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Chapter 1: Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis Multiple Choice Questions 1. Freud first used the term “psychoanalysis” in A) 1795. B) 1959. C) 1896. D) 1869. Answer: C Rationale: Freud first used the term "psychoanalysis" in 1896 to describe both his theory of the mind and his therapeutic techniques. 2. Some of Freud’s faith in the biological origins of consciousness may be traced to his early work with A) Brucke. B) Fliess. C) Breuer. D) Ernst. Answer: A Rationale: Freud's early work with Ernst Brucke, a physiologist, influenced his belief in the biological basis of consciousness and its relation to the nervous system. 3. Who first demonstrated that it was possible to induce or relieve hysterical symptoms with hypnotic suggestion? A) Ferenczi B) Charcot C) Freud D) James Answer: B Rationale: Jean-Martin Charcot, a French neurologist, first demonstrated that it was possible to induce or relieve hysterical symptoms with hypnotic suggestion, which greatly influenced Freud's later work. 4. Freud assumed that all thought and behavior A) have meaning. B) occur randomly. C) occur spontaneously. D) can be attributed to a single cause. Answer: A Rationale: Freud believed that all thought and behavior have meaning, even if the meaning is not immediately apparent. 5. When a conscious thought or feeling seems unrelated to the thoughts and feelings that preceded it, the connections are present but A) undetermined. B) preconscious. C) unconscious. D) subconscious. Answer: C Rationale: Freud suggested that when a conscious thought or feeling seems unrelated to preceding thoughts and feelings, the connections are present but lie in the unconscious mind. 6. Freud described these as “the ultimate cause of all activity”: A) impulses. B) Thanatos. C) repression. D) tension reduction. Answer: A Rationale: Freud believed that impulses, particularly sexual and aggressive ones, were the ultimate driving force behind all human behavior. 7. Freud ascribed which four components to impulse? A) id, ego, superego, libido B) Eros, Thanatos, Life, Death C) source, aim, impetus, object D) unconscious, subconscious, preconscious, conscious Answer: C Rationale: Freud ascribed the components of source, aim, impetus, and object to impulse, describing how these factors contribute to the expression of unconscious desires. 8. A normal, healthy behavior pattern is basically aimed at A) fulfilling sexual needs. B) making unconscious material conscious. C) reducing tension. D) sustaining existing defense mechanisms. Answer: C Rationale: According to Freud, normal, healthy behavior is aimed at reducing tension, which can be achieved through various means, including fulfilling basic needs and desires. 9. The process by which the available libidinal energy in the psyche is attached to or invested in a person, idea, or thing is termed A) sourcing. B) cathexis. C) aggressive instinct. D) catharsis. Answer: B Rationale: Freud used the term "cathexis" to describe the process by which libidinal energy is invested in objects, people, or ideas, influencing our thoughts and behaviors towards them. 10. The reservoir of energy for the whole personality is the A) ego. B) superego. C) id. D) eros. Answer: C Rationale: Freud believed that the id, which operates on the pleasure principle, is the reservoir of psychic energy and the source of all drives and instincts. 11. A person’s behavior is still powerfully affected, without any conscious control, by A) experiences which have been denied or repressed. B) the judicious use of psychoanalytic techniques. C) the ego’s ability to evaluate potential threats. D) the way impulses have been directed in the past. Answer: A Rationale: Freud believed that unconscious experiences, especially those that have been denied or repressed, can significantly influence a person's behavior without their conscious awareness. 12. That portion of the psychic apparatus which is in contact with external reality is called the A) ego. B) preconscious. C) superego. D) superconscious. Answer: A Rationale: The ego is the part of the psyche that interacts with the external world and mediates between the id's demands for immediate gratification and the superego's moral standards. 13. Which of the following is one of the functions of the superego? A) Controlling sexual impulses B) Ensuring the health, safety, and sanity of the personality C) Observing others D) Forming ideals Answer: D Rationale: The superego acts as the moral conscience, internalizing societal and parental standards to form ideals and enforce moral judgments on the ego. 14. People who constantly nibble, smoke, and often overeat may be partially fixated in which stage? A) Anal B) Phallic C) Oral D) Genital Answer: C Rationale: Freud believed that fixation in the oral stage of development could lead to behaviors such as overeating, smoking, and nail-biting in adulthood. 15. The time between ages 5 to 6 until the onset of puberty, when the unresolvable sexual desires of the phallic stage are successfully repressed by the superego, is known as what period? A) Genital B) Egocentric C) Pre-adolescence D) Latency Answer: D Rationale: The latency period is a stage of psychosexual development during which sexual desires are repressed, allowing the child to focus on other aspects of life, such as school and friendships. 