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Chapter 7: William James and the Psychology of Consciousness Multiple Choice Questions 1. James anticipated, among other things, Skinner’s behaviorism and A) Adler’s Individual Psychology. B) much of Jungian psychology. C) Horneyan feminism. D) the Rogerian self-concept. Answer: D Rationale: James anticipated Carl Rogers's concept of the self, known as the Rogerian self-concept, which emphasizes the importance of self-actualization and the self-concept in human behavior and motivation. This is evident in James's focus on the individual's subjective experience and the role of consciousness in shaping behavior, which aligns with Rogers's later work. 2. James received an eclectic trans-Atlantic education and became fluent in both A) German and French. B) German and Italian. C) Italian and French. D) French and Dutch. Answer: A Rationale: James received an eclectic trans-Atlantic education, which included studying in Germany and France. This exposure allowed him to become fluent in both German and French, which contributed to his broad understanding of different philosophical and psychological perspectives. 3. Upon finally graduating from medical school in 1869, James A) made a trip to Brazil. B) suffered a pronounced depression. C) immediately began work on his first book. D) got married. Answer: B Rationale: Upon graduating from medical school in 1869, James experienced a pronounced depression. This period of depression influenced his later work and his interest in psychology and philosophy, leading him to explore questions of meaning, purpose, and the nature of consciousness. 4. In the influential The Varieties of Religious Experience, James set forth a set of basic premises including A) religious experience should be the study of religious institutions. B) the most intense varieties of experience should be studied by medical doctors. C) religious experience should be the focus of the study of religion. D) the importance of utilizing rationality to help us live fuller and better lives. Answer: C Rationale: In "The Varieties of Religious Experience," James argued that religious experience should be the focus of the study of religion. He emphasized the personal, subjective nature of religious experiences and their importance in understanding the diversity of religious beliefs and practices. 5. Holding to more than one theory at a time James called A) multiple theory disorder. B) simultaneous-sequential thinking. C) fluid-flexible attention dynamics. D) pluralistic thinking. Answer: D Rationale: James called holding to more than one theory at a time "pluralistic thinking." He believed that individuals could hold conflicting beliefs or theories simultaneously, and that this plurality of perspectives was natural and could be adaptive. 6. The self is A) that personal continuity that we all recognize each time we awaken. B) primarily personal identity. C) that place where all our mental processes combine and congeal. D) a philosophical abstraction made real with moralistic questioning. Answer: A Rationale: James defined the self as the personal continuity that we all recognize each time we awaken. He emphasized the dynamic and ever-changing nature of the self, shaped by our experiences and interactions with the world. 7. James called one’s inner and subjective being, the active element in all consciousness, the A) spiritual self. B) material self. C) social self. D) intentional self. Answer: A Rationale: James called one's inner and subjective being, the active element in all consciousness, the "spiritual self." He distinguished between the spiritual self, which is the core of individual consciousness, and the material self, which includes aspects of the physical body and external identity. 8. James astutely highlighted a central fact about consciousness: its inevitable A) ubiquity. B) changeableness. C) permanence. D) transience. Answer: B Rationale: James highlighted the central fact about consciousness: its changeableness. He emphasized the dynamic nature of consciousness, which is constantly evolving and influenced by our thoughts, feelings, and experiences. 9. In research on the stream of consciousness, what is it called when researchers ask participants what they are thinking in the given moment? A) Moment analysis B) Cognition surveying C) Thought sampling D) Phenomenology Answer: C Rationale: In research on the stream of consciousness, when researchers ask participants what they are thinking in the given moment, it is called "thought sampling." This technique allows researchers to capture the flow of thoughts and experiences as they occur in real time. 10. Action or thought which appears as a seemingly automatic response to a given experience is called A) instinct. B) intention. C) habit. D) purpose. Answer: C Rationale: A habit is an action or thought that appears as a seemingly automatic response to a given experience. Habits are learned behaviors that become ingrained over time through repetition and reinforcement. 11. According to James, the combination of attention (focusing consciousness) and effort (overcoming inhibitions, laziness, or distractions) is called A) the will. B) emotion. C) the intellect. D) stimulus response. Answer: A Rationale: James referred to the combination of attention and effort as "the will." He believed that the will plays a central role in directing our actions and overcoming obstacles to achieve our goals. 