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Chapter 14: Zen and the Buddhist Tradition Multiple Choice Questions 1. Buddhism is based on the teachings of A) Basho. B) the Bodhisattvas. C) Siddhartha Gautama. D) Issa. Answer: C Rationale: Siddhartha Gautama, also known as the Buddha, is the founder of Buddhism. He was a prince who renounced his wealth and status to seek enlightenment and understand the nature of suffering. 2. A central premise in Buddhism is that every individual possesses the capacity for A) being born again into a state free from suffering. B) developing into a complete human being. C) achieving self-perpetuating enlightenment. D) allowing emotions to guide intellect. Answer: B Rationale: Buddhism teaches that every individual has the potential to develop into a complete human being, achieving enlightenment and freeing themselves from suffering through practice and understanding. 3. The founder of Soto Zen is A) Dogen. B) Soto. C) Basho. D) Gautama. Answer: A Rationale: Dogen Zenji, also known as Dogen Kigen, is the founder of the Soto school of Zen Buddhism. He was a Japanese Zen Buddhist teacher and philosopher who lived in the 13th century. 4. At the heart of Buddhist thought is a conception of existence as characterized by A) permanence. B) a perishable self or soul. C) dissatisfaction or suffering as an essential attribute of this world. D) a mixture of light and dark elements requiring balance. Answer: C Rationale: Buddhism teaches that existence is characterized by impermanence and dissatisfaction or suffering (dukkha). This is one of the fundamental truths (Four Noble Truths) taught by the Buddha. 5. Buddhist teachings state that while the source of suffering lies within the individual, something can be done about humankind’s A) external conditions. B) pessimistic inner nature. C) straying from the path. D) basic dissatisfaction. Answer: D Rationale: According to Buddhist teachings, the source of suffering (dukkha) lies within the individual due to craving and attachment. However, through practice and understanding, something can be done about humankind's basic dissatisfaction. 6. The Fourth Noble Truth is that A) dissatisfaction is the result of craving or desire. B) there is a way to eliminate craving and dissatisfaction: the Eightfold Path (moderation). C) elimination of craving brings the extinction of suffering. D) given the psychological state of the average individual, dissatisfaction is inescapable. Answer: B Rationale: The Fourth Noble Truth teaches that there is a way to eliminate craving and dissatisfaction, which is the Eightfold Path. This path includes aspects like right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. 7. In the famous koan known as Mu, what is most “vigorously denied”? A) Dualistic thinking B) Abstraction C) The present moment D) Nondualistic perspective Answer: A Rationale: The koan "Mu" is used in Zen practice to challenge dualistic thinking. It is often associated with a question like "Does a dog have Buddha nature?" and the answer "Mu," which means "no" or "not." 8. In Zen, there is no substitute for A) dualistic thinking. B) direct experience. C) the present moment. D) intellectual understanding. Answer: B Rationale: In Zen Buddhism, direct experience is emphasized over intellectual understanding. This is because Zen aims for direct insight into the nature of reality, which goes beyond conceptual thinking. 9. Enlightenment refers to a state that A) one can permanently attain. B) frees the student from needing a teacher. C) permanently eliminates cravings and suffering. D) exists when you sit in the right posture. Answer: D Rationale: In Zen, enlightenment (satori) is not something that can be permanently attained or grasped. It is a moment of direct experience or realization that can occur at any time, often unexpectedly, and is not dependent on external conditions or specific postures. 10. This is a deeply compassionate being who has vowed to remain in the world until all others have been delivered from suffering: A) Arhat. B) Bodhisattva. C) Buddha. D) your teacher. Answer: B Rationale: A Bodhisattva is a being who has vowed to attain enlightenment for the benefit of all sentient beings and has vowed to remain in the world until all others have been delivered from suffering. They are known for their compassion and selfless dedication to helping others. 11. Which of the following is one of the “three fires” or obstacles on the path? A) Greed B) Envy C) Egoism D) Illusion Answer: A Rationale: In Buddhist teachings, the "three fires" or "three poisons" refer to greed, hatred, and delusion, which are seen as the primary obstacles on the path to enlightenment. 12. According to Buddhist thought, this is but a temporary intensification of greed, hate, or delusion: A) compassion. B) enlightenment. C) psychosis. D) selflessness. Answer: C Rationale: In Buddhist thought, psychosis is seen as a temporary intensification of greed, hatred, or delusion, rather than a permanent state. 13. In “Riding the Ox Home,” the student now becomes A) the sage. B) released from duty. C) the Ox. D) appreciative. Answer: A Rationale: In the Zen Buddhist allegory "Riding the Ox Home," the student becomes the sage, symbolizing the attainment of enlightenment or spiritual maturity. 