16. Which of the following is the correct chronological order of the psychosexual stages of development? A) Oral, anal, phallic, genital B) Oral, anal, genital, phallic C) Phallic, anal, genital, oral D) Oral, phallic, anal, genital Answer: A Rationale: The correct chronological order of Freud's psychosexual stages of development is oral, anal, phallic, and genital. 17. Perhaps the weakest of suppositions in Freud’s theory was his assumption of female sexuality as A) disappointed male sexuality. B) fixated at the Oedipal stage. C) less important than male sexuality. D) having a greater influence on the female psyche than male sexuality has on the male psyche. Answer: A Rationale: Freud's assumption of female sexuality as disappointed male sexuality has been criticized as reductionist and lacking empirical support. 18. Freud identified three types of anxiety: objective, neurotic, and A) healthy anxiety. B) moral anxiety. C) sublimated anxiety. D) ego-driven anxiety. Answer: B Rationale: Freud believed that neurotic anxiety arises from unconscious conflicts between the id, ego, and superego, leading to irrational fears and behaviors. 19. Freud’s daughter Anna compiled a list of defense mechanisms including repression, denial, rationalization, reaction formation, projection, regression, sublimation, displacement, and A) isolation. B) impulsivity. C) intellectualization. D) logical thinking. Answer: C Rationale: Anna Freud expanded on her father's work by identifying various defense mechanisms that individuals use to cope with anxiety and protect the ego. 20. Freud maintained that almost every dream can be understood as A) resolving unconscious conflicts. B) highly symbolic. C) wish fulfillment. D) meeting biological needs. Answer: C Rationale: According to Freud, dreams are expressions of unconscious desires and are often disguised manifestations of repressed wishes, representing a form of wish fulfillment. 21. Freud’s ideas about dreams have been criticized for being severely limited by his lack of knowledge of non-European A) mindsets. B) behavior patterns. C) societies. D) mythologies. Answer: C Rationale: Critics argue that Freud's theories about dreams are limited because they are based on his understanding of European societies and may not be applicable to non-European cultures with different belief systems and cultural practices. 22. Freudian theory suggests that future choices are A) completely opened up by psychoanalysis. B) fixed by the sum of our life experience. C) beyond one’s control. D) biologically determined. Answer: C Rationale: Freudian theory suggests that future choices may be influenced by unconscious drives and conflicts, which can limit one's control over their decisions. 23. Psychoanalysis aims to help the patient establish the best possible level of A) lifelong freedom from emotional conflict. B) ego functioning. C) interpersonal harmony. D) work functioning. Answer: B Rationale: Psychoanalysis aims to help patients improve their ego functioning, including their ability to cope with reality, manage impulses, and maintain a sense of identity. 24. In a recent review of modern cognitive psychology research, investigators concluded that roughly 95% of human beings’ behavior is determined A) unconsciously. B) preconsciously. C) defensively. D) during dream-states. Answer: A Rationale: Some modern cognitive psychologists suggest that a large portion of human behavior is influenced by unconscious processes, supporting Freud's emphasis on the role of the unconscious mind in shaping behavior. True False Questions 25. Freud eventually abandoned hypnosis altogether, preferring instead to encourage his patients to speak freely by reporting whatever thoughts came to mind. Answer: True Rationale: Freud moved away from using hypnosis as a primary therapeutic technique and instead developed psychoanalysis, which involved free association and exploring unconscious thoughts and feelings through dialogue. 26. Like Ferenczi, Freud became an adherent of making the analytic situation one in which affection might be more freely expressed. Answer: False Rationale: Freud and Ferenczi had differing views on the role of affection in psychoanalysis. While Ferenczi emphasized the importance of expressing affection in therapy, Freud was more reserved and believed in maintaining a neutral stance. 27. Both Freud and Nietzsche believed that moral convictions arose from internalized aggression. Answer: True Rationale: Both Freud and Nietzsche theorized that moral convictions and values could be influenced by internalized aggression and unconscious desires. 28. It was clear to Freud that hysteria was a disorder whose genesis required a physiological explanation. Answer: False Rationale: Freud believed that hysteria and other psychological disorders had complex psychological origins, often related to unresolved unconscious conflicts and traumas, rather than purely physiological causes. 29. Freud discovered the unconscious. Answer: False Rationale: Freud did not discover the unconscious, but he greatly expanded our understanding of it through his theories and clinical observations, popularizing the concept in psychology. 30. Underlying all of Freud’s thinking is the assumption that the body is the sole source of all mental experience. Answer: True Rationale: Freud's psychoanalytic theory is rooted in the belief that mental processes, including thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, are influenced by unconscious drives and instincts originating in the body. 31. According to Freud, the conscious constitutes a large portion of the mind. Answer: False Rationale: Freud believed that the conscious mind is only a small part of the total mind, with the majority of mental processes occurring at the unconscious level. 