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Chapter 6: Erik Erikson and the Life Cycle Multiple Choice Questions 1. Whom did Erikson begin daily analysis with in 1927? A) Karen Horney B) Anna Freud C) Erich Fromm D) Sigmund Freud Answer: B Rationale: Erikson began daily analysis with Anna Freud in 1927. Anna Freud was Sigmund Freud's daughter and a prominent psychoanalyst in her own right, known for her work on child psychoanalysis. 2. In a sense, Erikson developed what kind of theory for the second half of the twentieth century? A) Stage identity theory B) Cross-cultural psychohistory theory C) Eriksonian theory D) Psychoanalytic theory Answer: D Rationale: Erikson developed a psychoanalytic theory for the second half of the twentieth century. While his theory extended beyond traditional psychoanalysis to include social, cultural, and historical influences, it is still considered a form of psychoanalytic theory. 3. According to Erikson, the crisis in a developmental stage is A) like a fever, and when it breaks the crisis is resolved successfully. B) like a butterfly coming out of a cocoon, transformed. C) like an elephant stampeding from the herd, going on its own. D) like an international crisis, in which defenses are mobilized. Answer: A Rationale: According to Erikson, the crisis in a developmental stage is like a fever. It is a temporary state of tension or conflict, and when it resolves, the individual has successfully navigated that stage of development. 4. Erikson’s focus on the positive characteristics developed at each stage A) is similar to that found in Freud’s schema. B) understands the virtues developed as more to do with potency than morality. C) underscores the importance of developing morality. D) was borrowed by positive psychologists. Answer: B Rationale: Erikson's focus on the positive characteristics developed at each stage emphasizes the virtues or strengths that individuals cultivate. He viewed these virtues as more related to personal potency or competence than to morality specifically. 5. Crucial to the development of a sense of basic trust versus basic mistrust is A) the experience with the mother, or primary caregiver. B) the degree of shame and doubt that has developed. C) the age at which the child begins nursery school. D) acceptance or rejection by siblings. Answer: A Rationale: According to Erikson, the development of a sense of basic trust versus basic mistrust is crucially influenced by the child's experience with the mother or primary caregiver. This early relationship sets the foundation for the child's sense of trust in the world. 6. Learning to let go, to hold on, to will, and sense right from wrong are associated mainly with which developmental stage? A) Autonomy versus shame and doubt B) Initiative versus guilt C) Industry versus inferiority D) Basic trust versus basic mistrust Answer: A Rationale: Learning to let go, to hold on, to will, and sense right from wrong are associated mainly with the developmental stage of autonomy versus shame and doubt. This stage occurs during early childhood and is focused on developing a sense of independence and self-control. 7. According to Erikson, mobility and inquisitiveness are associated with the developmental stage of A) initiative versus guilt. B) intimacy versus isolation. C) generativity versus stagnation. D) trust versus mistrust. Answer: A Rationale: According to Erikson, mobility and inquisitiveness are associated with the developmental stage of initiative versus guilt. This stage occurs during the preschool years and is focused on developing a sense of purpose and the ability to initiate activities. 8. Learning to plan ahead, making use of fantasy, and developing a sense of purpose are characteristic of which stage? A) Industry versus inferiority B) Autonomy versus shame and doubt C) Basic trust versus basic mistrust D) Initiative versus guilt Answer: D Rationale: Learning to plan ahead, making use of fantasy, and developing a sense of purpose are characteristic of the stage of initiative versus guilt. This stage occurs during early childhood and is focused on exploring and asserting control over the environment. 9. Latency is to competence as adolescence is to A) love. B) fidelity. C) purpose. D) openness. Answer: B Rationale: In Erikson's theory, latency is the stage during middle childhood where the child is focused on developing competence in various areas. Adolescence, on the other hand, is primarily focused on developing a sense of fidelity, or identity, according to Erikson. 10. Erikson associated a child’s failure to do well when first attending school with the development of A) a sense of shame and doubt. B) a sense of mistrust. C) a sense of inferiority or inadequacy. D) a sense of role confusion. Answer: C Rationale: Erikson associated a child's failure to do well when first attending school with the development of a sense of inferiority or inadequacy. This relates to his stage of industry versus inferiority, where children are learning to be competent and productive in their activities. 11. Erikson thought that the development of a sense of identity could be understood as the construction of a(n) A) personal life story. B) home on a solid foundation. C) culturally informed personality. D) ever-changing mandala. Answer: A Rationale: Erikson believed that the development of a sense of identity could be understood as the construction of a personal life story. This narrative helps individuals make sense of their experiences and understand who they are. 12. A positive experience that may occur during the intimacy versus isolation stage is the development of A) identification with a role model. B) a feeling of self-control. C) mutuality with a love partner. D) acceptance of one’s parents. Answer: C Rationale: During the intimacy versus isolation stage, a positive experience that may occur is the development of mutuality with a love partner. This stage is focused on forming close, intimate relationships with others. 