14. Delusion is difficult to overcome in the student who has had a direct kensho experience because the student’s convictions A) have been reified through contemplation. B) about his or her role in the world are loosened. C) will now have more of an emotional tone to them. D) are now firmly rooted in actual experience. Answer: D Rationale: In Zen Buddhism, a kensho experience is a sudden, direct experience of enlightenment. Delusion is difficult to overcome in such a student because their convictions are now firmly rooted in actual experience, making it challenging to let go of previously held beliefs. 15. A common misconception about meditative disciplines is that trainees invariably withdrawal from the world in order to maintain their meditative peace; this withdrawal is known as A) bypass. B) quietism. C) escapism. D) ostrichism. Answer: B Rationale: The misconception that trainees of meditative disciplines withdraw from the world to maintain peace is known as quietism. In reality, many meditation practices aim to help individuals engage more fully with the world, rather than withdraw from it. 16. Training oneself is not merely a means to an end; training is A) an end to a means. B) the best of life. C) all there is in life. D) an end in itself. Answer: D Rationale: In Zen Buddhism, training oneself is considered an end in itself, rather than just a means to an end. The process of training is seen as valuable and transformative in its own right. 17. The ideal Buddhist emotional state is that of A) compassion. B) enlightenment. C) nonattachment. D) selflessness. Answer: A Rationale: Compassion is considered the ideal emotional state in Buddhism. It is seen as a key aspect of the path to enlightenment and is associated with kindness, empathy, and the desire to alleviate suffering in oneself and others. 18. A fundamental outcome in Buddhist meditation practice and an essential component in therapeutic change is A) wisdom. B) motivation. C) insight. D) empathy. Answer: D Rationale: In Buddhist meditation practice, as well as in therapeutic change, empathy is considered a fundamental outcome. It involves understanding and sharing the feelings of others, which can lead to greater compassion and understanding. 19. Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction has led to significant reductions in anxiety and depression scores, and also in the number and severity of A) epileptic seizures. B) dissociative fugues. C) panic attacks. D) drug-abuse relapses. Answer: C Rationale: Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) has been shown to lead to significant reductions in anxiety and depression scores, as well as in the number and severity of panic attacks. MBSR is a structured program that uses mindfulness meditation to help people manage stress and improve their mental health. 20. The goals of Zen and psychoanalysis have been described as the same; they both include insight into self, liberation from the tyranny of the unconscious, and A) catharsis followed by reflection. B) knowledge of reality. C) reorientation to “true” pursuits. D) improved interpersonal relationships. Answer: B Rationale: The goals of Zen and psychoanalysis have been described as the same, including insight into the self, liberation from the unconscious, and knowledge of reality. Both traditions aim to help individuals understand themselves more deeply and live more authentically. 21. Buddhism has been accepted more readily than other Eastern ways of life because it has been viewed A) through the eyes of immigrants from Eastern countries. B) more as a psychology than as a religion. C) as more liberal than other Eastern paths. D) as more conservative than other Eastern paths. Answer: B Rationale: Buddhism has often been viewed more as a psychology or philosophy than as a religion, which has made it more acceptable to Western audiences who may be wary of traditional religious beliefs. Its focus on practices such as meditation and mindfulness has also contributed to its acceptance as a psychological or therapeutic tool. True False Questions 22. The Buddha advised that logic, argument, and respect for the teacher should guide one’s evaluation of religious teachings. Answer: False Rationale: The Buddha emphasized personal experience and insight over blind faith or reliance on authority figures. While respect for teachers was important, he also encouraged critical thinking and the testing of teachings through one's own experience. 23. The Buddhist “Middle Way” is a path involving asceticism. Answer: False Rationale: The Middle Way in Buddhism is a path of moderation between the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification. It emphasizes finding balance in all aspects of life, rather than extreme practices like asceticism. 24. Although different teachers and schools interpret the fundamental truths of Buddhism to fit their own cultures and societies, there is only one Buddhism. Answer: True Rationale: While there are many different schools and traditions within Buddhism, all Buddhists adhere to the core teachings of the Buddha, such as the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path. These teachings are considered universal and apply to all followers of Buddhism, regardless of cultural or regional differences. 25. The Buddhists point out that the primary feature of the universe is its stability. Answer: False Rationale: Buddhism teaches the impermanence of all things, including the universe. The concept of impermanence (Anicca) is considered a fundamental aspect of existence in Buddhist philosophy. 