12. What allows consciousness to attend to ideas, perceptions, and sensations not necessarily pleasant or inviting? A) Anesthesia B) Rote learning C) Cognitive schemas D) Developed will Answer: D Rationale: According to James, the developed will allows consciousness to attend to ideas, perceptions, and sensations that may not be pleasant or inviting. The will enables us to focus our attention and effort on these aspects of consciousness despite potential obstacles. 13. Which theory of emotion delineates the connections between emotions and the physiological changes associated with emotions? A) Hilgard-Atkinson B) Bucke-James C) Levi-Strauss D) James-Lange Answer: D Rationale: The James-Lange theory of emotion delineates the connections between emotions and the physiological changes associated with emotions. According to this theory, physiological changes precede and cause emotions, rather than emotions causing physiological changes. 14. James believed that a positive attitude was more than useful, it was A) necessary. B) sufficient. C) self-transcendent. D) pre-formed. Answer: A Rationale: James believed that a positive attitude was necessary, not just useful, for living a fulfilling life. He emphasized the importance of attitude in shaping our experiences and interactions with the world. 15. Symptoms of one’s personal blindness may include A) the willing cessation of habits that restrict consciousness. B) the awareness that leads to errors of excess. C) the willing acceptance of habits that restrict consciousness. D) the ability to express one’s feelings. Answer: C Rationale: Symptoms of one's personal blindness may include the willing acceptance of habits that restrict consciousness. James believed that individuals often adopt habits or beliefs that limit their awareness and understanding of themselves and the world around them. 16. Of the two basic functions a teacher has, the only one James cared for was A) capable of distributing information. B) to communicate truth. C) to provide a safe and secure learning environment. D) to provide relevant content. Answer: B Rationale: James believed that the primary function of a teacher was to communicate truth. He emphasized the importance of education in helping individuals discover and understand the truth about themselves and the world. 17. James’s ideas played a major role in the scientific personality psychologies of A) Allport, Murray, and Murphy. B) Jung, Adler, and Allport. C) Adler, Allport, and Murray. D) Murray, Allport, and Beck. Answer: A Rationale: James's ideas played a major role in the scientific personality psychologies of Allport, Murray, and Murphy. These psychologists were influenced by James's emphasis on the individual's subjective experience and the importance of understanding the whole person in psychological research. 18. In studying a wide range of states of consciousness, James did not draw a fixed line between A) theory or practical application. B) mental and physical states. C) physical and spiritual experiences. D) abnormal and normal experiences. Answer: D Rationale: In studying a wide range of states of consciousness, James did not draw a fixed line between abnormal and normal experiences. He believed that all experiences, whether considered normal or abnormal, could provide valuable insights into the nature of consciousness and the human mind. 19. In the context of his psychedelic research, James described the self not as a stable, fixed structure, but as a constantly A) changing, ephemeral biopsychic structure. B) vibrating violin string. C) flowing river. D) fluctuating field. Answer: D Rationale: In the context of his psychedelic research, James described the self not as a stable, fixed structure, but as a constantly fluctuating field. He believed that the self is dynamic and influenced by various factors, including our thoughts, feelings, and experiences. 20. The process or means of monitoring a biological process going on in your own body is known as A) meditation. B) biofeedback. C) thermodynamics. D) hypochondria. Answer: B Rationale: The process or means of monitoring a biological process going on in your own body is known as biofeedback. Biofeedback techniques allow individuals to learn how to control physiological processes, such as heart rate or muscle tension, through awareness and feedback. 21. The quieting, or focusing of one’s mind in a systematic manner is called A) passive volition. B) introspection. C) hypnosis. D) meditation. Answer: D Rationale: The process of systematically focusing or quieting one's mind is known as meditation. Meditation techniques are often used to promote relaxation, improve concentration, and enhance overall well-being. 22. People vary in their susceptibility to A) multiple personality disorder. B) biofeedback. C) hypnosis. D) hysteria. Answer: C Rationale: People vary in their susceptibility to hypnosis. Some individuals are more easily hypnotized than others, and this variability is believed to be due to differences in cognitive and personality factors. 23. The evidence from research on hypnosis suggests that consciousness can be highly selective in what it A) admits into awareness. B) translates into action. C) translates into emotion. D) keeps unconscious. Answer: A Rationale: The evidence from research on hypnosis suggests that consciousness can be highly selective in what it admits into awareness. During hypnosis, individuals may focus their attention on specific thoughts or sensations while excluding others from their awareness. 24. The evidence is growing for a part of everyone that is aware and observing yet A) detached. B) unknown. C) located outside the body. D) unaffected by thoughts. Answer: B Rationale: The evidence is growing for a part of everyone that is aware and observing yet unknown. This refers to the idea that there may be aspects of consciousness or the mind that are not fully understood or accessible to conscious awareness. 