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Chapter 9 Singlehood, Cohabitation, Civil Unions, and Other Options 1) Which of the following is the primary reason for many American singles to consider marriage? A) societal pressure B) education C) dowry D) financial stability Answer: A Rationale: Societal pressure often plays a significant role in influencing individuals' decisions to consider marriage. Expectations from family, friends, and society at large can create pressure for singles to enter into marriage. 2) ________ are open to marriage but place a lower priority on searching for mates than on other activities, such as education, career, an active social life, and self-development. A) Voluntary stable singles B) Involuntary temporary singles C) Voluntary temporary singles D) Involuntary stable singles Answer: C Rationale: Voluntary temporary singles are individuals who are open to the idea of marriage but prioritize other aspects of their lives such as education, career, social life, and personal development over actively seeking a partner. 3) ________ have never married and are satisfied with that choice; are divorced or widowed but don’t want to remarry; are living with someone but don’t intend to marry; and whose religion forbids marriage, such as priests and nuns. A) Voluntary temporary singles B) Involuntary stable singles C) Involuntary temporary singles D) Voluntary stable singles Answer: D Rationale: Voluntary stable singles are individuals who have made a conscious choice to remain single and are satisfied with their decision. This group includes those who have never married, divorced or widowed individuals who do not wish to remarry, individuals in cohabiting relationships, and those whose religious beliefs prohibit marriage. 4) ________ singles are primarily older, divorced, widowed, and never-married people who would like to marry or remarry but haven't found a suitable mate and now accept their single status as permanent. This group also includes singles who suffer from some physical or psychological impairment that limits their success in the marriage market. A) Involuntary stable B) Involuntary temporary C) Voluntary temporary D) Voluntary stable Answer: A Rationale: Involuntary stable singles are individuals who desire marriage or remarriage but have been unable to find a suitable partner, leading them to accept their single status as permanent. This group may include older individuals, divorcees, widows, and those with physical or psychological limitations. 5) In certain countries, several families below the poverty line kill female babies as soon as they are born. They fear that they will not be able to afford the “dowry” required to pay for their marriages and have an inherent preference for sons. This practice is referred to as ________. A) consensual homicide B) matricide C) the marriage squeeze D) female infanticide Answer: D Rationale: Female infanticide is the practice of killing female infants shortly after birth due to cultural preferences for male offspring or concerns about the financial burden of providing dowries for daughters. 6) Which of the following is a micro reason why singles are delaying marriage? A) prospect of losing independence B) financial commitments C) technological advancements D) outbreak of war Answer: A Rationale: The prospect of losing independence can be a significant concern for individuals considering marriage, especially if they value their autonomy and freedom. This microlevel factor may contribute to delaying marriage as individuals weigh the benefits and drawbacks of entering into a marital union. 7) Which of the following is a myth about being single? A) Singles are typically selfish and self-centered people. B) Singles don’t worry about being ridiculed by society. C) Singles are usually poor and financially deprived. D) Singles are ready to marry anyone with money. Answer: A Rationale: This statement is a myth about being single. In reality, singles vary widely in their personality traits and behaviors, and it is inaccurate to generalize that all singles are selfish or self-centered. 8) Which of the following is a structural factor that is affecting marriage rates among Latinos? A) On average, the Latino population is much younger than the non-Latino population and hasn’t yet reached marriageable age. B) Emphasis on familism has increased marriage rates and decreased divorce rates among the Latino population. C) Latinos are increasingly opting to marry outside their own racial circles. D) Increasing assimilation of American values is increasing marriage rates among Latinos. Answer: A Rationale: The average younger age of the Latino population compared to the non-Latino population is a structural factor affecting marriage rates. Because marriage typically occurs at older ages, the younger age distribution of Latinos means fewer individuals have reached marriageable age, impacting overall marriage rates. 9) Amanda and Maria, a same-sex couple, obtained a legalized form of partnership that is similar to marriage. This partnership provides almost all or most of the legal rights enjoyed by married heterosexual couples, including tax breaks, health benefits, approval of organ donations, and inheritance without a will. Which of the following type of partnership has Amanda and Maria obtained? A) common-law marriage B) prenuptial agreement C) cohabitation D) civil union Answer: D Rationale: Amanda and Maria have obtained a civil union, which is a legal partnership similar to marriage and provides many of the same legal rights and benefits enjoyed by married couples. 