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Chapter 13 - Young Adulthood: Personality and Sociocultural Development 1. With regard to work, the satisfaction that workers derive from the work itself is the definition of: a. intrinsic factors b. remote factors c. extrinsic factors d. immediate factors Answer: a Rationale: Intrinsic factors refer to the internal motivations and satisfaction derived from the work itself, such as a sense of accomplishment or enjoyment. This contrasts with extrinsic factors, which are external rewards like pay or benefits. 2. Which of the following is the most accurate statement about the American Academy of Pediatrics’ (AAP’s) position on allowing homosexuals to adopt their partner’s children? a. The AAP supports adoption of children by a homosexual partner. b. The AAP supports adoption, but only if the child is a biological child of the partner. c. The AAP supports adoption, but only for lesbian women, not for gay men. d. The AAP does not support adoption of children by a homosexual partner, regardless of circumstances. Answer: a Rationale: The American Academy of Pediatrics supports adoption by homosexual partners as it recognizes that the sexual orientation of parents does not affect the children's well-being. 3. The two reasons the text suggests to explain why women are underrepresented in the more highly paid professions are: a. discrimination in the workplace and that women sometimes make early choices that limit their later career options b. they lack “toughness” in making hard decisions and they are more nurturing c. they do not have as much mathematical aptitude and they are more nurturing d. they lack “toughness” in making hard decisions and they sometimes make early choices that limit their later career options Answer: a Rationale: Discrimination in the workplace and early career choices that limit later options are cited as reasons for the underrepresentation of women in higher-paying professions. 4. According to the text, which are the two most important tasks of emerging adulthood and early adulthood? a. finding a job and making a living b. finding a romantic partner and entering a career or job c. finding a mate and having children d. saving enough money to buy a house and having children Answer: b Rationale: Finding a romantic partner and entering a career or job are considered primary tasks during emerging adulthood and early adulthood, according to developmental psychology. 5. According to stimulus-value-role theory, during what stage of courtship are judgments typically formed on the other's appearance and social and mental traits? a. value stage b. role stage c. stimulus stage d. response stage Answer: c Rationale: Stimulus stage is where initial judgments based on appearance and traits are formed, according to stimulus-value-role theory of relationship development. 6. In comparison to the number of families with children that were headed by single women in the 1970s, the number headed by single women in 2010 was: a. slightly less b. about the same c. slightly more d. substantially more Answer: d Rationale: The number of families headed by single women increased substantially from the 1970s to 2010, reflecting changing family structures and social norms. 7. Learning that one’s expectations about work are unrealistic and that one’s training is inadequate is most likely to lead to which of the following? a. reality shock b. self-actualization c. emotional independence d. the mentoring relationship Answer: a Rationale: When individuals realize that their expectations about work are unrealistic and their training is inadequate, it often leads to a phenomenon known as reality shock. 8. Through his own studies and thoughts, Robert has come to realize that he and his parents differ on several important beliefs. According to the text, which aspect of independence has Robert accomplished? a. functional b. attitudinal c. emotional d. conflictual Answer: b Rationale: Robert has achieved attitudinal independence by recognizing differences in beliefs between himself and his parents through his own studies and thoughts. 9. Suppose that Dr. Robins is interested in how people learn about and choose the jobs they hold in their lives. He decides to study a cohort of children, asking them what they think about different jobs, and they follow these children as they grow into adults, studying how they choose jobs and adjust to job demands. The topic of study that best describes Dr. Robins' work is: a. career counseling b. industrial psychology c. the occupational cycle d. the “person-job fit” theory of careers Answer: c Rationale: Dr. Robins' study focuses on tracking individuals' career choices and adjustments over time, which aligns with the concept of the occupational cycle. 10. If Alice and Arthur are a typical married couple who both work full-time, compared to Arthur, Alice will do _______ of the daily housework. a. slightly less b. an equal amount c. 2 to 3 times more d. 10 times more Answer: c Rationale: Research consistently shows that in dual-career households, women tend to take on a disproportionate share of household chores, often doing 2 to 3 times more than their male partners. 1. The concept of “flow” corresponds most closely to the meaning of: a. condition of worth b. unconditional positive regard c. conditional positive regard d. self-actualization Answer: d Rationale: "Flow" refers to a state of optimal experience where one is fully immersed and focused on an activity, feeling a sense of enjoyment and fulfillment. This closely aligns with the concept of self-actualization, which involves realizing one's full potential and achieving personal growth and fulfillment. 2. According to the text, nearly all couples cite which of the following as the central aspect of their relationship? a. money b. trust c. help and support d. love Answer: d Rationale: Love is commonly cited as the central aspect of most relationships. While factors like trust and support are important, love typically underpins these elements and is often considered the foundation of a strong relationship. 3. The increase in the proportion of women in the U.S. workforce since the 1950s has been most dramatic for women in which of the following groups? a. African American women b. White women c. Hispanic American women d. None of the other answers are correct because changes in labor force participation rates for African American, white, and Hispanic American women have been nearly the same. Answer: b Rationale: The increase in the proportion of women in the U.S. workforce has been most dramatic for white women since the 1950s. While African American and Hispanic American women have also seen increases, the change has been particularly significant for white women during this period. 4. According to the view of Carl Rogers, in order to show a child unconditional positive regard, parents should: a. impose conditions of worth b. accept the child without reservation c. never punish any behavior d. praise a child whenever she accomplishes a goal Answer: b Rationale: Carl Rogers advocated for the importance of unconditional positive regard in parenting, which involves accepting and supporting the child without conditions or judgment. This means showing love and acceptance regardless of the child's behavior or accomplishments. 5. In comparison to the percent of two-parent families in the U.S. living in poverty today, the percent of single-parent families headed by a father living in poverty is: a. slightly lower b. about the same c. about 10% higher d. about twice as high Answer: d Rationale: Single-parent families headed by a father are more likely to experience poverty compared to two-parent families or single-parent families headed by a mother. This is often due to various socioeconomic factors and the challenges faced by single fathers in terms of earning income and providing for their families. 6. The stage of Havighurst's model of vocational life in which the idea of working enters into a person's self-concept is the stage of: a. acquiring the basic habits of industry b. acquiring an identity as a worker c. identification with a worker d. contemplating a productive/responsible life Answer: c Rationale: In Havighurst's model, the stage where the idea of working becomes part of a person's self-concept is the stage of identification with a worker. This stage involves recognizing oneself as a member of the workforce and understanding the importance of work in one's life. 7. Generalizing from research described in the text, if you were to study couples in dual-earner families, you would expect to find the highest levels of stress for people in which of the following groups? a. men in professional-level jobs b. men in working-class jobs c. women in professional-level jobs d. women in working-class jobs Answer: c Rationale: Research suggests that women in professional-level jobs often experience higher levels of stress in dual-earner families due to the demands of balancing work and family responsibilities, often referred to as the "double burden" or "second shift." 8. Latonya is a new student at a major university and is trying hard to find new friends. Maslow would say that Latonya is trying to satisfy her need for: a. self-actualization b. esteem c. safety d. belongingness Answer: d Rationale: According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the need for belongingness and love comes after physiological and safety needs. Latonya's efforts to make new friends align with the need for belongingness, which involves forming connections and relationships with others. 9. When Mark and Jill had their first child, they had different reactions to parenthood. If their adjustment is typical of most new parents, you would expect that Jill would react to becoming a mother by: a. giving priority to her parenting and family roles b. intensifying her work efforts to become a better provider c. ignoring her parenting responsibilities and spending more time with her female friends d. assigning the majority of household and childcare responsibilities to Mark Answer: a Rationale: It is common for new mothers to prioritize their parenting and family roles as they adjust to parenthood. This often involves dedicating time and effort to caring for their child and managing household responsibilities. 10. Velma is astonished at how political her new job is, and she is struggling to meet her boss’s expectations. Velma tells her husband that she had no idea about how hard this new job would be. Her response is best considered to be an example of: a. poor mentoring b. the first stage of the occupational cycle c. the last stage of the occupational cycle d. reality shock Answer: d Rationale: Velma's response reflects a sense of surprise and difficulty adjusting to the realities of her new job, which is characteristic of experiencing a "reality shock." This often occurs when individuals encounter challenges or aspects of a situation that they were not fully prepared for or aware of beforehand. Multiple Choice questions: Self, Family, and Work 1. If you surveyed 22-year-olds today and compared the results of this survey to similar results gathered on 22-year-olds 50 years ago, you should expect to find that young adults today are: a. marrying at younger ages but entering careers at older ages b. marrying at older ages but entering careers at younger ages c. marrying and entering careers at younger ages d. marrying and entering careers at older ages Answer: d Rationale: The text notes that young adults today are waiting until later to make a variety of commitments, including postponing marriage and taking longer to enter a career. 2. According to the text, which are the two most important tasks of emerging adulthood and early adulthood? a. finding a job and making a living b. finding a romantic partner and entering a career or job c. finding a mate and having children d. saving enough money to buy a house and having children Answer: b Rationale: A successful journey into and throughout adulthood is, for most people, closely tied to a person’s involvement with a career and with a romantic partner and a family. 3. The classic view of self-development called the Hierarchy of Needs was proposed by which theorist? a. Robert Sternberg b. Jean Piaget c. Carl Rogers d. Abraham Maslow Answer: d Rationale: Abraham Maslow proposed the Hierarchy of Needs theory, which suggests that human needs can be arranged in a hierarchy with basic physiological needs at the bottom and self-actualization at the top. Maslow's work has been influential in understanding human motivation and development. 4. According to Abraham Maslow, human needs can be arranged in a hierarchy with which of the following needs occupying the highest level? a. self-fulfillment b. self-perfection c. self-improvement d. self-actualization Answer: d Rationale: According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, self-actualization occupies the highest level. Self-actualization represents the realization of a person's potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth, and peak experiences. 5. The goal of self-actualization is most central to the theoretical perspective advanced by which of the following theorists? a. Sigmund Freud b. Jean Piaget c. Abraham Maslow d. Robert Sternberg Answer: c Rationale: Maslow developed a hierarchy emphasizing the needs that individuals need to meet in developing their unique self. For Maslow, the ultimate goal of self-development was self-actualization, which means realizing one’s full development by utilizing one’s talents and abilities 6. Latonya is a new student at a major university and is trying hard to find new friends. Maslow would say that Latonya is trying to satisfy her need for: a. self-actualization b. esteem c. safety d. belongingness Answer: d Rationale: Belongingness refers to a need to belong in one’s family and community, whereas esteem refers to gaining the respect of others and ourselves. Self-actualization is realizing one’s full development, and safety is a lower-level need referring to our need for basic physical security. 7. Which of the following is the most basic (the lowest) need on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs? a. physiological needs b. belongingness needs c. safety needs d. self-actualization Answer: a Rationale: Physiological needs, such as air, water, food, and shelter, are the most basic needs according to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. These needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs can be addressed. 8. Lois lives in a country which suffers continually from riots and internal wars. This situation would challenge most directly Lois’s ability to satisfy which of the following needs? a. physiological b. safety c. esteem d. cognitive Answer: b Rationale: Safety is a lower-level need referring to our need for basic physical security, whereas physiological needs have to do with even more basic survival necessities such as food and water. Esteem needs are higher-level needs having to do with a need for respect from others and one’s self. 9. John tells his girlfriend, “If you don’t stop nagging me, I’m going to find a different girlfriend.” John’s statement emphasizes the concept of: a. unconditional positive regard b. self-actualization c. conditions of worth d. intrinsic reinforcement Answer: c Rationale: Conditions of worth are conditions others impose upon us if we are to be worthwhile as human beings. They often involve the withdrawal of affection and approval unless behavior conforms to another’s expectations. 10. When parents tell a child what to do or not to do in order to be considered a worthwhile human being, they are imposing what Carl Rogers termed: a. self-actualization b. self-esteem c. conditions of worth d. security and belongingness Answer: c Rationale: Conditions of worth are conditions others impose upon us if we are to be worthwhile as human beings. They often involve the withdrawal of affection and approval unless behavior conforms to another’s expectations. 11. According to the view of Carl Rogers, in order to show a child unconditional positive regard, parents should: a. impose conditions of worth b. accept the child without reservation c. never punish any behavior d. praise a child whenever she accomplishes a goal Answer: b Rationale: Rogers’ concept of unconditional positive regard suggests that we should warmly accept another person as a worthwhile human being without reservations or conditions of worth. 12. Luke tells his sister that he will love her, no matter what she does or how she acts. In his comment, according to the view of Carl Rogers, Luke is expressing which of the following characteristics: a. unconditional positive regard b. conditional positive regard c. positive conditions of worth d. self-actualization Answer: a Rationale: Rogers’ concept of unconditional positive regard suggests that we should warmly accept another person as a worthwhile human being without reservations or conditions of worth. 13. The concept of “flow” corresponds most closely to the meaning of: a. conditions of worth b. unconditional positive regard c. conditional positive regard d. self-actualization Answer: d Rationale: "Flow" corresponds most closely to the concept of self-actualization. Flow is a state of deep absorption and effortless concentration in an activity, where one's skills are matched with the challenges of the task, leading to a sense of fulfillment and heightened awareness. 14. Randy is writing a short story and he becomes so immersed and engaged in this work that he completely forgets about time and is surprised that several hours have passed. This “in the moment” experience is best considered to be an example of: a. unconditional positive regard b. conditional positive regard c. flow d. identity transformation Answer: c Rationale: Flow is defined as a mental state during which the person is completely absorbed and involved with a particular activity. 15. Through his own studies and thoughts, Robert has come to realize that he and his parents differ on several important beliefs. According to the text, which aspect of independence has Robert accomplished? a. functional b. attitudinal c. emotional d. conflictual Answer: b Rationale: Table 13-1 highlights the aspects of achieving independence in young adulthood. According to the table, attitudinal independence refers to the young adult developing attitudes, values, and beliefs that are independent from, and may be different from, those held by parents. 