understand concepts such as fairness, justice, and empathy, which influence their interactions with others and shape their sense of social responsibility. By the end of middle childhood, children typically demonstrate a greater understanding of social hierarchies, group dynamics, and cultural norms. They become more adept at cooperating with others, resolving conflicts, and adhering to social rules and conventions. Additionally, they develop a stronger sense of empathy and consideration for others' feelings and perspectives, which contributes to their ability to form meaningful and mutually respectful relationships. Overall, middle childhood represents a crucial period of social development characterized by significant advancements in the ability to use social inferences and understand social responsibilities, laying the foundation for more complex social interactions and relationships in adolescence and beyond. 192. Describe the transition from moral realism to moral relativism, as outlined in Piaget’s view of moral development. Answer: Piaget's theory of moral development outlines a transition from moral realism to moral relativism as children mature cognitively. In the early stages of moral development, typically occurring during the preoperational and concrete operational stages of Piaget's theory (ages 2 to 11), children exhibit moral realism characterized by a rigid adherence to rules and an external locus of moral authority. During the stage of moral realism, children view rules as fixed and absolute, established by authority figures such as parents or teachers. They adhere to rules strictly and believe that breaking them leads to inevitable punishment, regardless of the circumstances or intentions behind the actions. This perspective is rooted in a concrete understanding of morality, where rules are seen as inherently right or wrong without consideration of context or perspective. However, as children progress through Piaget's theory into the formal operational stage (around age 11 and beyond), they begin to transition towards moral relativism. In this stage, children develop the capacity for abstract thinking and hypothetical reasoning, enabling them to consider moral dilemmas from multiple perspectives and recognize the role of individual autonomy and subjective judgment in moral decision-making. During the transition to moral relativism, children start to question the absolute authority of rules and recognize that moral judgments can be influenced by cultural, situational, and personal factors. They become more flexible in their moral reasoning, understanding that moral principles may vary across different contexts and cultures. Rather than blindly adhering to external rules, they start to consider the intentions, consequences, and ethical principles underlying moral dilemmas, leading to a more nuanced and context-sensitive approach to morality. Overall, Piaget's theory posits that the transition from moral realism to moral relativism reflects a cognitive advancement towards more abstract and flexible moral reasoning, characterized by an appreciation for the complexity and subjectivity of moral judgments. 193. Suggest two ways that Piaget’s and Kohlberg’s view of moral development are similar to each other. How do these theories differ? Answer: Piaget's and Kohlberg's theories of moral development share similarities in their emphasis on cognitive development as a foundational aspect of moral reasoning and their recognition of the importance of social interactions and experiences in shaping moral understanding. Firstly, both Piaget and Kohlberg posit that moral development is closely linked to cognitive development. Piaget's theory highlights how children progress through stages of cognitive development, which correspond to distinct stages of moral reasoning. Similarly, Kohlberg's theory proposes that moral development unfolds in a series of stages, with each stage representing a qualitatively different way of thinking about morality, reflecting advances in cognitive abilities. Secondly, both theories acknowledge the role of social interactions and experiences in shaping moral understanding. Piaget emphasizes the importance of peer interactions and moral discussions in promoting moral development, highlighting the role of social experiences in challenging and refining children's moral reasoning. Likewise, Kohlberg's theory underscores the significance of socialization and moral education in fostering the progression through moral stages, suggesting that exposure to diverse moral perspectives and ethical dilemmas contributes to moral growth. Despite these similarities, Piaget's and Kohlberg's theories of moral development differ in several key aspects. One notable difference lies in their conceptualization of moral reasoning. Piaget's theory focuses on the development of moral judgments in response to interpersonal conflicts and rule violations, emphasizing the role of cognitive structures and processes in shaping moral understanding. In contrast, Kohlberg's theory extends beyond interpersonal contexts to encompass abstract moral dilemmas, examining the underlying principles and reasoning processes that guide moral decision-making. Additionally, Piaget's theory primarily emphasizes the role of cognitive maturation in driving moral development, suggesting that moral reasoning emerges as a byproduct of broader cognitive advances. In contrast, Kohlberg's theory places greater emphasis on the role of moral reasoning itself, proposing that moral development involves the internalization and refinement of moral principles through active engagement with moral dilemmas and moral reasoning tasks. 