Preview (7 of 22 pages)

Preview Extract

Chapter 10: George Kelly and Personal Construct Psychology Multiple Choice Questions 1. Kelly’s metaphor of person-as-scientist emphasizes A) the relationship between the cognitive and the behavioral approach. B) personal constructions and behavioral change. C) truth in American psychology. D) individuals’ active construction of the world. Answer: D Rationale: Kelly's metaphor of person-as-scientist suggests that individuals actively construct and interpret their experiences, similar to how scientists create theories to explain phenomena. This emphasizes the active role of individuals in making sense of their world, which aligns with the idea of individuals actively constructing the world around them. 2. According to Kelly, people construct meaning A) early in their lives. B) in relation to their friends. C) in dramatic action. D) after understanding other points of view. Answer: A Rationale: Kelly believed that people begin to construct their meanings of the world early in their lives, based on their experiences and interactions. This early construction of meaning forms the basis for how they perceive and interpret the world as they grow older. 3. Like the existentialists, Kelly believed existence precedes A) cognition. B) phenomena. C) essence. D) theory. Answer: C Rationale: Both Kelly and the existentialists emphasized the importance of existence preceding essence. This means that individuals exist first and then define their essence or meaning through their experiences and interactions, rather than having a predefined essence or purpose. 4. In personal construct theory, the basic philosophical position is known as A) the meaning dimension. B) constructive alternativism. C) a system of meaning. D) understanding interpersonal relationships. Answer: B Rationale: Constructive alternativism is the basic philosophical position in personal construct theory. It suggests that individuals have the freedom to interpret and construct their realities in different ways, providing alternative ways of understanding the world. 5. If the world is constantly changing, then an adequate understanding of the world requires A) morals. B) assumptions. C) continual reinterpretation. D) philosophy. Answer: C Rationale: Kelly believed that because the world is constantly changing, individuals need to continually reinterpret their experiences and meanings to adapt to these changes. This continual reinterpretation allows for a more accurate and up-to-date understanding of the world. 6. In Kelly’s view, the person is to be understood as A) comprised of parts that function independently. B) an organized whole. C) a system within a social group. D) a collection of meanings. Answer: B Rationale: Kelly viewed the person as an organized whole, where thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are integrated and contribute to the individual's understanding and construction of their world. This holistic view contrasts with the idea of the person being comprised of independent parts. 7. The reflexive nature of the theory means that any explanation that can be applied to the client may also be applied to A) Kelly. B) his or her worldview. C) Maslow. D) the therapist. Answer: D Rationale: The reflexive nature of personal construct theory suggests that any explanation or construct that can be applied to the client can also be applied to the therapist or observer. This emphasizes the importance of understanding the perspective and constructs of the observer when interpreting the client's experiences. 8. The time orientation of construct systems is A) the present. B) the past. C) the future. D) ever-changing. Answer: C Rationale: The time orientation of construct systems in personal construct theory is focused on the future. Constructs are used to anticipate and predict future events based on past experiences, highlighting the forward-looking nature of construct systems. 9. Personal constructs do more than simply describe, they A) analyze other individuals’ experiences. B) understand other individuals’ worldviews. C) help anticipate future events. D) decide on effective courses of action. Answer: C Rationale: Personal constructs help individuals anticipate future events by providing a framework for interpreting and predicting outcomes based on past experiences. This anticipatory function goes beyond simply describing the world and allows individuals to prepare for future events. 10. The relationship between two poles of a construct system is that of a A) contrast. B) negative. C) description. D) compassionate person. Answer: A Rationale: The relationship between two poles of a construct system is one of contrast. Constructs are defined by the differences between their poles, such as tall-short or good-bad, highlighting the contrasting nature of these relationships. 11. In personal construct theory, there is constant movement and change in both the person and A) the form. B) the process. C) the problem. D) the environment. Answer: D Rationale: Personal construct theory emphasizes that individuals are actively involved in constructing and interpreting their experiences, and as a result, both the person and their environment are in a constant state of movement and change. This reflects the dynamic nature of personal construct theory. 12. Choices are taken in the direction of the person’s A) action. B) possibility for growth. C) understanding. D) validation. Answer: B Rationale: According to personal construct theory, individuals make choices that they believe will lead to personal growth and development. These choices are taken in the direction of maximizing the person's potential for growth, reflecting the goal-oriented nature of personal construct theory. 