16. Margaret wants to move into her own apartment, but she hesitates to do so because she doesn’t want to leave her widowed father to live by himself. Margaret’s concern best exemplifies her inability to achieve which of the following types of independence? a. conflictual independence b. attitudinal independence c. emotional independence d. functional independence Answer: a Rationale: Table 13-1 highlights the aspects of achieving independence in young adulthood. According to the table, conflictual independence refers to the young adult’s separation from parents, accomplished without feelings of guilt or betrayal. 17. Lindsay is 15 years old, lives in her own apartment, has a responsible job, chooses her own friends, and is independent from her parents except that they send her a check for $1,000 every month to help her make ends meet. Lindsay has most likely achieved all of the types of independence EXCEPT: a. conflictual independence b. attitudinal independence c. emotional independence d. functional independence Answer: d Rationale: Table 13-1 highlights the aspects of achieving independence in young adulthood. According the table, in functional independence the young adult becomes financially independent and can take care of day-to-day problems. 18. Suppose you administered a survey to a group of men and women and asked them what was the most important component of defining themselves as who they are. Generalizing from a similar study reported in the text, you should expect the large majority to respond: a. career advancement b. income c. family roles d. opportunities for self-actualization Answer: c Rationale: In the study of adult identity cited in the text, 90% of the men and women who were interviewed indicated that their family roles and responsibilities were the most important components in defining who they were. 19. If you administered a survey that asked men and women to identify what was the most important component of defining themselves as who they are, you would expect men to answer __________ and women to answer ______________. a. family; career b. family; family c. career; family d. career; career Answer: b Rationale: In the study of adult identity cited in the text, 90% of the men and women who were interviewed indicated that their family roles and responsibilities were the most important components in defining who they were. Very few men and women defined themselves primarily in terms of their career rather than their family. 20. Which of the following is the best example of an intrinsic factor of work? a. the rewards of salary and status the person receives b. the convenience of work hours for the person’s schedule c. the opportunity for advancement to a better paying job d. the degree to which the work is interesting and challenging Answer: d Rationale: Intrinsic factors in work refer to satisfaction workers obtain from doing the work in and of itself. Figure 13-3 lists two of these factors as being work that is interesting and work that is challenging. 21. Montel describes his new accounting job as very rewarding because of his high level of interest in taxes and being able to work with numbers. Montel’s description of his job points out the importance of which of the following factors? a. intrinsic factors b. extrinsic factors c. unconditional regard factors d. decision/commitment factors Answer: a Rationale: Intrinsic factors in work refer to satisfaction workers obtain from doing the work in and of itself. 22. With regard to work, the satisfaction that workers derive from the work itself is the definition of: a. intrinsic factors b. remote factors c. extrinsic factors d. immediate factors Answer: a Rationale: The satisfaction that workers derive from the work itself is known as intrinsic factors. These factors include feelings of accomplishment, autonomy, and enjoyment derived directly from the task or activity. 23. Pedro describes his new job in terms of his salary and the bonuses he will receive. He describes his work in terms of its: a. generativity b. extrinsic factors c. intrinsic factors d. self-actualization potential Answer: b Rationale: In work, extrinsic factors refer to satisfaction in the form of salary, status, and other rewards for work. Forming Close Relationships 24. According to Erik Erikson, the primary developmental task in early adulthood is: a. establishing a meaningful intimate relationship b. learning to trust another person c. understanding one’s self and forming a self-identity d. establishing career goals and starting to fulfill them Answer: a Rationale: According to Erik Erikson's psychosocial theory, the primary developmental task in early adulthood is intimacy vs. isolation. This stage involves establishing meaningful and intimate relationships with others. 25. According to the text, since the 1950s, U. S. society has changed dramatically in all of the following ways EXCEPT that: a. expectations that couples should marry have relaxed b. society now is more tolerant of sex outside of marriage c. male and female roles have become more different from each other d. expectations that marriage will last forever have become lower Answer: c Rationale: Since the 1950s, there has been a weakening of the norms requiring couples to marry, to remain married, to have children, to engage in intimate relations only within the marriage, and to maintain separate roles for males and females. 26. According to the text, nearly all couples cite which of the following as the central aspect of their relationship? a. money b. trust c. help and support d. love Answer: d Rationale: Love is commonly cited as the central aspect of relationships by nearly all couples. It forms the foundation of emotional connection and bonding between partners. 27. According to the view of Robert Sternberg, which of the following words is used to describe the feeling of closeness that occurs in love relationships? a. passion b. communication c. intimacy d. commitment Answer: c Rationale: For Sternberg, intimacy is the feeling of closeness that occurs in love relationships; it is the sense of being connected or bonded to the people we love. 28. Carol and Jason have what is called romantic love. According to Robert Sternberg’s view, which components of love make up romantic love? a. passion and decision/commitment b. intimacy and decision/commitment c. intimacy and passion d. intimacy, passion, and decision/commitment Answer: c Rationale: According to Figure 13-4 and Table 13-2, romantic love is comprised of intimacy (the closeness that occurs in love relationships) and passion (physical attraction, arousal, and sexual behavior in a relationship). 29. Ben and Mindy feel very close to each other, and are happiest when they are together. They describe each other as “best friends.” According to Robert Sternberg’s view, their love is best characterized as one emphasizing: a. infatuation b. intimacy c. passion d. decision/commitment Answer: b Rationale: For Sternberg, intimacy is the feeling of closeness that occurs in love relationships; it is the sense of being connected or bonded to the people we love. 30. According to Robert Sternberg’s view of love, which of the following kinds of love has intimacy, passion, and commitment? a. companionate love b. consummate love c. romantic love d. infatuated love Answer: b Rationale: According to Figure 13-4 and Table 13-2, consummate love is comprised of all three components: intimacy, passion, and commitment. 31. According to Robert Sternberg’s view, which kind of love do two people share who have passion, but lack intimacy and commitment? a. fatuous love b. empty love c. romantic love d. companionate love Answer: a Rationale: According to Figure 13-4 and Table 13-2, fatuous love occurs when passion, but not the other two components of love, are present. 32. Bob and Gina are a married couple who feel connected to each other, enjoy each other’s company, and view marriage as a lifetime commitment. However, there is no passion in their love for each other anymore. In Sternberg’s view, this marriage is best characterized by one focused on: a. fatuous love b. romantic love c. committed love d. companionate love Answer: d Rationale: According to Figure 13-4 and Table 13-2, companionate love occurs when intimacy (the closeness that occurs in love relationships) and commitment (the decision to be in and maintain love) are present, but passion (physical attraction, arousal, and sexual behavior in a relationship) is not. 33. According to stimulus-value-role theory, during what stage of courtship are judgments typically formed on the other's appearance and social and mental traits? a. value stage b. role stage c. stimulus stage d. response stage Answer: c Rationale: During the stimulus stage, when a man and woman meet or see each other for the first time, they make initial judgments about each other’s appearance, personality, and intelligence. 34. What theory of marital choice says that we try to get the best deal in life by examining the partner's assets and liabilities at various stages? a. triangular theory b. self-actualization theory c. stimulus-value-role theory d. hierarchy of needs theory Answer: c Rationale: According to stimulus-value-role theory, each person examines the assets and liabilities of the other partner to determine whether the relationship is worthwhile. 35. During which stage of the stimulus-value-role theory of couple formation do couples typically determine whether their interests, attitudes, and beliefs are compatible? a. role stage b. stimulus stage c. value-comparison stage d. triangulated stage Answer: c Rationale: During the value-comparison stage, couples’ conversations reveal whether their interests, attitudes, beliefs, and needs are compatible. 36. According to a study cited in the text, about of university students in the U.S., England, and Australia reported that they would not marry a person without being in love; in cultures where arranged marriages are practiced, this percentage was . a. 80%; 40% b. 95%; 25% c. 90%; 90% d. 50%; 50% Answer: a Rationale: In the cited study, approximately 80% of university students in the U.S., England, and Australia reported that they would not marry a person without being in love. This contrasts with the lower percentage in cultures where arranged marriages are practiced, indicating the influence of cultural norms on mate selection. 37. Based on current population projections in the United States, what percent of men and women will marry at some point in their lives? a. 40% b. 60% c. 70% d. 90% Answer: d Rationale: Based on current population projections in the United States, approximately 90% of both men and women are projected to marry at some point in their lives. Marriage remains a prevalent social institution in many societies. 38. In traditional Arabic cultures, marriage typically is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT: a. marriages are usually arranged b. marriages are usually with people who are strangers to the family c. once a woman is engaged, all contact with men is forbidden d. the night before the wedding the couple engage in sexual intercourse to see if the marriage will “work” for the husband Answer: d Rationale: In traditional Arabic cultures, the night before the wedding, the couple does not typically engage in sexual intercourse to see if the marriage will "work" for the husband. This statement contradicts cultural norms and practices. 39. In 1970, 57% of men and 88% of women married for the first time between the ages of 20 and 24. In 2009, these percentages were: a. 24% for men and 38% for women b. 38% for men and 58% for women c. 55% for men and 85% for women d. 63% for men and 72% for women Answer: a Rationale: In 2009, the percentages of men and women marrying for the first time between the ages of 20 and 24 decreased significantly compared to 1970. The correct percentages are 24% for men and 38% for women, reflecting changing trends in marriage and social dynamics over time. 40. According to the 2010 U. S. Census, about what percentage of all married couples in the U.S. are self-described as “interracial”? a. 1% b. 3% c. 10% d. 25% Answer: c Rationale: The correct answer is c. 10%. This is because interracial marriages have been increasing in the U.S. over the years, and by 2010, approximately 1 in 10 married couples identified as interracial, as per the U.S. Census data. 41. According to the text, about what percent of cohabiting couples have children living with them? a. about 10% b. about 25% c. about 30% d. about 43% Answer: d Rationale: The correct answer is d. about 43%. This is because the text indicates that approximately 43% of cohabiting couples have children living with them, reflecting a significant portion of such unions. 42. Statistics cited in the text suggest that the number of cohabiting couples in the U. S. is ______ the number of such couples in 1970. a. slightly less than b. about the same number as c. about twice as many as d. about 15 times greater than Answer: d Rationale: The correct answer is d. about 15 times greater than. This is because the text suggests a substantial increase in the number of cohabiting couples since 1970, with the current number being significantly larger than it was in 1970. 43. According to the text, about what percentage of cohabiting couples in the U. S. today are over the age of 40: a. about 10% b. about 20% c. about 35% d. about 70% Answer: c Rationale: In 2011, 62.5% of cohabiting men and 66.4% of cohabiting women were under the age of 40. 44. According to statistics cited in the text, about what percent of cohabiting couples eventually marry: a. 5% b. 20% c. 33% d. 50% Answer: c Rationale: The correct answer is c. 33%. This is because statistics cited in the text indicate that approximately 33% of cohabiting couples eventually marry, showing a considerable portion transitioning from cohabitation to marriage. 45. Which of the following statements about cohabiting couples is TRUE? a. If they marry, they are less likely to get divorced than couples who did not cohabitate before marriage. b. If they marry, their marriages are generally happier than those of couples who did not cohabitate before marriage. c. If they marry, they provide more support for each other than do couples who did not cohabitate before marriage. d. They are more likely to have affairs outside of their relationships than are married couples. Answer: d Rationale: Although the results of studies on cohabiting couples vary somewhat, the text notes that cohabiting couples are more likely to have affairs outside the relationship and cohabitation seldom leads to happier and more stable marriages. 46. Generalizing from statistics reported in the text, which of the following couples would be most likely to experience the most tension in their relationship? a. Mark and Nancy, who are a married, heterosexual couple b. Jim and Mary, who are a cohabiting, heterosexual couple b. Felix and Tom, who are gale male couple c. Lindsey and Marie, who are a lesbian couple Answer: b Rationale: A variety of findings cited in the text support the idea that cohabiting heterosexual couples experience more tension than married heterosexual couples. The statistics that describe the relationships of same-sex cohabiting couples are more comparable to those describing married, rather than cohabiting, heterosexual couples. 47. Which of the following is the most accurate statement about the American Academy of Pediatrics’ (AAP’s) position on allowing homosexuals to adopt their partner’s children: a. The AAP supports adoption of children by a homosexual partner. b. The AAP supports adoption, but only if the child is a biological child of the partner. c. The AAP supports adoption, but only for lesbian women, not for gay men. d. The AAP does not support adoption of children by a homosexual partner, regardless of circumstances. Answer: a Rationale: The correct answer is a. The AAP supports adoption of children by a homosexual partner. This is because the American Academy of Pediatrics supports adoption by qualified individuals irrespective of their sexual orientation, prioritizing the well-being of the child. 48. Generalizing from the text, you should expect that the proportion of the population who are single reached the HIGHEST point in which of the following years? a. 1970 b. 1980 c. 2005 d. 2010 Answer: d Rationale: The correct answer is d. 2010. This is because, based on the text, the proportion of single individuals in the population peaked around 2010, reflecting a trend toward increased rates of singlehood. 49. According to the text, the LOWEST percent of marriage-age adults who were single occurred in the: a. 1930s b. 1950s c. 1970s d. 2000s Answer: b Rationale: The correct answer is b. 1950s. This is because the text suggests that the lowest percentage of marriage-age adults who were single occurred in the 1950s, reflecting a societal norm of early marriage during that era. 50. Statistically speaking, which of the following people has the GREATEST chance of being single, rather than married, in the U.S. today? a. Sam, an African American man b. Fred, an Asian American man c. Jose, a Hispanic American man d. Jeff, a white, non-Hispanic man Answer: a Rationale: As noted in the text, white Americans are least likely to remain single; black Americans are most likely to adopt the single lifestyle. 51. Statistically speaking, which of the following people has the LEAST chance of being married, rather than single, in the U.S. today: a. Jean, who is a white, non-Hispanic woman b. Latoya, who is an African American woman c. Linda, who is a Hispanic American woman d. Li, who is an Asian American woman Answer: b Rationale: As noted in the text, white Americans are least likely to remain single; black Americans are most likely to adopt the single lifestyle. 52. When Mark and Jill had their first child, they had different reactions to parenthood. If their adjustment is typical of most new parents, you would expect that Mark would react to becoming a father by: a. giving priority to his parenting and family roles b. intensifying his work efforts to become a better provider c. ignoring his parenting responsibilities and spending more time with his male friends d. assuming the majority of household and childcare responsibilities Answer: b Rationale: While there are diverse reactions to the birth of a first child, women characteristically adjust their lifestyles to give priority to parenting and family roles. Men, on the other hand, more often intensify their work efforts to become better or more stable providers. 53. When Mark and Jill had their first child, they had different reactions to parenthood. If their adjustment is typical of most new parents, you would expect that Jill would react to becoming a mother by: a. giving priority to her parenting and family roles b. intensifying her work efforts to become a better provider c. ignoring her parenting responsibilities and spending more time with her female friends d. assigning the majority of household and childcare responsibilities to Mark Answer: a Rationale: While there are diverse reactions to the birth of a first child, women characteristically adjust their lifestyles to give priority to parenting and family roles. 