194. Distinguish among the preconventional, conventional, and postconventional levels of moral reasoning. Provide a clear example of behavior that typifies each of these three stages. Answer: Preconventional level: At this stage, moral reasoning is largely self-centered, focused on avoiding punishment and seeking rewards. Individuals make decisions based on what will benefit them personally. An example of behavior at this stage would be a child refraining from stealing a toy because they fear getting punished by their parents. Conventional level: At this stage, moral reasoning expands to include social norms and expectations. Individuals conform to societal rules and seek approval from others. Behavior typical of this stage could include a person following traffic rules simply because they don't want to be seen as a bad driver by others. Postconventional level: This stage involves reasoning based on abstract principles of justice and human rights, rather than just societal norms or personal gain. Individuals at this stage prioritize principles such as justice and equality, even if it means going against societal norms. For instance, someone might engage in civil disobedience to protest an unjust law. 195. What is a moral dilemma, as defined by research conducted by Lawrence Kohlberg? How did Kohlberg use moral dilemmas to investigate the development of moral reasoning? Answer: A moral dilemma, according to Lawrence Kohlberg, is a situation in which an individual is faced with conflicting moral choices, where each choice has potentially negative consequences. Kohlberg used moral dilemmas in his research to assess the development of moral reasoning by presenting subjects with hypothetical scenarios that required a moral decision. He analyzed how participants reasoned through these dilemmas, focusing not only on their choices but also on the reasoning processes underlying those choices. 196. Referring to Kohlberg’s theory, distinguish between moral attitudes and moral behavior. Answer: According to Kohlberg's theory, moral attitudes refer to an individual's beliefs, values, and opinions regarding what is right or wrong. These attitudes influence how a person perceives moral dilemmas and what they consider to be morally acceptable behavior. On the other hand, moral behavior refers to the actual actions and decisions made by an individual in moral situations. While moral attitudes provide the framework for decision-making, moral behavior reflects how individuals apply those attitudes in real-life situations. 197. Define moral absolutism and suggest how Carol Gilligan’s critique of Kohlberg’s theory was centered on this issue. How did Gilligan’s work expand Kohlberg’s view to reduce the concern about moral absolutism? Answer: Moral absolutism is the belief that certain actions are inherently right or wrong, regardless of context or consequences. Carol Gilligan critiqued Kohlberg's theory by arguing that it was biased towards a male-centric perspective and promoted a rigid, absolutist view of morality. Gilligan suggested that Kohlberg's stages of moral development focused too heavily on principles of justice and individual rights, neglecting the importance of care, relationships, and contextual factors in moral reasoning, especially as they relate to women's moral development. Gilligan's work expanded Kohlberg's view by introducing the concept of an ethic of care, which emphasizes compassion, empathy, and interpersonal relationships in moral decision-making. By highlighting the significance of care-based reasoning alongside justice-based reasoning, Gilligan's work broadened the understanding of moral development and reduced the concern about moral absolutism by acknowledging the complexity and variability of moral judgments across different contexts and perspectives. 198. Using the research on gender differences in the development of moral reasoning as an example, suggest how culture can influence the development of moral reasoning. Answer: Culture plays a significant role in shaping the development of moral reasoning, as evidenced by research on gender differences in moral development. For instance, studies have shown that in some cultures, there are distinct expectations and socialization practices for boys and girls regarding moral behavior. These cultural norms may influence the types of moral dilemmas children encounter and the values emphasized within their communities. Consequently, boys and girls may develop different approaches to moral reasoning based on these cultural influences. For example, in cultures where collectivism is valued over individualism, moral reasoning may prioritize communal well-being and interdependence, while in cultures that emphasize individual autonomy, moral reasoning may focus more on personal rights and freedoms. Therefore, cultural context can shape the development of moral reasoning by influencing the norms, values, and socialization practices present in a given society. Peer Relationships 199. Outline the basic features of Robert Selman’s view of friendship development and suggest what changes are associated with each of the following age groups: age 6 and under; age 7 to 9; age 9 to 12; age 12 and older. Answer: Robert Selman's view of friendship development outlines five stages: (1) momentary playmateship, (2) one-way assistance, (3) two-way fair-weather cooperation, (4) intimate, mutually shared relationships, and (5) autonomous interdependence. • Age 6 and under: Children in this age group typically exhibit momentary playmateship, where friendships are based on shared activities rather than deep emotional bonds. They may engage in parallel play and show a preference for familiar peers. • Age 7 to 9: Children begin to display one-way assistance, where friendships involve helping one another without necessarily expecting anything in return. They start to understand reciprocity but may not fully grasp the concept of mutual understanding. • Age 9 to 12: At this stage, children develop two-way fair-weather cooperation, characterized by a deeper understanding of mutual give-and-take in friendships. They value fairness and equality in their relationships and seek companionship based on shared interests and activities. • Age 12 and older: Adolescents move towards intimate, mutually shared relationships, where friendships involve sharing personal thoughts, feelings, and experiences. They prioritize trust, loyalty, and emotional support in their friendships, seeking companions who provide validation and understanding. • Autonomous interdependence: This stage marks mature friendship, where individuals maintain their autonomy while enjoying a deep, interdependent relationship with their friends. They value both independence and connection, recognizing the importance of maintaining individual identities within close friendships. 