13. Constructivist research has found that three activities of meaning reconstruction are involved in successful grieving: sense-making, benefit-finding, and A) finding similarities with others. B) construct maintenance. C) identity change. D) emotional investment. Answer: C Rationale: Constructivist research suggests that successful grieving involves three activities of meaning reconstruction: sense-making (making sense of the loss), benefit-finding (finding positive aspects or lessons in the loss), and identity change (adjusting one's identity to incorporate the loss). 14. Psychological similarity is produced by A) common life circumstances. B) the principles of thought construction. C) inherited mental traits. D) interpreting events in the same way. Answer: D Rationale: Psychological similarity is produced by individuals interpreting events in similar ways. This shared interpretation leads to a sense of similarity and understanding between individuals, highlighting the role of interpretation in personal construct theory. 15. Construct dimensions differ in the way they are combined, and they differ A) content-wise. B) socially. C) originally. D) in length. Answer: A Rationale: Construct dimensions in personal construct theory differ in the way they are combined to create personal constructs. This difference is content-wise, meaning that the specific content or meaning of the constructs varies between individuals based on their unique experiences and interpretations. 16. In order to be effective, the therapist must establish A) a reconstruction of the past. B) a new outlook. C) a role relationship with the client. D) the probability of a given event. Answer: C Rationale: In personal construct theory, the therapist must establish a role relationship with the client to be effective. This relationship provides the framework for understanding the client's constructs and experiences, allowing for meaningful therapeutic interventions. 17. Anxiety is a A) feeling state. B) theory. C) cognition. D) process. Answer: A Rationale: Anxiety is a feeling state characterized by worry, fear, or unease. In personal construct theory, anxiety is seen as a natural response to threatening or uncertain situations, reflecting the individual's interpretation of the situation. 18. A beneficial component of anxiety is A) profound change. B) the quest for new information. C) the role structure of knowledge. D) the personality. Answer: B Rationale: According to personal construct theory, a beneficial component of anxiety is the quest for new information. Anxiety can motivate individuals to seek out new information and experiences to reduce uncertainty and resolve the source of anxiety, leading to personal growth and development. 19. Unlike during anxiety, during the experience of threat, life events are recognized A) later. B) clearly. C) by future generations. D) in therapy. Answer: B Rationale: In personal construct theory, anxiety and threat are distinct experiences. During anxiety, individuals may not clearly recognize the source of their distress, while during the experience of threat, life events are recognized more clearly as potentially harmful or dangerous. 20. When people find that what they are doing is discrepant with what they take themselves to be, this occurs: A) anger. B) integrity. C) revision. D) guilt. Answer: D Rationale: When individuals find that their actions or behaviors are discrepant with their self-concept or identity, they may experience guilt. This discrepancy between their actions and self-concept can lead to feelings of guilt as individuals strive to maintain a consistent self-image. 21. According to Kelly, aggressiveness can be seen in the person who is A) doing something discrepant. B) feeling guilty. C) actively pursuing choice points. D) considering his or her realm of understanding. Answer: C Rationale: Kelly believed that aggressiveness can be seen in individuals who are actively pursuing choice points. Choice points are moments where individuals make choices that they believe will lead to personal growth and development, indicating a proactive and assertive approach to decision-making. 22. The loving act is not always supportive, but it is always in the direction that is intended to A) complete another as a person. B) take decisive action. C) affirm another person. D) exercise personal control. Answer: A Rationale: According to Kelly, the loving act is not always supportive in the sense of providing comfort or assistance, but it is always intended to complete another as a person. This suggests that acts of love are aimed at helping individuals become more fully themselves and reach their full potential. 23. The C-P-C cycle is a sequence of construction involving, in succession, circumspection, preemption, and A) choice. B) control. C) construction. D) action. Answer: B Rationale: The C-P-C cycle in personal construct theory involves circumspection (careful consideration of construing), preemption (choosing the most appropriate construct), and control (implementing the chosen construct). The final step in the cycle is action, where the chosen construct is put into practice. 24. Impulsivity may be defined as A) a creative aspect of personality. B) an infinite construction. C) an introspective formulation. D) an attempt to find a sudden solution to a problem. Answer: D Rationale: Impulsivity is defined as an attempt to find a sudden solution to a problem without careful consideration of the consequences. It is characterized by acting quickly and without forethought, often leading to risky or reckless behavior. 25. Research shows that personal construct therapy has been used successfully with drug-abusing adolescent girls, patients with PTSD, and A) wives who experienced the death of their husbands. B) seniors with anxiety and depression. C) patients with conduct disorder. D) overworked psychology students. Answer: B Rationale: Research has shown that personal construct therapy has been used successfully with patients with PTSD, as well as drug-abusing adolescent girls. This therapy has also been effective with seniors experiencing anxiety and depression, indicating its broad applicability across different populations and issues. 