10) Discuss two benefits of cohabitation. Answer: 1. Partners can dissolve the relationship without legal problems, and they can leave an abusive relationship more easily. 2. Cohabitation can help people find out how much they really care about each other when they have to cope with unpleasant realities such as a partner who doesn’t pay bills or has poor hygiene habits. 1) Which of the following is True of the difference between men and women with regard to postponing marriage? A) Men’s median age at first marriage is more than that of women. B) Women’s median age at first marriage since 1960 has decreased when compared to men. C) More men than women choose to live alone. D) From a historical perspective, the present tendency to delay marriage has been the norm for women when compared to men. Answer: A Rationale: Men typically have a higher median age at first marriage compared to women. This trend has been observed historically and continues in many societies today, reflecting differences in societal expectations, career pursuits, and personal goals. 2) Julia, a mother of two, decided that she would not remarry due to a loss of faith in men. However, she was not averse to having short-term relationships. In this scenario, Julia is considered to be a(n) ________. A) involuntary temporary single B) voluntary stable single C) involuntary temporary single D) involuntary stable single Answer: B Rationale: Julia's decision not to remarry but still be open to short-term relationships indicates that she is a voluntary stable single. She has chosen to remain single by her own volition and is content with her decision. 3) Marie, a 30-year-old widow, decided that she would remarry if she found her “soul mate.” Despite dating several men, she was unable to find a suitable mate. In this scenario, Marie is considered to be a(n) ________. A) involuntary stable single B) involuntary temporary single C) voluntary temporary single D) voluntary stable single Answer: B Rationale: Marie's desire to remarry but inability to find a suitable partner categorizes her as an involuntary temporary single. She is open to the idea of marriage but circumstances prevent her from achieving it temporarily. 4) ________ refer to singles that would like to marry and are actively seeking a mate. This group includes people who are widowed or divorced and single parents who would like to get married. A) Involuntary established singles B) Voluntary stable singles C) Involuntary temporary singles D) Voluntary temporary singles Answer: C Rationale: Involuntary temporary singles are individuals who desire marriage and actively seek a partner but have been unable to find one due to circumstances such as widowhood, divorce, or being a single parent. 5) James, a divorcee, is actively seeking a mate. However, despite dating for three years, he was unable to find a suitable mate. Due to his failure, he decided to give up dating and remain single permanently. In this scenario, James is considered to be a(n) ________. A) involuntary stable single B) involuntary temporary single C) voluntary temporary single D) voluntary stable single Answer: A Rationale: James's decision to give up dating and remain single permanently categorizes him as an involuntary stable single. Despite a desire to marry and active efforts to find a partner, he has accepted his single status as permanent due to the inability to find a suitable mate. 6) Voluntary stable singles differ from voluntary temporary singles in that voluntary stable singles ________. A) would like to marry and are actively seeking a mate B) are open to marriage but place a lower priority on searching for mates C) consist of men and women who live with each other but aren’t married D) consist of single parents—both never married and divorced—who are not seeking mates Answer: D Rationale: Voluntary stable singles are individuals who have chosen to remain single permanently, often due to personal preference or circumstances. Unlike voluntary temporary singles, they are not actively seeking a mate and have accepted their single status as permanent. 7) Which of the following is True of “mate selection” with aging men and women? A) Ageing women are considered “distinguished.” B) Ageing men are considered “distinguished.” C) Ageing men are considered “over the hill.” D) Ageing women are considered “extremely suitable.” Answer: B Rationale: As men age, they are often considered "distinguished" in the context of mate selection. This perception reflects societal norms that value attributes such as maturity, experience, and stability in older men. 8) Which of the following is a benefit of remaining single in later life? A) People do not have to save extra money for retirement. B) Older singles do not have to worry about sex. C) People do not have to worry about widowhood or divorce. D) Older singles are not expected to socialize. Answer: C Rationale: Remaining single in later life can provide the benefit of not having to worry about widowhood or divorce, as there is no spouse whose death or separation would cause emotional or financial strain. 