200. Does Selman’s view of friendship development reflect more a cognitive, a psychodynamic, or a social-learning perspective? Present evidence to support your answer. Answer: Selman's view of friendship development reflects more a cognitive perspective. His theory emphasizes the role of cognitive growth and perspective-taking abilities in shaping the development of friendships across different stages. For instance, Selman suggests that children progress through stages of friendship as they acquire greater cognitive abilities, such as understanding reciprocity, empathy, and the perspectives of others. This focus on cognitive development aligns with the cognitive perspective, which emphasizes internal mental processes in shaping behavior and social interactions. 201. Define what is meant by the term “peer group” and suggest three ways that peer groups usually change as children move through middle childhood. Answer: • Peer group definition: A peer group refers to a social group consisting of individuals who are typically of similar age or status and who share common interests, experiences, and social activities. Three ways peer groups usually change as children move through middle childhood are: 1. Increasing importance of peer acceptance: As children progress through middle childhood, peer acceptance becomes increasingly significant. They start to seek approval and validation from their peers, and peer relationships become a crucial source of social support and companionship. 2. Formation of cliques and social hierarchies: Peer groups in middle childhood often become more structured, with the emergence of cliques and social hierarchies. Children may gravitate towards specific groups based on shared interests, values, or characteristics, leading to the formation of distinct social cliques within larger peer networks. 3. Development of complex social skills: As children navigate various peer interactions and relationships in middle childhood, they develop more complex social skills, such as negotiation, conflict resolution, and perspective-taking. Peer interactions provide opportunities for practicing these skills and learning how to navigate social dynamics within peer groups. 202. How can peer group conformity be viewed as the result of children’s increasing social cognition? Provide an example to demonstrate your explanation. Answer: Peer group conformity can be viewed as the result of children's increasing social cognition because as children grow older, their ability to understand and interpret social cues improves. They become more aware of social norms and expectations within their peer groups, which influences their behavior to conform to those norms in order to gain acceptance and avoid rejection. For example, consider a group of children playing together at recess. One child suggests playing a game that the rest of the group seems enthusiastic about, even though another child may prefer a different game. The child who prefers the other game might choose to go along with the group's choice to avoid feeling left out, demonstrating conformity driven by their understanding of social dynamics and the desire for acceptance. 203. What factors contribute to popularity during middle childhood? What can parents and teachers do to enhance the popularity of children who other children do not like? Answer: Factors contributing to popularity during middle childhood include social skills, likability, attractiveness, and perceived status within peer groups. Children who exhibit qualities such as kindness, empathy, humor, and leadership tend to be more popular among their peers. To enhance the popularity of children who are not well-liked by others, parents and teachers can focus on developing their social skills and emotional intelligence. Encouraging positive interactions, teaching conflict resolution strategies, and providing opportunities for them to engage in cooperative activities can help improve their relationships with peers. Additionally, fostering a supportive and inclusive environment where differences are celebrated rather than criticized can contribute to the social acceptance of these children. 204. Provide an example that demonstrates how a person can exhibit prejudice without discrimination. Is it possible to discriminate without being prejudiced? Explain your answer. Answer: An example of exhibiting prejudice without discrimination could involve someone holding negative beliefs or stereotypes about a particular group of people but not acting upon those beliefs in discriminatory behavior. For instance, if someone holds prejudiced views about individuals from a certain ethnic background but does not actively discriminate against them in hiring practices or social interactions, they are exhibiting prejudice without discrimination. It is possible to discriminate without being prejudiced. Discrimination can occur based on factors other than personal prejudice, such as systemic biases or social norms. For example, a person might discriminate against someone from a minority group because they are following discriminatory policies or practices within their workplace or community, without harboring personal prejudice against that individual. 205. How does a child come to develop a sense of ethnic identity? Answer: A child develops a sense of ethnic identity through a complex interplay of various factors, including family influences, cultural practices, experiences with discrimination, interactions with peers, and exposure to media and societal messages about their ethnic group. Family plays a significant role in transmitting cultural traditions, values, and language to children, which helps shape their ethnic identity. Additionally, experiences of discrimination or prejudice based on ethnicity can influence a child's understanding of their own identity and foster a stronger connection to their ethnic group. 