32. When decades-old unconscious material is released into consciousness, the emotional force of the material will have diminished over the passage of time. Answer: False Rationale: Freud believed that repressed unconscious material could maintain its emotional force over time, and bringing it into consciousness could result in intense emotional experiences and catharsis. 33. The number of solutions open to an individual is a summation of biological urges, conscious or unconscious wishes, and a host of prior ideas, habits, and available options. Answer: True Rationale: Freud's theory suggests that individual behavior is influenced by a combination of biological drives, unconscious desires, and past experiences, which together determine the range of possible solutions to a given situation. 34. Libido is characterized by a lack of “mobility” or ease of passage from one area of attention to another. Answer: False Rationale: Freud described libido as a psychic energy or life force that drives behaviors related to pleasure, including sexual and non-sexual activities. It is not characterized by a lack of mobility but rather by its dynamic nature. 35. In his wish to appeal to the predominant European scientific mindset of his time, Freud chose deliberately obscure terms for his theory. Answer: False Rationale: While Freud's terminology may seem complex, it was not deliberately obscure. He used terms based on his understanding of the mind and sought to develop a comprehensive theory of human psychology that could explain a wide range of phenomena. 36. The id is modified by experience as the individual grows and changes. Answer: False Rationale: Freud believed that the id is present at birth and operates on the pleasure principle, seeking immediate gratification. It is not modified by experience but rather influenced by the ego and superego as the individual develops. 37. The contents of the id include primitive thoughts that have never been conscious, as well as material which has been found unacceptable to consciousness. Answer: True Rationale: The id contains primitive, instinctual drives and wishes, as well as repressed or unacceptable thoughts and desires that have been pushed out of consciousness. 38. The ego originally develops out of the id, as the infant attempts to serve and placate the id’s repeated demands. Answer: True Rationale: Freud proposed that the ego develops from the id in infancy as a result of the child's interactions with the external world. The ego mediates between the demands of the id, the constraints of reality, and the moral standards of the superego. 39. The id, the ego, and the superego are only partly unconscious. Answer: False Rationale: Freud believed that the id, ego, and superego are mostly unconscious, with only a small portion of their contents being accessible to conscious awareness. 40. The late oral stage—after teeth have appeared—includes the gratification of the aggressive instincts. Answer: True Rationale: According to Freud, the oral stage of psychosexual development involves the mouth as the primary erogenous zone, and the late oral stage includes the gratification of not only oral needs but also aggressive instincts. 41. Adult characteristics associated with partial fixation at the anal stage include orderliness, parsimoniousness, and obstinacy. Answer: True Rationale: Freud suggested that individuals who experience fixation at the anal stage of psychosexual development may exhibit adult characteristics such as orderliness, parsimoniousness (stinginess), and obstinacy (stubbornness). 42. Freud believed that every male child reenacts a similar inner drama to the one depicted in the Greek myth Oedipus. Answer: True Rationale: Freud's Oedipus complex theory suggests that during the phallic stage, male children experience unconscious sexual desires for their mothers and view their fathers as rivals, similar to the drama depicted in the myth of Oedipus. 43. The stage in which boys and girls are made aware of their separate sexual identities and begin to look for ways to fulfill their erotic and interpersonal needs is called the phallic stage. Answer: False Rationale: The phallic stage is associated with the development of the Oedipus complex in boys and the Electra complex in girls, during which they become aware of their gender differences but do not yet seek to fulfill erotic needs. 44. Freud’s ideas about women were based heavily on biological differences between men and women. Answer: True Rationale: Freud's theories about women, including the concept of penis envy and the development of female sexuality, were influenced by his belief in biological differences between men and women. 45. According to Freud, a woman’s superego is more developed and internalized than a man’s. Answer: False Rationale: Freud believed that both men and women develop superegos, but the content and development of the superego are influenced by individual experiences and societal norms rather than gender. 46. The major problem for the psyche is how to cope with anxiety. Answer: True Rationale: Freud viewed anxiety as a central issue in psychoanalysis, suggesting that the psyche must find ways to cope with and manage anxiety, which arises from internal conflicts and the threat of unfulfilled desires. 47. Hysterical symptoms are often found to have originated in earlier regression. Answer: False Rationale: Hysterical symptoms are often believed to arise from unresolved unconscious conflicts, rather than from regression to an earlier stage of development. 