9) Of all those living alone, the vast majority are ________. A) male students B) female students C) older men D) older women Answer: D Rationale: The majority of individuals living alone, especially in later life, are older women. This demographic trend is influenced by factors such as longer life expectancy for women, higher rates of widowhood, and changing family structures. 10) Which of the following is a primary reason why many American women are increasingly choosing to live alone? A) the decline in education among men B) the decline in education among women C) the postponement of marriage D) the failure of the feminist movement in America Answer: C Rationale: The postponement of marriage is a primary reason why many American women are increasingly choosing to live alone. Factors such as pursuing higher education, focusing on career advancement, and changing societal norms regarding marriage and cohabitation contribute to this trend. 11) Among all racial groups in America, the vast majority of people living alone are ________. A) white B) African American C) Latino D) Asian American Answer: A Rationale: The majority of individuals living alone in America across all racial groups are white. This demographic trend reflects various socio-economic factors and cultural norms prevalent in society. 12) Which of the following is True of “singleton” households? A) They are clustered around urban areas. B) They receive extensive financial assistance from their families. C) They refer to the clustering of single moms in rural western states. D) They contain at least three single roommates. Answer: A Rationale: Singleton households are typically clustered around urban areas. This trend is influenced by factors such as job opportunities, access to amenities, and lifestyle preferences prevalent in urban settings. 13) Which of the following is a macro-level factor that delays marriage? A) wanting to be independent B) societally prescribed gender roles C) waiting for the “perfect mate” D) not wanting to make a commitment Answer: B Rationale: Societally prescribed gender roles, which dictate expectations and behaviors based on gender, can delay marriage by influencing individuals' perceptions of relationships, family dynamics, and personal aspirations. 14) Which of the following is a macro-level factor that affects our decision to marry? A) technological advances in contraceptive techniques B) desire to be independent C) physical or mental disability D) waiting for a soul mate Answer: A Rationale: Technological advances in contraceptive techniques have influenced the decision to marry by providing individuals with more control over their reproductive choices and family planning, thus impacting traditional motivations for marriage. 15) Sandra, a 20-year-old student, found out that she was pregnant. Due to religious beliefs, her parents discouraged her from obtaining an abortion and forced her to get married. Such a marriage is referred to as a(n) ________. A) “urban” wedding B) servile marriage C) shotgun marriage D) cohabitation marriage Answer: C Rationale: A marriage resulting from the pregnancy of one or both partners and typically forced or hastened by the pregnancy is termed a shotgun marriage. 16) During a debate about marriages, Jim is of the opinion that there is a direct correlation between a woman’s salary and her willingness to get married. However, Carlos disagrees and states that there is no direct relationship between salary and marriage. Which of the following is an accurate statement that strengthens Jim’s argument? A) Women with high salaries and education levels are often unwilling to settle down with men who earn less than they do. B) Due to the rise of feminism, most women in America are opposed to marrying men who earn more money than them. C) Employment decreases a woman’s chances of meeting eligible men and may reduce her attractiveness to potential suitors. D) Studies have shown that due to “glass ceiling” effect, many women are increasingly wary of marrying men in higher positions. Answer: A Rationale: The statement that women with high salaries and education levels are often unwilling to settle down with men who earn less than they do supports Jim's argument that there is a correlation between a woman's salary and her willingness to get married. 17) The ________, expressed as a whole number, is the proportion of men to women in a country or group. A) sex ratio B) marriage quotient C) demographic slide D) marriage opportunity index Answer: A Rationale: The sex ratio refers to the proportion of males to females in a population, typically expressed as a whole number or ratio. 18) The ________ refers to a sex imbalance in the ratio of available unmarried women and men. A) marriage opportunity index B) marriage squeeze C) sex ratio D) selection disposition Answer: B Rationale: The marriage squeeze refers to a sex imbalance in the ratio of available unmarried women and men, leading to challenges in finding suitable partners for marriage, especially for certain demographic groups. 