13. The virtue ideally developed in the stage of intimacy versus isolation is A) hope. B) love. C) care. D) fidelity. Answer: B Rationale: The virtue ideally developed in the stage of intimacy versus isolation is love. This stage involves forming close, meaningful relationships with others and developing a sense of intimacy. 14. The stage generativity versus stagnation typically includes A) caring for others. B) developing a sense of adult responsibility. C) taking “time out” to devote to role experimentation. D) dealing with ultimate concerns. Answer: A Rationale: The stage of generativity versus stagnation typically includes caring for others and contributing to the well-being of future generations. This stage is focused on productivity and contributing to society. 15. The final developmental stage of ego integrity versus despair deals with A) family concerns. B) a focus on one’s own lifestyle. C) acceptance of one’s own unique life cycle. D) negotiating intimacy with a love-relationship partner. Answer: C Rationale: The final developmental stage of ego integrity versus despair deals with acceptance of one's own unique life cycle. It involves looking back on life with a sense of satisfaction and acceptance. 16. In his later years while rethinking his beliefs regarding the last stage of life, Erikson exchanged integrity with integrality, and wisdom with A) “universal trust,” as the final virtue. B) “embodied knowledge,” as the final virtue. C) “wholistic detachment,” as the final virtue. D) “faith,” as the final virtue. Answer: D Rationale: In his later years, Erikson exchanged the concept of integrity with integrality and wisdom with "faith" as the final virtue. This shift reflected his evolving understanding of the final stage of life. 17. The phrase “identity crisis” was coined by Erikson to describe patients who A) behaved narcissistically. B) were in a constant “startled” state. C) were sexually confused. D) rigidly held on to their social roles. Answer: B Rationale: Erikson coined the phrase "identity crisis" to describe patients who were in a constant "startled" state, experiencing a sense of confusion and uncertainty about their identity and place in the world. 18. The concept of identity may refer to A) an unconscious sense of individual identity. B) a discontinuity in personal character. C) a criterion for ego destabilization. D) maintenance of an inner solidarity with one’s group’s ideals and identity. Answer: D Rationale: The concept of identity may refer to maintenance of an inner solidarity with one’s group’s ideals and identity. It involves a sense of belonging and connection to a larger social or cultural group. 19. Which kind of specific identity is expressed in hostility toward available social goals and values? A) Narcissistic identity. B) Negative identity. C) Conflicted identity. D) Amorphous identity. Answer: B Rationale: Negative identity is expressed in hostility toward available social goals and values. It involves rejecting societal norms and values and adopting behaviors or beliefs that are contrary to those of mainstream society. 20. In college students, researchers have found that a more developed sense of identity is associated with more mature defense mechanisms, better performance under stress, and A) better grades. B) more satisfying love relationships. C) less conflict with peers. D) less substance abuse. Answer: A Rationale: In college students, a more developed sense of identity is associated with better grades. This may be because a strong sense of identity is related to higher levels of motivation, self-confidence, and goal-setting abilities. 21. Critics of Erikson have raised questions about A) his overly technical writing style. B) his personal life outside of academia. C) the universality of his theories. D) his overemphasis on women over men in his formulations. Answer: C Rationale: Critics of Erikson have raised questions about the universality of his theories. They argue that his stages of development may not apply equally to individuals from different cultural backgrounds or that they may not accurately capture the complexity of human development. 22. Thanks to Erikson’s work, every text in human development today includes discussion on A) child development. B) relational development. C) the importance of integration. D) adult development. Answer: D Rationale: Thanks to Erikson's work, every text in human development today includes discussion on adult development. Erikson's theory expanded the focus of developmental psychology beyond childhood and adolescence to include the entire lifespan. 