54. Ned and Barb are expecting their first child and are concerned about how well they will adjust to their parenting roles. According to research described in the text, all of the following are important factors in determining how they will adjust EXCEPT: a. happiness in the marriage during pregnancy b. self-esteem of the parents c. the baby's characteristics and temperament d. in which region of the country they live Answer: d Rationale: The text specifically notes that marital happiness, parental self-esteem, and the baby’s temperament (whether the baby is “difficult”) are all factors that influence how parents will adjust to their new roles. 55. According to the text, when does the image-making stage of parenthood, during which parents create an image of the kind of parents they will be, occur: a. from conception to birth b. birth to 2 years c. 2 years to 5 years d. middle childhood Answer: a Rationale: The correct answer is a. from conception to birth. This is because the text indicates that the image-making stage of parenthood occurs during the period from conception to birth, as parents begin to form expectations and ideals about their future role as parents. 56. The period from birth to age 2 corresponds to which stage of parenthood? a. nurturing, in which parents become attached to the child b. authority, in which parents evaluate their parenting style c. departure, in which parents evaluate their successes and failures as parents d. image making, in which parents create an image of the kind of parents they will be Answer: a Rationale: The correct answer is a. nurturing, in which parents become attached to the child. This is because the period from birth to age 2 is characterized by the nurturing stage of parenthood, during which parents establish bonds with their child and provide care and support. 57. The period of parenthood when children are between the ages of 6 and 12 corresponds to which stage of parenthood? a. interpretive, in which parents continue to evaluate their style of parenting b. nurturing, in which parents learn to balance their family, personal, and professional lives c. departure, in which parents evaluate their successes and failures as parents d. image making, in which parents create an image of the kind of parents they will be Answer: a Rationale: The correct answer is a. interpretive, in which parents continue to evaluate their style of parenting. This is because the period from ages 6 to 12 corresponds to the interpretive stage of parenthood, during which parents reflect on their parenting approaches and adjust them based on their child's development and needs. 58. As a new parent, Leanne is trying to find a balance between the time she gives to her husband, her daughter, and her business. According to the text, Leanne is in which of the following stages of parenthood? a. image-making stage b. interpretive stage c. nurturing stage d. authority stage Answer: c Rationale: Table 13-4 highlights the stages of parenthood. According to the table, the nurturing stage is the time when parents become attached to the child and learn to balance their commitments to family versus personal and professional life. 59. Among all families with children in 2010, what percentage were single-parent families headed by a single mother? a. 23% b. 17% c. 13% d. 8% Answer: a Rationale: Single-parent families headed by single mothers comprised a significant portion of all families with children in 2010. The correct answer, 23%, reflects the substantial prevalence of single-mother households in that year, indicating a notable societal trend. 60. In comparison to the number of families with children that were headed by single women in the 1970, the number headed by single women in 2010 was: a. slightly less b. about the same c. slightly more d. substantially more Answer: d Rationale: The number of families with children that were headed by single women increased more than 10 times faster than the number of traditional two-parent families during this time. Figure 13-12 notes that in 1970, 10.8% of families with children were headed by a single mother, a percentage that had increased to 23.1% in 2010. Both of these statistics suggest that the growth of families headed by single mothers increased substantially during this 4-year period. 61. Among all families with children in 2010, what percentage were single-parent families headed by a single father? a. 0.5% b. 1% c. 3% d. 10% Answer: c Rationale: While single-parent families headed by single mothers are more common, single-parent families headed by single fathers also represent a notable portion of the total. The correct answer, 3%, reflects this significant demographic group within families with children in 2010. 62. According to the text, in 2009, about ____ of all births were to unmarried women. a. 5% b. 10% c. 21% d. 41% Answer: d Rationale: The correct answer, 41%, underscores a significant societal shift in family structure, indicating a substantial proportion of births occurring to unmarried women in 2009. This statistic highlights the prevalence of non-marital childbirths during that period. 63. According to the text, in 2009, about ____ of all births to Black women were to Black women who were unmarried. a. 15% b. 29% c. 53% d. 72% Answer: d Rationale: The correct answer, 72%, highlights a particularly high rate of non-marital childbirths among Black women in 2009. This statistic underscores important demographic trends and may reflect various social, economic, and cultural factors influencing family dynamics. 64. In comparison to the percent of two-parent families in the U.S. living in poverty today, the percent of single-parent families headed by a father living in poverty is: a. slightly lower b. about the same c. about 10% higher d. nearly twice as high Answer: d Rationale: Figure 13.13 demonstrates that in all racial/ethnic groups the percent of father-headed single-parent families in poverty is lower than the two-parent families in most cases by half or more. 65. Which of the following families is most likely to live below the poverty line? a. two-parent Black families b. two-parent Hispanic families c. single-father White families d. single-mother White families Answer: d Rationale: Figure 13-13 shows that single-mother families are most likely to live in poverty in all racial/ethnic groups. 66. According to the U.S. census in 2012, what percent of black families with children under the age of 18 were headed by a single parent? a. 16% b. 29% c. 47% d. 65% Answer: d Rationale: The correct answer, 65%, indicates a significant proportion of Black families with children under 18 being headed by a single parent in 2012. This statistic highlights the prevalence of single-parent households within this demographic group, reflecting broader societal dynamics. 67. In 1996, the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program was replaced by: a. the AFDC-2 b. the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) c. Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) d. nothing; this act was canceled and not replaced with any program that provides government assistance to families with children that are living in poverty Answer: b Rationale: The correct answer, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program in 1996. PRWORA aimed to reform welfare by emphasizing work and personal responsibility among recipients, marking a significant shift in social policy. 68. Generalizing from the text, you should note that the primary goal of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) was to: a. reduce the cycle of generations of poverty, where children of impoverished families are also likely to become impoverished as parents b. increase funding to low-income day-care centers so children raised in impoverished families will have a “head start” c. provide incentives to employers to hire single parents d. raise the minimum wage Answer: a Rationale: The intent of the PRWORA was to transform public assistance into a system that helps mothers on welfare become independent, self-sufficient workers instead of being a program that encourages them to be dependent, passive aid recipients who tend to pass their dependency along to the next generation. 69. What percent of fathers gain custody of their children after divorce? a. 3% b. 10% c. 32% d. 41% Answer: b Rationale: The correct answer, 10%, reflects a notable but relatively low proportion of fathers gaining custody of their children after divorce. This statistic highlights the prevailing tendency for mothers to be awarded custody, although custody arrangements may vary depending on individual circumstances and legal determinations. 70. In the U.S. today, about what percent of divorced fathers either gain custody of their children or share custody? a. 5%’ b. 10% c. 16% d. 26% Answer: d Rationale: At least 10% of fathers who divorce gain custody of their children, and another 16% participate in joint custody settlements. Thus, a total of 26% either gain or share custody. The Occupational Cycle 71. Suppose that Dr. Robins is interested in how people learn about and choose the jobs they hold in their lives. He decides to study a cohort of children, asking them what they think about different jobs, and then follows these children as they grow into adults, studying how they choose jobs and adjust to job demands. The topic of study that best describes Dr. Robins work is: a. career counseling b. industrial psychology c. the occupational cycle d. the “person-job fit” theory of careers Answer: c Rationale: An adult’s working life follows what is called the occupational cycle, which is a variable sequence of periods or stages in a worker’s life. 72. According to the work of Robert Havighurst, most people begin to consider their choice of careers in which of the following periods of the lifespan? a. childhood b. adolescence c. emerging adulthood d. early adulthood Answer: a Rationale: According to Table 13-5, which describes the stages in Havighurst’s model, children ages 5 to 10 identify with working fathers and mothers and the idea of working enters their self-concept. 73. Seventeen-year-old Kaori has decided that she wants to become a medical doctor. She is in which of the following stages, according to Havighurst’s theory of career development? a. identifying with a worker b. acquiring basic habits of inductor c. acquiring an identity as a worker d. maintaining a productive society Answer: c Rationale: According to Table 13-5, which describes the stages in Havighurst’s model, people from ages 15 through 25 choose a career and begin to prepare for it. This stage is referred to acquiring an identity as a worker. 74. Seventh-grader Paul learns to organize his time so that he can complete his daily homework assignments, practice on the soccer team after school, and do his chores at home. According to Havighurst, Paul is in which of the following stages of career development? a. identifying with a worker b. acquiring the basic habits of industry c. acquiring an identity as a worker d. becoming a productive person Answer: b Rationale: According to Table 13-5, which describes the stages in Havighurst’s model, the stage called acquiring the basic habits of industry refers to the stage in which students ages 10 to 15 learn to organize their time and efforts and learn to give work priority over play when necessary. 75. The stage of Havighurst's model of vocational life in which the idea of working enters into a person's self-concept is the stage of: a. acquiring the basic habits of industry b. acquiring an identity as a worker c. identification with a worker d. contemplating a productive/responsible life Answer: c Rationale: According to Table 13-5, which describes the stages in Havighurst’s model, the stage called identification with a worker refers to the stage in which children ages 5 to 10 identify with working fathers and mothers and the idea of working enters their self-concept. 76. After graduating from high school, Dave took a summer job in construction, and then in the fall, began taking business courses at the community college. He is considering starting his own construction business, and hopes that these experiences will help him choose and get started in his career. According to the theory of vocational development proposed by Havighurst, which of the following stages of vocational life is Dave in? a. identifying with a worker b. acquiring the basic habits of industry c. acquiring an identity as a worker d. becoming a productive person Answer: c Rationale: According to Table 13-5, which describes the stages in Havighurst’s model, people from ages 15 through 25 choose a career and begin to prepare for it. This stage is referred to acquiring an identity as a worker. 77. According to the distinction between formal and informal preparation for work, which of the following would most likely be considered a FORMAL method of job preparation? a. participating in an on-the-job training program b. listening to parent’s opinions about the kind of work that is most rewarding c. learning about the importance of showing up for work by observing one’s parents d. watching TV shows about doctors and nurses and using the shows to find out what these jobs entail Answer: a Rationale: Formal occupational preparation includes structured learning in high school, vocational-training programs, college, as well as on-the-job training. 78. Learning that one’s expectations about work are unrealistic and that one’s training is inadequate is most likely to lead to which of the following? a. reality shock b. self-actualization c. emotional independence d. the mentoring relationship Answer: a Rationale: When young adults start working, they may experience what could be termed reality shock. During adolescence and the preparation for a career, people often have high expectations about what their work will be like and what they will accomplish. When the training ends and the job begins, novices often quickly learn that some of their expectations were unrealistic. 79. Jake starts his first job as a firefighter and is very disappointed that it is much less glamorous and exciting than he thought it would be. Jake’s experience is best considered an example of: a. mentoring b. reality shock c. person-job-fit errors d. the first stage of the occupational cycle Answer: b Rationale: When young adults start working, they may experience what could be termed reality shock. During adolescence and the preparation for a career, people often have high expectations about what their work will be like and what they will accomplish. When the training ends and the job begins, novices often quickly learn that some of their expectations were unrealistic. 80. Janet can’t wait to begin her first job as a hair stylist because she thinks it will be exciting and fulfilling to help people become more attractive. However, after 2 months on the job, she is disappointed and disillusioned about how appreciative her customers are. Janet’s experience is best considered to be an example of: a. mentoring b. the first stage of the occupational cycle c. the last stage of the occupational cycle d. reality shock Answer: d Rationale: When young adults start working, they may experience what could be termed reality shock. During adolescence and the preparation for a career, people often have high expectations about what their work will be like and what they will accomplish. When the training ends and the job begins, novices often quickly learn that some of their expectations were unrealistic. 81. Velma is astonished at how political her new job is, and she is struggling to meet her boss’s expectations. Velma tells her husband that she had no idea about how hard this new job would be. Her response is best considered to be an example of: a. poor mentoring b. the first stage of the occupational cycle c. the last stage of the occupational cycle d. reality shock Answer: d Rationale: When young adults start working, they may experience what could be termed reality shock. During adolescence and the preparation for a career, people often have high expectations about what their work will be like and what they will accomplish. When the training ends and the job begins, novices often quickly learn that some of their expectations were unrealistic. 82. Which of the following is the most accurate statement about mentors? a. More female executives than male executives have mentors. b. In most companies, there are more mentors than are needed. c. Mentors typically provide connections but no job training. d. Mentors typically serve as models for social and work-related behavior. Answer: d Rationale: Mentors perform teaching and training roles, sponsor the young workers’ advancement, serve as models for social behavior, as well as work-related behavior. The book notes that women in high-level and technical careers sometimes have difficulty finding mentors. 83. According to the text, which of the following fields has emerged to help people select jobs that will be a good match for their interest? a. occupational therapy b. work-study c. clinical psychology d. career counseling Answer: d Rationale: Career counseling has emerged as a specialized field aimed at assisting individuals in identifying and pursuing career paths aligned with their interests, skills, and goals. This discipline plays a crucial role in guiding career decisions and facilitating productive vocational outcomes. 84. If Robbie wants to train for a position that will involve helping others find the jobs that best match their talents and interested, Robbie would be best advised to enter a graduate program in: a. occupational therapy b. clinical psychology c. career counseling d. industrial psychology Answer: c Rationale: Career counseling is a field that attempts to match the talents and interests of individuals to the characteristics of a job. 85. Which of the following is NOT one of Holland’s six career-related personality types? a. realistic b. bored c. social d. enterprising Answer: b Rationale: Holland’s six career types are: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional. 86. Jeremy has several characteristics that might influence his choice of career. He is creative, introspective, and independent. According to Holland’s theory of careers, which of the following careers would best suit Jeremy? a. priest b. statistician c. reporter d. beautician Answer: c Rationale: According to Table 13-6, the artistic career-related personality type is unconventional, creative, introspective, and independent; the representative career listed is that of a reporter. 