25. Multiple personality cases are found most frequently in A) South America. B) Africa. C) Asia. D) North America. Answer: D Rationale: Multiple personality cases, now known as dissociative identity disorder (DID), are found most frequently in North America. This may be due to cultural and diagnostic factors that influence the identification and reporting of the disorder in different regions. 26. Related to laboratory research on what has been called the “neural correlate of consciousness” is this field which integrates subjective experience and brain dynamics: A) neurobiofeedback. B) neurophenomenology. C) neurosubjectivism. D) neuropragmatism. Answer: B Rationale: The field that integrates subjective experience and brain dynamics, particularly in relation to the neural correlates of consciousness, is neurophenomenology. Neurophenomenology seeks to bridge the gap between subjective experience and objective brain activity to better understand the nature of consciousness. True False Questions 27. James, addressing all areas of human existence and experience, introduced a psychology to the United States that was bounded by biology on one side and by philosophy on the other. Answer: True Rationale: James's psychology, as presented in his work "The Principles of Psychology," was indeed interdisciplinary, drawing on both biological and philosophical perspectives to understand human existence and experience. 28. Before Breuer and Freud’s first ideas on the subject of consciousness were in print, James had published a fully developed theory of consciousness of his own. Answer: True Rationale: James's theory of consciousness, as outlined in "The Principles of Psychology," was developed and published before the ideas of Breuer and Freud on consciousness became widely known. James's theory emphasized the stream of consciousness and the role of attention in shaping conscious experience. 29. Near the end of his life, while pragmatism was the international rage, James developed a metaphysics called radical observationalism to account for pure experience in the immediate moment. Answer: False Rationale: While James did develop and promote pragmatism, he did not develop a metaphysics called radical observationalism. Pragmatism was his major philosophical contribution, emphasizing the practical consequences of beliefs and ideas. 30. Placing psychology within the study of the sciences, James’s The Principles of Psychology totaled 1,200 pages and took 12 years to complete. Answer: True Rationale: "The Principles of Psychology" by William James is indeed a comprehensive work that places psychology within the framework of the natural sciences. It is a lengthy and thorough exploration of the human mind and behavior, totaling around 1,200 pages and taking approximately 12 years to complete. 31. Results from recent Gallop polls have shown the relative rarity of genuine mystical experiences in the general population. Answer: False Rationale: Gallup polls have shown that mystical experiences are not as rare as previously thought, with a significant portion of the population reporting having had such experiences. This suggests that mystical experiences are more common than previously believed. 32. For James, personality arises from the interplay between the instinctual and habitual facets of consciousness and the personal, volitional aspects. Answer: True Rationale: James believed that personality arises from the interplay between instinctual and habitual aspects of consciousness, as well as personal, volitional aspects. He emphasized the dynamic nature of personality, shaped by both internal and external factors. 33. James had to fully believe in, and agree with, a philosophy or branch of psychology before he would recommend it to others. Answer: False Rationale: James was open-minded and willing to consider different philosophical and psychological perspectives, even if he did not fully agree with them. He valued the diversity of ideas and perspectives in the field of psychology and philosophy. 34. The material self encompasses the sum total of our cells, bones, and life-sustaining fluids. Answer: False Rationale: The material self, as described by James, includes aspects of the physical body, but it also includes our thoughts, feelings, and experiences. It is more than just the sum total of our biological components. 35. We can have exactly the same thought twice. Answer: False Rationale: According to James, each thought is unique and influenced by preceding thoughts. While we may have similar thoughts or ideas, they are never exactly the same due to the dynamic nature of consciousness. 36. Each emerging thought takes part of its force, focus, content, and direction from preceding thoughts. Answer: True Rationale: James believed that each thought is influenced by preceding thoughts, which shape its force, focus, content, and direction. This idea is central to his theory of the stream of consciousness. 37. James suggested that awareness has both a definite portion and a vague portion, or a nucleus and a fringe. Answer: True Rationale: James suggested that awareness consists of both a definite portion (the nucleus) and a vague portion (the fringe). The nucleus represents the focal point of awareness, while the fringe includes peripheral elements of consciousness that are less clearly defined. 