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Chapter 5 Socialization and Gender Roles 1) ________ refers to the chromosomal, hormonal, anatomical, and other physiological attributes of an individual. A) Race B) Ethnicity C) Gender D) Sex Answer: D Rationale: Option D is correct. Sex refers to the biological attributes of individuals, including chromosomal, hormonal, anatomical, and physiological characteristics that typically categorize individuals as male, female, or intersex. Options A and B (Race and Ethnicity) refer to social categories based on cultural, social, or geographical factors. Option C (Gender) refers to the roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men, women, and nonbinary individuals. 2) Which of the following is True about gender roles? A) They are determined through interactions with the society. B) They are determined by people’s genes. C) They are innate and unchangeable. D) They are the biological characteristics of people. Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Gender roles are determined through interactions with society, including cultural norms, expectations, and socialization processes. They are not determined solely by genetics (Option B) and are not considered innate and unchangeable (Option C). Option D is incorrect because gender roles refer to social and cultural expectations rather than biological characteristics. 3) The hormone that is dominant in females and is produced by the ovaries is known as ________. A) androstenedione B) estrogen C) testosterone D) androgen Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. Estrogen is the hormone dominant in females and is primarily produced by the ovaries. Androstenedione (Option A) and testosterone (Option C) are primarily male hormones, while androgen (Option D) is a class of hormones including testosterone. 4) Which theory maintains that people learn new attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours through social interaction as a result of reinforcement, imitation, and modeling? A) the rational-choice theory B) the social learning theory C) the cognitive development theory D) the sociobiology theory Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. The social learning theory proposes that individuals learn attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors through social interaction, observation, imitation, and modeling. Options A, C, and D describe different theoretical perspectives unrelated to social learning. 5) Which of the following is a similarity between the feminist theories and symbolic interactionist theories with respect to gender? A) Both propose that children acquire female or male values on their own by thinking. B) Both view gender as a socially constructed role. C) Both state that children go through a series of developmental stages in learning genderappropriate behavior. D) Both consider genetic factors responsible for the differences between male and female behavior. Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. Both feminist theories and symbolic interactionist theories view gender as a socially constructed role, shaped by social interactions, norms, and expectations. Options A, C, and D present incorrect statements or perspectives unrelated to feminist and symbolic interactionist theories. 6) Gary believes in the idea of equality between gender roles. He states that men and women should have shared breadwinning roles in a family. In this scenario, Gary’s belief is an example of ________. A) egalitarian ideologies B) patriarchal ideologies C) traditional gender role ideologies D) matriarchal ideologies Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Gary's belief in equality between gender roles, advocating for shared breadwinning responsibilities, aligns with egalitarian ideologies, which promote equal rights, opportunities, and treatment for all individuals regardless of gender. Options B, C, and D describe different ideological perspectives inconsistent with Gary's belief in gender equality. 7) Amy, who recently got married, often plays the role of a kin-keeper. While growing up, she used to observe her mother play the role and now performs this role efficiently in her new family. Which of the following is Amy most likely doing as a part of the kin-keeper role? A) Amy is keeping her new home clean and organized. B) Amy is maintaining relationships with relatives. C) Amy is ensuring her family’s safety. D) Amy is providing financial security for her family. Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. As a kin-keeper, Amy is most likely maintaining relationships with relatives, facilitating communication, organizing family gatherings, and preserving family connections. Options A, C, and D describe responsibilities unrelated to the typical role of a kin-keeper. 8) Which of the following is most likely a reason why women in America prevent themselves from running for office? A) They do not see themselves as doers. B) They require greater educational qualifications than men. C) They have strong leadership and decision-making qualities. D) They do not have equal legislative rights. Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. The statement suggests that women may prevent themselves from running for office due to a lack of self-perception as capable "doers" or leaders, which can stem from societal norms, stereotypes, or self-doubt. Options B, C, and D present incorrect or unrelated reasons for women's hesitance to run for office. 9) Which of the following statements, if True, is likely to weaken the argument that Saudi Arabia continues to restrict the political empowerment of women? A) Saudi Arabia ranks 71st in women empowerment, well below many African and European countries. B) Like Egypt and Yemen, Saudi Arabia provides restricted voting rights for women. C) Women comprise two percent of those in high-level political positions in the country. D) Saudi Arabia has recently announced that women can run as candidates in municipal elections. Answer: D Rationale: Option D is correct. The statement weakens the argument by providing evidence that Saudi Arabia is taking steps toward political empowerment by allowing women to run as candidates in municipal elections, indicating progress or a shift in policy. Options A, B, and C provide information consistent with the argument or do not directly address changes in political empowerment for women in Saudi Arabia. 