87. According to Holland’s theory of careers, a person who is popular, self-confident, and who possesses a high level of energy and verbal skills would fit best into which of the following personality types? a. realistic b. enterprising c. social d. conventional Answer: b Rationale: Table 13-6 describes Holland’s career-related personality types. According to this table, a person with the personal characteristics listed would be described as enterprising. 88. According to Holland’s theory of careers, a person who is practical, physically strong, and who has excellent hand-eye coordination and motor skills would fit best into which of the following personality types? a. realistic b. enterprising c. social d. conventional Answer: a Rationale: Table 13-6 describes Holland’s career-related personality types. According to this table, a person with the personal characteristics listed would be described as realistic. 89. According to Holland’s theory of careers, which of the following matches of personality type and career is the BEST? a. realistic – secretary b. enterprising – reporter c. artistic – realtor d. social – public health nurse Answer: d Rationale: Table 13-6 describes Holland’s career-related personality types and representative careers. The representative career given for the social personality types is public health nurse. 90. According to Holland’s theory of careers, which of the following matches of personality type and career is the WORST? a. realistic – realtor b. conventional – secretary c. artistic – reporter d. social – public health nurse Answer: a Rationale: Table 13-6 describes Holland’s career-related personality types and representative careers. Each of the options matches the representative career given in the text with the corresponding personality type except for the realistic personality type. In this personality type, a person is robust, practical, has good motor skills and is physically strong and active. The representative career listed, carpenter, is very different from that of a realtor. 91. In Holland’s theory of careers, people are encouraged to choose an occupation based on: a. how much income potential the job has b. how much income they believe they need to be happy c. whether their personality characteristics match the job’s requirements d. how much education or training the job requires and how intelligent they are Answer: c Rationale: One method that is sometimes used by career counselors is to classify jobs into categories that represent different types of work and to attempt to match these jobs to an individual’s personality style. The most widely used method of job matching is based on Holland’s theory. 92. Statistically, women are overrepresented in all of the following jobs EXCEPT: a. nurses b. bus drivers c. elementary school teachers d. social workers Answer: b Rationale: Table 13-7 shows the representation of women in a variety of occupations. Ninety-one percent of nurses, 97% of elementary preschool school teachers, and 81% of social workers are women, whereas the job of bus driver is equally distributed among men and women (47% are women). 93. Statistically, women are underrepresented in all of the following jobs EXCEPT: a. bookkeepers b. architects c. correctional officers d. social workers Answer: a Rationale: Table 13-7 shows the representation of women in a variety of occupations. Twenty-four percent of architects, 26% of correctional officers, and 33% of janitors are women, whereas 81% of social workers are women. 94. The two reasons the text suggests to explain why women are underrepresented in the more highly paid professions are: a. discrimination in the workplace and that women sometimes make early choices that limit their later career options b. they lack “toughness” in making hard decisions and they are more nurturing c. they do not have as much mathematical aptitude and they are more nurturing d. they lack “toughness” in making hard decisions and they sometimes make early choices that limit their later career options Answer: a Rationale: Discrimination in the workplace and early career choices that may limit later opportunities are cited as significant factors contributing to the underrepresentation of women in higher-paying professions. These societal and systemic challenges intersect with individual choices and broader cultural dynamics, influencing women's career trajectories. Work and Gender 95. According to the text, about what percent of U. S. women age 16 and older were in the labor force in 2009? a. 38% b. 59% c. 78% d. 92% Answer: b Rationale: The correct answer, 59%, reflects the substantial participation of U.S. women in the labor force in 2009. This statistic underscores the significant role of women in the workforce and their contribution to various sectors of the economy, highlighting trends in labor force participation rates over time. 96. Generalizing from the text, during which of the following years should you expect the percent of women in the workforce to be at the lowest point? a. 1943 b. 1958 c. 1980 d. 2009 Answer: b Rationale: During WW II, the percent of women in the workforce was high, due to women taking on men’s jobs while they were at war. Following WW II, women left the labor force as men returned home to take over their former jobs and in 1950, about 1 in 3 women were in the workforce. Women began re-entering the workforce in large proportion in the 1970s, and the text notes, the labor participation rate for women has been fairly steady since then. 97. According to the text, in 1950, about ____ of women in the United States were in the workforce; today about ____ of U.S. women are in the labor force. a. 33%; 59% b. 55%; 75% c. 25%; 75% d. 55%; 61% Answer: a Rationale: The text notes that from the period between 1950 and today, labor force participation rates for women increased from about 33% to a about 59%. 98. The increase in the proportion of women in the U.S. workforce since the 1950s has been most dramatic for women in which of the following groups? a. African American women b. white women c. Hispanic American women d. None of the other answers are correct because changes in labor force participation rates for African American, white, and Hispanic American women have been nearly the same. Answer: b Rationale: White women have experienced the most dramatic increase in labor force participation since the 1950s. While African American and Hispanic American women have also seen increases, the rate of change has been most significant among white women. 99. Today in the United States, about what percent of workers in the labor force are women? a. 39% b. 43% c. 47% d. 54% Answer: b Rationale: Approximately 43% of workers in the U.S. labor force are women. This indicates a significant presence of women in the workforce. 100. Generalizing from the text, if you were to quote a general figure for the size of the increase in the number of women in the professions today as compared to 25 years ago, the best estimate you could give would be that women today are about ______ likely to work in the professions. a. equally b. 2 to 3 times more c. 5 to 6 times more d. 8 to 10 times more Answer: b Rationale: According to the text, in the United States in the year 2010, the figures representing the percentage of women in the professions are generally 2 to 3 times higher than they were a quarter of a century ago. 101. According to the text, if you were to advise a young woman about the proportion of women working in the professions today, you would be most accurate if you told her that there is the highest percentage of women working in which of the following occupational groups? a. lawyers and judges b. management, professional, and related occupations c. physicians d. chief executives Answer: b Rationale: Of the overall category, “management, professional, and related occupations” as designated by the U.S. Department of Labor, which includes the preceding occupations and over 30 others, slightly more than half were women—making them the majority. 102. In the U. S. today, on average women make about _____ for every dollar earned by a man. a. $0.50 b. $0.81 c. $0.95 d. $1.05 Answer: b Rationale: On average, women in the U.S. make about $0.81 for every dollar earned by a man. This figure reflects the gender wage gap that persists in the country. 103. In comparison to their male counterparts, women in which of the groups make the LEAST amount of money? a. African American women b. White women c. Hispanic American women d. None of the other answers are correct because African American, white, and Hispanic American women all make about the same percentage of the average male income within their racial ethnic group. Answer: b Rationale: White women make the least amount of money compared to their male counterparts. While the wage gap persists across all racial and ethnic groups, it is most pronounced among white women. 104. If you were to conduct a survey of working women asking them why they worked, you should expect that the largest percentage of women would answer: a. for personal fulfillment b. for intellectual stimulation c. because my family expects me to d. for financial necessity Answer: d Rationale: The primary reason that women work is out of economic necessity. Single mothers are often the sole source of income for their families; even many married couples could not make ends meet without income from both spouses. 105. According to research presented in the text, compared to women who don’t work outside the home, women who do work are psychologically ______ healthy and this trend is stronger for women who work because _______________. a. less; their families need the money b. more; their families need the money c. less; they enjoy their job d. more; they enjoy their job Answer: d Rationale: The text notes that working women tend to be both physically and psychologically healthier than nonworking women. Women who enjoy their work benefit more from the multiple roles they take on; this may be one reason that professional women actually gain more physical and psychological benefits from their work than do clerical workers, despite the greater responsibilities and stresses of their jobs. 106. According to the text, when women take on multiple roles, such as working and raising a family, what impact does this typically have on their mental health? a. Their mental health typically improves. b. Their mental healthy typically suffers. c. Their mental health typically improves if they enjoy their job but it declines if they do not enjoy their job. d. Their mental health typically improves if they have a supportive spouse but declines if they are a single parent. Answer: a Rationale: As noted in the text, taking on multiple roles has been shown to contribute to, not detract from, mental health. 107. In comparison to how men typically proceed through their career trajectories, the word(s) that best describes how women progress would be: a. unhappier b. steadier c. faster d. more variable Answer: d Rationale: As the text notes, women who work outside the home do not necessarily follow the same type of career patterns that are typical for men. Instead they follow a variety of patterns. 108. In choosing a career, a woman is more likely than a man to emphasize the importance of: a. money b. power c. flexibility d. intrinsic rewards Answer: c Rationale: Women are more like than men to choose occupations that allow for more flexibility. 109. According to the text, which of the following statements is most accurate about women who work in traditionally male professions? a. They are very similar to men pursuing the same career. b. They are less willing than men to take risks. c. They are less willing than men to make sacrifices for their career. d. They are more focused on family than are men. Answer: a Rationale: Women in traditionally male professions, such as business, law, and medicine, have career plans that are very similar to those of men pursuing the same careers. 110. Suppose you study two groups of women who were employed part-time: one group of women who describe themselves as career oriented and one group who describe themselves as not being career oriented. If your results were the same as those of a similar study described in the text, compared to women who work full-time, you would expect that the self-esteem of the career-oriented women working part-time would be ______ and the self-esteem of the non-career-oriented women would be ______ women working full-time. a. lower than; higher than b. lower than; equal to c. equal to; equal to d. equal to; higher than Answer: b Rationale: In a study cited in the text, researchers found that those women who described themselves as career-oriented were much happier and had higher self-esteem and more positive self-concepts when they were employed full-time than when they were temporarily unemployed or were working at part-time jobs or jobs that underutilized their skills. The results were quite different for women who described themselves as not being career-oriented. Their self-esteem and life satisfaction were not related to whether they were employed full-time or part-time. 111. According to the text, which of the following types of household is now the norm in the United States? a. single-earner households headed by a woman b. single-earner households headed by a man c. dual-earner households d. multiple-earner households with 3 or more people in the family working Answer: c Rationale: Dual-earner households, where both partners work, are now the norm in the United States. This reflects societal shifts towards gender equality and economic necessity. 112. In 2010, how many weeks of unpaid family leave are companies required to give their employees (both male and female) by federal law? a. 0 weeks; companies are not required by law to provide unpaid family leave b. 2 weeks c. 4 weeks d. 12 weeks Answer: d Rationale: According to federal law in 2010, companies were required to provide up to 12 weeks of unpaid family leave to eligible employees, both male and female, through the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). 113. If Alice and Arthur are a typical married couple who both work full-time, compared to Arthur, Alice will do _______ of the daily housework. a. slightly less b. an equal amount c. 2 to 3 times more d. 10 times more Answer: c Rationale: Studies have shown that even when both spouses are employed full-time, wives continue to do 2 to 3 times more of the daily housework than their husbands. 114. Generalizing from research described in the text, if you were to study couples in dual-earner families, you would expect to find the highest levels of stress for people in which of the following groups? a. men in professional-level jobs b. men in working-class jobs c. women in professional-level jobs d. women in working-class jobs Answer: c Rationale: Both men and women experience role conflicts stemming from job demands, work hours, family and work-scheduling conflicts, and family crises. Although both men and women in dual-earner couples experience these conflicts, women typically report higher levels of conflict between work and family roles. The role conflict experienced by professional women is particularly acute when they work long hours and are under time pressures. 115. Generalizing from research described in the text, about what percent of the adults in dual-earner families would you expect to report being “uncomfortable” about the wife’s working outside the home? a. about 5% b. about 20% c. about 40% d. about 70% Answer: d Rationale: In one study cited in the text, 78% of the men and 65% of the women recognized the necessity of the wives’ income, but they were uncomfortable about it. Changing Perspectives: Living Together or Living Alone 116. In the United States today, about what percent of young people age 18-24 live at home with one or more parents? a. 10% b. 33% c. 50% d. 75% Answer: c Rationale: Approximately 50% of young people aged 18-24 in the United States live at home with one or more parents. This trend may reflect various factors such as economic challenges, education pursuits, and cultural shifts. 117. Generalizing from statistics reported in the text, you should conclude that the percentages of young adults in which of the following groups changes the LEAST between the ages of 20 and 35? a. percent who remain single b. percent who live with their spouse c. percent who live alone d. percent who live with others, including parents Answer: c Rationale: Figure 13-10 displays statistics that show that, although the percent of young adults who live with another person and the percent who live with a spouse increase dramatically during young adulthood, the percent who live alone changes only slightly. Figure 13-8 displays statistics that show that the percent of young adults who marry increases dramatically across the years of young adulthood. 118. Compared to previous decades, the average age at which people in the U. S. marry today has ________ for men and _________ for women. a. increased; increased b. decreased; decreased c. increased; decreased d. decreased; increased Answer: a Rationale: The average age at which people in the U.S. marry has increased for both men and women compared to previous decades. This trend is influenced by various factors such as changing societal norms, education, and career pursuits. 119. In the U. S. today, about what percent of unmarried young adults between the ages of 35 and 44 live with others who are not their spouse. a. 5% b. 25% c. 50% d. 75% Answer: b Rationale: Figure 13-10 shows that about one-fourth of young adults ages 35-44 live with others who are not their spouse. 120. Generalizing from statistics reported in the text, which of the following people would be expected to spend the most money on alcohol and luxury items? a. Maggie, who lives alone b. Lucy, who lives with a roommate c. Babs, who is married and lives with her husband d. None of the others answers is correct because spending habits are unrelated to housing arrangements Answer: a Rationale: According to the text, single people who live alone spend more on alcohol ($314 per year compared to $181), as well as on reading materials, health care, and tobacco products: They also are more likely to buy themselves luxuries, even in the face of a declining economy, than are married people and those who live with roommates. Current Issues: Juggling Work and Family Roles – The Special Challenge for Low-Income, Dual-Career Couples 121. According to a study by Perry-Jenkins on working-class, dual-income couples, about what percent of these families include an adult who works during “off-shift” hours (not in the 8-to-5 traditional shift) ? a. about 10% b. about 33% c. about 60% d. about 85% Answer: b Rationale: Approximately 33% of working-class, dual-income couples include an adult who works during "off-shift" hours, as indicated by the study by Perry-Jenkins. This highlights the prevalence of non-traditional working hours among certain demographic groups. 