23. McAdams and Pals’s Eriksonian-based model for personality study includes the principle that A) people create similar life narratives in order to better fit into their respective groups. B) human lives are based on a general evolutionary design of human nature. C) culture is an indirect influence on individuals. D) individual differences are initially based on variations in early learned behavior. Answer: B Rationale: McAdams and Pals's Eriksonian-based model for personality study includes the principle that human lives are based on a general evolutionary design of human nature. This suggests that there are overarching patterns and themes in human development that are influenced by evolutionary processes. True False Questions 24. Escaping the growing fascism in Europe, the Eriksons moved to San Francisco where Erik became the city’s first child psychoanalyst. Answer: False Rationale: Erik Erikson did indeed move to the United States to escape the rise of fascism in Europe, but he did not move directly to San Francisco. He settled in Massachusetts, where he worked at Harvard Medical School. 25. Published in 1950, Erikson’s Childhood and Society contains the fundamental formulations of virtually all of his major ideas. Answer: True Rationale: "Childhood and Society," published in 1950, is considered Erikson's seminal work where he first introduced his theory of psychosocial development, which became the foundation of his major ideas. 26. Strongly influenced by his firsthand knowledge of other cultures, Erikson’s theoretical focus was on healthy personality development. Answer: True Rationale: Erikson's background in anthropology and his extensive travels contributed to his appreciation for cultural diversity. This influenced his focus on healthy personality development across different cultures in his theories. 27. The epigenetic model of human development suggests that each life stage develops on top of the subsequent life stages. Answer: True Rationale: According to Erikson's epigenetic model, each stage of development builds upon the preceding stages. The resolution of each crisis in a stage sets the stage for successfully navigating the next stage. 28. In Erikson’s theory, each developmental stage is independent from the others. Answer: False Rationale: Erikson believed that each stage in his psychosocial development theory is interconnected and that successful resolution of earlier stages contributes to healthy development in later stages. Each stage involves a crisis that must be resolved to progress successfully. 29. In the developmental pattern, a crisis is not necessarily dramatic or overtly disruptive. Answer: True Rationale: Erikson defined a crisis as a turning point in development where the individual faces a conflict that must be resolved. These crises can be subtle and internal, involving psychological conflicts rather than dramatic external events. 30. Like Freud, Erikson based his description of human development on specific organ-related experiences, rather than on more general styles of coping with, and relating to, the environment. Answer: False Rationale: Unlike Freud, who focused on psychosexual development and specific erogenous zones, Erikson's theory emphasized psychosocial development, which includes a broader range of experiences and interactions with the social environment. 31. An adult’s ability to trust depends on the quantity of feeding and handling he or she received as a child. Answer: False Rationale: Erikson's concept of trust in infancy is more broadly based on the quality of care and responsiveness a child receives from caregivers, rather than simply the quantity of feeding and handling. 32. When a child begins to develop the muscular ability to hold on and to let go, she is also likely to begin learning about personal autonomy. Answer: True Rationale: According to Erikson's theory, the toddler stage (autonomy vs. shame and doubt) is when children begin to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills, such as holding on and letting go, which contributes to the development of autonomy. 33. When the 4 to 6 year old begins “getting into everything,” she is attempting to reestablish intimacy in an environment in which she thinks she has lost it. Answer: False Rationale: Erikson's stage of initiative vs. guilt, which occurs around ages 3 to 6, is more about developing a sense of purpose and the ability to initiate activities, rather than seeking to reestablish intimacy. 34. Satisfaction in doing a job well characterizes Erikson’s sense of work as distinguished from play. Answer: True Rationale: According to Erikson, a sense of competence and satisfaction in one's work is a key aspect of the stage of industry vs. inferiority, which occurs during middle childhood. This stage is characterized by a focus on mastering skills and completing tasks. 35. Erikson pointed out that the growth of a sense of identity is in part dependent on the past. Answer: True Rationale: Erikson emphasized the concept of psychosocial development, which acknowledges the influence of past experiences, especially in childhood, on the formation of identity. He believed that resolving earlier psychosocial crises is essential for healthy identity development. 36. Erikson extended Freud’s idea of the anal stage of development to include issues of fidelity and love in the larger social context. Answer: False Rationale: Erikson extended Freud's ideas beyond the psychosexual stages, but he did not specifically extend the anal stage to include issues of fidelity and love. Instead, Erikson introduced the concept of intimacy vs. isolation as a key developmental stage. 37. Someone who feels threatened by intimacy may in fact be experiencing a weak sense of identity. Answer: True Rationale: Erikson believed that a strong sense of identity is necessary to develop intimate relationships. If someone feels threatened by intimacy, it may indicate an underlying insecurity or confusion about their own identity. 