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Chapter 15 - Middle Adulthood: Personality and Sociocultural Development 1. According to statistics cited in the text, in the U.S. today, about what percent of “launched” children return home for a period of time? a. 5% b. 15% c. 38% d. 65% Answer: c Rationale: The correct answer is c, 38%. This statistic suggests that a significant portion of "launched" children do return home for a period of time, highlighting the prevalence of this phenomenon in contemporary U.S. society. 2. The text reports the results of a study of friendships among people at four different life stages. In all of these stages of life, which of the following was reported as the most important aspect of friendship? a. loyalty b. empathy c. honesty d. reciprocity Answer: d Rationale: The correct answer is d, reciprocity. The study highlighted in the text suggests that reciprocity, or the mutual exchange and support within friendships, was consistently reported as the most important aspect of friendship across various life stages. 3. According to the text, in comparison to first marriages, second marriages are more often characterized by all of the following EXCEPT: a. more open communication b. greater acceptance of conflict c. more trust that disagreements can be resolved d. higher levels of hostility Answer: d Rationale: The correct answer is d. Second marriages are typically characterized by more open communication, greater acceptance of conflict as a natural part of relationships, and more trust that disagreements can be resolved. Higher levels of hostility would not generally be expected in second marriages, as individuals often learn from previous experiences and strive for more successful relationships. 4. Which of the following statements about Erik Erikson’s view of adult development is FALSE? a. Adults move through stages of development, each with somewhat different developmental tasks. b. Earlier life events set the stage for how later development will unfold. c. Developmental issues from earlier in life reappear from time to time in later stages of development. d. When major life circumstances change dramatically, we tend to ignore earlier developmental adaptations and strike out in bold new directions. Answer: d Rationale: The correct answer is d. According to Erik Erikson's view of adult development, major life circumstances may prompt individuals to revisit earlier developmental tasks and adaptations, rather than ignoring them. Individuals may draw upon previous experiences and coping mechanisms to navigate new challenges and transitions. 5. In a study reported in the text, women were asked to report the major transitions in their lives. Which of the following was NOT one of the three transitions that most women reported? a. the birth of their children b. menarche c. when children left home d. menopause Answer: b Rationale: The correct answer is b, menarche. Menarche, which refers to the onset of menstruation and marks the beginning of reproductive maturity in females, typically occurs during adolescence rather than being reported as a major transition in adult women's lives, unlike the other options listed. 6. Which of the following statements about marriage and divorce is TRUE? a. Having children usually increases marital satisfaction. b. Married people have more sex and more satisfying sex lives than unmarried couples. c. Husbands typically make more adjustments to married life than wives do. d. Children are usually better off with divorced parents than with parents who are unhappily married. Answer: b Rationale: The correct answer is b. Research indicates that married individuals tend to report having more sex and more satisfying sex lives compared to unmarried individuals or couples. This finding reflects the benefits of intimacy and commitment often associated with marriage. 7. If personality traits are biologically based, this would imply that they would be established relatively ________ in life and would change ________ across the lifespan. a. early; a great deal b. early; little c. late; a great deal d. late; little Answer: b Rationale: The correct answer is b. If personality traits are biologically based, they would likely be established early in life and show relatively little change across the lifespan, as biological factors tend to exert a stable influence on personality development. 8. Leonardo finds that as he has reached middle age, his physical stamina has begun to wane, and he has been forced to shift his focus his leisure time interests away from golf and tennis toward reading and going to the theater. Peck would describe Leonardo’s adjustment as centering on: a. socializing versus sexuality b. valuing wisdom versus valuing physical powers c. mental flexibility versus mental rigidity d. cathectic flexibility versus cathectic impoverishment Answer: b Rationale: The correct answer is b, valuing wisdom versus valuing physical powers. Peck's theory of psychosocial development suggests that as individuals age, they transition from valuing physical abilities and achievements to valuing wisdom and meaningful contributions, which aligns with Leonardo's adjustment away from physically demanding activities toward intellectually stimulating ones. 9. As 45-year-old Brenda’s parents age, she helps them with their finances, buys their groceries, and takes care of their house. Which of the following terms best describes this transition in Brenda’s and her parents’ lives? a. role conflict b. stagnation c. role strain d. role reversal Answer: d Rationale: The correct answer is d, role reversal. Role reversal involves a shift in roles and responsibilities within a family or social unit, typically occurring as adult children assume caregiving duties for aging parents. Brenda's actions of assisting her aging parents with various tasks reflect this transition in roles and responsibilities. 10. Suppose you are conducting a study in which you ask middle-aged men and women why they have stayed married to each other. You would expect that the primary reason that men would give would be _________ and the primary reason women would give would be _____________. a. "my spouse is my best friend"; “for the sake of the children” b. "for the sake of the children"; “for financial reasons” c. "my spouse is my best friend”; “my spouse is my best friend” (Correct Answer) d. "for sexual reasons"; “for financial reasons” Answer: c Rationale: This answer aligns with research findings that suggest men often prioritize companionship and friendship in marriage, viewing their spouse as their best friend. Women, on the other hand, may also value friendship but are more likely to cite reasons related to emotional connection and support when it comes to staying married. 1. According to the view proposed by Robert Peck, which of the following periods is most often the critical time for making adjustments that will determine the way people live out the rest of their years? a. ages 20 to 30 b. ages 30 to 40 c. ages 40 to 50 d. ages 50 to 60 (Correct Answer) Answer: d Rationale: Robert Peck proposed that ages 50 to 60 are the most critical for making adjustments that shape the remainder of one's life. This period is characterized by Erikson as the stage of generativity versus stagnation, where individuals evaluate their contributions to society and future generations. 2. According to the text, about what percent of aging parents in the United States today share a home with their middle-aged children? a. about 40% b. about 25% c. about 10% d. about 2% (Correct Answer) Answer: c Rationale: The text suggests that approximately 10% of aging parents in the United States share a home with their middle-aged children. This arrangement reflects the dynamics of intergenerational relationships and caregiving responsibilities. 3. In a study that asked adults how their personalities had changed in the previous 6 years, the results show that _____ reported that their personalities had “stayed the same” and _____ reported that their personalities had “changed a good deal.” a. 33%; 67% b. 67%; 33% c. 9%; 53% d. 53%; 9% (Correct Answer) Answer: d Rationale: The study indicates that 53% of adults reported that their personalities had "stayed the same," while 9% reported that their personalities had "changed a good deal" over the previous six years. This illustrates varying degrees of stability and change in personality over time. 4. According to Erikson, the procreative domain of generativity centers on which of the following? a. successfully integrating work responsibilities with family life b. taking care of one’s children and guiding them toward good lives (Correct Answer) c. increasing cultural potential on a greater scale d. finding meaning in one’s own work Answer: b Rationale: Erikson proposed that the procreative domain of generativity involves caring for and guiding the next generation, emphasizing the importance of parental roles in nurturing and supporting children to lead fulfilling lives. 5. If you were to choose the most descriptive words to describe how middle-aged fathers are typically regarded by their children, these words would be: a. prime time for fathers (Correct Answer) b. useless period for fathers c. most-resented parent d. least-appreciated parent Answer: a Rationale: Middle-aged fathers are typically regarded as being in their "prime time" by their children, as they are often seen as stable providers, mentors, and sources of guidance and support during this life stage. 6. Statistically speaking, which of the following people is likely to be oldest when he or she becomes a grandparent? a. Ralph, who is an African American man b. Tim, who is a White man (Correct Answer) c. Roberta, who is an African American woman d. Lynette, who is a White woman Answer: b Rationale: Statistically, White individuals tend to become grandparents at an older age compared to African American individuals. Therefore, Tim, a White man, is likely to be oldest when he becomes a grandparent. 7. Which of the following terms refers to something quite different than do the other three terms? a. blended family b. stepfamily c. single-parent family d. reconstituted family (Correct Answer) Answer: c Rationale: A single-parent family differs from the other terms as it refers specifically to a family structure where one parent is solely responsible for the upbringing of the child or children, without the presence of a partner or spouse. 8. Now that her father is a widower, Susan finds herself in middle age hosting the holidays at her home for all of her extended family members. According to the text, which of the following is the word used to describe the role has Susan assumed? a. arbitrator b. kinkeeper (Correct Answer) c. scapegoat d. family generator Answer: b Rationale: Susan has taken on the role of a "kinkeeper," responsible for maintaining family connections and traditions, particularly after the loss of her mother. 9. If you were to gather evidence on the age at which divorced adults concluded their divorce, you would most likely find that the average age of divorced men was about _____ and the average age of divorced women was _____. a. 32; 30 (Correct Answer) b. 42; 40 c. 42; 30 c. 32; 25 Answer: a Rationale: Research suggests that the average age of divorced men tends to be around 32, while the average age of divorced women is typically around 30, indicating a slight age difference in the timing of divorces between genders. 10. Suppose your friend has just taken a job that is strongly associated with job burnout. To help him cope, you could point out that all of the following pieces of advice help prevent burnout EXCEPT: a. he should be realistic, rather than optimistic, about how much impact he can have b. he should try to keep his personal life separate from his work c. he should try to dedicate his professional life to the people he is trying to help d. he should develop interests outside of his job Answer: c Rationale: The correct answer is c. While dedicating one's professional life to helping others is a noble pursuit, it can actually contribute to burnout if it leads to excessive emotional involvement, compassion fatigue, or neglect of self-care. The other options (a, b, and d) are commonly recommended strategies for preventing burnout by promoting realistic expectations, maintaining work-life balance, and fostering personal interests and hobbies outside of work. Multiple Choice questions: Personality Continuity and Change 1. According to the text, during the period of middle adulthood, most adults think less about __________ and more about ________________. a. how long they’ve lived; how much time they have left b. how much time they have left; how long they’ve lived c. money; love d. love; money Answer: a Rationale: During middle adulthood, individuals typically become more aware of their mortality, prompting them to reflect on the time they've already lived (past-oriented) and how much time they have left (future-oriented). 2. Erik Erikson’s view of middle adulthood is one in which individuals deal with the issue of ________ vs. self-absorption. a. despair b. role identity c. intimacy d. generativity Answer: d Rationale: Erikson proposed that the central psychosocial conflict of middle adulthood is generativity versus self-absorption. Generativity involves a concern for guiding and nurturing the next generation, while self-absorption refers to a preoccupation with one's own needs and desires. 3. According to Erikson, what is the central issue facing middle-aged adults? a. integrity versus despair b. generativity versus self-absorption c. intimacy versus isolation d. industry versus inferiority Answer: b Rationale: Erikson believed that the central issue facing middle-aged adults is the conflict between generativity, which involves contributing to society and future generations, and self-absorption, which involves focusing excessively on one's own needs and desires. 4. In middle age, Sue raises her three children and integrates her work with her family life. In doing so, she finds meaning in life, and believes she has made important contributions to her family and career. Erikson would describe Sue’s belief as being most reflective of what he referred to as: a. integrity b. initiative c. generativity d. intimacy Answer: c Rationale: For Erikson, the primary task of middle age is one of generativity versus self-absorption. By generativity, Erikson meant that adults contribute in worthwhile ways to the good of others and their community. 5. Larry is almost 60 years old, and feels that he has not lived the life he had hoped. He believes he accomplished little in his job, and that his children don’t respect him. According to Erik Erikson, Larry’s life is characterized by: a. generativity b. self-absorption c. unconditional negative regard d. few conditions of worth Answer: b Rationale: For Erikson, the primary task of middle age is one of generativity versus self-absorption. Here, adults develop either the feeling that they have contributed in worthwhile ways (generativity) or that their lives have not been worthwhile (self-absorption). 6. In the generative stage, Erikson suggests that people act within all of the following domains EXCEPT: a. a humanistic one b. a procreative one c. a productive one d. a creative one Answer: a Rationale: Erikson proposed that in the generative stage, individuals act within domains such as procreation (having and raising children), productivity (contributing to society), and creativity (expressing oneself through various means). However, humanism, which emphasizes the importance of human values and dignity, is not explicitly mentioned as a domain in Erikson's theory of generativity. 7. Ramona is a middle-aged woman who finds meaning in her life by devoting herself to raising her children to be “good people.” Erikson would most likely emphasize which of the following terms as being most descriptive of Ramona's personality development? a. creativity b. self-absorption c. procreation d. productivity Answer: c Rationale: Erikson suggested that people act within 3 domains with regard to generativity: procreative, productive, and creative. The procreative domain centers on giving and responding to the needs of one’s children. 8. According to Erikson, the procreative domain of generativity centers on which of the following? a. successfully integrating work responsibilities with family life b. taking care of one’s children and guiding them toward good lives c. increasing cultural potential on a greater scale d. finding meaning in one’s own work Answer: b Rationale: Erikson suggested that people act within 3 domains with regard to generativity: procreative, productive, and creative. The procreative domain centers on giving and responding to the needs of one’s children. 