26. Research has found significant relationships between constructs and anxiety, phobias, and A) hypotension. B) obesity. C) eating disorders. D) perfectionism. Answer: C Rationale: Research has found significant relationships between personal constructs and anxiety, phobias, and eating disorders. These findings suggest that individuals' unique ways of construing themselves and the world around them can influence the development and maintenance of these psychological issues. True False Questions 27. According to Kelly, people are in a process of sporadic change. Answer: False Rationale: Kelly believed that people are in a process of continuous and ongoing change, rather than sporadic change. He emphasized the dynamic nature of personal constructs and how they are constantly being revised and updated based on new experiences and information. 28. Kelly’s early publications covered practical issues in the application of Freudian psychology to school systems and clinical populations. Answer: False Rationale: Kelly's early publications did not focus on practical issues in the application of Freudian psychology. Instead, he developed his own theory, personal construct theory, which offered a unique perspective on human psychology and behavior. 29. John Dewey’s ideas about the ongoing nature of the universe influenced Kelly. Answer: True Rationale: John Dewey's ideas about the ongoing and evolving nature of the universe, as well as his emphasis on experience and inquiry, influenced Kelly's development of personal construct theory. Dewey's pragmatism and emphasis on the individual's role in constructing meaning resonated with Kelly's ideas. 30. Kelly intended to create a psychology of action and use. Answer: True Rationale: Kelly intended for personal construct theory to be a psychology of action and use, focusing on how individuals construct and use their personal constructs to understand and navigate the world around them. He believed that psychology should be practical and applicable to everyday life. 31. Kelly was most impressed by Jacob Moreno’s use of clay in counseling children. Answer: False Rationale: Kelly was not most impressed by Jacob Moreno's use of clay in counseling children. While he did appreciate Moreno's work, particularly his development of psychodrama, Kelly was more influenced by other aspects of Moreno's work, such as role theory and the concept of interpersonal relationships. 32. In Kelly’s view, people must enact a new role in order to see the world differently. Answer: True Rationale: Kelly believed that individuals must enact a new role or perspective in order to see the world differently. He emphasized the importance of adopting new perspectives and constructs to change how one interprets and experiences the world. 33. Constructive alternativism reminds us that all our present perceptions are open to question and reconsideration. Answer: True Rationale: Constructive alternativism is the idea that individuals can interpret and construe their experiences in multiple ways. It reminds us that our present perceptions are not fixed and can be questioned and reconsidered, leading to new ways of understanding and interpreting the world. 34. The individual is to be understood in the therapist’s terms. Answer: False Rationale: Kelly emphasized that the individual is to be understood in their own terms, not the therapist's. He believed that each individual constructs their own unique reality and that the therapist's role is to understand and work within the individual's personal construct system. 35. Some people develop extensive and extraordinary personal systems. Answer: True Rationale: Kelly observed that some individuals develop extensive and extraordinary personal construct systems, which shape how they perceive and interpret the world. These personal systems can be highly complex and unique to each individual. 36. “Construing a replication” is a process that a person uses in order to forecast events. Answer: True Rationale: "Construing a replication" is a process in personal construct theory where individuals use past experiences to forecast or predict future events. By construing a replication, individuals apply their existing constructs to new situations to anticipate outcomes based on past experiences. 37. Construct dimensions are continuous and unipolar. Answer: False Rationale: Construct dimensions in personal construct theory are considered to be bipolar, meaning they have two poles that are opposite to each other (e.g., good-bad, tall-short). This bipolarity allows for the comparison and contrast of different constructs, leading to a more nuanced understanding of the individual's construing processes. 38. The concept of choice focuses on the person’s dimension of meaning in the moment. Answer: False Rationale: The concept of choice in personal construct theory focuses on the person's ability to choose and enact different constructs based on their current understanding and interpretation of the situation. It is not limited to the moment but extends to the person's overall construct system and how it evolves over time. 39. Socrates’s suicide is an example of the elaborative possibilities that choice holds for the person. Answer: True Rationale: Socrates's suicide is an example of how individuals can choose to act in ways that elaborate or expand their construct system. Socrates chose to end his life based on his philosophical beliefs, demonstrating the elaborative possibilities that choice holds for individuals in shaping their lives. 