38. For Erikson, parenthood is the core of generativity. Answer: True Rationale: Generativity is the concern for establishing and guiding the next generation. Erikson believed that parenthood is a central aspect of generativity, but it can also manifest in other ways, such as mentoring or contributing to society. 39. The pathological absence of narcissism is generativity, unhealthy self-absorption that prevents the individual from loving or caring for others. Answer: False Rationale: Erikson did not equate generativity with narcissism. Generativity involves concern for others and a desire to contribute to the well-being of future generations. Narcissism, on the other hand, is characterized by excessive self-focus and a lack of empathy for others. 40. In the framework of human psychosocial evolution, we are essentially a teaching species. Answer: True Rationale: Erikson believed that teaching and learning are fundamental to human development and culture. He argued that passing on knowledge, skills, and values to the next generation is essential for the evolution of society. 41. Research has emerged to indicate challenges unique to a possible ninth and even tenth stage to Erikson’s model. Answer: False Rationale: Erikson's model includes eight stages of psychosocial development, from infancy to old age. There is no widely accepted research indicating the existence of a ninth or tenth stage in his model. 42. Identity has both psychological and social aspects. Answer: True Rationale: Erikson's theory emphasizes the interaction between psychological development (such as individual identity formation) and social factors (such as cultural norms and societal expectations) in shaping a person's identity. 43. Erikson observed that many “great individuals” were often dominated by a childhood-originating sense that they needed to settle or “live down” something. Answer: True Rationale: Erikson suggested that individuals who go on to achieve greatness often have a strong motivation stemming from childhood experiences, such as feeling the need to overcome obstacles or negative perceptions. 44. Given the positive and negative side to every stage of development, an individual should strive to develop the positive attributes as opposed to the negative ones. Answer: False Rationale: Erikson believed that both positive and negative experiences are integral to development, and individuals must find a balance between the two. It is not about avoiding negative experiences entirely but rather learning from them and incorporating them into a healthy sense of self. 45. Erikson agrees with Freud’s view of the primacy of biological drives, but considered these drives to be socially modifiable. Answer: True Rationale: Erikson acknowledged the importance of biological drives, as Freud did, but he also believed that these drives could be influenced and modified by social and cultural factors. He emphasized the role of culture and society in shaping human behavior and development. 46. Social relationships are incidental to stages of human development. Answer: False Rationale: Social relationships play a crucial role in human development across all stages of life. From infancy to old age, interactions with others shape cognitive, emotional, and social development. These relationships provide the foundation for learning, emotional support, and the development of social skills. 47. The Eriksonian therapist’s job is to foster the patient’s potential for growth and development, rather than to impose his or her own future expectations or past experience on the patient. Answer: True Rationale: Eriksonian therapy, based on Erikson's psychosocial development theory, emphasizes the therapist's role in facilitating the patient's exploration of their own identity and potential. The therapist aims to create a supportive environment for the patient's self-discovery, rather than imposing external expectations or interpretations. 48. With the aid of a particular scale, researchers have found that fathers indeed score higher on generativity than men without children. Answer: True Rationale: Research has shown that parenthood, particularly fatherhood, is associated with higher levels of generativity. The Loyola Generativity Scale is one measure used to assess generativity, and studies have found that fathers tend to score higher on this scale compared to men without children. 49. Lending support to the idea of the existence of a ninth stage, Tornstam has found evidence for further psychosocial development beyond the eighth stage. Answer: True Rationale: Lars Tornstam, a Swedish gerontologist, proposed the concept of the ninth stage of psychosocial development, known as gerotranscendence. This stage focuses on the spiritual and existential aspects of aging, suggesting that there may be further developmental stages beyond Erikson's eighth stage. 50. Although one can still learn its theories and methodology, the field of psychobiography has lost popularity over the years. Answer: False Rationale: Psychobiography, the application of psychological theory and methods to the study of individual lives, has remained a popular approach in psychology and related fields. It provides valuable insights into the lives of historical figures and can offer a unique perspective on human behavior and development. 