9. Judy worked hard to build a successful consulting business because she needs to provide for her children. She chose to work in consulting because she wanted to be at home when her children went off to school and came home from school, and consulting allows her to work flexible hours. Erikson would most likely view Judy’s focus on integrating family life and work life successfully as filling needs in which of the following domains? a. creative domain b. productive domain c. recreative domain d. procreative domain Answer: b Rationale: Erikson suggested that people act within 3 domains with regard to generativity: procreative, productive, and creative. The productive domain centers on integrating work with family life or caring for the next generation. 10. Jeannine is 50 years old. Although she has never married, she devotes many hours to her volunteer work at the local “art incubator,” where artists can come and work in stress-free environments. She also takes great pleasure in volunteering at the local food pantry and at the free clinic. According to Erikson, Jeannine’s development is characterized by investment in: a. the procreative domain b. the productive domain c. the creative domain d. conditions of worth and merit Answer: c Rationale: Erikson suggested that people act within 3 domains with regard to generativity: procreative, productive, and creative. The creative domain centers on contributing to society on a larger scale. 11. Which of the following statements about Erik Erikson’s view of adult development is FALSE? a. Adults move through stages of development, each with somewhat different developmental tasks. b. Earlier life events set the stage for how later development will unfold. c. Developmental issues from earlier in life reappear from time to time in later stages of development. d. When major life circumstances change dramatically, we tend to ignore earlier developmental adaptations and strike out in bold new directions. Answer: d Rationale: When we are uprooted by major life circumstances, we must revisit the earlier developmental issues of basic trust, autonomy, and so forth, before we can pursue adult generativity. Thus, dramatic changes cause us to re-connect with our previous life issues, rather than ignore them. 12. According to the text, if a person is not able to develop a sense of generativity, which of the following is most likely to result? a. a basic sense of mistrust in people b. an identity crisis c. boredom d. a sense of being all alone, with no one to love Answer: c Rationale: When generativity does not emerge in middle adulthood, people come to view their lives as meaningless, they become self-absorbed, and a sense of stagnation and boredom are the typical result. Nothing seems meaningful, so boredom takes the place of a sense of generativity. 13. According to the text, which of the following is Robert Peck's main criticism of Erikson's stages of development? a. Erikson's stages ignore the first 20 to 25 years of life. b. Erikson's stages ignore the final years of life. c. Erikson's stages place too much emphasis on childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. d. Erikson's stages place too much emphasis on the final years of life. Answer: c Rationale: Robert Peck criticized Erikson's stages for focusing too much on the earlier stages of development (childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood) and not adequately addressing the unique challenges and developmental tasks of middle and late adulthood. 14. According to the view proposed by Robert Peck, which of the following periods is most often the critical time for making adjustments that will determine the way people live out the rest of their years? a. ages 20 to 30 b. ages 30 to 40 c. ages 40 to 50 d. ages 50 to 60 Answer: d Rationale: Robert Peck suggested that ages 50 to 60 are the critical time for making adjustments that will shape how individuals live out the remainder of their lives. This period is characterized by significant changes and challenges related to aging, health, and psychosocial adjustments. 15. Which of the following conflicts of adult development was proposed by Robert Peck? a. generativity versus stagnation b. integrity versus despair c. trust versus mistrust d. valuing wisdom versus valuing physical powers Answer: d Rationale: Robert Peck proposed the conflict of valuing wisdom versus valuing physical powers as a key aspect of adult development. This conflict reflects the struggle between maintaining a sense of self-worth and identity based on intellectual and emotional qualities versus those based on physical capabilities. 16. Jack and Sarah find that in their middle-aged years, many of their couple friends have either divorced or moved away, or do not share the same interests any more. Their adjustment illustrates which of Peck's issues of adult development? a. socializing versus sexuality b. ego differentiation versus work-role preoccupation c. cathectic flexibility versus cathectic impoverishment d. mental flexibility versus mental rigidity Answer: c Rationale: In Peck’s cathectic (emotional) flexibility versus cathectic impoverishment, emotional flexibility underlies the various adjustments that people must make in middle age as families split up, friends move away, and old interests cease being the central focus of life. 17. Leonardo finds that as he has reached middle age, his physical stamina has begun to wane, and he has been forced to shift his focus his leisure time interests away from golf and tennis toward reading and going to the theater. Peck would describe Leonardo’s adjustment as centering on: a. socializing versus sexuality b. valuing wisdom versus valuing physical powers c. mental flexibility versus mental rigidity d. cathectic flexibility versus cathectic impoverishment Answer: b Rationale: Peck’s issue of valuing wisdom versus valuing physical powers refers to the fact that as physical stamina and health begin to wane, people must shift much of their energy from physical activities to mental ones. 18. Frank tends to let his past experiences and old judgments dominate his current decisions. For instance, Frank says he has always disapproved of women in the armed services, and is not changing his mind now. This best illustrates which of Peck's conflicts of adult development? a. ego differentiation versus work-role preoccupation b. mental flexibility versus mental rigidity c. cathectic flexibility versus cathectic impoverishment d. valuing wisdom versus valuing physical powers Answer: b Rationale: Peck’s issue of mental flexibility versus mental rigidity refers to the fact that individuals must fight the inclination to become too set in their ways or too distrustful of new ideas. Mental rigidity is the tendency to become dominated by past experiences and former judgments. 19. A researcher is interested in studying how traditional women react in midlife. If his goal were to identify predictable relationships between adjustment and life events, he would most likely want to focus on how women experience: a. their career cycle, noting when they begin working and when they retire b. the stages of moral development they use in evaluating moral dilemmas c. the major events that define their family’s life cycle d. their 40th, 50th, and 60th birthdays Answer: c Rationale: According to the text, many women whose lives have reflected traditional female roles define themselves more in terms of the family cycle than by their place in the career cycle. 20. During middle adulthood, how do men’s roles typically change with regard to parenting? a. Children become more dependent on their mother and less dependent on their father for advice, so fathers’ roles diminish in importance. b. Children become more resentful of their fathers, so fathers’ roles diminish in importance. c. Children become distant from fathers, either emotionally or geographically, so fathers’ roles diminish in importance. d. Children are more influenced by their fathers, so fathers’ roles in midlife become more important. Answer: d Rationale: Midlife has been characterized as the prime time for fathers, as their influence over their young adult children tends to increase. 21. If you were to choose the most descriptive words to describe how middle-aged fathers are typically regarded by their children, these words would be: a. prime time for fathers b. useless period for fathers c. most-resented parent d. least-appreciated parent Answer: a Rationale: Midlife has been characterized as the prime time for fathers, as their influence over their young adult children tends to increase. 22. According to the text, _______ associate their sexual satisfaction with emotional aspects of their relationships and _______ associate their sexual satisfaction with physical pleasure they experience. a. men; women b. women; men c. both men and women; both men and women d. women, both men and women Answer: c Rationale: Research suggests that both men and women can associate sexual satisfaction with emotional aspects of their relationships as well as with the physical pleasure they experience during sexual activity. Therefore, option c is the most accurate. 23. According to the text, during midlife, parenting usually has quite ________ effects on men and women, and when differences emerge in how parenting affects men and women at this stage, research usually shows that ______ benefit more from parenting. a. similar; men b. similar; women c. different; men d. different; women Answer: a Rationale: Parenthood typically has similar psychological effects on mothers and fathers during midlife. When differences do emerge, results often show that men benefit more in midlife from parenting than do women. 24. In a study reported in the text, women were asked to report the major transitions in their lives. Which of the following was NOT one of the three transitions that most women reported? a. the birth of their children b. menarche c. when children left home d. menopause Answer: b Rationale: One study of Midwestern women found that they tended to report major life transitions at three points in the family cycle. The first major life transition occurs in young adulthood; fully 80% reported major role changes associated with the birth of their children and their early childrearing years. In middle adulthood, about 40% reported a major life transition when their children left home, although very few described the transition as particularly traumatic. The final major life transition reported by 33% of the women was menopause. 25. In a study reported in the text, women were asked to report the major transitions in their lives. Which of the following was one of the three transitions that most women reported? a. when they got married b. menarche c. when children left home d. when their own mother died Answer: c Rationale: One study of Midwestern women found that they tended to report major life transitions at three points in the family cycle. The first major life transition occurs in young adulthood; fully 80% reported major role changes associated with the birth of their children and their early childrearing years. In middle adulthood, about 40% reported a major life transition when their children left home, although very few described the transition as particularly traumatic. The final major life transition reported by 33% of the women was menopause. 26. In a study reported in the text, women were asked to report the major transitions in their lives. Which of the following was the major life transition that the largest proportion of the women identified? a. the birth of their children b. when their own mother died c. when children left home d. menopause Answer: a Rationale: Fully 80% reported major role changes associated with the birth of their children and their early childrearing years. 27. An overload of demands within the same role is called a: a. role strain b. role reversal c. role burnout d. role conflict Answer: a Rationale: Role strain refers to the situation where individuals experience an overload of demands within the same role, leading to stress and difficulties in fulfilling those demands. It differs from role conflict, which involves conflicting demands from different roles, and role reversal, which involves a reversal of roles within a relationship or social context. Role burnout generally refers to a state of emotional, physical, and mental exhaustion resulting from prolonged stress in a particular role. 28. Grace has chosen to stay at home and raise her three young children, but feels incapable of giving all three the attention they want from her. Which of the following terms best describes Grace’s dilemma? a. dual roles b. role strain c. role conflict d. role reversal Answer: b Rationale: Role strain results when there is an overload of demands within a given role. 29. Martha is a secretary for a prestigious company, and experiences an overload of demands from various executives. She finds that she is incapable of satisfying any of their needs. Martha’s problem is best considered to be an example of role: a. conflict b. strain c. crisis d. overload Answer: b Rationale: Role strain results when there is an overload of demands within a given role. 30. According to the text, when men and women are engaged in multiple roles, such as having a career, raising children, and caring for parents, and these roles frequently involve stress and an overload of multiple responsibilities, they are likely to experience: a. role conflict b. self-absorption c. the empty nest phenomenon d. role strain Answer: a Rationale: Role conflict involves an overload of demands from competing roles, such as parent, worker, and caregiver. Family and Friends: Interpersonal Contexts 31. According to the text, people in which of the following developmental periods are most likely to focus on the present, rather than the future or the past? a. adolescence b. early adulthood c. middle adulthood d. older adulthood Answer: c Rationale: Middle adulthood is characterized by a focus on immediate concerns such as career, family, and personal achievements. This stage is often marked by the responsibilities of work and family life, leaving less time for reflection on the past or anticipation of the future. 32. According to the text, people in which of the following age groups generally take on the role of family kinkeeper? a. late adolescents b. young adults c. middle-aged adults d. elderly adults Answer: c Rationale: Middle-aged adults are typically in the stage of life where they assume the role of family kinkeeper. This involves coordinating family gatherings, maintaining relationships, and providing support to both older and younger generations within the family. 33. Now that her father is a widower, Susan finds herself in middle age hosting the holidays at her home for all of her extended family members. According to the text, which of the following is the word used to describe the role has Susan assumed? a. arbitrator b. kinkeeper c. scapegoat d. family generator Answer: b Rationale: Kinkeeper is the role assumed by middle-aged people that includes maintaining family rituals, celebrating achievements, keeping family histories alive, reaching out to family members who are far away, and gathering the family together for holiday celebrations—all of which helps keep the family close. 34. Max, who is middle-aged, has assumed the task of maintaining his family's rituals by keeping his family history alive and reaching out to family members who live far away. Max has now taken on the role of family: a. kinkeeper b. caregiver c. overseer d. mentor Answer: a Rationale: Kinkeeper is the role assumed by middle-aged people that includes maintaining family rituals, celebrating achievements, keeping family histories alive, reaching out to family members who are far away, and gathering the family together for holiday celebrations—all of which helps keep the family close. 