26. The Buddha realized the universality of suffering, its cause, its cure, and the way to attain such liberation. Answer: True Rationale: According to Buddhist tradition, the Buddha attained enlightenment and realized the Four Noble Truths: the truth of suffering, the truth of the cause of suffering, the truth of the end of suffering, and the truth of the path to the end of suffering. 27. The first of the Four Noble Truths is that existence involves suffering or dissatisfaction. Answer: True Rationale: The first Noble Truth is the truth of suffering (Dukkha), which acknowledges the inherent dissatisfaction or suffering in human existence. This is considered the starting point for understanding the nature of suffering and the path to liberation from it. 28. The Eightfold Paths falls into four categories: ethical conduct, mental discipline, physical discipline, and wisdom. Answer: False Rationale: The Eightfold Path is typically divided into three categories: ethical conduct (right speech, right action, right livelihood), mental discipline (right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration), and wisdom (right view, right intention). 29. Zazen may be considered an expression of faith, of trust in the vastness of existence. Answer: True Rationale: Zazen, or Zen meditation, is often seen as an expression of faith or trust in the nature of existence. It is a practice of sitting in meditation, often without any specific goal or agenda, allowing one to simply be present and aware of the present moment. 30. Practicing koan is like taking a shower; it cleanses the mind regularly, as a shower cleanses the body. Answer: False Rationale: While koan practice in Zen Buddhism is a form of meditation aimed at challenging the intellect and fostering insight, it is not necessarily seen as a regular cleansing practice like taking a shower. Koan practice is often more intensive and focused than everyday activities. 31. One’s personal koan, the riddle of daily life, has no final solution. Answer: True Rationale: In Zen Buddhism, a personal koan is often seen as a question or dilemma that has no definitive answer. It is meant to be contemplated deeply, with the understanding that the process of inquiry is more important than finding a specific solution. 32. The experience of kensho is an ever-changing, progressive, and dynamic state of being, much like Maslow’s concept of self-actualization. Answer: True Rationale: Kensho, a term used in Zen Buddhism to describe a sudden awakening or realization of one's true nature, is often seen as a transformative experience that leads to a more dynamic and authentic way of being. This process is similar to Maslow's concept of self-actualization, which involves realizing one's full potential and becoming the most authentic version of oneself. 33. The Bodhisattva path includes abandoning the beings in it, but not the world. Answer: False Rationale: The Bodhisattva path in Mahayana Buddhism involves a commitment to attaining enlightenment for the benefit of all beings, not abandoning them. Bodhisattvas vow to remain in the world until all beings are liberated from suffering. 34. The models of the Arhat and Bodhisattva may be seen as contradictory, as one focuses on self-discipline and the other on service to others. Answer: False Rationale: While the Arhat and Bodhisattva paths have different emphases, they are not necessarily contradictory. Both paths involve spiritual practice and the pursuit of liberation, with the Bodhisattva path emphasizing compassion and the vow to help others attain enlightenment. 35. In the famous Ox-herding pictures, the Ox is a symbol of the Buddha-nature, and the events entailed in finding the Ox refer to the internal search and inner development of the Zen student. Answer: True Rationale: The Ox-herding pictures are a series of images used in Zen Buddhism to illustrate the journey of self-discovery and realization. The Ox is often interpreted as a symbol of the Buddha-nature, and the process of finding the Ox represents the internal search and inner development of the Zen student. 36. Greed is a major problem for most people. Answer: True Rationale: In Buddhist teachings, greed (or attachment) is considered one of the three poisons, along with hatred and delusion. Greed is seen as a major obstacle to spiritual development and a source of suffering. 37. In “Catching the Ox,” the sight of the Ox is the first direct experience of the seeker’s own Buddha-nature. Answer: False Rationale: In the Zen allegory "Catching the Ox," the sight of the Ox represents the initial glimpse or realization of one's true nature, but it is not necessarily the first direct experience of the seeker's Buddha-nature. It marks the beginning of the journey of self-discovery and realization. 38. The “three fires” of Buddhism can be overcome; greed is redirected into love, hate into compassion, and delusion into wisdom. Answer: False Rationale: While Buddhist practice aims to transform negative mental states, such as greed, hatred, and delusion, into positive qualities like love, compassion, and wisdom, it is not a simple redirection. Overcoming these fires requires deep introspection, understanding, and practice. 