206. Discuss how a child who is a member of a disadvantaged minority group might be discouraged from succeeding in a majority-based setting, such as college. How can such children be encouraged to succeed? Answer: A child from a disadvantaged minority group might face various challenges and barriers in a majority-based setting like college, including stereotypes, lack of representation, discrimination, and limited access to resources and support systems. These factors can contribute to feelings of imposter syndrome, self-doubt, and a sense of not belonging, which may discourage them from pursuing and succeeding in higher education. To encourage the success of children from disadvantaged minority groups, it's crucial to provide them with targeted support and resources tailored to their needs. This includes mentorship programs, academic support services, financial aid, and culturally responsive teaching practices. Additionally, fostering a supportive and inclusive campus environment where diversity is celebrated, and students feel valued and respected can help empower these students to overcome obstacles and thrive academically and personally. Family Influences in Middle Childhood 207. How does coregulation encourage self-regulated behavior? Provide an example of how parents can establish this relationship. Answer: Coregulation involves the dynamic interplay between a caregiver and a child, where the caregiver provides support and guidance to help the child regulate their emotions, behaviors, and physiological responses. Through coregulation, children learn to manage their emotions and behaviors gradually, leading to the development of self-regulated behavior. For example, parents can establish a coregulatory relationship by acknowledging and validating their child's emotions, providing calm and supportive responses during moments of distress, and gradually scaffolding the child's ability to self-regulate. This might involve techniques such as co-regulated breathing exercises during times of stress or modeling problem-solving strategies. 208. How might a child’s temperament and early relationships with caregivers be linked to that child’s later resilience? Answer: A child's temperament, which refers to their innate behavioral and emotional style, can significantly influence their early interactions and relationships with caregivers. Children with temperaments characterized by adaptability, persistence, and positive mood may be more likely to form secure attachments with caregivers, which serve as a foundation for later resilience. Secure attachments provide a safe haven for children to explore the world, develop coping strategies, and regulate emotions effectively. These early experiences shape neural pathways associated with stress response systems and emotion regulation, contributing to the child's ability to navigate challenges and adversity later in life. Thus, positive early relationships with caregivers can foster resilience by providing a secure base from which the child can confidently explore and adapt to their environment. 209. How would you respond to the following statement: “Women should not work outside the home until their children are in high school because the children suffer.” Cite evidence presented in the text as part of your response. Answer: The statement oversimplifies the complex relationship between maternal employment and child well-being. While some studies have suggested potential challenges associated with maternal employment, the evidence is mixed, and numerous factors influence outcomes for children. For instance, research has shown that maternal employment can have both positive and negative effects on children, depending on various factors such as the quality of childcare, maternal well-being, and family support systems. High-quality childcare and supportive family environments can mitigate any potential negative impacts of maternal employment on children. Furthermore, a longitudinal study conducted by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) found that maternal employment during a child's infancy was not significantly associated with negative outcomes in adolescence. Instead, the study emphasized the importance of factors such as maternal sensitivity and the quality of childcare in predicting child outcomes. In conclusion, while maternal employment may pose challenges, it is not accurate to suggest that children universally suffer when mothers work outside the home. Effective support systems and high-quality childcare can mitigate potential negative effects, and maternal employment can also have positive implications for children's development and well-being. 210. What are the typical effects of chronic and extreme stress on children? Suggest at least four possible outcomes associated with such circumstances. Answer: Chronic and extreme stress can have profound impacts on children, manifesting in various ways: 1. Emotional and Behavioral Issues: Children may develop anxiety, depression, or exhibit behavioral problems such as aggression or withdrawal. 2. Physical Health Problems: Prolonged stress can weaken the immune system, leading to frequent illnesses, headaches, or stomachaches. 3. Academic Difficulties: Concentration and memory may be impaired, resulting in declining academic performance. 4. Social Challenges: Children may struggle with forming and maintaining friendships, as well as experiencing difficulties in communication and social interactions. 211. Suggest five things that parents can do to help their children better adjust to an impending divorce. Answer: Parents can take several steps to support their children during the process of divorce: 1. Open Communication: Encourage honest and age-appropriate discussions about the divorce to address children's concerns and provide reassurance. 2. Maintain Routine: Keep consistent daily routines and schedules to provide stability and a sense of security for the children. 3. Validate Feelings: Acknowledge and validate children's emotions, letting them know it's normal to feel sad, angry, or confused. 4. Co-Parent Amicably: Work together with the other parent to maintain a respectful and cooperative co-parenting relationship, minimizing conflict in front of the children. 5. Seek Professional Support: Consider family therapy or counseling to help children cope with the emotional challenges of the divorce and provide them with additional support and guidance. Test Bank for Understanding Human Development Wendy L. Dunn, Grace J. Craig 9780205989522, 9780135164204, 9780205233878, 9780205753079

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