35. According to the text, when adolescents are launched most parents: a. enjoy increased freedom, privacy, and discretionary income b. experience a sense of loss, especially with respect to emotional connectedness c. become more self-absorbed d. experience greater role strain Answer: a Rationale: Despite the worries that often accompany a child taking on the responsibilities of adult life, most parents enjoy the increase in freedom, privacy, and discretionary income once the children are gone. 36. According to the text, when adolescents are launched, the overall reaction from parents is usually _________, and __________ are generally better at letting go of their children. a. positive; fathers b. positive; mothers c. negative; fathers d. negative; mothers Answer: b Rationale: Most parents enjoy the increase in freedom, privacy, and discretionary income once the children are gone. However, mothers often are better prepared than fathers to see their children leave home. 37. The term “boomerang generation” refers to the finding that today: a. young adults are likely to move back in with their parents b. family incomes are declining rather than rising c. marriages are occurring at older average ages d. parents are less likely to pay for their children’s college expenses Answer: a Rationale: The "boomerang generation" phenomenon refers to young adults who, after initially leaving their parental home, return to live with their parents. This trend has become more prevalent due to factors such as economic uncertainty and high housing costs. 38. According to statistics cited in the text, in the U.S. today, about what percent of “launched” children return home for a period of time? a. 5% b. 15% c. 38% d. 65% Answer: c Rationale: Approximately 38% of "launched" children in the United States return home to live with their parents for a period of time. This could be due to various reasons such as financial difficulties, job loss, or the need for temporary support. 39. According to research cited in the text, which of the following 25-year-old adults would be most likely to move back home with their parents following graduation from college: a. Alan, a White young adult b. Ben, a Black young adult c. Juan, a Hispanic young adult d. Alan, Ben, and Juan are equally likely to move back home Answer: c Rationale: The percentages of White, Black, and Hispanic emerging adults who lived with parents at some point during their early adult years was 38%, 32%, and 45%, respectively. 40. The percent of young adults who lived with their parents was lowest during which of the following years? a. 1940 b. 1960 c. 1980 d. 2010 Answer: c Rationale: Figure 15.1 shows that the percent of young adults who lived with their parents was at its lowest point in 1980, when this percentage was 11.0% 41. Adult children are LEAST likely to return home to live with their parents in which of the following cultures or settings? a. in Italy b. in Asian families c. in urban areas in the United States d. in rural areas in the United States Answer: c Rationale: In urban areas in the United States, living costs are typically higher, making it less feasible for adult children to return home and live with their parents compared to other cultures or settings where multigenerational households are more common. 42. Suppose you are a sociologist studying patterns of how young adults return home to live with their parents. Generalizing from previous research, which of the following young adults would you expect to be LEAST likely to live with his parents? a. Michael, who lives in Italy b. Ngyuen, who is Asian and whose family lives in California c. Bob, whose family lives on a farm in Iowa d. Ted, whose family lives in an apartment in New York City Answer: d Rationale: In Italy it is normal for children to reside in their parents’ home until marriage. In the United States, adult children in Asian and Latin American families were found to live with parents longer out of respect and the desire to assist the family. Additionally, studies show that young adults reside with parents longer in rural than in urban areas. 43. The period in the family life cycle that occurs after the last child has left home is called: a. role resolution b. empty nest c. generativity d. transition Answer: b Rationale: The term "empty nest" refers to the period in the family life cycle when parents are left with an empty household after their children have grown up and moved out. 44. Tim and Ann have just sent their last child off to college. What period in the family life cycle are they now experiencing? a. generativity b. empty nest c. kinkeeper d. boomerang generation Answer: b Rationale: Empty nest is the period in the family life cycle that occurs after the last child has left home. 45. Generally speaking, today most U.S. parents experience the “empty nest” as: a. traumatic b. confusing c. sad d. positive Answer: d Rationale: Today, most U.S. parents experience the "empty nest" as a positive transition. It often signifies a newfound freedom to pursue personal interests and rekindle the couple's relationship without the responsibilities of raising children. 46. Today the difference in life expectancy between men and women is about years, and generally live longer. a. 2; women b. 5; women c. 8; women d. 2; men Answer: a Rationale: Women generally live longer than men, with an average difference in life expectancy of about 2 years. This difference can be attributed to various factors including biological, social, and behavioral differences between genders. 47. In 2009, Ron and Betty both celebrated their 40th birthday. Based on life expectancy data for people born the same year as this couple, Ron should assume he could expect to live another ____ years, and Betty could expect to live another ____ years. a. 36; 40 b. 42; 38 c. 28; 32 d. 32; 28 Answer: a Rationale: Table 15-2 shows the life expectancy for U.S. men and women. It shows that in 2009 the life expectancy for men was 76.0 and for women it was 80.9. 48. Tommy depends on his parents to pay his college tuition and in return he helps out on weekends at the family business. The word the text uses to capture the sense of give-and-take between Tommy and his parents is: a. identify b. autonomy c. integrity d. reciprocity Answer: d Rationale: Ideally, as children reach adulthood, they interact with their parents on a more equal basis than they did earlier in life, thereby establishing a reciprocal give-and-take relationship. Surveys reveal that social, emotional, and material reciprocal exchanges of assistance between children and their parents are common. 49. The text cites statistics that indicate that in 1900 about ____ of children experienced the loss of a parent before age 15; in 2000, this percentage was about ____. a. 50%; 5% b. 40%; 5% c. 25%; 5% d. 40%; 10% Answer: c Rationale: In 1900, one in four children experienced the death of a parent before they were 15 years old; in 2000, fewer than 1 in 20 children did. 50. According to the text, the primary reason why adult children and their parents share a household is: a. one or both parents have lost a job b. the adult child has lost a job c. the adult parents have become disabled and need assistance d. living expenses are too high for parents and children to afford two households Answer: c Rationale: The primary reason why adult children and their parents share a household is often because the adult parents have become disabled or require assistance with daily activities, prompting the need for intergenerational living arrangements. 51. According to the text, about what percent of aging parents in the United States today share a home with their middle-aged children? a. about 40% b. about 25% c. about 10% d. about 2% Answer: c Rationale: Approximately 10% of aging parents in the United States today share a home with their middle-aged children. This arrangement may arise from the need for caregiving, financial support, or simply a desire to remain close as a family unit. 52. When the middle-aged become the generation "in charge" of their aging parents, what has occurred? a. role overload b. role strain c. role conflict d. role reversal Answer: d Rationale: Role reversal refers to a situation where the middle-aged individuals assume the role of caregivers for their aging parents, which is a reversal of the traditional roles where parents care for their children. This shift in roles characterizes the dynamic between the middle-aged and their aging parents. 53. As 45-year-old Brenda’s parents age, she helps them with their finances, buys their groceries, and takes care of their house. Which of the following terms best describes this transition in Brenda’s and her parents’ lives? a. role conflict b. stagnation c. role strain d. role reversal Answer: d Rationale: Role reversals often take place for middle-aged adults and their parents. Middle-aged adults become the generation in charge and their parents, if they are still living, may be in poor health, retired, or in need of financial aid. Over a period of years, power gradually and naturally shifts from older parents to their middle-aged children. 54. If you asked 1,000 people who were between ages 35 and 64 whether or not they had cared for a relative or friend in the last year, you should expect about how many of them to answer “yes”? a. 50 b. 200 c. 500 d. 650 Answer: b Rationale: The text cites a study that found that 1 in 5 adults from ages 35 to 64 had cared for a relative or a friend in the last year. 55. According to the text, about what percent of aging adults are cared for by their adult children in a home environment, either by providing the necessary assistance so the parent can live independently, or by having the parent live with their families? a. about 40% b. about 55% c. about 70% d. about 85% Answer: d Rationale: Approximately 85% of aging adults are cared for by their adult children in a home environment, according to the text. This statistic highlights the significant role that adult children play in supporting their aging parents. 56. If current trends hold into the future, you would estimate that a person’s chances of being cared for in a nursing home are about 1 in: a. 2 b. 3 c. 4 d. 10 Answer: d Rationale: The text reports that 80-90% of the elderly are cared for at home, and only a small percentage are cared for in formal facilities, such as nursing homes. 57. According to the text, which of the following people are MOST likely to provide care for elderly family members? a. daughters and sons b. daughters and daughters-in-law c. sons and sons-in-law d. granddaughters and grandsons Answer: b Rationale: Daughters and daughters-in-law are most likely to provide care for elderly family members, as indicated by the text. This reflects traditional caregiving roles often assumed by women within families. 58. Suppose you conduct a study investigating which family members are most likely to provide caregiving support to aging parents. Generalizing from research described in the text, you should expect that which of the following groups would be MOST likely to provide this support? a. sons b. daughters c. granddaughters d. sisters Answer: b Rationale: Regardless of whether or not they hold jobs, daughters and daughters-in-law are much more likely than male family members to provide care to aging parents. 59. If you conducted a survey of women who were providing care to elderly relatives, you should expect that about ____ of them would report that they feel guilty about not doing enough. a. 2% b. 10% c. 33% d. 60% Answer: d Rationale: In one study cited in the textbook, 60% of caregiving women reported that they felt guilty about not doing enough. 60. When Susan gave birth to triplets after already having two children, her parents' presence was calming, and provided an anchor to both the grandchildren and parents. According to research conducted by Bengtson, which of the following best describes the role that Susan's parents serve? a. arbitrator b. family national guard c. being there d. maintaining the family's biography Answer: c Rationale: Table 15-3 lists important roles played by grandparents. The being there role can include being a calming presence in the face of family disruption or external catastrophe, providing an anchor of stability to both grandchildren and parents, and acting as a deterrent to family disruption. 61. Hugh and Lois are grandparents who are available to help with grandchildren in times of crisis. During these times, they actually get involved in the active management of their grandchildren's lives. According to research conducted by Bengtson, which of the following roles do these grandparents serve? a. being there b. family national guard c. arbitrator d. maintaining the family's biography Answer: b Rationale: Table 15-3 lists important roles played by grandparents. The family national guard role involves being available in times of emergency. 62. When Jill had an emergency appendectomy, her parents stayed with Jill's children and took care of them for a week. According to research conducted by Bengtson, which of the following roles do Jill’s parents serve? a. arbitrator b. family national guard c. being there d. maintaining the family's biography Answer: b Rationale: Table 15-3 lists important roles played by grandparents. The family national guard role involves being available in times of emergency. 63. Statistically speaking, which of the following people is likely to be oldest when he or she becomes a grandparent? a. Ralph, who is an African American man b. Tim, who is a White man c. Roberta, who is an African American woman d. Lynette, who is a White woman Answer: b Rationale: According to the text, women and members of some minority groups tend to become grandparents at somewhat earlier ages. 64. In the United States today, about what percent of grandparents are raising their grandchildren? a. about 1% b. about 3% c. about 11% d. about 23% Answer: c Rationale: Approximately 11% of grandparents in the United States are raising their grandchildren, according to the text. This highlights the prevalence of grandparent-headed households in contemporary society. 65. In the United States today, about 1 in ___ grandparents are raising their grandchildren. a. 100 b. 50 c. 25 d. 10 Answer: d Rationale: The text notes that today, about 10 to 11% of grandparents are raising their grandchildren. 66. Statistically speaking, which of the following grandparents is LEAST likely to be involved in raising grandchildren? a. Li, who is an Asian American woman b. Marie, who is a white American woman c. Ruth, who is an African American woman d. Lucinda, who is a Hispanic American woman Answer: b Rationale: Asian, Black, Hispanic, Native American, and Inuit families are far more likely to be three-generation households than are non-Hispanic White families. In Black and Native American families, more than 50% of grandparents are their grandchildren’s primary caregivers. 67. According to the text, in African American and Native American families, about ___percent of grandparents are their grandchildren’s primary caregivers. a. 10% b. 25% c. 33% d. 50% Answer: d Rationale: In African American and Native American families, around 50% of grandparents serve as primary caregivers for their grandchildren, underscoring the importance of intergenerational support within these communities. 68. If you were to study the complexity of friendship relationships, you would expect that the most complex friendships would be seen among people in which of the following age groups? a. young adults between ages 20 and 30 b. young adults between ages 30 and 40 c. middle-aged adults between ages 40 and 50 d. middle-aged adults between ages 50 and 60 Answer: d Rationale: According to the text, the most complex friendships generally occur among the late middle-aged group. 69. The text reports the results of a study of friendships among people at four different life stages. In all of these stages of life, which of the following was reported as the most important aspect of friendship? a. loyalty b. empathy c. honesty d. reciprocity Answer: d Rationale: Reciprocity was reported as the most important aspect of friendship across all four life stages studied, emphasizing the significance of mutual give-and-take in sustaining friendships. 70. According to research presented in the text, in which of the following age periods do the most complex friendships typically occur? a. adolescence b. early adulthood c. early middle-adulthood d. later middle-adulthood Answer: d Rationale: The most complex friendships typically occur in later middle-adulthood, according to research presented in the text. This may be due to a culmination of life experiences and deeper emotional connections developed over time. 71. According to the text, during middle adulthood, men’s friendships tend to be based on _____ and women’s friendships tend to be based on ______. a. work; family b. reciprocity; similarities c. similarities; family d. similarities; reciprocity Answer: d Rationale: During middle adulthood, men's friendships tend to be based on similarities, while women's friendships tend to be based on reciprocity, as noted in the text. This reflects differences in the nature of social connections between genders during this life stage. The Changing Family 72. When a family consists of a father who works and a mother who stays at home to care for children, the word used to describe this situation is: a. nuclear family b. blended family c. “empty” family d. single-caregiver family Answer: a Rationale: The text suggests that a nuclear family is the same as the traditional family, in which the father works and the mother stays home to care for children. 