51. According to researcher McAdams, early years set either an optimistic or pessimistic tone for the integrative life story of each individual. Answer: True Rationale: Dan P. McAdams, a psychologist known for his work on personality development, suggests that the way individuals construct their life stories is influenced by early experiences. Early experiences can shape individuals' narratives of their lives, leading to either an optimistic or pessimistic outlook. Essay Questions 52. Explain how Erikson’s model of human development is an epigenetic model. Answer: Erikson's model is considered epigenetic because it emphasizes the interaction between a person's genetic makeup and the social environment. According to Erikson, development unfolds in a series of stages, each characterized by a psychosocial crisis that must be successfully resolved for healthy development to occur. These crises are influenced by both biological maturation and social demands, highlighting the interplay between genetics and environment in shaping human development. 53. Erikson connects the first stage of human growth with the social institution of religion. Discuss the relevance of this. Answer: In Erikson's first stage, "Trust vs. Mistrust," which occurs in infancy, he suggests that the quality of the caregiver-child relationship can influence a person's basic trust in the world. This stage is connected to the social institution of religion because religion often provides a framework for understanding the world and can influence the formation of trust in early life. For example, a caregiver who is religious might convey a sense of trust in a higher power, which can be internalized by the child. 54. Erikson found that the development of a sense of identity is frequently preceded by a “psychosocial moratorium,” or period of time off. What is the purpose of a psychosocial moratorium, and how long might it last? Answer: The purpose of a psychosocial moratorium is to allow individuals a period of exploration and experimentation before committing to an identity. During this time, individuals can try out different roles, values, and beliefs to determine what feels authentic to them. This period of exploration is crucial for developing a strong sense of identity. The length of a psychosocial moratorium can vary widely depending on individual circumstances, but it typically occurs during adolescence and may last several years. 55. Outline some reasons why the psychology of identity has become so important in our time. Answer: The psychology of identity has become increasingly important due to several factors. One reason is the rise of individualism in many societies, which places greater emphasis on personal identity and self-expression. Globalization and advances in communication technology have also contributed, exposing individuals to diverse cultures and ideas that can influence their sense of identity. Additionally, societal changes, such as shifting gender roles and family structures, have led to a reexamination of traditional notions of identity. The internet and social media have created new platforms for identity exploration and expression, but also new challenges related to identity formation and self-esteem. 56. Research has been done on the topics of identity, generativity, and a possible ninth stage of human development. Choose one of these topic areas and briefly discuss what has been discovered. Answer: One area of research that has received attention is the concept of generativity, particularly in Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. Generativity refers to the concern for establishing and guiding the next generation. Studies have found that generativity is associated with greater psychological well-being and life satisfaction, as individuals who feel they are making a positive contribution to society report higher levels of happiness and fulfillment. Additionally, research has explored the idea of a possible ninth stage of human development beyond Erikson's original eight stages. Some theorists propose that this stage, often referred to as "wisdom," involves reflecting on one's life experiences and finding meaning and purpose in later life. Short Answer Questions 57. Erikson extended the insights of psychoanalysis through ___________-___________ studies of child rearing, psychological biographies of great men and women, and by analyzing the interaction of psychological and social dynamics. Answer: cross-cultural 58. Erikson’s ___________ studies revealed his remarkable ability to enter into the worldviews and modes of thinking of cultures far different from his own. Answer: field 59. A sense of ___________ develops with a sense of free choice. Answer: autonomy 60. For many young adults, the crisis of intimacy versus ___________ is experienced more deeply in marriage. Answer: isolation 61. Erikson made a major contribution to historical research by developing ___________, the reconstruction of a life story with psychoanalytic methods and case histories. Answer: psychobiography 62. Adequate research on Erikson’s stages would require long and expensive ___________ studies. Answer: longitudinal Matching Questions 63. Oral-sensory A. Initiative versus guilt 64. Muscular-anal B. Ego integrity versus despair 65. Locomotor-genital C. Autonomy versus shame and doubt 66. Latency D. Industry versus inferiority 67. Adolescence E. Generativity versus stagnation 68. Young adulthood F. Identity versus identity confusion 69. Adulthood G. Basic trust versus basic mistrust 70. Maturity, old age H. Intimacy versus isolation Answers: 63) G 64) C 65) A 66) D 67) F 68) H 69) E 70) B Test Bank for Personality and Personal Growth Robert Frager, James Fadiman 9780205953752, 9780205254781

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