122. If adults in working-class, dual-income household choose to work in “off-shift” schedules, the reason usually is: a. more money b. less stress on the spouse c. less stress on the off-shift worker d. less need for childcare outside the home Answer: d Rationale: When both adults in a dual-income household work "off-shift" schedules, it typically means that they are staggering their work hours to minimize the need for childcare outside the home. This arrangement allows them to take care of their children without relying heavily on external childcare services. It's often a practical solution for families seeking to balance work and childcare responsibilities. 123. Suppose you study a group of working-class, dual-income couples who have just had a baby. In all of these families, one of the parents agrees to work “off-shift” in hours different from the traditional 8-to-5 workday. Generalizing from research described in the text, in the first year of your study, you would expect to see that the off-shift work was especially difficult for _______ and in the third year of your study, you would expect to observe that off-shift work was especially difficult for ___________. a. both parents; the mother b. both parents; the father c. the mother; both parents d. the father; both parents Answer: c Rationale: According to a study cited in the text, in the early stages of parenting when children are young, off-shift work was more detrimental to maternal health and well-being than to paternal health. Mothers working off-shifts got less sleep and had more difficulty juggling baby care with work demands, and they were more often depressed than those on regular work schedules. A year later, shift work for either the mother or father typically began to interfere with the couple’s relationship with each other—wives reported less marital love. By the second year of shift work, fathers also were reporting less marital love. True-False questions: Self, Family, and Work 124. According to Maslow’s theory, the need of self-actualization is always the most important need that adults strive to satisfy. Answer: False Rationale: Self-actualization is the highest level of Maslow’s need hierarchy, but lower-level needs, such as the physiological and safety needs, must be satisfied before the adult can focus on satisfying the need for self-actualization. 125. Conditions of worth express Rogers’s concern that parents will withhold their love and affection until the child behaves in the manner the parents desire. Answer: True Rationale: Conditions of worth, as proposed by Carl Rogers, refer to the conditions upon which a person's sense of self-worth is contingent. Rogers expressed concern that parents imposing conditions on their love and affection could hinder a child's ability to develop a healthy self-concept, as the child might feel loved only when meeting the parents' expectations. 126. When a young adult gets her first job and is able to become financially independent from her parents, this would be considered to be an example of functional independence. Answer: True Rationale: Functional independence refers to the ability to take care of oneself and meet basic needs without relying on others. Getting a job and achieving financial independence is a clear demonstration of functional independence, as the individual can now support themselves without assistance from their parents. 127. Workers whose jobs have high pay, good working conditions, and supportive coworkers would be expected to have higher levels of job satisfaction than those who work in interesting jobs that use their best talents. Answer: False Rationale: High pay, good working conditions, and supportive coworkers are all extrinsic job factors, whereas interesting work that is matched to the worker’s talents is an intrinsic job factor. Workers usually report the highest levels of job satisfaction when their jobs are characterized by positive intrinsic, rather than extrinsic, factors. Forming Close Relationships 128. To say that a friendship has mutuality means that friends care about each other, and to say that it has reciprocity implies that friendships are two-way, with both friends supporting each other. Answer: True Rationale: Mutuality in a friendship signifies that both individuals care about each other's well-being and invest in the relationship. Reciprocity emphasizes that the give-and-take dynamic is present, where both friends provide support, understanding, and companionship to each other, creating a balanced relationship. 129. According to Sternberg, when a relationship is characterized by a high degree of intimacy, passion, and decision/commitment, this defines the type of love called romantic love. Answer: False Rationale: When all 3 of these features are present, this is called consummate love. 130. If, in a particular culture, marriages are arranged such that families consider the benefits and limitations of each possible match for a daughter, the theory that would best explain this sort of behavior would be stimulus-value-role theory. Answer: True Rationale: Stimulus-value-role theory suggests that relationships develop through three stages: stimulus, where individuals are attracted based on initial factors; value, where compatibility and shared beliefs are assessed; and role, where individuals take on societal roles within the relationship. Arranged marriages often involve families considering various factors, including values and roles, which aligns with the principles of stimulus-value-role theory. 131. Although different cultures have widely varying marriage rituals, marriage-type arrangements are seen across cultures. Answer: True Rationale: Marriage is a universal social institution, but the rituals and customs surrounding it vary significantly across cultures. Despite these variations, the fundamental concept of forming a partnership recognized by society remains consistent. Thus, while the specifics of marriage rituals differ, the presence of marriage-type arrangements is a commonality across cultures. 132. The number of couples cohabiting today in the U. S. is more than 15 times larger than it was in 1970. Answer: True Rationale: Cohabitation, or living together without being married, has become increasingly common in the United States since the 1970s. The number of cohabiting couples has indeed risen dramatically over the decades, with estimates suggesting a more than fifteenfold increase since 1970, reflecting shifting attitudes towards relationships and marriage. 133. Although cohabiting heterosexual couples experience more tension than married couples, cohabiting gay male couples and lesbian couples have the highest level of tension of all. Answer: False Rationale: Cohabiting heterosexual couples exhibit more tension in their relationships than married couples, gay male couples, or lesbian female couples. 134. When cohabiting couples do marry, their marriages involve greater commitment and are less likely to end in divorce, compared to couples who marry without cohabiting first. Answer: False Rationale: Cohabiting couples who marry experience less commitment in their marriages and are more likely to divorce, compared to couples who marry without cohabiting first. 135. In most important ways, gay and lesbian couples are very much like heterosexual married couples. Answer: True Rationale: Research consistently indicates that gay and lesbian couples share many similarities with heterosexual married couples in terms of relationship dynamics, commitment, and shared responsibilities. They experience similar challenges and joys in their relationships, highlighting the commonalities in the experiences of couples regardless of sexual orientation. 136. In comparison to the 1950s and 1960s, today there are fewer numbers of young adults who are single (not married). Answer: False Rationale: There are more single adults today than in the 1950s and 1960s. The Family Life Cycle and Adult Development 137. When the first baby is born, women usually respond by adjusting their lifestyles to give priority to parenting and family roles, whereas men more often intensify their work efforts. Answer: True Rationale: Traditional gender roles often influence how individuals respond to the birth of a child. Women may tend to prioritize parenting and family roles, adjusting their lifestyles to accommodate childcare responsibilities. In contrast, men may feel pressure to intensify their work efforts to provide financial support for their growing family, reflecting societal expectations regarding breadwinning roles. 138. Parents respond differently to children at different ages, but generally if a parent responds well at one age, the parent will respond well at every age for that child. Answer: False Rationale: Parents who cope well with children at one stage of development may have trouble coping at other developmental stages, and parents who have difficulty at one stage may cope successfully at other stages of development. 139. The proportion of two-parent families has declined more than 50% in the past 40 years. Answer: False Rationale: As Figure 13-12 shows, the decline in two-parent families is from 85.2% in 1970 to 69.4% in 2010. The decline in two-parent families is thus 18.5%, not 50%. 140. In 2010, over 50% of all families were headed by a single parent, and of these, the large majority of single-parent families were headed by a woman. Answer: False Rationale: In 2010, about 26% of all families were headed by a single parent, with 25% being headed by a woman and 4% being headed by a man. 141. Of families living in poverty, the highest percentage is comprised of families headed by a single mother. Answer: True Rationale: Single mothers are disproportionately represented among families living in poverty due to various factors such as lower earning potential, lack of access to resources, and challenges associated with balancing work and childcare responsibilities alone. This demographic trend underscores the economic vulnerabilities faced by single-parent households, particularly those headed by women. 142. The biggest problem associated with the government’s current public assistance program for parents and children is that it perpetuates a “culture of generational poverty.” Answer: False Rationale: The aim of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act was to break the culture of poverty by helping welfare mothers become independent, self-sufficient workers. Its biggest problems include the lack of affordable child care and the low-income jobs at which most women in the program work. Thus, women are working, but they do not make enough money to pay for child care and support their families. 143. Single fathers tend to respond in the same ways as single mothers to the challenges of being a single parent. Answer: True Rationale: Single fathers, like single mothers, face numerous challenges in balancing parenting responsibilities with work and other obligations. While there may be differences in how individuals cope with these challenges based on personal circumstances, both single mothers and single fathers often exhibit resilience and adaptability in navigating the demands of single parenthood. The Occupational Cycle 144. According to Havighurst’s view of career development, children begin their occupational cycle as early as age 5, when they begin to identify with a worker who performs a job that interests them. Answer: True Rationale: Havighurst's theory of career development emphasizes that children start to form ideas about occupations and careers from a young age, around 5 years old. This early identification with particular roles or jobs sets the foundation for their future career aspirations and choices. 145. It has been suggested that one of the most successful strategies of management development is to discontinue formal mentoring programs for women and allow women to choose their own mentors, inside or outside of the company. Answer: False Rationale: It has been suggested that one of the most successful strategies of management development is to develop formal, company-based systems for mentoring programs for women. 146. The field that focuses on helping individuals identify jobs that would be a good match to their talents and interested is called occupational therapy. Answer: False Rationale: This field is called career counseling. 147. According to Holland’s theory of careers, a good way of selecting a career is to match the worker’s personality characteristics to the demands of the career. Answer: True Rationale: Holland's theory of career choice, known as the Holland Codes or RIASEC model, suggests that individuals will be most satisfied and successful in careers that align with their personality types. Matching one's personality characteristics to the characteristics of a career (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, or Conventional) can lead to greater job satisfaction and fulfillment. 148. Women and members of some minority groups are underrepresented in most lower-paying jobs, and overrepresented in most higher-paying jobs. Answer: False Rationale: Women and members of disadvantaged minority groups are underrepresented in most higher-paying jobs and are overrepresented in most lower-paying jobs. Work and Gender 149. The entry of women into careers, rather than full-time homemaking roles, began for the first time in U. S. history as the result of World War II. Answer: False Rationale: According to the text, women have historically worked outside the home. For example, in the early 1800s, it was typical for women and men to work together in a family business or on a farm. 150. In 1950, only about 10% of women were in the labor force; today that percentage is about 60%. Answer: False Rationale: In 1950, about one-third (33%) of women were in the labor force; today about 3 in 5 (60%) women work. 151. The greatest change in recent years regarding women and work is that Black women are coming into the labor force in much greater numbers than in previous decades. Answer: False Rationale: The largest shift is that White women are entering the labor force in greater numbers. Black and Hispanic women have always had a high labor force participation rate, and this has not changed much in recent decades. 152. Generally speaking, women who work are physically and psychologically healthier than women who don’t work. Answer: True Rationale: Research has shown that women who engage in paid employment often report better physical and mental health outcomes compared to women who do not work outside the home. Working can provide a sense of purpose, social interaction, financial independence, and opportunities for personal growth, all of which contribute to overall well-being. 153. Research suggests that women in managerial and professional positions are less willing to take risks than are their male counterparts. Answer: False Rationale: Although this statement represents a commonly held stereotype, this belief is a myth. Women managers are about equally likely to take risks as are men managers. 154. In most dual-career families, the woman still retains the majority of the responsibility for child care and household tasks. Answer: True Rationale: Despite advancements in gender equality, traditional gender roles and expectations often persist within dual-career families. Studies indicate that women still tend to take on a larger share of childcare and household responsibilities, even when both partners work outside the home. This phenomenon, known as the "second shift," can impact women's career advancement and overall well-being. 155. The Family Leave Act mandates that all workers can take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave to care for family members. Answer: True Rationale: The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) in the United States indeed allows eligible employees to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave in a 12-month period for certain family and medical reasons, including caring for a newborn, newly adopted child, or a seriously ill family member, without risking job loss. This provision aims to support employees in balancing work and family responsibilities. Short Answer questions: Self, Family, and Work 156. Give an example of how the “self as a worker” might interact with the “self as a family member” and the “self as an individual.” Answer: A person who values their career might experience conflict between spending long hours at work to excel in their profession (self as a worker) and fulfilling familial responsibilities such as attending their child's school events or spending quality time with their partner (self as a family member). Balancing these roles might require negotiating personal time for self-care or leisure activities (self as an individual). 157. What is self-actualization? According to Maslow’s theory, what must individuals accomplish before they can become self-actualized? Answer: Self-actualization is the realization of one's full potential and fulfillment of one's talents and abilities. According to Maslow, individuals must first fulfill lower-level needs such as physiological, safety, love/belonging, and esteem needs before they can become self-actualized. 158. In what ways are the concepts of “self-actualization” and “flow” alike? Answer: Both self-actualization and flow involve experiences of optimal functioning and fulfillment. Self-actualization is the realization of one's potential, while flow is a state of complete absorption and enjoyment in an activity where one's skills meet the challenges at hand, leading to a sense of heightened focus and satisfaction. 159. Give an example of how parents might impose conditions of worth on their child. Give an example of how parents could create a climate of unconditional positive regard. Answer: Parents might impose conditions of worth by only showing approval and affection when their child achieves specific goals, such as getting good grades or excelling in sports. On the other hand, parents can create a climate of unconditional positive regard by consistently expressing love and acceptance for their child regardless of their achievements or behaviors, fostering a sense of security and self-worth. 