73. The divorce rate for second marriages is: a. higher than the divorce rate for first marriages b. about the same as the divorce rate for first marriages c. much lower than the divorce rate for first marriages d. slightly lower than the divorce rate for first marriages Answer: a Rationale: The divorce rate for second marriages is higher than that for first marriages, indicating the increased likelihood of marital dissolution in subsequent unions. 74. A simple consideration of the number of people married and the number divorced in a given year typically leads to the conclusion that about ____ of all marriages end in divorce; however the actual percentage is about ____. a. half; 55% b. half; 40% c. half; 30% d. two-thirds, 50% Answer: b Rationale: Statistics lead to the often-cited conclusion that half of all marriages end in divorce. However, the people who are divorcing in a given year are not the same as those marrying and, therefore, a simple comparison of marriage and divorce rates usually leads to an erroneous conclusion. The book notes that after taking multiple trends into consideration, a reasonable estimate of the chances of a marriage today ending in divorce is close to 40%. 75. In the United States today, about what percent of 40-year-olds have been married? a. about 55% b. about 66% c. about 80% d. about 92% Answer: c Rationale: By age 40, 77% of men and 83% of women living in the United States have been married. 76. In the United States today, about what percent of 40-year-olds have been married and divorced? a. about 10% b. about 20% c. about 33% d. about 50% Answer: b Rationale: The text notes that in the U.S. about 18% of men and 23% of women of 40-year-olds have been divorced. 77. During which of the following periods in the lifespan do most divorces occur? a. early adulthood b. early middle-adulthood c. later middle-adulthood d. older adulthood Answer: a Rationale: Most divorces occur during early adulthood, reflecting the challenges and changes individuals face as they navigate the transition into marriage and family life. 78. If you were to gather evidence on the age at which divorced adults concluded their divorce, you would most likely find that the average age of divorced men was about _____ and the average age of divorced women was _____. a. 32; 30 b. 42; 40 c. 42; 30 c. 32; 25 Answer: a Rationale: The average age of divorce in 2009 in the U. S. was age 32.0 years for men and 30.1 years for women. 79. In comparison to women, today U. S. men marry _________ than do U.S. women and they tend to marry women who are _________ than they are. a. earlier; younger b. later; younger c. earlier; older d. later; older Answer: b Rationale: According to the text associated with Figure 15-2, men stay single longer and marry younger women. 80. In comparison to men, today in the U. S. women age 40-59 are _______ likely to be divorced and are _______ likely to be widowed. a. more; more b. more; less c. less; more d. less; less Answer: a Rationale: According to the text associated with Figure 15-2, compared to men, women age 40-49 and age 50-59 are more likely to be divorced and to be widowed. 81. Which of the following statements about marriage and divorce is TRUE? a. Having children usually increases marital satisfaction. b. Married people have more sex and more satisfying sex lives than unmarried couples. c. Husbands typically make more adjustments to married life than wives do. d. Children are usually better off with divorced parents than with parents who are unhappily married. Answer: b Rationale: Table 15-4 notes several myths about marriage and divorce and correctly notes that married people generally have more sex and more satisfying sex lives than unmarried couples, even though the contrary conclusion is a popular misconception. 82. Which of the following statements about marriage and divorce is TRUE? a. Divorce proceedings are usually initiated by women. b. Slightly more than half of all marriages today end in divorce. c. Husbands’ marital satisfaction is higher when wives are full-time homemakers than when they are employed. d. Children are usually better off with divorced parents than with parents who are unhappily married. Answer: a Rationale: Table 15-4 notes several myths about marriage and divorce and correctly notes that divorce proceedings are initiated by women in about two-thirds of the cases, even though the contrary conclusion is a popular misconception. 83. In cases of divorce, it is usually the _______ that becomes dissatisfied with the marriage first, and it is usually the ______ that initiates the divorce proceedings. a. husband; husband b. wife; wife c. husband; wife d. wife; husband Answer: b Rationale: Research and statistics consistently show that women are more likely to express dissatisfaction with the marriage first and also to initiate divorce proceedings. This pattern has been observed in various studies and is reflective of societal trends regarding gender roles and marital dynamics. 84. Compared to adults who remain married, people who are divorced in middle adulthood are more likely to experience all of the following EXCEPT: a. bigger financial problems b. higher rates of alcoholism c. higher rates of physical illness d. lower rates of depression Answer: d Rationale: The text states that recently divorced men and women have higher rates of alcoholism, physical illness, and depression, and also have considerably more financial problems, owing to the need to support two households on the income stream that formerly supported only one. 85. According to research cited in the text, which of the following is the primary reason that middle-aged men and women give for staying married to each other? a. "my spouse is my best friend" b. "for the sake of the children" c. "for financial reasons" d. "for sexual reasons" Answer: a Rationale: Studies have consistently found that one of the primary reasons middle-aged individuals give for staying married is the deep emotional connection and companionship they share with their spouse, often described as being each other's best friend. This reason tends to outweigh other considerations such as financial stability or the welfare of children. 86. Suppose you are conducting a study in which you ask middle-aged men and women why they have stayed married to each other. You would expect that the primary reason that men and women would give would be which of the following? a. "my spouse is my best friend" b. "for the sake of the children" c. "for financial reasons" d. "for sexual reasons" Answer: a Rationale: Although middle-aged men and women cite different reasons for remaining married, both list “My spouse is my best friend” as their primary reason. 87. Suppose you are conducting a study in which you ask middle-aged men and women why they have stayed married to each other. You would expect that the primary reason that men would give would be _________ and the primary reason women would give would be _____________. a. "my spouse is my best friend"; “for the sake of the children” b. "for the sake of the children"; “for financial reasons” c. "my spouse is my best friend”; “my spouse is my best friend” d. "for sexual reasons"; “for financial reasons” Answer: c Rationale: Although middle-aged men and women cite different reasons for remaining married, both list “My spouse is my best friend” as their primary reason. 88. Among happily married couples, having a satisfying sex life is seen by men as being of _________ importance and is seen by women as being of __________ importance. a. great; great b. great; some c. some; great d. some; some Answer: d Rationale: Although most happily married couples are satisfied with their sex lives, it usually is not a primary factor in happiness or marital satisfaction. Men listed satisfaction with sex as the 12th most important reason for staying together; women listed it as the 14th. 89. Which of the following terms refers to something quite different than do the other three terms? a. blended family b. stepfamily c. single-parent family d. reconstituted family Answer: c Rationale: The terms blended family, stepfamily, and reconstituted family all refer to a family that is re-formed following the breakup of one or more former families, either through death or divorce. These families are headed by two parents or stepparents. Single-parent families can involve a divorce or death of a parent, but can also result from being never married. Also, a single-parent family has only 1 parent living in the household, making this type of family quite different from the others. 90. In comparison to the proportion of blended families in the 17th and 18th centuries, the proportion of blended families in the U.S. today is: a. about the same b. somewhat higher c. somewhat lower d. dramatically higher Answer: a Rationale: Despite changes in societal norms and family structures over time, the proportion of blended families in the U.S. today remains relatively similar to that of the 17th and 18th centuries. This suggests that while there may be fluctuations in family dynamics, the concept of blended families has been present throughout history. 91. In comparison to the typical blended family of two centuries ago, blended families today are usually more complex because they: a. include more children under the age of 10 b. include more teenage children c. include the presence of a living former spouse d. involve much greater financial hardships Answer: c Rationale: Blended families today are often more complex than those of previous centuries due to the increased likelihood of involving a living former spouse. This adds layers of complexity to familial relationships and dynamics, which may impact adjustment and cohesion within the family unit. 92. According to the text, in comparison to first marriages, second marriages are more often characterized by all of the following EXCEPT: a. more open communication b. greater acceptance of conflict c. more trust that disagreements can be resolved d. higher levels of hostility Answer: d Rationale: Second marriages tend to be characterized by factors such as more open communication, greater acceptance of conflict as a natural part of relationships, and increased trust in resolving disagreements. While conflicts may still arise, they are typically not marked by higher levels of hostility compared to first marriages. 93. Regarding adjustment in blended families that include stepchildren, it is usually the _______ that has a harder time adjusting to new roles and the stereotype of the “neglected, abused stepchild” is largely ________________. a. father; a myth b. mother; a myth c. father; accurate d. mother; accurate Answer: b Rationale: Research suggests that stepchildren often have a harder time adjusting to their new family roles, particularly in relation to their stepmothers. However, the stereotype of the "neglected, abused stepchild" is largely a myth, as most stepfamilies strive to create supportive and nurturing environments for all family members. 94. Adjustment in blended families is usually hardest between girls and their ____________ and between boys and their ____________. a. stepmothers; stepmothers b. stepfathers; stepfathers c. stepmothers; stepfathers d. stepfathers; stepmothers Answer: d Rationale: Adjustment in blended families tends to be most challenging between children and their stepfathers, particularly for girls, and between children and their stepmothers, especially for boys. This dynamic may arise due to various factors, including differences in parenting styles and the establishment of new familial bonds. Occupational Continuity and Change 95. If a college has historically employed its own security staff, but now decides to fire these people and contract with a firm that specializes in security to take over this function, this is best considered to be an example of: a. downsizing b. “right-sizing” c. outsourcing d. union-busting Answer: c Rationale: The text describes outsourcing as farming out work to other companies that involves the loss of jobs to workers, regardless of how competent and dedicated they have been. 96. Julie has worked in the laundry of a large hospital for 34 years. One Friday afternoon she and her co-workers are brought in and told that the hospital is firing them because it has decided that the laundry will close and this function will be performed by a company that does laundry for large institutions. Julie’s situation is best considered to be an example of: a. outsourcing b. union-busting c. right-sizing d. downsizing Answer: a Rationale: The text describes outsourcing as farming out work to other companies that involves the loss of jobs to workers, regardless of how competent and dedicated they have been. similar to the adjustment: a. of being married for the first time b. of being married for the second time c. of leaving home to go to college or take a first job d. to the death of a loved one Answer: d Rationale: Job loss in middle adulthood can trigger reactions akin to those experienced following the death of a loved one. This is because both events involve significant loss, grief, and adjustment to a new reality or set of circumstances. 98. The text cites all of the following reasons as explanations why job loss is especially traumatic in middle adulthood EXCEPT: a. middle-aged adults face discrimination, making it harder for them to find a new job b. new jobs are likely to involve lower pay than former jobs c. older workers usually have more of the personal identity invested in their jobs d. older workers have poorer self-concepts than younger workers Answer: d Rationale: While the other options are valid reasons why job loss can be traumatic in middle adulthood, the assertion that older workers have poorer self-concepts than younger workers is not supported. In fact, older workers may have a more stable sense of self and greater confidence in their abilities, which can buffer the impact of job loss to some extent. 99. According to the text, the emotional exhaustion that often affects middle-aged people in the helping professions is called: a. professional obsolescence b. job strain c. role strain d. job burnout Answer: d Rationale: The emotional exhaustion experienced by middle-aged individuals in helping professions, such as healthcare or social work, is termed "job burnout." This condition arises from chronic workplace stress, interpersonal conflicts, and a sense of being overwhelmed by the demands of the job. 100. At age 45, Paige is emotionally exhausted from her work with prison inmates over the past ten years, feeling that no matter what she does, no one ever gets better. Paige is most likely experiencing: a. role strain b. role conflict c. job burnout d. professional obsolescence Answer: c Rationale: Job burnout is characterized by emotional exhaustion that results from working in high-stress professions or trades. 101. Job burnout is caused by: a. racial and sexual prejudice b. lack of reward for great effort c. outside interests becoming more important than the job d. role conflict between work and family responsibilities Answer: b Rationale: According to the text, the general cause of job burnout is the lack of rewards in a work situation in which great effort has been expended and high hopes originally predominated. 102. People who suffer job burnout are typically: a. money-oriented workers who are tired of the "rat race" b. less competent workers who realize their limitations c. underskilled workers who go back to school d. idealistic, competent workers who finally realize that they cannot make a difference Answer: d Rationale: According to the text, people in the helping professions who suffer job burnout generally are idealistic, highly motivated, extremely competent workers who finally realize that they cannot make the difference they once thought they could. 