40. The cycle of experience can help the person live a life enriched by variability in the construct system. Answer: True Rationale: The cycle of experience in personal construct theory emphasizes the importance of variability in the construct system. By experiencing a variety of situations and outcomes, individuals can enrich their construct system and develop a more nuanced understanding of themselves and the world around them. 41. Kelly emphasized what the person has structured his or her experienced with. Answer: False Rationale: Kelly emphasized how the person has structured his or her experiences, rather than what the person has structured them with. He focused on how individuals construct and interpret their experiences based on their unique set of personal constructs. 42. Some relationships with others are based on our ability to predict and control them to a certain extent. Answer: True Rationale: Personal construct theory suggests that some relationships with others are based on our ability to predict and control them to a certain extent. This ability to predict and control others' behavior can influence the nature and quality of our relationships with them. 43. Research shows that individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder tend to overelaborate traumatic events. Answer: True Rationale: Research has shown that individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) tend to overelaborate traumatic events, meaning they excessively focus on and elaborate upon the details of the traumatic event. This overelaboration can contribute to the persistence and severity of PTSD symptoms. 44. We fear what we know less about because we may clearly see how profoundly it can change us. Answer: False Rationale: According to personal construct theory, we fear what we know more about because we can clearly see how profoundly it can change us. Familiarity with a potential change or outcome can increase our fear of it, as we are more aware of its potential impact on our lives. 45. According to Kelly, guilt impacts the lives of future generations. Answer: False Rationale: Kelly did not suggest that guilt impacts the lives of future generations. Instead, he focused on how individuals construe and interpret their experiences of guilt, and how these constructions influence their present and future behavior. 46. In personal construct theory, aggression is simply the active and spontaneous elaboration of the system. Answer: True Rationale: In personal construct theory, aggression is seen as the active and spontaneous elaboration of the individual's construct system. It is a natural part of how individuals construct and interpret their experiences, rather than a separate or distinct behavior. 47. The CPC decision-making cycle results in the person choosing one pole of a preempted construct dimension to apply to the situation. Answer: True Rationale: The CPC (circumspection, preemption, control) decision-making cycle in personal construct theory involves choosing one pole of a preempted construct dimension to apply to a situation. This process helps individuals make decisions and take action based on their personal construct system. 48. A loose construct makes verbalizing what is taking place easy. Answer: False Rationale: In personal construct theory, a loose construct is one that is vague or ill-defined, making it difficult to verbalize or express clearly. Loose constructs can lead to confusion and inconsistency in how individuals interpret and construe their experiences. 49. Personal construct therapy has been used successfully in conjunction with biofeedback therapy and with prolonged-exposure therapy. Answer: False Rationale: Personal construct therapy is a distinct form of therapy and is not typically used in conjunction with biofeedback therapy or prolonged-exposure therapy. Each of these therapies has its own principles and techniques, which are not necessarily compatible with personal construct therapy. 50. One criticism of Kelly is that he used stodgy, sometimes difficult, language. Answer: True Rationale: One criticism of Kelly is that he often used complex and technical language in his writing, which some readers found difficult to understand. This can make his ideas challenging to grasp for those unfamiliar with personal construct theory. 51. Kelly closely allied personal construct theory with other psychological perspectives. Answer: False Rationale: Kelly did not closely ally personal construct theory with other psychological perspectives. Instead, he developed personal construct theory as a unique and independent approach to understanding human psychology and behavior. Essay Questions 52. How is personal construct theory a humanistic approach? Answer: Personal construct theory is considered a humanistic approach because it emphasizes the individual's subjective experience and active role in constructing their reality. It focuses on understanding each person's unique perspective and how they make sense of their world, rather than applying general principles or theories to all individuals. Personal construct theory also values personal growth, self-actualization, and the potential for individuals to change and adapt their construct systems to better understand and navigate their lives. 53. In what ways does Kelly’s theory support the existentialist premise that existence precedes essence? Answer: Kelly's theory supports the existentialist premise that existence precedes essence by emphasizing the active and ongoing process of individuals creating and defining their own essence or meaning in life. According to Kelly, individuals are not born with a predetermined essence or purpose but instead construct their meaning through their experiences, interactions, and interpretations of the world. This aligns with the existentialist view that individuals are responsible for creating their own meaning and identity through their actions and choices, rather than having a predetermined essence imposed upon them. 54. Choose three of Kelly’s 12 corollaries to examine in relative detail. Answer: Kelly's corollaries are fundamental principles that underlie personal construct theory and provide insights into how individuals construct and interpret their experiences. Three corollaries that are particularly significant include: 1. Construction corollary: This corollary states that a person anticipates events by construing their replications. In other words, individuals use their past experiences and constructs to anticipate and predict future events. This corollary highlights the anticipatory nature of personal construct theory, suggesting that individuals actively use their construct systems to make sense of and navigate their lives. 