48. Rationalization is the process of finding unacceptable reasons for acceptable thoughts or actions. Answer: False Rationale: Rationalization is actually the process of creating logical or socially acceptable explanations for behaviors or feelings that are actually based on unacceptable motives or desires. 49. Sublimation is the process whereby energy originally directed toward sexual or aggressive goals is redirected toward new aims—often artistic, intellectual, or cultural. Answer: True Rationale: Freud proposed that sublimation is a defense mechanism in which instinctual urges, particularly sexual or aggressive ones, are transformed into more socially acceptable and productive outlets, such as art, science, or other creative endeavors. 50. Using the defense mechanism of isolation, individuals separate the anxiety-arousing parts of situations from the rest of their psyches. Answer: True Rationale: Isolation involves separating thoughts or feelings from the rest of one's emotions, often leading to a sense of detachment or emotional numbness. 51. Freud used the term psychoanalysis to refer to the therapy, but not the theory. Answer: False Rationale: Freud used the term psychoanalysis to refer to both his theory of the mind and his therapeutic techniques for exploring unconscious processes. 52. Freud believed that unconscious material remains unconscious only with considerable and continual expenditure of libido. Answer: True Rationale: Freud suggested that repressed unconscious material requires ongoing psychic energy (libido) to remain unconscious, and bringing it into consciousness requires a release of this energy. 53. Freud maintained that it is necessary to free blocked or displaced energy through the resolution of anxieties rooted in early childhood, in order to achieve greater gratification of one’s needs. Answer: True Rationale: Freud believed that resolving unconscious conflicts and anxieties from childhood could free up psychic energy for more mature and healthy gratification of needs in adulthood. 54. Freud had a passion for truth and an uncompromising faith in reason. Answer: True Rationale: Freud was committed to uncovering the truth about human behavior and the mind, and he believed that reason and scientific inquiry were essential tools for understanding the complexities of the psyche. 55. Freud believed it was unnecessary for analysts themselves to have undergone analysis. Answer: False Rationale: Freud believed that analysts should undergo their own analysis to gain insight into their own unconscious processes and biases, which could affect their work with patients. 56. Empirical research on Freud’s defense mechanisms has found evidence for reaction formation, but it may be a by-product of other defenses. Answer: False Rationale: Empirical research has found support for the existence and function of defense mechanisms, including reaction formation, as distinct and adaptive processes in managing anxiety and maintaining psychological balance. 57. In the measurement of the effectiveness of psychoanalysis, generation two research focused on formal and systematic outcome measures and improved on the methodological simplicity of the preceding generation. Answer: True Rationale: Second-generation research on psychoanalysis focused on more rigorous and systematic outcome measures, improving upon the methodological limitations of earlier studies. 58. More works are published about Freud and his ideas each year than on all the other Western theorists in this book combined. Answer: True Rationale: Freud's theories and contributions to psychology continue to be the subject of extensive research and publications, making him one of the most studied figures in the history of psychology. 59. The Freudian “revolution” produced the idea that pure rationality is more important to well-being than the power of emotional intelligence alone. Answer: False Rationale: Freud's work emphasized the importance of emotional processes and unconscious motives in human behavior, suggesting that emotional intelligence and the understanding of unconscious drives are essential for well-being. Essay Questions 60. Discuss how Freud’s work can be viewed as “part of the common heritage of the West.” Include mention of evidence for the impact Freud has had on the West, along with a description of some of his specific influences. Answer: Freud's work can be viewed as part of the common heritage of the West due to its profound impact on Western thought, particularly in the fields of psychology, psychiatry, and popular culture. Evidence of Freud's influence can be seen in the widespread acceptance and use of psychoanalytic concepts and techniques, as well as in the ongoing debates and discussions surrounding his theories. Some of Freud's specific influences include: 1. Development of Psychoanalysis: Freud's development of psychoanalysis revolutionized the field of psychology, introducing new concepts such as the unconscious mind, defense mechanisms, and psychosexual stages of development. 2. Influence on Psychiatry: Freud's work had a significant impact on the field of psychiatry, leading to the development of psychoanalytic therapy as a treatment for mental disorders. 3. Cultural Impact: Freud's ideas have permeated Western culture, influencing literature, art, and film. Concepts such as the Oedipus complex, repression, and the unconscious mind are frequently referenced in popular culture. 