19) Which of the following is typically a reason why many women in their middle and later years experience a marriage squeeze? A) They are only interested in men who already married. B) They are looking for much younger men to marry. C) Men their age are looking for much younger women. D) Men in their middle years typically prefer to remain single. Answer: C Rationale: Many women in their middle and later years experience a marriage squeeze because men their age often seek much younger women for marriage, reducing the pool of eligible partners available to them. 20) Which of the following is the reason why never-married single mothers are likely to remain single? A) the prospect of losing their independence B) inability to find a suitable husband C) financial insecurity D) inability to commit to the future Answer: B Rationale: Never-married single mothers are likely to remain single because of the difficulty in finding a suitable husband who is willing to enter into a relationship with a woman who has children from a previous relationship. 21) A common reason for getting married is companionship. How has the need for companionship decreased as a reason for marriage, especially in cities? A) the rise of cohabitation and the acceptance of parenthood outside marriage B) the growing economic instability C) the reliance on peers and urban clusters for company and support D) the thinning out of the marriage market Answer: C Rationale: The reliance on peers and urban clusters for company and support has decreased the need for companionship as a reason for marriage, especially in cities, where individuals have access to diverse social networks and support systems outside of traditional marital relationships. 22) Fathers-to-be who provide the mothers with emotional support and participate in doctors’ visits are said to have greater ________ capital. A) moral B) pecuniary C) financial D) social Answer: D Rationale: Fathers-to-be who provide emotional support and participate in medical visits are said to have greater social capital, as they contribute to the emotional well-being and health outcomes of both the mother and the child through their involvement and support networks. 23) During a debate about marriage, Bryan is of the opinion that African American women are less likely to marry than their white counterparts. However, Peter argues otherwise and states that marriage rates among African Americans are high. Which of the following is an accurate statement that strengthens Bryan’s argument? A) A large percentage of African American women feel that there is a shortage of marriageable African American men. B) Studies have shown that African American men are increasingly marrying outside their communities. C) More African American women are choosing to cohabitate when compared to their white counterparts. D) Unlike their Asian and Latin counterparts, the concept of family is relatively more important in African American society. Answer: A Rationale: The statement that a large percentage of African American women feel that there is a shortage of marriageable African American men strengthens Bryan's argument that African American women are less likely to marry than their white counterparts, highlighting a significant factor influencing marriage rates within the African American community. 24) During a debate about marriages, Marie is of the opinion that African American women are less likely to marry than their Asian counterparts. However, Joanne disagrees and argues that Asian women have equally poor marriage rates. Which of the following is an accurate statement that strengthens Marie’s argument? A) Unlike their Asian counterparts, many African American women are increasingly opting to cohabit with men from other races rather than marry men from their own societies. B) The marriage squeeze among Asian communities is leading to several intermarriages, which has led to disproportionate marriage rates. C) National data from the FBI show disproportionately large numbers of urban black men in their 20s and early 30s are in prison or jail or are victims of homicide. D) Unlike Asian American women, whose familial ties encourage them to marry first and second cousins, African American women are generally averse to marrying within their social circles. Answer: C Rationale: National data showing disproportionately large numbers of urban black men in their 20s and early 30s are in prison or jail or are victims of homicide strengthens Marie's argument by highlighting significant challenges faced by African American communities, such as the scarcity of marriageable partners due to incarceration rates. 25) ________ generally limits the pool of eligible mates across social classes, regardless of race. A) Heterogamy B) Exogamy C) Homogamy D) Polygamy Answer: C Rationale: Homogamy generally limits the pool of eligible mates across social classes, regardless of race, as individuals tend to marry others who share similar social, cultural, and economic backgrounds, leading to a narrower range of potential partners within the same social class. 26) Which of the following is True of the differences between Latinos and their African American counterparts? A) Latinos are more likely to be never married than their African American counterparts. B) Latinos have lower marriage rates than their African American counterparts. C) Latino women are generally less likely than African American women to experience a shortage of marriageable partners. D) The Latino population is on average a much older population compared to their African American counterparts. Answer: C Rationale: Latino women are generally less likely than African American women to experience a shortage of marriageable partners, highlighting a difference in marriage dynamics between these two demographic groups. 