103. Job burnout would be expected to be the biggest problem for workers in which of the following jobs? a. nursing b. police chief c. corporate executive d. college professor Answer: a Rationale: Job burnout is especially prevalent among individuals in the helping professions. Social workers, police officers, nurses, therapists, teachers, day-care workers, and others who must work in close personal contact with those whom they serve. 104. Which of the following people would be at greatest risk for developing job burnout? a. Laura, who is a social worker for an agency that serves low-income families b. Peter, who is the president of his own small insurance agency c. Rex, who is a computer programmer d. Priscilla, who is a professional musician Answer: a Rationale: Job burnout is especially prevalent among individuals in the helping professions. Social workers, police officers, nurses, therapists, teachers, day-care workers, and others who must work in close personal contact with those whom they serve. 105. Workers can best avoid burnout by: a. being realistic about their jobs b. taking regular vacations c. immersing themselves in the positive aspects of work d. having high ideals and good intentions Answer: a Rationale: The text notes that workers can avoid or minimize job burnout by learning to be realistic in their approach to their work and their goals, by promoting changes in their job requirements or work flow, by attempting to keep the rest of their life separate from their work (for example, by not taking their work troubles home with them), and by developing interests outside of their jobs. 106. Suppose your friend has just taken a job that is strongly associated with job burnout. To help him cope, you could point out that all of the following pieces of advice help prevent burnout EXCEPT: a. he should be realistic, rather than optimistic, about how much impact he can have b. he should try to keep his personal life separate from his work c. he should try to dedicate his professional life to the people he is trying to help d. he should develop interests outside of his job Answer: c Rationale: The text notes that workers can avoid or minimize job burnout by learning to be realistic in their approach to their work and their goals, by promoting changes in their job requirements or work flow, by attempting to keep the rest of their life separate from their work (for example, by not taking their work troubles home with them), and by developing interests outside of their jobs. Continuity and Change in the Structure of Personality 107. Psychologists use the term “Big Five” to refer to: a. the 5 most influential theorists in the field of psychology b. the 5 steps of the scientific approach to research methodology c. the 5 most important people in any given individual’s life d. the 5 core traits that describe personality Answer: d Rationale: The Big Five refers to the five broad dimensions of personality, namely openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism (sometimes referred to as emotional stability). These traits are considered to encompass the most significant aspects of personality and are widely used in psychological research. 108. According to the “Big Five” theory of personality, individuals differ from each other according to: a. how high or low each person is on each of the Big Five traits b. how many of the Big Five traits each person possesses c. which are the most important, and least important, of the Big Five traits to the person’s life d. how the person rank-orders the Big Five traits when these traits are used to describe the subject matter of personality Answer: a Rationale: The Five Factor model reflects the consensus within the field of psychology that personality can be well described by assessing five traits, or factors, that appear to capture the most important dimensions on which individuals differ from each other. People can possess more or less of each of these traits. 109. Which of the following sets of personality traits correctly describe the Big Five factors identified in psychology research? a. conscientiousness, openness, extroversion, emotional stability, agreeableness b. conscientiousness, altruism, extroversion, emotional stability, agreeableness c. altruism, openness, extroversion, emotional stability, agreeableness d. conscientiousness, openness, extroversion, emotional stability, altruism Answer: a Rationale: The correct set of personality traits that aligns with the Big Five factors identified in psychology research includes conscientiousness, openness, extroversion, emotional stability (or neuroticism), and agreeableness. These traits have been consistently found to encompass the broad range of human personality variation. 110. Which of the following is NOT one of the Big Five factors of personality? a. agreeableness b. intelligence c. conscientious d. openness Answer: b Rationale: Intelligence is not considered one of the Big Five factors of personality. The Big Five traits are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism (or emotional stability), which focus on aspects of an individual's typical patterns of behavior, thoughts, and emotions rather than intellectual abilities. 111. If personality traits are biologically based, this would imply that they would be established relatively ________ in life and would change ________ across the lifespan. a. early; a great deal b. early; little c. late; a great deal d. late; little Answer: b Rationale: To the extent that personality is biologically determined, we would expect to see consistency in the traits that characterize the personality profile across the stages of the lifespan. 112. According to a large-sample study reported in the text, which of the following personality traits has been shown to increase as adults grow older? a. extraversion b. emotional stability c. agreeableness and conscientiousness d. openness to experience and conscientiousness Answer: c Rationale: Research indicates that agreeableness and conscientiousness tend to increase as adults grow older. This trend suggests a maturation process wherein individuals become more cooperative, considerate, and responsible with age. 113. How does research suggest that the trait of emotional stability changes across the lifespan? a. It increases for men, but not for women. b. It increases for women, but not for men. c. It increases for both men and women. d. It stays relatively constant in both men and women. Answer: b Rationale: According to research cited in the text, emotional stability was observed to change throughout adulthood, but the change depended on gender. Although women increased in emotional healthiness throughout middle adulthood, men did not. 114. If you were considering how the Big Five traits change throughout adulthood for women, you should conclude that women would be expected to show the LEAST increase in which of the following traits across the ages of 16 to 70? a. conscientiousness b. agreeableness c. openness to experience d. emotional stability Answer: c Rationale: Figure 15-5 depicts changes in the Big Five personality traits at different points in the lifespan and both Openness to experience and Extroversion can be seen to decrease with age. The text also notes that the increases associated with Emotional stability are descriptive of women in adulthood, but not for men. Thus, the trait that declines most for women during adulthood is Openness to experience. 115. According to research cited in the text, as people move through the lifespan from age 16 to age 70-and-over, which of the following personality traits increases to the greatest degree: a. extroversion b. emotional stability c. openness to experience d. conscientiousness Answer: d Rationale: Figure 15-5 depicts changes in the big five personality traits at different points in the lifespan and the increases are noticeably larger for conscientiousness than for any of the other traits. 116. Which of the following best reflects the text’s conclusion about how personality traits change across the adult portion of the lifespan? a. they are stable for almost everyone b. they are constantly changing for almost everyone c. most people’s traits are characterized by both stability and change d. they are stable for some people but changing for others Answer: c Rationale: The book notes that the best conclusion to draw is that in many ways middle adulthood is characterized by both stability and change. While stability is critical for preserving one’s core identity and personal relationships throughout life, the ability to change and adjust to life’s circumstances provides a means of adapting. Furthermore, there probably are individual differences in the degree that these adjustments occur. 117. In a study that asked adults how their personalities had changed in the previous 6 years, the results shows that _____ reported that their personalities had “stayed the same” and _____ reported that their personalities had “changed a good deal.” a. 33%; 67% b. 67%; 33% c. 9%; 53% d. 53%; 9% Answer: d Rationale: The study found that 53% of adults reported that their personalities had "stayed the same," while 9% reported that their personalities had "changed a good deal" over the previous 6 years. This suggests that a significant portion of adults perceive stability in their personalities over a relatively short time frame. 118. If you were to ask a large group of adults to tell you whether they thought their personalities had “stayed the same” or “changed a good deal,” you should expect that: a. most people would report that their personalities had stayed the same b. most people would report that their personalities had changed a good deal c. the people would be split into two equal-sized groups, with half reporting stability and half reporting change d. the response you got would be heavily dependent on age, with younger adults reporting more stability and older adults reporting more change Answer: a Rationale: In a study cited in the text that asked middle-aged adults how much they believed their personalities had changed during the previous 6 years, 52.5% responded they had “stayed the same.” Current Issues: Studying Generativity in African American and White U. S. Families 119. Sarah is asked to complete a questionnaire asking about how often she does volunteer work, how much time she spends helping her children, and so forth. Generalizing from research described in the text, this questionnaire most likely is measuring: a. generativity b. the empty nest c. job burnout d. life satisfaction Answer: a Rationale: Generativity involves an adult’s concern for the next generation and includes various activities, such as raising and mentoring children, serving as a role model for younger people, supporting social causes that assist the next generation to develop in ways that are valued, and creating a legacy for others. 120. Thomas is asked to respond to a series of statements, such as “I believe that other people need and depend on me.” Generalizing from research described in the text, this questionnaire is most likely measuring: a. generativity b. the empty nest c. job burnout d. EQ Answer: a Rationale: Loyola Generativity Scale consists of 20 statements about how adults might display generative concerns, such as “I try to pass along knowledge I have gained through my experiences” and “I do not feel that other people need me.” This last statement is quite like the one in this question (only opposite). 121. In studies, generativity has been linked to all of the following EXCEPT: a. being more involved with others b. being more involved in religious activities c. being less involved in political activities d. having an active role in children’s lives Answer: c Rationale: Generativity, the concern for and commitment to promoting the well-being of future generations, has been linked to various positive behaviors and attitudes, including being more involved with others, being more involved in religious activities, and having an active role in children’s lives. However, it has not been linked to being less involved in political activities. 122. According to research discussed in the text, in comparison to White Americans, African Americans were more likely to emphasize the role of ________ in their lives. a. children b. parents c. jobs d. religion Answer: d Rationale: Research suggests that African Americans are more likely to emphasize the role of religion in their lives compared to White Americans. Religion plays a significant role in the lives of many African Americans, influencing their values, social connections, and coping strategies. Changing Perspectives: Blended Families – Themes and Variations 123. In the United States today, about what percent of all marriages are second marriages for one or both partners? a. about 10% b. about 25% c. about 33% d. about 50% Answer: d Rationale: The text notes that at the beginning of the 21st century, nearly half of all marriages are remarriages for one or both partners. 124. About what percent of children in the United States today will spend some time in a stepparent family before they reach adulthood? a. about 5% b. about 33% c. about 50% d. about 65% Answer: b Rationale: Approximately 33% of children in the United States today will spend some time in a stepparent family before they reach adulthood. This statistic highlights the prevalence and significance of blended families in contemporary society. 125. The text presents evidence that suggests that, in comparison to traditional families, blended families are: a. happier b. better off financially c. simpler to manage d. more complex Answer: d Rationale: The text notes that blended families are more complex and provides multiple examples of the ways in which this complexity is greater in blended families than in traditional families. There are no conclusions drawn about overall family happiness or financial situations that distinguish blended from traditional families. True-False questions: Personality Continuity and Change 126. According to Erik Erikson, the major task adults face in middle adulthood is one of generativity versus self-absorption. Answer: True Rationale: Erik Erikson's psychosocial theory posits that individuals in middle adulthood confront the psychosocial crisis of generativity versus stagnation. Generativity involves contributing to future generations and society, while self-absorption or stagnation reflects a lack of growth and productivity. Therefore, the statement is true. 127. Generativity in the productive domain is focused on contributing to society on a larger scale, such as by volunteering in an orphanage or at a free clinic. Answer: False Rationale: The productive domain focuses on integrating family life with work and caring for the next generation. Contributing on a larger scale falls more closely to Erikson’s idea of the creative domain. 128. Robert Peck’s view of the changes that occur during social development during adulthood was much the same as Erikson’s view. Answer: False Rationale: Peck believed that Erikson placed too much emphasis on childhood and adolescence and too little on adulthood. 129. As men’s and women’s roles are becoming more similar, their developmental transitions are becoming more similar as well. Answer: True Rationale: With evolving societal norms and gender roles, the developmental transitions of men and women are indeed becoming more similar. Traditional gender roles have shifted, leading to more shared responsibilities and experiences between genders, impacting various life transitions. 130. If a woman feels that she does not have time to care for her family and perform her job responsibilities, this is a good example of role strain. Answer: False Rationale: Role strain is defined as an overload of demands within a given role, such as being a mother. Negotiating multiple roles, which is the sense of this example, is better thought of as role conflict than role strain. Family and Friends: Interpersonal Contexts 131. Research has shown that the parent-child relationship is highly similar across families and across cultures. Answer: False Rationale: The text describes how young adults in Italy are more likely to live at home until marriage, a family pattern quite different from that typically found in U. S. families. 132. The “empty nest” refers to the situation in which a divorce occurs and the husband (or wife) is left with no children to care for, since they live with the “other” parent. Answer: False Rationale: The empty nest is a term used to refer to the time of life when the last child has left home. 133. Men and women living in the U. S. who are 40 years old today can expect to live, on average, another 40 years or so. Answer: True Rationale: This statement is true based on the average life expectancy in the United States, which is approximately 80 years. Thus, individuals who are 40 years old today can indeed expect to live for another 40 years or so on average. 