2. Individuality corollary: According to this corollary, persons differ from each other in their construction of events. This emphasizes the unique and subjective nature of personal construct systems, highlighting that each individual interprets and construes their experiences in a way that is distinct to them. This corollary emphasizes the importance of understanding each individual's unique construct system in therapy or research. 3. Organization corollary: This corollary suggests that each person characteristically evolves, for their convenience in anticipating events, a construction system embracing ordinal relationships between constructs. It highlights that individuals organize their construct systems in a way that allows them to anticipate and understand events in their lives. This corollary underscores the idea that individuals develop a system of constructs that help them navigate and understand the world around them. These corollaries collectively emphasize the active, subjective, and anticipatory nature of personal construct theory, highlighting how individuals construct and interpret their experiences to make sense of their world. 55. From the perspective of therapy, theory, or research applications, discuss the usefulness of personal construct theory. Answer: Personal construct theory has been applied in various therapeutic, theoretical, and research contexts, demonstrating its usefulness in understanding human psychology and behavior. In therapy, personal construct theory provides a framework for understanding how individuals construct their realities and make sense of their experiences. Therapists can use this framework to help clients identify and challenge their existing constructs, leading to personal growth and development. Personal construct therapy, based on this theory, focuses on helping individuals explore and revise their construct systems to achieve greater self-understanding and psychological well-being. From a theoretical perspective, personal construct theory offers a unique approach to understanding human behavior. It emphasizes the role of personal constructs in shaping individuals' perceptions and behaviors, highlighting the importance of individual differences and subjective experiences. This theoretical perspective has contributed to our understanding of topics such as personality, perception, and cognition. In research, personal construct theory provides a framework for studying how individuals interpret and construe their experiences. Researchers can use this framework to investigate various psychological phenomena, such as decision-making, problem-solving, and interpersonal relationships. Personal construct theory has been used in research across diverse fields, including clinical psychology, education, and organizational behavior, demonstrating its versatility and applicability. Overall, personal construct theory offers valuable insights into the complexities of human psychology and behavior, making it a useful tool for therapy, theory development, and research in psychology. Short Answer Questions 56. ___________ __________ are formed out of your own private meanings and the meaning you adopt from your social world. Answer: Personal constructs 57. Said to be America’s only original contribution to world philosophy, ___________ grows out of the concern with the practical significance of things. Answer: pragmatism 58. For the most part, the personal construct therapist is concerned with the system of meaning the person uses to understand ___________ relations. Answer: interpersonal 59. Groping with ___________ characterizes personal construct theory; it could be called a theory of the unknown. Answer: uncertainty 60. The human ___________ are seen as particular kinds of transitions in the personal construct system. Answer: emotions 61. Kelly’s work has been applied in business, in occupational counseling, understanding consumer preferences, and ___________ training. Answer: sales Matching Questions 62. Hostility LL. Occurs when one’s constructs do not apply to the events at hand 63. Fear MM. There are an infinite number of ways to construe events 64. Threat NN. Occurs when there is imminent change in one’s peripheral constructs 65. Anxiety OO. Occurs when a person does something discrepant with his or her moral code 66. Aggressiveness PP. Open to modification 67. Constructive alternativism QQ. All human inquiry experimental 68. Personal constructs RR. Trying to force events to fit with disconfirming constructs 69. Guilt SS. Bipolar dimensions of meaning 70. Person-as-scientist TT. Actively testing one’s constructs 71. Permeable constructs UU. Results when a comprehensive change to one’s core constructs is imminent Answers: 62) G 63) C 64) J 65) A 66) I 67) B 68) H 69) D 70) F 71) E Test Bank for Personality and Personal Growth Robert Frager, James Fadiman 9780205953752, 9780205254781

Document Details

Related Documents

Close

Send listing report

highlight_off

You already reported this listing

The report is private and won't be shared with the owner

rotate_right
Close
rotate_right
Close

Send Message

image
Close

My favorites

image
Close

Application Form

image
Notifications visibility rotate_right Clear all Close close
image
image
arrow_left
arrow_right