160. Give two examples of extrinsic job factors and two examples of intrinsic job factors. Which are more important in determining job satisfaction, intrinsic or extrinsic factors? Answer: Extrinsic job factors include salary and benefits, while intrinsic factors include job autonomy and opportunities for personal growth. Research suggests that intrinsic factors tend to have a stronger impact on job satisfaction than extrinsic factors, as they are more closely related to individuals' sense of fulfillment and motivation in their work. Forming Close Relationships 161. Describe what it means to say that adult friendships are characterized by reciprocity and mutuality. Answer: Reciprocity and mutuality in adult friendships mean that there is a balanced give-and-take dynamic where both parties contribute equally to the relationship. Reciprocity implies that both friends support each other, share responsibilities, and offer emotional or practical assistance when needed. Mutuality suggests that there is a shared understanding, trust, and respect between friends, leading to a sense of equality and cooperation in the friendship. 162. Explain the difference between companionate love and romantic love, as described by Robert Sternberg. Answer: Robert Sternberg distinguishes between companionate love and romantic love based on their components. Companionate love involves intimacy and commitment without the intense passion found in romantic love. It's characterized by deep affection, trust, and emotional closeness often found in long-term relationships or close friendships. On the other hand, romantic love includes all three components of intimacy, passion, and commitment. It's marked by intense feelings of attraction, desire, and infatuation commonly experienced in the early stages of a romantic relationship. 163. Explain the difference between intimacy and passion, as described by Robert Sternberg. Answer: Robert Sternberg identifies intimacy and passion as two components of love distinguished by their nature. Intimacy refers to the emotional closeness, bond, and connection between individuals. It involves sharing thoughts, feelings, and experiences, as well as providing support and understanding to each other. Passion, on the other hand, involves intense physical and emotional arousal, desire, and excitement. It encompasses romantic and sexual attraction, longing, and infatuation. 164. Describe what happens in each of the three stages of courtship, according to stimulus-value-role theory. Answer: According to stimulus-value-role theory, courtship progresses through three stages: stimulus, value, and role. In the stimulus stage, individuals are attracted to each other based on physical appearance, mannerisms, and initial interactions. This stage is primarily driven by external factors and initial impressions. In the value stage, individuals assess compatibility and compatibility based on shared beliefs, values, and interests. They begin to develop emotional connections and evaluate the potential for a deeper relationship. Finally, in the role stage, individuals establish specific roles and expectations within the relationship, such as commitment, partnership, and long-term goals. This stage involves building trust, understanding, and mutual respect as the relationship matures. 165. Give two examples of how culture defines what is an “appropriate” marriage in the U.S. today. How have such definitions been changing in U.S. culture over the past three decades? Answer: In the U.S., cultural definitions of "appropriate" marriage can vary based on societal norms and values. Two examples include: 1. Monogamy: Monogamous marriage, where one person is married to another at a time, is culturally accepted and legally recognized across the U.S. This norm emphasizes fidelity, commitment, and exclusivity in marital relationships. 2. Gender Equality: The idea of gender equality within marriage has become increasingly important in contemporary U.S. culture. This includes shared responsibilities, decision-making, and opportunities for both partners, reflecting changing attitudes towards traditional gender roles. Over the past three decades, cultural definitions of appropriate marriage in the U.S. have evolved in several ways: • Acceptance of LGBTQ+ Marriage: There has been a significant shift in attitudes towards LGBTQ+ marriage, leading to legal recognition and societal acceptance of same-sex marriage in many states. • Rise of Cohabitation: Cohabitation before marriage has become more prevalent, challenging traditional views on the necessity of marriage and the sequence of relationship milestones. • Focus on Individual Fulfillment: There's an increasing emphasis on individual fulfillment and happiness within marriages, with couples prioritizing personal growth, emotional satisfaction, and compatibility. These changes reflect broader shifts in societal values, attitudes towards marriage, and evolving family structures in the U.S. 166. Cite three ways that cohabiting couples are different from married couples, with respect to their happiness and adjustment. Answer: 1. Commitment Level: Cohabiting couples often have lower levels of commitment compared to married couples, which can affect their overall happiness and adjustment. 2. Financial Arrangements: Married couples tend to have clearer financial arrangements and shared responsibilities, which can contribute to greater stability and satisfaction compared to cohabiting couples. 3. Social Support: Married couples typically receive more social support and validation from family, friends, and society compared to cohabiting couples, which can influence their happiness and adjustment positively. 167. Describe two pieces of evidence that suggest that homosexual marriages, if legalized, would likely be similar to heterosexual marriages. Answer: 1. Relationship Dynamics: Research shows that the dynamics and challenges within same-sex relationships are comparable to those within heterosexual relationships, suggesting that legalizing homosexual marriages would likely result in similar marital dynamics. 2. Desire for Commitment: Studies indicate that homosexual couples, like heterosexual couples, often seek long-term commitment and stability in their relationships, indicating that legalizing homosexual marriages would likely lead to similar marital aspirations and outcomes. 168. Describe how the percentage of adults who remain “single” has changed throughout the last 100 years in the United States. Do rates appear to be increasing or decreasing at the present time? Answer: The percentage of adults remaining single has fluctuated over the past century in the United States. Initially, there was a trend towards early marriage, leading to lower rates of singlehood. However, in recent decades, there has been a notable increase in the proportion of adults remaining single due to various factors such as changing societal norms, economic independence, and delayed marriage. Currently, rates of singlehood appear to be increasing, with more individuals choosing to delay or forego marriage altogether in favor of other life choices. The Family Life Cycle and Adult Development 169. Compare and contrast how women and men typically deal with first-time parenthood. Answer: Women: • Women often experience physical and emotional changes during pregnancy and childbirth, leading to a strong bond with the baby even before birth. • They may tend to take on more caregiving responsibilities initially, particularly if they breastfeed, which can lead to a closer connection with the child. • Women may also experience postpartum challenges such as hormonal changes and postpartum depression, requiring additional support and adjustment. Men: • Men may take some time to adjust to the idea of fatherhood, especially if it's their first child, but they often develop a strong bond with the baby through caregiving activities and spending quality time together. • They may feel pressure to provide for the family financially, which can influence their approach to parenthood and involvement in caregiving tasks. • Men may also experience feelings of uncertainty or inadequacy in their new role as a father but can become more confident and engaged with time and support. 170. Describe the stages that most parents go through, as they raise their child in the period from conception to adulthood. Answer: 1. Anticipation and Preparation: This stage begins with the anticipation of the child's arrival, including preparing the home, attending prenatal appointments, and educating oneself about parenting. 2. New Parenthood: Upon the child's birth, parents enter the phase of new parenthood characterized by sleepless nights, adjusting to the baby's routine, and bonding with the newborn. 3. Early Childhood: During this stage, parents focus on meeting the child's basic needs, fostering development, and navigating challenges such as discipline and childcare arrangements. 4. Middle Childhood: As the child grows, parents support their education, social development, and extracurricular activities while maintaining boundaries and guiding behavior. 5. Adolescence: This stage involves navigating the challenges of adolescence, including puberty, peer influence, identity formation, and increased independence. 6. Young Adulthood: Parents support their child's transition to adulthood, which may include higher education, career decisions, and establishing independence. 7. Adulthood: In this stage, parents continue to provide support and guidance as their child establishes themselves in adulthood, potentially becoming grandparents themselves. 171. Comment on the accuracy of the following statement: If a parent has a hard time with a child in early childhood, those difficulties will most likely become worse as the child grows up. Answer: It's not entirely accurate to say that difficulties in early childhood will necessarily worsen as the child grows up. While challenges in parenting can indeed have long-term effects, there are various factors at play, including interventions, support systems, and the child's own development, that can mitigate or even resolve early difficulties over time. 172. Identify how the role of the typical single mother is similar to, and different from, the role of typical single father. Answer: The roles of single mothers and fathers are similar in that they both have to take on the responsibilities of providing for and nurturing their children alone. However, they may differ in societal expectations, support networks, and perhaps even in the division of labor within the household. Both may face similar challenges in terms of balancing work and parenting, but societal norms and support systems might vary for each. 173. In comparison to the Aid to Families With Dependent Children program, how is the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act different? Answer: The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) differs from the Aid to Families With Dependent Children (AFDC) program in several ways. PRWORA introduced significant changes, such as imposing work requirements on welfare recipients, placing time limits on benefits, and giving states more flexibility in administering welfare programs. Unlike AFDC, which provided cash assistance primarily based on financial need, PRWORA aimed to promote self-sufficiency through employment and limited government assistance. 174. What are two substantial problems associated with the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, in terms of the problems it poses for low-income mothers and their children? Answer: Two significant problems associated with PRWORA include the potential for increased poverty among low-income mothers and children due to the imposition of time limits on welfare benefits and the lack of adequate support for childcare. Additionally, the emphasis on work requirements may overlook the barriers that prevent some individuals, particularly single mothers, from securing stable employment, thus exacerbating their financial insecurity. The Occupational Cycle 175. Describe the main features of Robert Havighurst’s developmental model of the career cycle. Answer: Robert Havighurst's developmental model of the career cycle emphasizes that career development is influenced by various factors, including biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences. According to Havighurst, individuals pass through specific stages in their career development, including exploration, establishment, maintenance, and disengagement. Each stage involves different tasks and challenges that individuals must navigate to achieve career satisfaction and success. This model highlights the importance of adapting to changing circumstances and developmental needs throughout one's career journey. 176. How are most careers today different from the way that Havighurst conceptualized career development when he proposed his model? Answer: Today, most careers differ from Havighurst's conceptualization of career development in several ways. Firstly, careers today are often characterized by frequent job changes and transitions, whereas Havighurst's model implied more linear and stable career paths. Additionally, modern careers are influenced by rapid technological advancements, globalization, and evolving job market demands, aspects not extensively considered in Havighurst's model. 177. Suppose that 14-year-old Maria decided that she wanted to become a nurse. Identify two formal and two informal steps she could take to help her prepare for this career. Answer: Formal steps: 1. Enroll in relevant science and health courses in high school to build a strong academic foundation. 2. Research nursing programs at universities or colleges and plan to meet their prerequisites. Informal steps: 1. Volunteer at a local hospital or healthcare facility to gain exposure to the nursing profession. 2. Shadowing a nurse to observe their daily duties and gain insights into the profession firsthand. 178. Describe three specific things that a mentor can do to help a younger associate progress successfully along his or her career path. Answer: 1. Provide guidance and advice based on their own experiences, helping the younger associate navigate challenges and make informed decisions. 2. Offer constructive feedback and support to enhance the younger associate's skills and professional development. 3. Act as a role model, demonstrating successful career behaviors and values, inspiring the younger associate to aspire for growth and achievement. 179. Why do women sometimes have a harder time finding a mentor than men do? Answer: Women sometimes face challenges in finding mentors due to various factors such as gender bias, stereotypes, and cultural norms. Additionally, women may encounter fewer opportunities for networking and advancement in male-dominated industries or leadership positions, limiting their access to potential mentors. 180. Describe why Holland’s theory of careers is sometimes called a “person-job fit” model. How does this theory suggest that people should be matched to jobs? Answer: Holland's theory of careers is often referred to as a "person-job fit" model because it emphasizes matching individuals' personality types with job environments that suit their preferences and characteristics. According to the theory, individuals are more likely to succeed and experience job satisfaction when their personality traits align with the dominant characteristics of their chosen occupation. Therefore, the theory suggests that people should be matched to jobs that complement their interests, abilities, and values for optimal performance and fulfillment. 181. Cite two reasons why women are underrepresented in high-paying careers. Answer: 1. Gender stereotypes and biases often steer women away from pursuing high-paying careers, leading to fewer female candidates in fields such as engineering, finance, or technology. 2. Structural barriers such as lack of access to mentorship, networking opportunities, and flexible work arrangements can hinder women's advancement in high-paying careers, contributing to their underrepresentation in these fields. 182. Consider four time periods in U.S. history: during WW II, the 1950s (just after WW II), the 1970s, and the present day. How has the percentage of women in the labor force differed in these four different periods? Answer: During WW II, the percentage of women in the labor force saw a significant increase due to the need for workers while men were away at war. In the 1950s, there was a slight decline as societal norms pushed women back into more traditional roles after the war. In the 1970s, with the rise of the women's liberation movement and legislative changes such as the Equal Pay Act and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, more women entered the labor force. Presently, the percentage of women in the labor force has continued to increase, although it still lags behind that of men in certain industries and positions. 183. Describe two reasons why women in the U. S. today make about $.78 for every $1.00 earned by men. Answer: One reason for the gender pay gap is occupational segregation, where women are often clustered in lower-paying industries and occupations compared to men. Another reason is the motherhood penalty, where women who have children face reduced earnings due to factors such as taking time off for caregiving responsibilities and encountering workplace bias. 184. How does taking on multiple roles associated with holding a job while caring for a family typically impact a working woman, both physically and psychologically? Answer: Physically, balancing work and family responsibilities can lead to fatigue, stress, and even physical health issues due to the demands of multitasking and time constraints. Psychologically, it can result in feelings of guilt, burnout, and heightened stress levels as women navigate the pressure to excel in both their professional and personal lives. 185. Describe two myths about how women compare to men as workers. What is the truth about each of these myths? Answer: Myth 1: Women are less committed to their careers than men. Truth: Research shows that women are equally committed to their careers but may face barriers such as the motherhood penalty and workplace bias. Myth 2: Women are less capable leaders than men. Truth: There is no evidence to support this claim, as women demonstrate leadership skills and qualities as effectively as men. Gender stereotypes and biases often influence perceptions of leadership abilities. 