134. In the United States today, most older adults spend their last years in nursing homes or other types of special care facilities. Answer: False Rationale: The text notes that only a small percentage of caregivers use formal services and that the majority of adults – 80 to 90 percent – care for their aging parents at home, either by providing the necessary assistance that allows the parent to live independently or by having the parent move in with the family. 135. Sons are more likely than daughters to provide care for their aging parents. Answer: False Rationale: Daughters are more likely than sons to provide this care. 136. In the United States today, about 10-11% of grandparents are raising their grandchildren, and this percentage is much higher among African American and Native American families. Answer: True Rationale: This statement is true. In the United States, approximately 10-11% of grandparents are raising their grandchildren, and this percentage is notably higher among African American and Native American families due to various social and cultural factors. 137. There are gender differences in how friendships are established during middle adulthood, with women being more likely to consider reciprocity as the most important feature of friendships, whereas men are more likely to have friends based on similarity. Answer: True Rationale: This statement accurately reflects gender differences in friendship patterns during middle adulthood. Research suggests that women tend to prioritize reciprocity and emotional support in friendships, while men often form friendships based on shared activities and interests, reflecting similarity. The Changing Family 138. In the U.S., the average age at which divorce occurs is about age 39 for women and age 42 for men. Answer: False Rationale: According to the text, the average age of divorce for men is 32.0 years and for women is 30.1 years. 139. The chances of a marriage ending in divorce in the U. S. today is about 40%. Answer: True Rationale: This statement is true. The current divorce rate in the United States is approximately 40%, indicating that a substantial proportion of marriages end in divorce. 140. Children are better off with divorced parents than with parents who are unhappily married. Answer: False Rationale: Although this statement reflects a popular myth, in fact divorce is usually traumatic for children and even unhappy marriages provide children with greater economic standing, stronger family bonds, stronger connections with the community, more time for parent-child interactions, and better overall emotional health. 141. When couples divorce, it is usually the husband who first raises the issue of divorce and is the initiator of divorce. Answer: False Rationale: It is usually the wife who first raises the issue of divorce and women are more often the initiators of divorce than are men. 142. The most common reason given for remaining married by both men and women is that marriage provides a satisfying means of having a good sex life. Answer: False Rationale: Both men and women cite “my spouse is my best friend” as their primary reason for remaining married, and satisfaction with sex is listed as the 12th most important reason by men and the 14th by women. 143. A blended family is the same thing as a stepfamily and a reconstituted family. Answer: True Rationale: This statement is true. Blended family, stepfamily, and reconstituted family are often used interchangeably to describe families formed through remarriage where one or both partners bring children from previous relationships into the new family unit. 144. Blended families today are much more common than they were 200 years ago. Answer: False Rationale: Blended families are about equally common today, but today they usually involve a divorce, rather than the death of a parent. Occupational Continuity and Change 145. Changes related to work, such as career changes or job loss, generally produce high levels of stress and anxiety when they occur during middle adulthood. Answer: True Rationale: This statement is true. Work-related changes such as career changes or job loss can indeed lead to high levels of stress and anxiety, particularly during middle adulthood, as individuals may face financial concerns, identity challenges, and uncertainty about the future. 146. Job loss is usually more difficult for middle-aged adults than for younger adults. Answer: True Rationale: This statement is true. Job loss can be particularly challenging for middle-aged adults due to factors such as financial responsibilities, career stability, and concerns about re-employment opportunities, making it generally more difficult for them compared to younger adults. 147. Job burnout is usually the result of the person’s not working hard enough or caring enough about the job. Answer: False Rationale: Job burnout usually affects people who are highly committed to their jobs but whose hard work does not accomplish the ends that they hope for. Continuity and Change in the Structure of Personality 148. The five-factor view of personality suggests that humans differ, to greater or lesser degree, on five basic traits: emotional stability, extroversion, openness to experiences, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Answer: True Rationale: This statement accurately describes the five-factor model of personality, which posits that individuals differ in their levels of emotional stability (neuroticism), extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. 149. Psychologists today believe that the basic structure of personality is in place for most people by the age of 30. Answer: True Rationale: This statement is true. Psychologists generally agree that the basic structure of personality is established by early adulthood, typically by the age of 30, although personality traits can still exhibit some degree of flexibility and change over the lifespan. 150. Research conducted on people’s perceptions of how their personality changed or stayed the same over the past six years showed that the majority of people believed that their personality “had changed a great deal.” Answer: False Rationale: In this study, 52.5% of respondents reported that their personalities had “stayed the same” and only 9% reported that their personalities had “changed a great deal.” Short Answer questions: Personality Continuity and Change 151. Give an example of how personality can be characterized by continuity and another example of how it is characterized by change. Answer: Personality characterized by continuity: A person who has always been introverted and prefers solitary activities continues to exhibit this trait throughout their life, maintaining consistency in their behavior and preferences. Personality characterized by change: A formerly impulsive individual undergoes therapy and develops strategies to manage their impulses effectively, leading to a significant change in their behavior over time. 152. Describe what Erikson meant by the term “generativity.” Answer: Erikson coined the term "generativity" to describe the stage in adulthood where individuals focus on contributing to and guiding the next generation. This involves activities such as parenting, mentoring, and participating in activities that benefit society or future generations. 153. What did Erikson believe were the consequences of not achieving generativity during middles adulthood? Answer: Erikson believed that the failure to achieve generativity during middle adulthood could result in stagnation and a sense of purposelessness. Individuals may feel unfulfilled and disconnected from society, leading to feelings of despair and regret later in life. 154. In what two ways does Robert Peck’s view of adulthood differ from Erik Erikson’s view? Answer: 1. Robert Peck's view emphasizes the importance of developmental tasks and challenges specific to later stages of adulthood, such as coping with physical decline and adjusting to retirement, whereas Erikson's theory focuses more broadly on psychosocial stages across the lifespan. 2. Peck's theory acknowledges the potential for growth and development in later life stages, while Erikson's theory places more emphasis on earlier stages as foundational for later psychosocial development. 155. Why is middle adulthood sometimes considered the “prime time” for fathers? Answer: Middle adulthood is considered the "prime time" for fathers because it typically coincides with a period of stability in career and finances, allowing fathers to actively participate in their children's lives. Additionally, middle-aged fathers often have accumulated wisdom and life experience, making them effective mentors and role models for their children. 156. Give an example of role strain and another example of role conflict. How do these reactions differ from each other? Answer: Role strain example: A middle-aged individual struggles to balance the demands of their career with the responsibilities of caregiving for aging parents, leading to feelings of stress and exhaustion due to conflicting obligations within the same role. Role conflict example: A parent experiences conflict between their role as a caregiver for their children and their role as a dedicated employee, as they are required to attend a work-related event during their child's important school performance. Role conflict involves conflicting demands between different roles held by an individual. Role strain refers to the stress and tension experienced within a single role due to conflicting demands or expectations. Family and Friends: Interpersonal Contexts 157. What is a kinkeeper? Answer: A kinkeeper is typically a female family member who assumes the responsibility of maintaining communication and connections among relatives, often by organizing family gatherings, sharing news, and fostering relationships between family members. 158. What is meant by the term, “boomerang generation”? Answer: The term "boomerang generation" refers to young adults, typically in their twenties or early thirties, who return to live with their parents after previously living independently. This may occur due to financial difficulties, job instability, or other factors. 159. Give an example of what is meant by the term “empty nest.” Answer: An example of an empty nest is when parents experience a decrease in household occupancy as their children move out to live independently, leaving the parents living alone or with only their spouse in the family home. 160. Give an example of what is meant by the term “reciprocal” exchange of assistance between adults and their parents. Answer: An example of reciprocal exchange of assistance between adults and their parents is when adult children provide caregiving support, such as helping with household chores or providing financial assistance, to their aging parents, while the parents in turn provide emotional support and guidance to their adult children. 161. How is care typically provided to older adults who can no longer take care of themselves? In the United States today, is most care done in formal, or informal, settings? Answer: Care for older adults who can no longer take care of themselves is typically provided through a combination of formal and informal settings. Formal settings include nursing homes, assisted living facilities, and home healthcare agencies, while informal settings involve care provided by family members, usually in the older adult's own home. In the United States, most care for older adults is provided in informal settings by family members. 162. Are sons or daughters more likely to care for elderly parents? What kinds of problems are typical for adult children who are caring for their elderly parents? Answer: Daughters are traditionally more likely to take on the role of caring for elderly parents compared to sons. However, this trend is changing as societal roles evolve. Typical problems faced by adult children caring for their elderly parents include balancing caregiving responsibilities with work and personal life, financial strain, emotional stress, and managing the healthcare needs of their parents. 163. Identify 2 different roles that grandparents can serve for their grandchildren and give an example of each role. Answer: a. Caregiver: Grandparents may take on the role of primary caregivers for their grandchildren, providing them with daily care, supervision, and support. For example, a grandmother may babysit her grandchildren regularly while their parents are at work. b. Mentor: Grandparents can also serve as mentors to their grandchildren, offering wisdom, guidance, and life lessons based on their own experiences. For instance, a grandfather might teach his grandchild how to fish, imparting not just a skill but also bonding time and shared memories. 164. In middle adulthood, who relies more on friends, men or women? Why might this be? Answer: In middle adulthood, women tend to rely more on friendships than men. This could be because women often place a greater emphasis on emotional intimacy and support in their relationships. Additionally, middle-aged women may have more flexible social roles due to factors such as fewer work demands or grown children, allowing them to invest more time and energy into their friendships. The Changing Family 165. How common is divorce in the United States today? Who is most likely to get divorced, from a demographic point of view? Answer: Divorce is relatively common in the United States today, with around 40-50% of marriages ending in divorce. From a demographic standpoint, individuals who marry at a younger age, have lower education levels, come from divorced families themselves, or experience financial instability are more likely to get divorced. 166. State 3 myths about marriage and divorce and note why these beliefs are myths, rather than truths. Answer: a. Myth: "Half of all marriages end in divorce." Reality: While the divorce rate is significant, it's not accurate to say that exactly half of marriages end in divorce. Divorce rates vary based on factors such as demographics, socioeconomic status, and cultural norms. b. Myth: "Children always suffer from divorce." Reality: While divorce can be challenging for children, the outcomes vary widely depending on the circumstances and how the divorce is handled. Many children from divorced families thrive and lead fulfilling lives with supportive relationships. c. Myth: "Marriage will solve all relationship problems." Reality: Marriage does not automatically solve underlying relationship issues. In fact, unresolved conflicts and communication problems can persist or worsen after marriage, leading to marital dissatisfaction or divorce. 167. Are men or women more likely to initiate a divorce? What factors explain this finding? Answer: Women are more likely to initiate divorce than men. Factors contributing to this finding include women's increased financial independence, changing societal norms regarding divorce stigma, and a greater willingness among women to seek emotional support and pursue happiness even if it means ending a marriage. 168. What are 3 of the most commonly cited reasons for why married couples remain married? Answer: a. Commitment: Many married couples remain together due to a strong sense of commitment to each other and their marriage vows. b. Shared Values and Goals: Couples who share similar values, beliefs, and life goals are more likely to stay married, as they have a strong foundation for navigating challenges together. c. Emotional Support: Mutual emotional support and companionship play a significant role in keeping couples together, as they provide each other with comfort, understanding, and resilience during difficult times. 169. Describe 3 challenges frequently faced by blended families. Answer: Blended families often encounter challenges such as integrating family members from previous relationships, managing conflicts between biological and step-parents or children, and navigating complex relationships and dynamics within the household. Occupational Continuity and Change 170. Why is job loss generally more problematic if it occurs in middle adulthood, as opposed to early adulthood? Answer: Job loss is generally more problematic in middle adulthood compared to early adulthood due to increased financial responsibilities, such as mortgage payments, children's education, and retirement savings, coupled with potentially fewer opportunities for re-employment at the same level. 