39. The Buddhist sees the body as best supported neither with full indulgence nor with extreme asceticism, but with a middle-way approach. Answer: True Rationale: The middle way in Buddhism extends to all aspects of life, including the treatment of the body. The Buddha advocated for a balanced approach to physical well-being, avoiding both indulgence and extreme asceticism. 40. Buddhist teaching stresses withdrawal, the opposite of responsibility. Answer: False Rationale: While Buddhist practice may involve periods of withdrawal for meditation and introspection, it does not advocate complete withdrawal from society or responsibilities. Buddhism emphasizes compassionate engagement with the world and fulfilling one's responsibilities with mindfulness and wisdom. 41. Social relationships allow the individual to practice the sharp intellect developed in meditation. Answer: False Rationale: While social relationships can be a context for applying insights gained through meditation, the sharp intellect developed in meditation is not necessarily practiced in social relationships. Buddhist practice often emphasizes qualities like compassion, empathy, and mindfulness in social interactions. 42. An important goal of Buddhist training is to learn to accept that we will always be controlled by our emotions. Answer: False Rationale: A key goal of Buddhist training is to develop awareness and understanding of one's emotions, not to accept that one will always be controlled by them. Through practice, one can learn to respond to emotions skillfully and cultivate emotional balance. 43. Genuine Zen teachers realize their actual limitations and try never to cut themselves off from students by placing themselves on pedestals. Answer: True Rationale: In Zen Buddhism, genuine teachers are seen as humble and aware of their limitations. They avoid placing themselves on pedestals and strive to maintain a close and respectful relationship with their students. 44. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy has been used in the treatment of eating disorders, attention deficit hyperactive disorder in children, and in the treatment of suicidal patients. Answer: True Rationale: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of various mental health conditions, including eating disorders, attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) in children, and suicidal ideation. It combines mindfulness practices with cognitive therapy techniques to help individuals manage their symptoms and improve their well-being. 45. In Zen, Buddhist practice and daily life are kept separate; they are seen as mutually reinforcing, but ultimately different, realities. Answer: False Rationale: In Zen Buddhism, there is an emphasis on integrating practice into daily life. Buddhist practice is not seen as separate from daily life but as a way to deepen one's understanding and awareness in all aspects of life. 46. Zazen and other Eastern meditative disciplines have been related to better health and ability to cope with stress and tension. Answer: True Rationale: Research has shown that practices like Zazen and other Eastern meditative disciplines can have positive effects on health and well-being. They have been associated with reduced stress, improved mood, and better coping mechanisms for dealing with life's challenges. Essay Questions 47. Of what value is direct, personal understanding of Truth (the primary concern in Zen Buddhism)? Answer: In Zen Buddhism, direct, personal understanding of Truth is of immense value as it leads to the realization of one's true nature and the nature of reality. This understanding, often referred to as kensho or Satori, transcends intellectual knowledge and concepts, providing a direct experience of the interconnectedness and impermanence of all things. It is the primary concern in Zen Buddhism because it is believed to bring about profound insight, liberation from suffering, and the ability to live in harmony with the world. 48. Discuss the Buddhist concept of selflessness. Compare and contrast the West’s emphasis on individuation with the concept of “no self.” Answer: In Buddhism, the concept of selflessness (anatta or anatman) refers to the idea that there is no permanent, unchanging self or soul. Instead, the self is seen as a collection of constantly changing components, such as thoughts, feelings, and perceptions, which are interdependent and influenced by external factors. This concept contrasts with the Western emphasis on individuation, which focuses on the development and assertion of a unique individual identity. In Buddhism, the realization of selflessness is seen as crucial for overcoming suffering, as attachment to a fixed sense of self is believed to be a root cause of dissatisfaction and conflict. By recognizing the interconnected nature of all things and the impermanence of the self, one can cultivate compassion, wisdom, and a deeper understanding of reality. In the West, individuation is often seen as a process of becoming a distinct and autonomous individual, separate from others. This process is valued for its role in personal development and self-actualization. However, the emphasis on individuation can also lead to a sense of isolation and alienation from others and the world. Overall, while the West values individuality and the development of a unique self, Buddhism emphasizes the interconnectedness of all beings and the realization of the "no self" as a path to liberation from suffering. 