186. Describe two advantages and one disadvantage associated with typical dual-career families. Answer: Advantage 1: Dual-career families often enjoy higher combined household incomes, which can lead to greater financial stability and opportunities for economic growth. Advantage 2: Both partners in a dual-career family can experience personal fulfillment and career advancement, contributing to overall satisfaction and well-being. Disadvantage: Balancing career demands with family responsibilities can lead to increased stress, strain on relationships, and difficulties in managing work-life balance. 187: When both the mother and father in a family work, how are household and child care responsibilities usually carved up? Answer: In families where both parents work, household and childcare responsibilities are often divided based on individual preferences, schedules, and abilities. Some families opt for a more equitable distribution of tasks, while others may allocate responsibilities based on traditional gender roles or practical considerations such as work hours and commute times. 188: Identify three ways in which working outside the home can benefit working mothers. Answer: 1. Increased financial independence: Working outside the home provides working mothers with their own source of income, enabling them to contribute financially to their families' needs and goals. This financial independence can offer a sense of empowerment and security, allowing mothers to make choices that align with their priorities and aspirations. 2. Career advancement and personal fulfillment: Pursuing a career outside the home allows working mothers to advance professionally, develop new skills, and pursue their passions. Achieving success in their chosen field can boost self-esteem and provide a sense of fulfillment, contributing to overall well-being and happiness. 3. Role modeling for children: By working outside the home, mothers can serve as positive role models for their children, demonstrating the value of hard work, ambition, and perseverance. Seeing their mother balance work and family responsibilities can instill important values of resilience, determination, and equality in children, preparing them for success in their own lives. Essay questions: Self, Family, and Work 189. Both Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers identified self-actualization as a goal of development. Describe how each theorist envisioned the pursuit of self-actualization, identifying what the individual must do in order to achieve this state. Then comment on how the concept of “flow” relates to the concept of self-actualization. Answer: Abraham Maslow conceptualized self-actualization as the realization of one's full potential, characterized by a sense of fulfillment, creativity, and personal growth. According to Maslow, individuals must satisfy lower-level needs such as physiological, safety, love, and esteem before self-actualization becomes possible. To achieve self-actualization, individuals need to engage in self-exploration, pursue personal interests, and embrace authenticity by aligning their actions with their core values and beliefs. Carl Rogers, on the other hand, viewed self-actualization as an ongoing process of becoming the most authentic version of oneself. Rogers emphasized the importance of unconditional positive regard, empathy, and congruence in fostering self-actualization. To achieve this state, individuals must engage in self-exploration, strive for personal growth, and develop a deep understanding of their inner experiences and emotions. Rogers believed that self-actualization occurs when individuals experience congruence between their self-concept and their actual experiences. The concept of "flow," introduced by psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, relates closely to self-actualization. Flow refers to a state of complete absorption and engagement in an activity, where individuals experience intense focus, enjoyment, and a sense of timelessness. When in flow, individuals are fully immersed in challenging tasks that match their skills, leading to a sense of fulfillment and personal growth. This state shares similarities with self-actualization as both involve maximizing one's potential and experiencing intrinsic satisfaction and fulfillment. 190. Identify three different types of identity and describe what emerging adults must do in order to achieve each type. Answer: Three different types of identity include: 1. Personal Identity: This involves an understanding of oneself as a unique individual with distinct traits, values, and beliefs. To achieve personal identity, emerging adults must engage in self-reflection, explore their interests and values, and establish a sense of autonomy and self-direction. 2. Social Identity: Social identity refers to the aspects of one's self-concept that are derived from membership in social groups. To achieve social identity, emerging adults must navigate various social contexts, develop meaningful relationships, and integrate their sense of belonging within different communities or social circles. 3. Vocational Identity: Vocational identity relates to one's career aspirations, values, and goals. To achieve vocational identity, emerging adults must explore different career paths, gain relevant experiences through internships or jobs, and align their career choices with their interests, skills, and values. Developing a clear sense of purpose and direction in the professional realm is essential for vocational identity formation. 191. Considering your current role as a student, identify two factors that would be considered to be intrinsic factors that are associated with this role and two factors that would be considered to be extrinsic factors. If the role of being a student is comparable to the role of being a worker, which set of factors – intrinsic or extrinsic – do you think would be more closely associated with your satisfaction in your “student” role? Answer: Intrinsic factors associated with the role of being a student may include: 1. Interest in Learning: Genuine curiosity and passion for acquiring knowledge and skills. 2. Personal Growth: The desire for self-improvement, intellectual development, and academic achievement. Extrinsic factors associated with the role of being a student may include: 1. External Recognition: Grades, awards, or recognition from teachers or peers. 2. External Pressure: Expectations from parents, society, or the need to meet academic requirements. In the student role, intrinsic factors like interest in learning and personal growth are likely to be more closely associated with satisfaction. While extrinsic factors such as external recognition and pressure may influence motivation and performance, intrinsic factors typically drive long-term engagement and fulfillment in the learning process. Therefore, intrinsic factors are likely to have a greater impact on overall satisfaction in the student role. 192. Describe how a job that is challenging, interesting, and involves personal growth can help a person reach a stage of self-actualization. Answer: A job that is challenging, interesting, and involves personal growth can significantly contribute to a person's journey towards self-actualization. Self-actualization, according to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, is the realization of one's full potential and the desire for self-improvement and personal growth. In the context of employment, such a job provides opportunities for individuals to constantly learn, develop new skills, and overcome obstacles, which are essential components of self-actualization. When individuals are engaged in work that challenges them intellectually, stimulates their curiosity, and allows them to pursue their passions, they are more likely to experience a sense of fulfillment and purpose in their lives, ultimately leading them towards self-actualization. Forming Close Relationships 193. Using Sternberg’s model, describe how does friendship in young adulthood differ from romantic love? Answer: According to Sternberg's triangular theory of love, friendship and romantic love differ primarily in the components that characterize them. In friendship, intimacy is the dominant component, characterized by feelings of closeness, trust, and emotional support between individuals. Friendship typically lacks the passion and commitment components found in romantic love. In contrast, romantic love encompasses all three components of intimacy, passion, and commitment. While friendship in young adulthood may involve deep emotional connections and mutual support, it often lacks the intense romantic and sexual attraction and the long-term commitment that characterize romantic love. 194: Identify and briefly describe Sternberg’s three components of love and then describe how these three components combine to form the four different types of love his theory specifies. Answer: Sternberg's triangular theory of love identifies three components of love: 1. Intimacy: Refers to feelings of closeness, connectedness, and emotional support between individuals. 2. Passion: Involves the physical and emotional arousal, desire, and attraction experienced in a relationship. 3. Commitment: Entails the decision to maintain and sustain a long-term relationship, including the willingness to work through challenges and conflicts. These three components combine in various ways to form the four different types of love in Sternberg's theory: 1. Liking (Friendship Love): Characterized by high levels of intimacy without passion or commitment. 2. Infatuation (Passion Love): Marked by intense passion without intimacy or commitment. 3. Empty Love: Defined by commitment without intimacy or passion. 4. Consummate Love: Represents the ideal form of love, encompassing all three components—intimacy, passion, and commitment—in a balanced and harmonious manner. 195. According to Sternberg’s theory of love, identify the form of love that you believe would most likely be involved in the first year of an arranged marriage. Why do you think this form of love would be the most likely to evolve? Answer: In the context of an arranged marriage, the form of love most likely involved in the first year would be "consummate love," as per Sternberg's theory. Consummate love encompasses intimacy, passion, and commitment, which are qualities often aspired to in such partnerships. In arranged marriages, where individuals may not initially have strong romantic feelings for each other, there's potential for intimacy and commitment to develop over time due to shared experiences and efforts to make the marriage work. 196. In a society in which most marriages are arranged by families without regard for the feelings of the bride and groom, do you think Sternberg’s theory of love or the stimulus-value-role theory provides the better explanation for choosing a partner to marry? Explain your answer. Answer: In a society where arranged marriages are predominant, the stimulus-value-role theory might provide a better explanation for partner selection than Sternberg's theory of love. This is because in arranged marriages, initial attraction (stimulus) may not be the primary factor in partner selection, but rather factors such as family background, social status, and cultural compatibility (values and roles) might take precedence. Over time, as the couple grows together, Sternberg's theory might become more applicable as love can develop through shared experiences and commitment. 197. Describe the population trends regarding cohabitation. What factors seem to be fueling these trends? Answer: Population trends regarding cohabitation have shown an increase in recent years. Factors fueling these trends include changing societal norms regarding marriage and relationships, economic factors such as housing costs and financial independence, a desire for greater personal autonomy, and shifts in attitudes towards marriage and commitment. Additionally, cohabitation is increasingly seen as a precursor or alternative to marriage, allowing couples to test compatibility before formalizing their commitment. 198. Considering the past three decades, are cultural definitions and prescriptions about marriage becoming more strict or more flexible? Provide two examples that demonstrate your conclusion. Answer: Over the past three decades, cultural definitions and prescriptions about marriage have generally become more flexible rather than strict. Example 1: Legalization of Same-Sex Marriage • One significant example is the increasing acceptance and legalization of same-sex marriage in many countries. This shift demonstrates a move towards more inclusive definitions of marriage, expanding the traditional understanding beyond heterosexual unions. Example 2: Rising Rates of Cohabitation • Another indicator of increasing flexibility is the rising rates of cohabitation before marriage. In many societies, cohabitation is no longer stigmatized and is considered a legitimate precursor to marriage, reflecting a departure from strict adherence to traditional marital norms. 199. Suppose that James tells his parents that he and his girlfriend are moving in together, and that they plan to marry two years in the future. In light of the research presented in the text, what should James’s parents tell him about how living together might likely affect his marital happiness? Answer: James's parents should inform him that research suggests living together before marriage might impact his marital happiness in various ways. Studies indicate that couples who cohabit before marriage tend to have higher rates of divorce compared to those who do not. This phenomenon, known as the "cohabitation effect," suggests that the experience of cohabitation may influence subsequent marital stability negatively. Additionally, research suggests that cohabiting couples may face unique challenges in their relationships, such as unclear expectations, decreased commitment, and less communication about important issues like finances and future goals. These factors could potentially impact James's marital happiness if not addressed effectively. 200. Whose relationships are gay and lesbian cohabiting couples more like: heterosexual cohabiting couples or heterosexual married couples? Cite specific examples that support your conclusion. Answer: Gay and lesbian cohabiting couples' relationships share more similarities with heterosexual married couples rather than heterosexual cohabiting couples. Example 1: Commitment Levels • Research indicates that gay and lesbian cohabiting couples often exhibit levels of commitment similar to or even higher than those of heterosexual married couples. This commitment is reflected in factors such as relationship longevity, joint decision-making, and shared financial responsibilities. Example 2: Legal and Social Recognition • In many jurisdictions where same-sex marriage is legally recognized, gay and lesbian cohabiting couples have the option to formalize their relationships through marriage, just like heterosexual couples. This legal recognition affords them similar rights, responsibilities, and societal validation as married heterosexual couples, distinguishing them from heterosexual cohabiting couples who may lack such formal acknowledgment. 201. During the past 80 years, when have there been the largest, and the smallest, percentage of the adult population who were single? What social and economic factors are involved in producing a relatively greater, or smaller, percentage of single adults? Answer: The largest percentage of the adult population who were single in the past 80 years was likely during periods of significant social change, such as the 1960s and 1970s in many Western countries, particularly in the aftermath of movements like women's liberation and increased economic independence. Conversely, the smallest percentage of single adults might have been during times of strong cultural emphasis on marriage and traditional family structures, such as the post-World War II era. Social and economic factors contributing to a greater percentage of single adults include: 1. Economic independence: When individuals, especially women, have greater economic opportunities and independence, they may delay or forgo marriage in favor of pursuing their careers or personal goals. 2. Changing social norms: Shifts in societal attitudes towards marriage, family, and individualism can influence people to prioritize personal fulfillment over traditional familial roles. 3. Urbanization and mobility: In urban areas with diverse social networks and career opportunities, individuals may delay marriage or remain single due to a greater focus on personal growth and career advancement. Conversely, factors leading to a smaller percentage of single adults may include: 1. Cultural and religious norms: Societies where cultural or religious norms strongly emphasize marriage and family may have lower rates of singlehood. 2. Economic factors: In economically disadvantaged areas or during periods of economic instability, individuals may marry earlier for financial stability and support. 3. Legal and policy frameworks: Access to legal benefits and protections for married couples, such as tax incentives or healthcare benefits, can incentivize marriage and reduce singlehood rates. 202. Considering how the percentage of adults who remain “single” has changed during the last 100 years, identify three different social conditions that would likely increase the percentage of “single” versus “married” people at a given point in time in a given society. Answer: Three different social conditions that could increase the percentage of single versus married people at a given point in time in a society include: 1. Women's empowerment: Increased opportunities for women in education and the workforce, along with greater reproductive rights, can lead to a higher percentage of single individuals as women prioritize personal and professional goals over traditional family roles. 2. Changing attitudes towards marriage: Societal shifts towards individualism and autonomy, accompanied by a decline in the social stigma associated with singlehood, can lead more people to choose single lifestyles over marriage. 