27) During a debate about divorce rates, Charlie states that divorce rates are extremely high among Latin Americans. However, Simone argues otherwise and states that divorce rates are lower among most Latin communities. Which of the following is an accurate statement that strengthens Simone’s argument? A) The concept of “familism” ensures that most people do not consider divorce as an option even under extreme circumstances. B) The assimilation of American behaviors has contributed to rising marriage rates and falling divorce rates. C) The Latino population is on average a younger population compared to non-Latino populations. D) Since most Hispanic workers are undocumented, most people cannot apply for legal divorces, and hence “breakups” remain under the radar. Answer: A Rationale: The concept of "familism" ensuring that most people do not consider divorce as an option even under extreme circumstances strengthens Simone's argument that divorce rates are lower among most Latin communities, highlighting the influence of cultural values and family cohesion on marital stability. 28) Which of the following is True of the differences between Asian Americans and their Latino counterparts? A) Asian Americans have lower singlehood rates than their Latino counterparts. B) Asian Americans have lower marriage rates than their Latino counterparts. C) A higher percentage of Asian Americans are divorced than their Latino counterparts. D) A higher percentage of Asian Americans are never married as compared to their Latino counterparts. Answer: A Rationale: Asian Americans have lower singlehood rates than their Latino counterparts, indicating differences in marital status between these two demographic groups. 29) Which of the following is True of Japanese Americans? A) They strictly do not date outside their own racial circle. B) They are facing an intense marriage squeeze. C) They have high intermarriage rates. D) They are less prone to acculturation. Answer: C Rationale: Japanese Americans have high intermarriage rates, indicating a willingness to marry outside their own racial circle and a high level of assimilation into broader American society. 30) Which of the following is True of second-generation Asian Americans? A) Chinese Americans are more likely to marry outside their racial communities. B) American born Koreans have a lower divorce rate than their immigrant counterparts. C) Japanese Americans are less likely to face a marriage squeeze. D) Chinese Americans have the highest divorce rates in the general population. Answer: C Rationale: Japanese Americans are less likely to face a marriage squeeze, indicating that they may have better access to suitable marriage partners or face fewer demographic challenges in finding a spouse compared to other Asian American groups. 31) ________ refers to a living arrangement in which two unrelated people, who aren’t married, live together and are in a sexual relationship. A) Prenuptial agreement B) Civil union C) Hooking up D) Cohabitation Answer: D Rationale: Cohabitation refers to the living arrangement where two unrelated individuals who are not married live together and engage in a sexual relationship. It's a form of domestic partnership that falls short of legal marriage. 32) Which of the following is True of the relationship between cohabitation and marriage? A) Cohabitation is often used as a prelude to marriage. B) Cohabitation always leads to stronger marriages. C) Cohabitation is replacing marriage as the dominant form of relationship between couples. D) Cohabitation has decreased the median first marriage age of men. Answer: A Rationale: Cohabitation is often used as a prelude to marriage, providing couples with an opportunity to test compatibility and assess the feasibility of a long-term commitment before formally tying the knot. It serves as a trial period for many couples before making a decision about marriage. 33) Steve has lived with four different women over a period of two years. However, while he was dating these women, he was unable to make a commitment to any of them, and all of them moved out of his house. This situation is an example of ________. A) accommodation B) serial cohabitation C) dating cohabitation D) trial marriage cohabitation Answer: B Rationale: Steve's situation is an example of serial cohabitation, where an individual moves in and lives with multiple partners over time without making a lasting commitment to any of them, typically characterized by a pattern of short-term relationships. 34) Jesse and Alicia just moved in together after dating rather seriously for two years. They are seriously considering getting married but want to live together before making a final commitment. Their living arrangement would be called ________. A) premarital cohabitation B) determinant cohabitation C) dating cohabitation D) accommodation Answer: A Rationale: Jesse and Alicia's living arrangement is an example of premarital cohabitation, where a couple chooses to live together before getting married to assess compatibility and readiness for marriage. 