38. James assumed that the mind is passive and that the personality develops in direct proportion to the amounts of various experiences. Answer: False Rationale: James did not view the mind as passive. Instead, he emphasized the active nature of consciousness and the role of personal agency in shaping one's experiences and personality. He believed that individuals actively interpret and respond to their experiences, rather than passively receiving them. 39. According to his acquaintance theory, James proposed that people use most of their thinking to help themselves change the world. Answer: True Rationale: James's acquaintance theory suggests that people use most of their thinking to help themselves change the world. He believed that much of our mental activity is directed towards understanding and navigating the external world, rather than introspection or self-analysis. 40. James believed that our virtues, as well as our vices, are habits. Answer: True Rationale: James believed that both virtues and vices are habits that are acquired through repeated actions and choices. He emphasized the role of habit in shaping our character and behavior. 41. In his role as psychotherapist, James suggested that systematic training in the habit of attention was far more important than rote learning. Answer: False Rationale: James did emphasize the importance of attention, but he did not believe that systematic training in the habit of attention was more important than rote learning. He believed that both attention and rote learning had their place in education and personal development. 42. On rare occasions, rather than strengthen her or his will, the individual must surrender it, must allow it to be overwhelmed by inner experiences. Answer: True Rationale: James believed that on rare occasions, individuals must surrender their will and allow themselves to be overwhelmed by inner experiences. He saw this as a necessary part of personal growth and self-discovery, allowing individuals to explore new aspects of themselves and their consciousness. 43. A recurrent theme in James’s writings is that personal evolution is possible and that everyone has an inherent capacity to modify or change her or his attitudes and behaviors. Answer: True Rationale: James believed in the possibility of personal evolution and the capacity of individuals to modify or change their attitudes and behaviors. He emphasized the importance of personal growth and self-improvement throughout his writings. 44. In the James-Cannon theory of emotion, the event plus the setting plus the individual will determine the experienced emotion. Answer: False Rationale: In the James-Lange theory of emotion, which James developed with Carl Lange, the event plus the individual's interpretation of the event leads to physiological changes, which then result in the experienced emotion. The setting is not a factor in this theory. 45. James believed that there are advantages to being overwhelmed by one’s feelings in that emotional upset can disrupt long-standing habits and free a person to explore new areas of awareness. Answer: True Rationale: James believed that being overwhelmed by one's feelings could have advantages, as it could disrupt long-standing habits and allow a person to explore new areas of awareness. He saw emotional experiences as potentially transformative and liberating. 46. Long before the rise of modern psychotherapy, James recognized that people needed some sort of outlet through which to release bottled-up emotion. Answer: True Rationale: James recognized the importance of emotional expression long before the rise of modern psychotherapy. He believed that suppressing emotions could lead to psychological and physical problems, and he advocated for finding healthy outlets for emotional expression. 47. Consciousness can transcend any level of physical excitement for a limited period of time. Answer: True Rationale: James believed that consciousness could transcend any level of physical excitement for a limited period of time. He saw consciousness as dynamic and capable of adapting to different levels of stimulation and arousal. 48. Near the end of his career, James narrowed his focus on the psychology of consciousness because it mattered more how his theory was being received than what ordinary people did with their lives. Answer: False Rationale: Near the end of his career, James continued to focus on the psychology of consciousness and personal development because he believed in the importance of understanding human experience and behavior. He was motivated by a desire to contribute to the understanding of the human mind and to promote personal growth and self-improvement. 49. James’s influence on personality psychology has been most obvious in the scientific study of the body’s impact on cognition. Answer: False Rationale: James's influence on personality psychology has been most obvious in his emphasis on the individual's subjective experience and the importance of understanding the whole person. While he did consider the body's impact on cognition, his influence extends beyond this to include broader aspects of personality psychology. 50. After almost a century of research, scientists are beginning to answer the question of what consciousness is, rather than providing mere descriptions about the contents of consciousness. Answer: False Rationale: The question of what consciousness is remains a topic of ongoing debate and research. While progress has been made in understanding the neural correlates of consciousness and the contents of consciousness, there is still much that is not fully understood about the nature of consciousness itself. 