171. Define and give an example of job burnout. Answer: Job burnout is a state of emotional, mental, and physical exhaustion caused by prolonged exposure to stressful work situations. An example of job burnout is a teacher feeling emotionally drained, lacking motivation, and experiencing decreased job satisfaction after years of dealing with challenging students and administrative pressure. 172. List 2 things that a worker can do to avoid job burnout. Answer: To avoid job burnout, a worker can practice self-care techniques such as setting boundaries between work and personal life, engaging in regular exercise, hobbies, and relaxation activities. Additionally, seeking social support from colleagues, supervisors, or a professional counselor can help mitigate stress and prevent burnout. Continuity and Change in the Structure of Personality 173. Name and briefly define the 5 factors that comprise personality, according to the Five Factor model. Answer: The Five Factor model comprises the following personality factors: 1. Openness to experience: Reflects the degree of intellectual curiosity, creativity, and preference for novelty. 2. Conscientiousness: Pertains to the degree of organization, responsibility, and reliability in one's actions and behaviors. 3. Extraversion: Describes the extent of sociability, assertiveness, and positive emotionality exhibited in social interactions. 4. Agreeableness: Refers to the level of compassion, cooperativeness, and empathy towards others. 5. Neuroticism: Represents the tendency to experience negative emotions such as anxiety, depression, and vulnerability to stress. 174. Identify one of the five personality factors that appear to increase as adults move through the lifespan, and one that appears to decrease. Answer: Conscientiousness tends to increase as adults move through the lifespan, reflecting the development of greater responsibility and reliability with age. Neuroticism, on the other hand, tends to decrease as individuals mature, indicating a reduction in emotional instability and vulnerability to stress over time. 175. Describe the results of a study that asked adults to report whether their personalities had “stayed the same,” “changed a little,” or “changed a good deal.” Answer: The study found that the majority of adults reported their personalities as having "stayed the same" over time, indicating relative stability in personality traits throughout adulthood. However, a significant portion also reported minor changes ("changed a little") or substantial changes ("changed a good deal"), suggesting that personality development is not entirely static and may undergo gradual modifications or shifts in response to life experiences and circumstances. Essay questions: Personality Continuity and Change 176. Describe what is meant by the term “family life cycle” and give an example of two people of different ages who are at the same point in their family life cycles. Answer: The family life cycle refers to the series of stages that a typical family passes through over time, from formation to dissolution. These stages typically include leaving home, forming a partnership or marriage, having children, launching children into the world, and retirement. Each stage brings unique challenges and tasks for the family members to navigate. For example, two people of different ages who may be at the same point in their family life cycles are a 25-year-old who recently got married and a 45-year-old who also recently got married. Both individuals are in the stage of forming a partnership or marriage, regardless of their age difference. 177. Describe how an adult who has achieved generativity is different from an adult who is characterized instead by self-absorption. Answer: An adult who has achieved generativity is focused on contributing to the well-being and development of future generations. They are typically involved in activities that benefit others, such as mentoring, parenting, or community service. Their sense of fulfillment comes from nurturing and guiding others, and they have a broader perspective beyond their own immediate needs and desires. In contrast, an adult characterized by self-absorption is primarily concerned with their own interests, gratification, and needs. They may lack concern for others or feel disconnected from the larger community. Their focus is predominantly on fulfilling their own desires and aspirations without much consideration for others or future generations. 178. Discuss the similarities and differences between Peck’s and Erikson’s views regarding social development during adulthood. On which central ideas did each theorist focus? Answer: Both Peck and Erikson were prominent psychologists who contributed to our understanding of social development during adulthood. Peck focused on the developmental tasks of middle adulthood, emphasizing the importance of achieving generativity versus stagnation. According to Peck, generativity involves making meaningful contributions to society and future generations, whereas stagnation refers to feelings of purposelessness and lack of growth. Erikson, on the other hand, proposed a broader theory of psychosocial development across the entire lifespan, including adulthood. He described the stage of generativity versus stagnation as a central conflict of middle adulthood, similar to Peck's concept. However, Erikson's theory encompassed additional stages and emphasized the resolution of psychosocial crises at each stage, starting from infancy to old age. Both theorists underscored the importance of achieving a sense of purpose and contributing to society, but Erikson's theory provided a more comprehensive framework for understanding social and emotional development across the lifespan. 179. In what ways do men and women living in the U. S. today experience middle adulthood differently from each other? What factors appear to be important in whether men’s and women’s experiences are more similar, or more different, from each other? Answer: In the U.S. today, men and women experience middle adulthood differently due to various societal, cultural, and biological factors. One significant difference lies in career trajectories, where men often face expectations of being primary breadwinners while women may balance career aspirations with caregiving responsibilities. Additionally, women tend to experience menopause, which can impact their physical and emotional well-being, whereas men may confront age-related health issues such as prostate concerns. However, factors such as socioeconomic status, cultural norms, and individual life choices can influence the extent to which men's and women's experiences in middle adulthood align or differ. 180. Is role strain more common for men or for women do you think? Give an example of the typical role strain a man and a woman might experience. Answer: Role strain can affect both men and women, but its manifestation may vary based on societal expectations and individual circumstances. In some cases, role strain might be more prevalent for women due to the pressure to balance career, family, and societal expectations. For instance, a woman may experience role strain when she's expected to excel in her career while also fulfilling traditional caregiving roles at home. On the other hand, men might encounter role strain when societal norms pressure them to be stoic providers while also being emotionally present and involved fathers. For example, a man might feel torn between long work hours to support his family financially and spending quality time with his children. Family and Friends: Interpersonal Contexts 181. Who is the kinkeeper in your family? What roles does this person assume that allows you to identify this person as your family’s kinkeeper? (If your family does not have a kinkeeper, what roles are going unmet because of this?) Answer: In my family, my grandmother plays the role of the kinkeeper. She assumes various responsibilities that identify her as such, including organizing family gatherings, maintaining communication among relatives, preserving family traditions, and acting as a repository of family history and stories. As the kinkeeper, she ensures family cohesion and continuity across generations. If my family lacked a kinkeeper, essential roles such as organizing family events, maintaining familial ties, and preserving our heritage might go unmet, potentially leading to a loss of connection and cohesion among family members. 182. How are socioeconomic and cultural issues involved in how children are launched in the U. S. today? Answer: Socioeconomic and cultural factors play significant roles in how children are launched into adulthood in the U.S. today. Socioeconomic status (SES) profoundly influences access to resources such as quality education, healthcare, and extracurricular activities, which can impact a child's opportunities for success later in life. Children from lower SES backgrounds may face barriers to achieving their full potential due to limited access to these resources. Cultural norms and values also shape the pathways to adulthood for children in the U.S. Cultural expectations regarding education, career choices, family roles, and independence vary across different ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic groups. For example, some cultures prioritize academic achievement and professional success, while others emphasize family cohesion and community ties. These cultural influences can significantly impact the decisions children make as they transition into adulthood, influencing their educational and career trajectories, as well as their social relationships and values. 183. What factors determine whether the empty nest is experienced as a positive or a negative developmental transition? Answer: The empty nest experience can be influenced by various factors such as the quality of the parent-child relationship, the level of support and communication within the family, individual personalities, outside interests and activities, and the presence of social support networks. Those who have fulfilling relationships, meaningful activities, and a strong sense of identity beyond parenting may view the empty nest positively, whereas those who struggle with feelings of loss, loneliness, or lack of purpose may experience it negatively. 184. What is the primary reason that adults share a household with their parents? Do you think this situation will become more common, or less common, in the years ahead? Explain your answer. Answer: The primary reason adults share a household with their parents often revolves around economic factors, such as financial hardships, housing affordability issues, or the need for caregiving assistance for aging parents. Additionally, cultural norms and familial expectations can also play a role. This situation may become more common in the years ahead due to factors such as rising living costs, economic instability, and changing family dynamics. Economic pressures, coupled with longer life expectancies and increasing healthcare needs for older adults, could contribute to a continued trend of multigenerational living arrangements. 185. How have population trends over the past 100 years affected the type of relationships most adults have with their aging parents? Answer: Population trends over the past century, marked by increased life expectancy and declining birth rates in many countries, have led to significant shifts in the dynamics of intergenerational relationships. With longer life spans, adults are more likely to have prolonged interactions with their aging parents, leading to closer and more complex relationships. Additionally, smaller family sizes mean that individuals often have fewer siblings to share caregiving responsibilities, placing greater emphasis on individual relationships with aging parents. These trends have contributed to increased involvement in caregiving and support for aging parents among adult children. 186. Describe an example of a role reversal between middle-aged adults and their elderly parents. What factors can make this role reversal a more positive, rather than negative, developmental process? Answer: An example of role reversal between middle-aged adults and their elderly parents could involve the adult child assuming the role of primary caregiver for their parent, providing physical, emotional, and financial support. Factors that can make this role reversal a more positive developmental process include: 1. Open communication and mutual respect between the adult child and the elderly parent. 2. Adequate support networks and resources to assist with caregiving responsibilities. 3. Flexibility and adaptability in adjusting to changing roles and dynamics within the family. 4. Access to professional assistance, such as home healthcare services or respite care, to alleviate caregiver stress and burden. 187. Identify 4 different roles that grandparents can play in relation to their grandchildren. How would the current economic conditions facing people in the United States affect the pattern of roles that grandparents typically would play? Answer: Four different roles that grandparents can play in relation to their grandchildren include: 1. Caregiver: Providing regular childcare or temporary care for grandchildren. 2. Mentor: Offering guidance, support, and wisdom based on their life experiences. 3. Playmate: Engaging in recreational activities and spending quality time with grandchildren. 4. Historian: Sharing family history, traditions, and cultural heritage with grandchildren. Current economic conditions facing people in the United States, such as financial strain, limited job opportunities, and rising healthcare costs, can impact the pattern of roles that grandparents typically would play. For instance, economic hardships may necessitate grandparents taking on more caregiving responsibilities to support working parents who may face challenges in affording childcare. Alternatively, financial constraints may limit grandparents' ability to provide material support or participate in leisure activities with their grandchildren. These economic factors can influence the extent and nature of intergenerational interactions within families. 188. How do friendships in middle adulthood differ from those in early periods of the lifespan? Answer: In middle adulthood, friendships tend to be more selective and fewer in number compared to earlier stages of life. This is partly due to increased demands from work and family responsibilities, which leave less time for maintaining a wide circle of friends. Additionally, friendships in middle adulthood often prioritize quality over quantity, with individuals valuing deeper, more meaningful connections with those who share similar values and experiences. The Changing Family 189. The text notes that in 2009, about 2.08 million people were married and about 1.19 million people were divorced. Explain why the simple division of these numbers (1/2.16) does NOT result in an accurate estimate of the likelihood of a marriage ending in divorce. Answer: The simple division of the number of divorces by the number of marriages does not provide an accurate estimate of the likelihood of a marriage ending in divorce because it does not account for various factors such as the duration of marriages, the age of individuals at the time of marriage, cultural and societal norms surrounding divorce, and changes in divorce rates over time. Additionally, some marriages end in annulment rather than divorce, further complicating the calculation. 190. Describe 3 reasons why divorce might occur in middle adulthood, rather than in early adulthood. Answer: 1. Empty Nest Syndrome: In middle adulthood, children may leave the family home, leading to a reevaluation of the marital relationship. Couples who have focused primarily on parenting may find themselves with fewer shared interests or may realize they have grown apart once their children have left, leading to an increased likelihood of divorce. 2. Midlife Crisis: Middle adulthood is often associated with a period of self-reflection and questioning, commonly referred to as a midlife crisis. During this time, individuals may reassess their life choices, including their marriage, and may seek changes to regain a sense of fulfillment or happiness, potentially leading to divorce. 