35) In which type of cohabitation do partners live together to see what marriage might be like? A) premarital cohabitation B) substitute marriage cohabitation C) dating cohabitation D) trial marriage cohabitation Answer: D Rationale: Trial marriage cohabitation involves partners living together to experience what marriage might be like without a formal commitment to marriage itself. It serves as a testing ground for the relationship before making a decision about marriage. 36) Matt and LeeAnn are uncertain about their relationship and want to see what marriage might be like although they don't necessarily believe they will end up married to each other. Their situation illustrates ________. A) accommodation B) substitute marriage cohabitation C) dating cohabitation D) trial marriage cohabitation Answer: D Rationale: Matt and LeeAnn's situation exemplifies trial marriage cohabitation, where couples live together to experience aspects of married life without necessarily intending to marry each other, using the arrangement as a test for their relationship. 37) Ronald and William wish to get married; however, they are unsure about what exactly married life entails. In order to obtain from first-hand experience, they decide to move in and live together for a period of six months. This scenario illustrates a ________. A) substitute marriage B) trial marriage C) common-law marriage D) dating cohabitation Answer: B Rationale: Ronald and William's decision to live together for a period to experience married life without a formal commitment illustrates trial marriage cohabitation, where couples test the waters of married life before making a definitive decision about marriage. 38) In which type of cohabitation do two people make a long-term commitment but do not get legally married? A) accommodation B) substitute marriage cohabitation C) dating cohabitation D) trial marriage cohabitation Answer: B Rationale: Substitute marriage cohabitation involves two people making a long-term commitment to each other without getting legally married, opting for a domestic partnership arrangement instead of a formal marriage. 39) Shaun and Stacey, a couple, live together but are unmarried. They do not believe that a legal ceremony is relevant to their commitment to each other and view their nonmarital cohabitation as equivalent to a common-law marriage. This scenario is an example of a ________. A) dating cohabitation B) premarital cohabitation C) substitute marriage D) trial marriage Answer: C Rationale: Shaun and Stacey's situation exemplifies substitute marriage, where a couple lives together in a long-term committed relationship without the legal institution of marriage, viewing their cohabitation as equivalent to marriage. 40) A ________ is a long-term commitment between two people who don’t plan to marry. A) trial marriage B) marital cohabitation C) substitute marriage D) dating cohabitation Answer: C Rationale: A substitute marriage is a long-term commitment between two people who do not plan to marry formally but opt for cohabitation as a domestic partnership arrangement resembling marriage in its commitment level without the legal institution of marriage. 41) Which of the following is True of most cohabitation relationships? A) They are mostly seen among people with higher levels of education. B) They are considered taboo in America. C) They are usually short lived. D) They are predominantly seen among white communities. Answer: C Rationale: Most cohabitation relationships are usually short-lived. Studies indicate that cohabiting couples tend to have shorter relationships compared to married couples, with many cohabitations ending within a few years. 42) How do Asian women differ from their Latina counterparts? A) Asian women have lower cohabitation rates than Latinas. B) Foreign-born Asian women have higher cohabitation rates than U.S.-born Latinas. C) Higher percentage of Asian American women are single than their Latina counterparts. D) Lesser percentage of Asian American women are married than their Latina counterparts. Answer: A Rationale: Asian women have lower cohabitation rates than Latinas. Cultural and societal factors may influence these differences, leading to variations in cohabitation rates among different ethnic groups. 43) During a debate about cohabitation, Corey states that cohabitation is likely to affect children adversely. However, Karl states that cohabitation has certain positive effects on children. Which of the following is an accurate statement that strengthens Karl’s argument? A) Laws in the United States clearly specify a cohabitant’s responsibilities and rights where it concerns children. B) Even at lower economic levels, children are likely to benefit from having two parents rather than living with single mothers. C) Compared with married couples, cohabitants—both in the United States and Europe— have a better quality of relationship. D) Cohabitation is higher among heterosexuals than homosexuals. Answer: B Rationale: Karl's argument is strengthened by the fact that even at lower economic levels, children are likely to benefit from having two parents, regardless of whether they are married or cohabiting, compared to living with a single parent. This suggests that cohabitation can have positive effects on children. 