4. Influence on Modern Psychology: Although many of Freud's specific theories have been revised or rejected by modern psychology, his emphasis on the importance of unconscious processes and early childhood experiences continues to influence contemporary psychological thought. Overall, Freud's work has had a lasting impact on Western thought, shaping our understanding of the human mind and behavior. 61. Discuss the similarities and differences between the conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious. Answer: The conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious are key concepts in Freudian psychology, each representing different levels of awareness and mental activity. The conscious mind is the part of the mind that is currently active and aware of its surroundings. It includes thoughts, feelings, and perceptions that are in our immediate awareness. The preconscious mind contains thoughts and memories that are not currently in our conscious awareness but can be easily accessed with a little effort. This includes memories of past events, as well as information that is not currently relevant but can be brought to the conscious mind when needed. The unconscious mind is the largest part of the mind and contains thoughts, feelings, and memories that are not easily accessible to conscious awareness. This includes repressed memories, traumatic experiences, and instinctual drives that influence our behavior without our conscious knowledge. In summary, the conscious mind is what we are aware of at any given moment, the preconscious mind contains information that can be easily accessed, and the unconscious mind contains hidden thoughts and memories that influence our behavior without our awareness. 62. What is the aim of psychoanalysis? Answer: The aim of psychoanalysis, according to Freud, is to bring unconscious thoughts and feelings into conscious awareness, allowing individuals to gain insight into their own motivations and behavior. By exploring the unconscious mind, psychoanalysis seeks to help individuals resolve internal conflicts, overcome emotional difficulties, and improve their overall psychological well-being. 63. Although Freud is generally thought of as a negative rather than positive growth theorist, discuss in detail what you consider to be one major positive aspect of his theory. Answer: Freud's theory of psychoanalysis, despite its criticisms, offers valuable insights into the complexity of human behavior and the role of unconscious processes in shaping our thoughts and actions. One major positive aspect of his theory is his emphasis on the importance of early childhood experiences in shaping personality development. Freud's concept of the unconscious mind highlights the idea that many of our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by unconscious motives and desires that can be traced back to early childhood experiences. This insight has led to a greater understanding of how past experiences can impact current behavior and has helped to inform therapeutic approaches aimed at addressing underlying psychological issues. Overall, Freud's focus on the role of the unconscious mind has contributed to our understanding of human behavior and the development of psychoanalytic therapy as a treatment for mental health disorders. Short Answer Questions 65. Freud’s view of the human condition offers a complex and compelling way to understand normal and abnormal ___________ functioning. Answer: mental 66. The superego develops from the ___________ and serves as a judge or censor over the activities and thoughts of the ego. Answer: ego 67. When a person does not progress normally from stage to stage, he or she is said to be ___________ at a certain stage. Answer: fixated 68. Typically associated with Freud, but actually coined by Carl Jung, the ___________ ___________ is a psychoanalytic term used to describe a girl’s romatic feelings toward her father and anger toward her mother. Answer: Electra complex 69. In order to decrease anxiety, we either solve problems directly or we defend against them by using ___________ ___________. Answer: defense mechanisms 70. Consensus is growing that the analyst’s emotional response to the patient, called ___________, is not only inevitable, but a necessary source of insight into the patient’s subjectivity. Answer: countertransference Matching Questions 71. Unconscious mental processes A. Alternative pathway to satisfy the desires of the id 72. Impulses B. Part of the unconscious that can easily be made conscious 73. Libido C. Leads to simpler or more childlike gratification strategies 74. Besetzung D. The repository of those constructs that form the inhibitions for the personality 75. Conscious E. Mental aspects are called wishes, physical aspects are needs 76. Id F. Energy available to the life instincts, mobile 77. Ego G. When people first become aware of sexual differences 78. Superego H. Timeless 79. Fixation I. Occurs between 2 and 4 years old 80. Oedipus complex J. Includes everything we are aware of in any given moment 81. Preconscious K. The original core out of which the rest of the personality emerges 82. Anal stage L. To occupy and invest 83. Dreams M. Protects the id but also draws energy from it 84. Phallic stage Answers: 71) H 72) E 73) F 74) L 75) J 76) K 77) M 78) D 79) C 80) N 81) B 82) I 83) A 84) G N. A young boy’s desire to possess his mother and to kill his father Test Bank for Personality and Personal Growth Robert Frager, James Fadiman 9780205953752, 9780205254781

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