51. Research on cerebral blood flow during a psychedelic-ingestion experience shows that the part of the brain most closely associated with personal identity receives less blood. Answer: True Rationale: Research on cerebral blood flow during psychedelic experiences, such as those induced by substances like psilocybin or LSD, has shown that the part of the brain most closely associated with personal identity, known as the default mode network, often shows decreased activity or connectivity. This suggests that these substances may alter the sense of self or personal identity. 52. It appears that any physical process that can be brought into sustained awareness can be treated effectively through biofeedback training. Answer: True Rationale: Biofeedback training involves monitoring and gaining control over physiological processes that are normally involuntary, such as heart rate or muscle tension, by providing feedback about these processes. Research has shown that many physical processes can be effectively treated through biofeedback training when individuals can bring these processes into sustained awareness and learn to control them. 53. With most of the research continuing to focus on its application as a stress management intervention, two basic kinds of meditation have been studied—concentration and visualization meditation. Answer: False Rationale: While stress management is a common application of meditation, there are many other types of meditation that have been studied. These include mindfulness meditation, loving-kindness meditation, and transcendental meditation, among others. Each type of meditation may have different effects on the mind and body. 54. Mindfulness meditation has been found to reduce both reported depression and the neural mechanism related to sadness. Answer: True Rationale: Research has shown that mindfulness meditation can be effective in reducing reported symptoms of depression and may also impact the neural mechanisms related to sadness. Mindfulness meditation involves cultivating a non-judgmental awareness of the present moment, which can help individuals better regulate their emotions and reduce symptoms of depression. 55. Research in deep hypnosis suggests that personality can be separated from something more central in our awareness. Answer: True Rationale: Research in deep hypnosis has suggested that personality can be separated from something more central in our awareness, such as a core self or consciousness. This has led to debates about the nature of consciousness and the extent to which hypnosis can alter or temporarily change aspects of personality. Essay Questions 56. Describe James’s dynamic family and early group of correspondents. From whom did he learn his speaking skills, for example? How might these early experiences have influenced his later emphasis on the importance of attention? Answer: William James came from a dynamic family with a strong intellectual tradition. His father, Henry James Sr., was a philosopher and theologian, and his brother, Henry James Jr., became a well-known writer. William James was also influenced by his early group of correspondents, which included prominent thinkers and writers of his time, such as Charles Peirce and Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. James learned his speaking skills in part from his father, who encouraged him to develop his oratory skills from a young age. Henry James Sr. believed that the ability to communicate effectively was essential for success in life, and he encouraged his children to practice speaking and debating. These early experiences likely influenced James's later emphasis on the importance of attention. Growing up in a family that valued intellectual discourse and communication, James would have learned the importance of focused attention in order to engage effectively in discussions and debates. This early emphasis on attention may have influenced his later theories about the role of attention in shaping conscious experience and behavior. 57. Discuss the function of habit in personal growth. Answer: Habit plays a crucial role in personal growth, as it shapes our behaviors, attitudes, and character over time. Habits are formed through repeated actions and choices, and once established, they can have a powerful influence on our lives. Positive habits, such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and effective time management, can contribute to personal growth by promoting physical health, mental well-being, and productivity. These habits can help individuals achieve their goals, develop self-discipline, and improve their overall quality of life. On the other hand, negative habits, such as procrastination, unhealthy eating habits, and destructive behaviors, can hinder personal growth by limiting our potential, increasing stress, and undermining our well-being. Breaking negative habits and replacing them with positive ones is often a key component of personal growth and development. 58. Discuss the role of attention in education. Answer: Attention plays a critical role in education, as it determines how effectively students can focus on and process information. Attention is necessary for learning, as it allows students to engage with the material, understand concepts, and retain information. In the classroom, teachers often rely on students' attention to deliver instruction and facilitate learning. Students who are able to maintain focused attention are more likely to succeed academically, as they can better absorb and apply the information presented to them. Attention also influences students' ability to regulate their behavior and manage distractions in the learning environment. Students who struggle with attention may find it difficult to stay on task, follow instructions, and complete assignments. Educators can help students improve their attention skills by creating engaging and interactive learning experiences, providing clear instructions, and offering support for students who may need extra help. By recognizing the importance of attention in education, educators can help students maximize their learning potential and achieve academic success. 