3. Economic instability: During periods of economic uncertainty or downturns, individuals may delay marriage due to financial concerns, preferring to focus on securing stable employment and financial independence before committing to marriage. The Family Life Cycle and Adult Development 203. How do mothers and fathers typically adjust to the birth of their first child? For whom do you believe the adjustment is greater, mothers or fathers? Explain your answer. Answer: Mothers and fathers typically experience significant adjustments upon the birth of their first child, albeit in different ways. Mothers often undergo physical and emotional changes during pregnancy and childbirth, which continue into the postpartum period. They may experience hormonal fluctuations, sleep deprivation, and the demands of breastfeeding, which can lead to heightened stress and adjustment challenges. Fathers, on the other hand, may face psychological adjustments as they navigate their new role as a parent and provider. They may experience increased responsibility, financial concerns, and changes in their relationship dynamics with their partner. Overall, while both parents face adjustments, the transition tends to be more pronounced for mothers due to the physical and emotional toll of childbirth and the immediate postpartum period. Additionally, societal expectations and cultural norms often place greater emphasis on mothers as primary caregivers, which can further heighten their adjustment challenges. However, it's essential to recognize that the extent of adjustment can vary significantly based on individual circumstances and support systems available to each parent. 204. Identify three factors that are associated with successful adjustment to parenthood. How might these factors also be linked to the parenting styles that come to characterize how parents relate to their child? Answer: Three factors associated with successful adjustment to parenthood are social support, emotional readiness, and realistic expectations. Social support, such as from family or friends, provides guidance and assistance, reducing stress. Emotional readiness involves being prepared for the challenges and joys of parenthood, which fosters resilience. Realistic expectations involve understanding that parenthood isn't always easy and accepting both the joys and challenges it brings. These factors can influence parenting styles; for example, parents with strong social support may adopt a more authoritative style, while those lacking support might lean towards authoritarian or permissive styles. 205. Discuss how the rate of single parenthood has changed over the last several decades. What social forces encourage this rate to increase, rather than to decrease? What social forces would cause the rate to decrease? Answer: Over the last several decades, the rate of single parenthood has increased significantly. Social forces encouraging this increase include changing societal norms around marriage and family structures, such as greater acceptance of divorce and non-traditional families. Economic factors like financial independence for women have also played a role. Policies supporting single parents, such as welfare programs, might inadvertently incentivize single parenthood. Forces that could decrease the rate include improved access to contraception and family planning education, stronger support for marriage and family stability, and economic policies that reduce financial strain on families. 206. How are single mothers typically different from single fathers? Which group, single mothers or single fathers, do you think has the harder job in raising children? Why? Answer: Single mothers and single fathers often face different challenges. Single mothers tend to face greater financial strain due to the gender pay gap and are more likely to be the primary caregivers. Single fathers may encounter challenges related to societal expectations around masculinity and parenting roles. Determining which group has the harder job in raising children is subjective and depends on various factors such as individual circumstances, support networks, and personal strengths. Overall, it's difficult to generalize, as both single mothers and single fathers face unique difficulties in raising children, and the difficulty can vary greatly depending on the situation. 207. Why might the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) actually do little to reverse the welfare and poverty cycle of single parents? What are the two primary challenges it faces in overcoming this cycle of poverty? Answer: The PRWORA might do little to reverse the welfare and poverty cycle of single parents primarily due to its focus on work requirements and time limits, which may not adequately address the complex barriers single parents face in finding stable employment and escaping poverty. Additionally, the lack of sufficient support for childcare and education poses a significant challenge for single parents striving to attain economic stability, as these resources are crucial for both securing and maintaining employment. 208. How does the experience of being a single-parent mother typically differ from that of being a single-parent father? How are these experiences similar? Answer: The experience of being a single-parent mother typically differs from that of being a single-parent father in terms of societal expectations, as single mothers often face more stigma and pressure to balance caregiving responsibilities with work obligations. Financial challenges may also differ, with single mothers typically experiencing greater economic strain due to the gender wage gap and higher likelihood of being the primary caregivers. However, both single-parent mothers and fathers share similar experiences of juggling multiple roles, facing limited time and resources, and striving to provide for their children amidst various challenges. The Occupational Cycle 209. Describe Havighurst's stages of vocational life. Identify your own vocational stage, according to Havighurst’s model, and provide personal reflections on your involvement with work at this point in your life. Answer: Havighurst proposed six stages of vocational life, spanning from childhood to retirement. These stages include: 1. Preparation for work: During adolescence, individuals begin to explore their interests and talents, preparing for eventual career choices. 2. Entering the workforce: Typically occurs in late teens or early twenties, where individuals secure their first job or begin higher education. 3. Establishing oneself in the field: This stage involves finding stability in one's career, usually in the late twenties or early thirties. 4. Maintaining performance: As individuals progress through their careers, they focus on maintaining competence and adapting to changes in their field. 5. Advancing in the field: In mid-career, individuals strive for advancement, seeking promotions or pursuing further education. 6. Post-career activities: In retirement, individuals engage in activities that provide meaning and fulfillment beyond their professional lives. According to Havighurst's model, I would currently be in the "Establishing oneself in the field" stage. In my late twenties, I've gained some experience in my career and am working towards stability and growth. At this point, I find myself deeply engaged in developing my skills, building professional relationships, and striving for advancement opportunities. While challenges exist, I'm motivated by the prospect of carving out a fulfilling and meaningful career path. 210. Why do many people who enter their first jobs experience reality shock? Discuss three things that young adults can do to reduce the risk of reality shock upon entering their chosen career. Answer: Many individuals experience reality shock when they enter their first jobs due to disparities between their expectations and the actual demands of the workplace. Three strategies to reduce the risk of reality shock include: 1. Seeking internships or part-time work: Engaging in internships or part-time positions related to one's chosen career path provides valuable exposure to the realities of the workplace. This hands-on experience can help individuals better understand the expectations and dynamics of their chosen field before fully committing to a job. 2. Networking and mentorship: Building connections with professionals in the field through networking and seeking mentorship can provide insights into the realities of the job and offer guidance on navigating challenges. Mentors can offer advice, share their experiences, and help mentees prepare for the transition into the workforce. 3. Researching and setting realistic expectations: Conducting thorough research about the industry, job role, and company culture can help individuals set realistic expectations about their first job. Understanding the typical responsibilities, work environment, and potential challenges can mitigate the shock of entering the workforce. By implementing these strategies, young adults can better prepare themselves for the transition into their chosen careers and reduce the likelihood of experiencing reality shock. 211. Identify three functions that mentors can serve. Do you think mentors are more important for people in more complex, or less complex, jobs? What mentoring functions might be particularly important in jobs of each of these types? Answer: Mentors can serve various functions, including: 1. Providing guidance and advice: Mentors offer valuable insights and advice based on their own experiences, helping mentees navigate challenges, make informed decisions, and develop professionally. 2. Offering support and encouragement: Mentors provide emotional support and encouragement, boosting mentees' confidence, morale, and resilience, especially during difficult times or transitions in their careers. 3. Facilitating networking and skill development: Mentors help mentees expand their professional networks, connect with industry contacts, and develop essential skills and competencies needed for success in their chosen field. Mentorship can be beneficial for individuals in both complex and less complex jobs. In more complex roles, mentors can offer guidance on navigating intricate challenges, understanding industry nuances, and developing advanced skills. In less complex jobs, mentors still play a crucial role in providing foundational support, helping individuals adapt to the workplace culture, and identifying opportunities for growth and advancement. However, the specific mentoring functions deemed most important may vary depending on the complexity of the job. In complex roles, mentors might focus more on providing technical guidance, strategic advice, and exposure to higher-level decision-making processes. In less complex roles, mentors may emphasize foundational skill development, cultural integration, and career planning tailored to the individual's career trajectory within the organization. 212. Describe how a career counselor could use Holland’s theory of careers to provide career advice to a client. What should the counselor do, and what kind of advice would the counselor give? Answer: A career counselor could utilize Holland's theory of careers, also known as the Holland Codes or RIASEC theory, to provide tailored career advice to a client. Firstly, the counselor would administer a career assessment test based on Holland's theory to identify the client's dominant personality types among Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional (RIASEC). Once the dominant types are identified, the counselor can suggest career paths that align with these personality types. For example, if a client scores high on Social and Artistic types, the counselor might recommend careers in counseling, teaching, or the arts. Additionally, the counselor would consider the client's interests, skills, and values alongside the RIASEC results to provide comprehensive advice. The counselor may also explore how the client's personality types interact and suggest career environments that suit those dynamics. 213. Describe two reasons why women and members of some disadvantaged minority groups are overrepresented in lower-paying, lower-status jobs. Do you think social conditions in the U. S. are changing so that this over-representation will become less in the next decade? Explain the reasoning behind your projection. Answer: Two reasons for the overrepresentation of women and members of disadvantaged minority groups in lower-paying, lower-status jobs include historical discrimination and systemic barriers to education and career advancement. Discriminatory hiring practices and cultural biases have often limited opportunities for these groups, pushing them into roles with less prestige and compensation. Additionally, socioeconomic factors such as limited access to quality education and resources perpetuate this cycle. As for whether social conditions in the U.S. will change to reduce this overrepresentation in the next decade, it's a complex issue. While there have been strides in addressing systemic inequalities through policies and awareness campaigns, significant change may take time. Efforts such as diversity initiatives, educational reforms, and advocacy for equal pay and opportunities can gradually mitigate these disparities. However, dismantling deeply ingrained societal biases and addressing economic disparities will require sustained efforts across multiple sectors. While progress may occur, complete elimination of overrepresentation within a decade may be optimistic without comprehensive, systemic changes. Work and Gender 214. Describe the changing demographics of the workplace with respect to the percentage of White, Black, and Hispanic women who are working today, as compared to 1950. Explain why these shifts in the percent of women who work have occurred. Answer: Since 1950, there have been significant shifts in the demographics of the workplace, particularly regarding the percentage of White, Black, and Hispanic women who are working. Overall, there has been an increase in the workforce participation of women across all racial and ethnic groups. However, the degree of increase and specific trends vary among different groups. For instance, White women's workforce participation has seen substantial growth since 1950, reflecting changing social norms, economic necessity, and increased educational opportunities. Similarly, Black and Hispanic women have also experienced increased workforce participation, albeit with different trajectories influenced by factors such as civil rights movements, immigration patterns, and access to education and employment opportunities. These shifts in the percentage of women in the workforce have occurred due to several factors, including advancements in gender equality, changes in family structures, economic factors necessitating dual-income households, and legislative changes promoting equal employment opportunities. Additionally, societal attitudes towards women's roles in the workforce have evolved over time, contributing to increased acceptance and participation. However, despite these advancements, disparities persist, particularly concerning wage gaps and representation in leadership positions, indicating ongoing challenges in achieving full gender equality in the workplace. 215. What is the text’s conclusion about the link between managing multiple roles and physical and psychological health? Do you agree that this conclusion is accurate? Why or why not? Answer: The text concludes that managing multiple roles can have significant impacts on both physical and psychological health. It suggests that juggling various responsibilities such as work, family, and personal life can lead to increased stress levels, exhaustion, and potential health problems. This conclusion appears accurate as balancing multiple roles can indeed put a strain on an individual's well-being, often leading to burnout and decreased overall health. 216. What are the primary advantages and disadvantages associated with being a dual-income couple with children? Answer: The primary advantages of being a dual-income couple with children include increased financial stability, shared responsibilities in child-rearing and household duties, and the potential for career advancement for both partners. However, some disadvantages may include challenges in managing work-life balance, potential childcare costs, and increased stress due to the juggling of multiple responsibilities. 217. How do men and women in dual-career families typically split up housework and child care responsibilities? Who does the most work, and why? Answer: In dual-career families, housework and childcare responsibilities are often split based on traditional gender roles. Women typically take on a larger share of household chores and child-rearing duties, despite both partners being employed. This division of labor often persists due to societal expectations and norms regarding gender roles and responsibilities. Women tend to do the most work in this regard, largely due to historical gender norms and expectations that prioritize women's involvement in caregiving and domestic tasks. 218. In the context of dual-career families, what does the phrase “second shift” refer to? Is there evidence that suggests that the “second shift” is real, or is it imaginary? Answer: The phrase "second shift" in the context of dual-career families refers to the additional domestic responsibilities and chores that primarily fall on women after they return home from their paid jobs. It encompasses tasks such as cooking, cleaning, childcare, and other household duties that often require significant time and effort. There is ample evidence to suggest that the "second shift" is real rather than imaginary. Studies consistently show that even when both partners work outside the home, women tend to spend significantly more time on household chores and childcare compared to men. This phenomenon contributes to gender inequality within households and can also impact women's career advancement opportunities. 219. In the United States today, who do you think has the easier time entering a professional career, a man or a woman? Explain your answer by stating facts and statistics that support your point of view. Answer: In the United States today, men generally have an easier time entering a professional career compared to women, although there have been strides towards gender equality in recent years. Despite legal advancements and societal shifts, gender disparities persist in various aspects of the professional world. According to statistics, women are underrepresented in leadership positions across many industries. For example, only a small percentage of CEOs in Fortune 500 companies are women. Additionally, the gender pay gap persists, with women earning less than men on average for the same work. Moreover, women often face challenges such as gender bias, discrimination, and the expectation to balance work and family responsibilities disproportionately. While efforts are being made to address these inequalities, the existing data suggests that men still have advantages in entering and advancing within professional careers in the United States. Test Bank for Understanding Human Development Wendy L. Dunn, Grace J. Craig 9780205989522, 9780135164204, 9780205233878, 9780205753079

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