49. Compare the Arhat and Bodhisattva ideal self-conceptions. Outline similarities and differences. Answer: The Arhat and Bodhisattva are two idealized figures in Buddhism, representing different paths to enlightenment and different conceptions of the self. Similarities: 1. Both the Arhat and Bodhisattva are revered for their spiritual achievements and their commitment to the Buddhist path. 2. Both seek to transcend suffering and achieve liberation from the cycle of birth and death (samsara). 3. Both emphasize ethical conduct, meditation, and wisdom as essential components of their respective paths. Differences: 1. The Arhat idealizes personal liberation or nirvana as the ultimate goal. Once an Arhat achieves enlightenment, they are considered to have ended the cycle of rebirth and attained a state of blissful detachment. 2. The Bodhisattva, on the other hand, vows to postpone their own enlightenment until all sentient beings have been liberated from suffering. The Bodhisattva idealizes compassion and altruism, seeking to help others achieve enlightenment before attaining it themselves. 3. The Arhat path is often seen as more individualistic, focusing on personal spiritual development and liberation. The Bodhisattva path is more altruistic, emphasizing the welfare of others over personal liberation. 4. The Arhat is sometimes criticized for seeking personal salvation and not actively working for the liberation of others. The Bodhisattva is seen as embodying the highest form of compassion and selflessness. Overall, while both the Arhat and Bodhisattva ideals represent noble aspirations in Buddhism, they differ in their ultimate goals and attitudes towards personal enlightenment and the welfare of others. 50. To best understand personality and personal growth, should Buddhism be practiced as a psychology or as a religion? What are some pros and cons of each approach? Answer: Practicing Buddhism as a psychology or as a religion can offer different perspectives on personality and personal growth, each with its own pros and cons. Buddhism as a psychology: Pros: 1. Focuses on practical techniques and insights for understanding and transforming the mind. 2. Emphasizes mindfulness, compassion, and wisdom as tools for personal growth and well-being. 3. Offers a secular approach that can be integrated with other psychological frameworks and therapies. Cons: 1. May overlook the spiritual and transcendent aspects of Buddhist teachings. 2. Can sometimes be reductionistic, focusing solely on the psychological aspects of Buddhism while neglecting its broader philosophical and ethical teachings. 3. May not fully address the existential questions and ultimate concerns that religion typically addresses. Buddhism as a religion: Pros: 1. Provides a comprehensive framework for understanding the nature of reality, the self, and the cosmos. 2. Offers a sense of meaning, purpose, and belonging through its religious practices and teachings. 3. Addresses existential questions about suffering, impermanence, and the nature of existence. Cons: 1. Can be dogmatic and hierarchical, potentially limiting individual freedom and critical thinking. 2. May involve supernatural beliefs and rituals that are not compatible with a scientific worldview. 3. May focus more on faith and devotion than on personal transformation and psychological insights. In conclusion, whether Buddhism is practiced as a psychology or as a religion depends on individual preferences and goals. Both approaches can offer valuable insights into personality and personal growth, and integrating aspects of both approaches may provide a more holistic understanding of the human experience. Short Answer Questions 51. Since conditions change, Buddhism cannot be said to have a ___________ doctrine. Answer: fixed 52. The Eightfold Path of Buddhism is composed of right livelihood, right speech, right mindfulness, right effort, right concentration, right thought, right understanding, and right ___________. Answer: action 53. The ___________ is one who has completely cut off all the limitations of attachment to family, possessions, and comfort in order to become perfectly free of this world. Answer: Arhat 54. Those dominated by ___________ have sharp tempers and are quick to anger. Answer: hate 55. Students must conquer the pride and sense of holiness that may follow a direct kensho experience; some Zen masters recognize this obstacle as “the smell of enlightenment” or “the ___________ of Zen.” Answer: stench 56. The ___________ self, in Buddhist thought, is the ego. Answer: lesser Matching Questions 57. A general state of vacillation, confusion, and lack of awareness A. Dissatisfaction 58. A state that may lead to a lack of respect for one’s teacher B. Interdependence 59. The idea that nothing is everlasting C. Greed 60. A dynamic, progressive state of mind that requires self-discipline D. Pride 61. This comes not from the outer world, but from the limited ego of each individual E. Zazen 62. The desire to possess more than we have or need F. Impermanence 63. The Buddhist characterization of the world as a fluid, interconnected process G. Koan 64. “Just sitting” H. Eightfold Path 65. A question or exercise that cannot be solved by thinking or logic I. Delusion 66. The “Middle Way” J. Enlightenment Answers: 57. I 58. D 59. F 60. J 61. A 62. C 63. B 64. E 65. G 66. H Test Bank for Personality and Personal Growth Robert Frager, James Fadiman 9780205953752, 9780205254781

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