59. A recent review of current theories of consciousness concluded with a set of agreed-upon conclusions. Name and expand on one of the four conclusions mentioned. Answer: One of the conclusions of the recent review of current theories of consciousness was the idea that consciousness is an emergent property of complex systems. This means that consciousness is not a property that exists independently of the brain, but rather arises from the interactions of neurons and other elements of the brain's architecture. This conclusion suggests that consciousness is not a binary phenomenon (either present or absent), but rather exists on a spectrum depending on the complexity of the system. For example, simple organisms may have rudimentary forms of consciousness, while more complex organisms like humans have a more developed form of consciousness. The idea that consciousness is an emergent property of complex systems has important implications for our understanding of consciousness and its relationship to the brain. It suggests that consciousness is not a mysterious or mystical phenomenon, but rather a natural result of the brain's structure and function. This view is supported by research showing that changes in brain activity can directly affect consciousness, such as in cases of brain injury or the effects of psychoactive substances. 60. Discuss the implications of altered states of consciousness for personality theory. Focus your discussion on one of the following areas: psychedelic research, biofeedback, meditation, hypnosis, or multiple personality. Answer: Altered states of consciousness, such as those induced by psychedelic substances, meditation, or hypnosis, can have significant implications for personality theory. One area of focus is psychedelic research, which has shown that these substances can produce profound changes in perception, mood, and cognition. Studies have found that the use of psychedelics can lead to experiences of ego dissolution, where the boundaries between the self and the external world become blurred. This can lead to a sense of unity with others and the universe, often described as a feeling of interconnectedness or oneness. These experiences can have lasting effects on personality, leading to changes in attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. From a personality theory perspective, these findings suggest that personality is not fixed or static, but rather can be influenced by experiences that alter consciousness. This challenges traditional views of personality as a stable and enduring trait, suggesting instead that it is dynamic and subject to change. Overall, the study of altered states of consciousness has the potential to deepen our understanding of personality and the nature of the self. It highlights the complex interplay between consciousness, perception, and personality, and the ways in which these factors can shape our understanding of ourselves and the world around us. Short Answer Questions 61. Aware that no science was value free, James was a self-confessed ___________ psychologist, a term that has almost vanished from our modern vocabularly. Answer: moral 62. What became an international philosophic movement, ___________ proposed that truth should be evaluated by its utility and that beliefs should be tested by their practical consequences. Answer: pragmatism 63. In reseach on attention, modern psychologists have discovered that attention is like a ___________ that we shine on particular thoughts or external stimuli. Answer: spotlight 64. It was James’s contention that a ___________ between deattachment and expression of one’s feelings serve the organism best. Answer: balance 65. Rather than the source of stimulation itself, the ___________ is an expressive tool of the indwelling consciousness. Answer: body 66. Attention without effort, ___________ __________ is defined as the willingness to let things happen. Answer: passive volition Matching Questions 67. Stream of consciousness A. Context, or web of associations and feelings that give meaning to the contents of awareness 68. Habits B. The personal habit patterns that form the mainstay of our relationships 69. Healthy mindedness C. Can be created, modified, or eliminated by conscious direction 70. Pluralistic thinking D. Involves emotionally embracing an idea before we can turn to the business of decision making 71. Social self E. Knowing through abstract reasoning 72. Knowledge of acquaintance F. Prevents us from being aware of the intensity and the perfection of the present moment 73. Sentiment of rationality G. Continuous flow of thought, or of subjective life 74. James-Lange theory of emotion H. Knowing through direct experience 75. Personal blindness I. Holding to more than one theory at a time 76. Pragmatism J. Source of effort, attention, and the will 77. Spiritual self K. “Granted it’s true, what difference will it make?” 78. Fringe L. Emotion is based on our recognition of the physical feelings, not of the initial situation 79. Knowledge about M. Acting on ideals Answers: 67) G 68) C 69) M 70) I 71) B 72) H 73) D 74) L 75) F 76) K 77) J 78) A 79) E Test Bank for Personality and Personal Growth Robert Frager, James Fadiman 9780205953752, 9780205254781

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