44) Harry, a serial dater, has lived with several women over the past few years. He believes that all relationships are temporary and views living together as an alternative to marriage. Harry is also extremely independent and is unable to sacrifice for the common good of a relationship. This scenario illustrates the ________. A) cohabitation effect B) selection effect C) inertia effect D) dissolution effect Answer: A Rationale: Harry's situation illustrates the cohabitation effect, where individuals who view living together as an alternative to marriage may experience difficulties committing to long-term relationships and may have a higher likelihood of relationship instability. 45) Ken and Carla, an unmarried couple, have been living together for the past three years. They have made numerous decisions together such as splitting their finances, getting a dog, and buying furniture. Eventually, without making a conscious decision or commitment, the couple slide into marriage. In this scenario, the couple experiences the ________. A) cohabitation effect B) separation effect C) friction effect D) inertia effect Answer: D Rationale: Ken and Carla's situation exemplifies the inertia effect, where couples gradually transition into marriage without making a conscious decision or commitment, often due to the momentum of the relationship and the comfort of the current living arrangement. 46) Children growing up with cohabitating couples differ from children growing up with married couples in that children growing up with cohabitating couples are ________. A) less likely to have academic, emotional, and behavioral problems B) less likely to experience a parent breakup C) more likely to experience domestic violence D) more likely to be living in a rich household Answer: C Rationale: Children growing up with cohabitating couples are more likely to experience domestic violence compared to children growing up with married couples. This is due to various factors, including the instability often associated with cohabitation and the absence of legal protections. 47) Mark and Lily, an unmarried couple, live with Lily’s son from a previous relationship. Mark possesses a large life insurance policy under his own name. Which of the following is likely to happen if Mark dies unexpectedly, without leaving a will? A) Lily and her son can claim the insurance money stating their cohabitation relationship. B) Lily can claim the insurance money only if she has lived with Mark for more than 2 years. C) Lily cannot claim the insurance money as they are not legally married. D) Lily cannot claim the money since her relationship is only considered a common-law marriage. Answer: C Rationale: Lily cannot claim the insurance money as they are not legally married. Without a will or legal marriage, Lily would not have automatic inheritance rights to Mark's assets, including the life insurance policy. 48) Martin and Christine, a cohabiting couple, have a three-year-old son. Which of the following must the couple do in order to protect the child’s future inheritance? A) obtain a shared lease agreement B) create a prenuptial agreement C) acknowledge biological parenthood in writing D) open a joint bank account Answer: C Rationale: To protect the child's future inheritance, Martin and Christine must acknowledge biological parenthood in writing. This can be done through legal documentation such as birth certificates or paternity acknowledgment forms. 49) Which of the following is True of same-sex marriages in America? A) A majority of Americans support same-sex marriage. B) 40 states have legalized same-sex marriages. C) Same-sex marriage rates are highest among black communities. D) The breakup rates among same-sex couples is lower than different-sex couples. Answer: A Rationale: A majority of Americans support same-sex marriage. Over the years, public opinion has shifted in favor of same-sex marriage, with a majority of Americans expressing support for legal recognition of same-sex unions. 50) Same-sex couples have gained greater acceptance in six states with marriage alternatives such as ________. A) voidable marriages B) civil unions C) unregistered unions D) common-law marriages Answer: B Rationale: Same-sex couples have gained greater acceptance in six states with marriage alternatives such as civil unions. Civil unions offer legal recognition and benefits similar to marriage but may not be recognized nationwide. 51) Briefly explain why singles are postponing marriage. Answer: Many young people are pursuing a college education, preparing for a job or career, and spending more time in recreational or other activities before marrying. As a result, many people are marrying later than their parents or grandparents did. Also, in the late 1960s, feminists, especially, began to question women’s traditional roles both inside and outside the family. Over the past few generations, both women and men have thought more consciously and deliberately about when and whom to marry. 52) Briefly describe involuntary stable singles. Answer: Involuntary stable singles are primarily older divorced, widowed, and nevermarried people who would like to marry or remarry but haven’t found a suitable mate and accept their single status as permanent. This group also includes singles who suffer from some physical or psychological impairment that limits their success in the marriage market. 