3. Career and Financial Pressures: By middle adulthood, individuals may have established their careers and accumulated wealth or financial stability. However, career-related stressors or financial disagreements can still arise and become significant sources of conflict within the marriage. If these issues are not effectively addressed, they can contribute to divorce later in life. 191. Who is usually better able to cope after a divorce, the divorced husband or the divorced wife? Identify 3 factors that should be considered in formulating an answer to this question. Answer: Various factors influence how well individuals cope after divorce, regardless of gender. Here are three key considerations: 1. Emotional Support System: The presence of a strong support network, including friends, family, and professional counseling, greatly impacts post-divorce coping. Those with robust support systems tend to fare better emotionally. 2. Financial Stability: Economic factors play a significant role. The financial aftermath of divorce can be challenging, especially for individuals who relied on their spouse's income. Financial stability or the lack thereof can significantly affect coping mechanisms. 3. Custodial Arrangements: The arrangement regarding children can influence coping mechanisms. Factors such as custody arrangements, co-parenting dynamics, and the involvement of both parents in children's lives can affect the emotional and practical aspects of coping for both parties. 192. What has research shown about the characteristics of a successful marriage? Answer: Research on successful marriages indicates several key characteristics: 1. Effective Communication: Open, honest communication is vital. Successful couples communicate openly, actively listen to each other, and express empathy and understanding. 2. Commitment: Strong marriages are built on a foundation of commitment. Couples who prioritize their relationship, especially during challenging times, tend to have more successful marriages. 3. Conflict Resolution Skills: Healthy marriages involve resolving conflicts constructively. Couples who can navigate disagreements respectfully, without resorting to hostility or avoidance, tend to have longer-lasting relationships. 193. Describe how the demographic characteristics of blended families have changed over the last 100 years. How are the problems faced by blended families today different from those faced by blended families of 100 years ago? Answer: Over the last century, the demographic characteristics of blended families have evolved significantly. Initially, blended families were relatively uncommon and often formed due to widowhood. Today, factors such as divorce and remarriage contribute to the prevalence of blended families, resulting in a more diverse demographic profile. Challenges faced by blended families today differ from those a century ago due to various societal shifts. Modern blended families contend with issues such as co-parenting with ex-spouses, step-parenting dynamics, and managing complex family structures. In contrast, a century ago, challenges might have revolved more around integrating children from different biological parents and navigating societal stigma associated with remarriage and stepfamilies. Additionally, changes in family law and cultural attitudes towards divorce have influenced the landscape of blended families over time. 194. Describe 3 problems that are likely to occur in blended families. Suggest a way in which parents can successfully resolve each of these problems. Answer: Problem 1: Conflict between step-siblings: In blended families, conflicts can arise between step-siblings due to differences in upbringing, personality clashes, or competition for parental attention. To resolve this, parents can encourage open communication among children, establish clear household rules, and foster activities that promote bonding and mutual respect. Problem 2: Loyalty conflicts: Children in blended families may feel torn between loyalty to their biological parent and their stepparent, especially if they feel pressured to choose sides during conflicts. Parents can address this by reassuring children of their love and support, avoiding negative talk about the other biological parent, and emphasizing the importance of respecting all family members. Problem 3: Parenting differences: Each parent may have different parenting styles and approaches, leading to confusion and inconsistency for children. To address this, parents should openly discuss and negotiate their parenting strategies, find common ground, and present a united front when making decisions about discipline, rules, and expectations. 195. In creating a blended family, is it better to try to replicate the family structure of the previous family, or to create a new family structure? Explain your answer. Answer: It's generally more effective to create a new family structure rather than replicating the previous one in blended families. Every family is unique, and attempting to replicate the structure of a previous family may ignore the individual dynamics and needs of the new family members. Instead, blending families successfully requires flexibility, adaptability, and a willingness to create a new family identity that honors the experiences and backgrounds of all members involved. By embracing this new structure, blended families can foster a sense of belonging and unity while respecting each member's individuality. Occupational Continuity and Change 196. How has the conceptualization of the “ideal career trajectory” changed over the past 4 decades? What implications do these changes have for adults who lose their jobs during middle adulthood? Answer: Over the past four decades, the conceptualization of the "ideal career trajectory" has shifted from a linear, lifelong commitment to a single organization or profession towards a more dynamic and flexible approach characterized by career changes, skill development, and personal growth. This shift reflects societal changes such as globalization, technological advancements, and evolving workplace dynamics. For adults who lose their jobs during middle adulthood, these changes mean that there are now more opportunities for career reinvention and exploration. While job loss can initially be challenging, it can also serve as a catalyst for pursuing new interests, acquiring new skills, and transitioning into alternative career paths. Additionally, the availability of resources such as online learning platforms and career counseling services can support individuals in navigating career transitions and finding fulfilling employment opportunities in diverse fields. 197. Do you agree that job loss is generally more stressful when it occurs in middle adulthood, in comparison to early adulthood? Explain your answer. Answer: Yes, I agree that job loss tends to be more stressful when it occurs in middle adulthood compared to early adulthood. This is primarily because individuals in middle adulthood often have greater financial responsibilities, such as mortgages, supporting families, and saving for retirement. They may have already established a certain lifestyle and financial stability that can be severely disrupted by sudden job loss. Additionally, individuals in middle adulthood may face challenges related to age discrimination in the job market, making it more difficult to secure new employment quickly. This combination of financial strain and potential difficulty in finding new employment contributes to the heightened stress experienced during job loss in middle adulthood. 198. Describe 5 things that are helpful in coping with job loss in middle adulthood. Answer: 1. Financial Planning: Creating a detailed budget and exploring financial resources such as savings, unemployment benefits, and severance packages can provide a sense of stability during the transition period. 2. Networking: Leveraging professional contacts and networking platforms can lead to job opportunities and support during the job search process. 3. Skill Development: Investing time in acquiring new skills or updating existing ones through training programs or online courses can enhance employability in a competitive job market. 4. Emotional Support: Seeking support from friends, family, or support groups can help manage stress and provide emotional reassurance during the challenging period of job loss. 5. Maintaining Routine: Establishing a daily routine that includes job searching, exercise, and leisure activities can maintain a sense of structure and purpose, which is crucial for maintaining mental well-being during unemployment. 199. Why does job burnout occur most often in middle adulthood? Be sure you include a good definition of job burnout as part of your answer. Answer: Job burnout, defined as a state of physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion caused by prolonged stress or frustration in the workplace, often occurs most frequently in middle adulthood due to a combination of factors. During this stage of life, individuals typically have accumulated more responsibilities both at work and in their personal lives. They may be in positions of greater authority or responsibility, leading to increased pressure to perform. Additionally, middle-aged individuals may be juggling multiple roles, such as caregiving for children or aging parents, which can exacerbate stress levels. Furthermore, as individuals progress in their careers, they may experience a misalignment between their personal values and the demands of their job, leading to a sense of disillusionment and emotional exhaustion characteristic of burnout. Overall, the combination of heightened responsibilities, increased pressure, and potential for role conflict makes middle adulthood a vulnerable period for experiencing job burnout. Continuity and Change in the Structure of Personality 200. Describe the Five Factor model of personality, noting how it explains the individual differences in personality that exist among different people. Answer: The Five Factor model of personality, also known as the Big Five, is a widely accepted framework in psychology for understanding and describing personality traits. It consists of five broad dimensions: 1. Openness to Experience: This factor reflects a person's willingness to try new things, their imagination, and intellectual curiosity. Individuals high in openness tend to be creative, open-minded, and adventurous, while those low in openness may be more traditional and resistant to change. 2. Conscientiousness: Conscientiousness relates to how organized, responsible, and dependable a person is. Those high in conscientiousness are often diligent, self-disciplined, and achievement-oriented, while those low in conscientiousness may be more impulsive and disorganized. 3. Extraversion: Extraversion refers to the degree of sociability, assertiveness, and positive emotionality in individuals. High extraversion is associated with being outgoing, energetic, and enthusiastic, while low extraversion is characterized by introversion and a preference for solitude. 4. Agreeableness: Agreeableness reflects the tendency to be cooperative, compassionate, and empathetic towards others. Individuals high in agreeableness are typically warm, trusting, and altruistic, whereas those low in agreeableness may be more competitive and skeptical. 5. Neuroticism (Emotional Stability): Neuroticism measures the degree of emotional stability versus instability in individuals. High neuroticism is associated with anxiety, moodiness, and vulnerability to stress, while low neuroticism indicates emotional resilience and stability. The Five Factor model suggests that these five dimensions capture the fundamental aspects of personality, and individual differences in personality can be explained by variations along these dimensions. Each person falls somewhere on the spectrum of each trait, contributing to their unique personality profile. These traits are believed to be relatively stable over time but can also be influenced by environmental factors and life experiences. 201. Discuss whether personality development in middle adulthood is marked more by stability or by change. Cite evidence to support your answer. Answer: Personality development in middle adulthood is generally characterized by both stability and change, with stability being the predominant feature. Research indicates that core personality traits tend to remain relatively stable during this life stage. Longitudinal studies, such as the Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort Study, have found that traits like extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience show considerable stability from early adulthood through middle age. However, while stability is prominent, there is also evidence of some changes in personality during middle adulthood. For example, individuals may experience shifts in trait levels due to life events, career advancements, relationship changes, or personal growth. Moreover, some research suggests that certain facets of personality, such as emotional stability, may increase with age, leading to greater emotional resilience and well-being in middle adulthood. Overall, while stability remains a hallmark of personality development in middle adulthood, it is essential to recognize that individuals can still undergo meaningful changes in certain aspects of their personality during this life stage. 202. How do the personality traits of conscientiousness and agreeableness tend to change as individuals move through their adult years? Describe the research that addresses questions such as this. Answer: Research suggests that conscientiousness tends to increase with age, particularly during early to middle adulthood. Studies have found that as individuals mature, they often become more organized, responsible, and goal-oriented, which are characteristics associated with conscientiousness. This increase in conscientiousness may be linked to various life experiences such as career advancement, marriage, and parenthood, which require individuals to take on more responsibilities and develop self-discipline. Similarly, agreeableness tends to show a slight increase or remain stable across adulthood. As people age, they often prioritize maintaining harmonious relationships and tend to become more empathetic and cooperative. This trend may be attributed to the accumulation of social experiences and wisdom over time, leading individuals to place greater value on interpersonal relationships and prosocial behavior. Longitudinal studies tracking individuals over decades have provided insights into the developmental trajectories of personality traits. These studies assess personality using standardized measures at multiple points in time, allowing researchers to observe patterns of change and stability. Through such research, psychologists have gained a better understanding of how personality traits evolve across the lifespan and the factors that influence these changes. 203. If you were to ask a group of adults whether their personalities are stable, or change with age, what results would you expect? Explain the basis of your conclusion. Answer: The results of such a question would likely indicate a consensus that while certain aspects of personality remain stable, others may undergo changes with age. This expectation is based on extensive research in personality psychology, including longitudinal studies that have tracked individuals over extended periods. Participants would likely agree that core traits, such as basic temperament and fundamental dispositions, tend to exhibit stability across adulthood. These traits form the foundation of an individual's personality and are less susceptible to change over time. However, they might acknowledge that specific facets of personality, particularly those related to social roles, responsibilities, and life experiences, can evolve as individuals navigate different stages of life. Moreover, individuals might recognize that while they retain certain personality traits, their expressions or manifestations may vary across contexts or situations. For example, someone may exhibit higher levels of extraversion in social settings but demonstrate introverted tendencies in solitary pursuits. This acknowledgment underscores the dynamic nature of personality and its interaction with environmental factors. Overall, the expected results would reflect an understanding of the complexity of personality development, acknowledging both stability and change across the lifespan. Test Bank for Understanding Human Development Wendy L. Dunn, Grace J. Craig 9780205989522, 9780135164204, 9780205233878, 9780205753079

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