53) Briefly explain two reasons why Americans choose to live alone. Answer: Some of the reasons for living alone include having higher educational levels and better-paying jobs, wanting a home rather than just a place to live (such as an apartment), postponing marriage, and not depending on a man to buy a house after marriage. A second and related reason for living alone is that our values emphasize individualism. Most single Americans of all ages are highly involved in their families but prefer to live alone because doing so offers more privacy, freedom, and control over their living space than does living with parents or others. 54) Briefly explain a macro-level factor that affects decisions about matrimony. Answer: Technological advances in contraception, especially the birth control pill, have decreased the rates of unplanned pregnancies and so-called shotgun marriages. Women, especially, have greater control over childbearing, can avoid unwanted nonmarital births, and aren’t pressured to marry the child’s father. Just as important, women in their forties and even fifties can become pregnant by means of reproductive technologies. As a result, many women postpone marriage because they believe that they’re no longer bound by the biological clock that has traditionally limited their ability to have children. 55) Talia, an educated African American woman, feels that most of the African American men in her society are not marriage material. She is forced to look at alternative options, which are outside her racial circle. Identify and explain the problem faced by Talia. Answer: Talia is experiencing a problem known as the marriage squeeze. A marriage squeeze is a sex imbalance in the ratio of available unmarried women and men. Because of this imbalance, members of one sex can be squeezed out of the marriage market because of differences in wealth, power, status, education, age, or other factors that diminish the pool of eligible partners. 56) Mike, a social scientist, is of the opinion that marriage rates are declining in the African American community as women are becoming increasingly picky about their prospective husbands. Provide an explanation which will strengthen Mike’s argument. Answer: A major reason for the high percentage of never-married black women is a shortage of marriageable African American men. Deteriorating employment conditions, especially in urban areas, often discourage young African American men from getting married. Occupational hazards in dangerous jobs have claimed the lives of many black men. African American women are more likely to attend and graduate from college than their male peers and hence are seeking better educated husbands. Many middle-class black men are already married, however, and most college-educated black women are reluctant to marry down. 57) Timothy, a social researcher, is of the opinion that cultural values tend to reduce the number of singles living in a society. Provide an explanation which supports Timothy’s view. Answer: Cultural values can decrease the number of singles. Many Asian American households see the family as the core of society. Among Chinese Americans, for example, divorce rates are much lower than in the general population. Divorced women find it difficult to survive economically and are not readily accepted in the community. As a result, many Chinese women avoid divorcing and becoming single again at almost all costs. 58) Jose, a student, has lived with several women over a period of time. However, he does not have any interest in long-term commitment and prefers to date. Identify and explain the kind of cohabitation experience Jose exemplifies. Answer: Jose can be considered as a serial cohabiter. In a dating cohabitation, and especially among young adults, there is considerable serial cohabitation, living with different sexual partners over time. Because dating cohabitation is similar to being single, partners might terminate one relationship and then move in with someone else. 59) Hunt and Mary decided to buy a house together. However, they are against the concept of marriage and believe that a legal ceremony does not contribute to a relationship. Identify and explain the type of cohabitation arrangement seen in this scenario. Answer: Hunt and Mary are in an arrangement known as a substitute marriage. A substitute marriage is a long-term commitment between two people who don’t plan to marry. For many, it’s an alternative to marriage, but the motives vary widely. For example, one or both partners may be separated but still legally married to someone else or may be divorced and reluctant to remarry. In other cases, the partners believe that a legal ceremony is irrelevant to their commitment to each other and may view their nonmarital cohabitation as equivalent to a common-law marriage. 60) Explain two areas of conflict that gay and lesbian couples face. Answer: Like heterosexual cohabitants, gay and lesbian couples experience conflicts in four areas. In terms of power, all couples are equally likely to argue about finances, inequality in the relationship, and possessiveness. They are also just as likely to complain about personal flaws such as smoking or drinking, driving style, and personal hygiene. Test Bank for Marriages and Families Nijole V Benokraitis 9780205957224, 9780134736150

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