10) The Global Gender Gap Index is not an overall measure of a country’s development or wealth. Explain with the help of an example. Answer: The Global Gender Gap Index (GGGI) isn’t an overall measure of a country’s development or wealth; rather, it gauges the relative equality between men and women on an indicator. For example, Saudi Arabia, one of the wealthiest countries in the world, and which has some of the most educated women in the world (including STEM college and advanced degrees), ranks near or at the bottom in terms of women’s economic and political participation. 1) ________ refers to biological characteristics that determine whether people have male or female genitalia, whether they menstruate, how much body hair they have, and whether they are able to bear children. A) Sex B) Gender C) Ethnicity D) Race Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Sex refers to biological characteristics such as genitalia, reproductive organs, chromosomes, hormone levels, and secondary sexual characteristics that categorize individuals as male, female, or intersex. Options B, C, and D refer to different social or cultural categories unrelated to biological characteristics. 2) Which of the following is True of sex? A) It does not determine how we act. B) It defines how people think. C) It determines how people feel. D) It does not influence people’s behavior. Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Sex refers to biological attributes and does not inherently determine behavior, thoughts, or feelings. Behavior, thoughts, and feelings are influenced by a combination of biological, social, and cultural factors. Options B, C, and D present incorrect statements about the influence of sex. 3) Which of the following is True of gender? A) It is based on physical traits. B) It is based on cultural expectations. C) It is associated with anatomical differences. D) It is determined by genetic characteristics. Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. Gender refers to the social, cultural, and psychological attributes, roles, behaviors, and expectations associated with being male, female, or nonbinary. It is shaped by cultural norms, values, and expectations rather than physical or genetic characteristics. Options A, C, and D incorrectly describe gender or attribute it to physical or genetic factors. 4) ________ refers to a person's perception of themselves as either masculine or feminine. A) Gender identity B) Gender stereotype C) Gender role D) Sex Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Gender identity refers to an individual's internal sense of their own gender, whether masculine, feminine, both, or neither. It is distinct from gender roles (Option C), which are societal expectations about how individuals should behave based on their perceived gender. Gender stereotypes (Option B) are oversimplified beliefs about the characteristics of individuals based on their gender. 5) ________ refers to characteristics, attitudes, feelings, and behaviors that society expects of males and females. A) Sex B) Gender identity C) Gender role D) Race Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. Gender roles refer to the societal expectations, norms, and behaviors associated with being male or female within a given culture or society. They dictate how individuals should behave, perform tasks, and interact based on their perceived gender. Options A, B, and D describe other concepts unrelated to societal expectations of behavior. 6) ________ refers to the expectations about how people will look, act, think, and feel based on their sex. A) Biological categorization B) Gender continuum C) Gender identity D) Gender stereotype Answer: D Rationale: Option D is correct. Gender stereotype refers to oversimplified and often exaggerated beliefs or expectations about the characteristics, behaviors, roles, and attributes of individuals based on their perceived gender. It influences societal expectations about how people should look, act, think, and feel. Options A, B, and C describe different concepts unrelated to stereotypes. 7) In the nature–nurture debate, which of the following differences between males and females do biologists propose? A) Boys mature faster than girls. B) Boys become ill less frequently than girls. C) The senses of smell are more acute in women than men. D) Men have a higher risk of developing diabetes than women. Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. Biologists often propose differences related to biological factors such as genetics and physiology. The proposal that the senses of smell are more acute in women than men reflects a biological difference between males and females. Options A, B, and D present other biological differences but are not typically proposed by biologists in the nature-nurture debate. 8) Social scientists and biologists attribute different factors for the differences in men and women’s behavior. Which of the following is a difference between their points of view? A) Social scientists believe that human development is innate whereas biologists do not. B) Biologists state that human development is fairly fixed whereas social scientists do not. C) Social scientists argue that human development is influenced by heredity whereas biologists do not. D) Biologists state that human development is learned whereas social scientists do not. Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. The difference between the perspectives of social scientists and biologists is that biologists often propose that human development is fairly fixed, influenced by genetics and biological factors. Social scientists, on the other hand, typically emphasize the role of socialization, culture, and environmental factors in shaping behavior, suggesting that human development is more fluid and influenced by external factors. Options A, C, and D present incorrect or unrelated differences. 9) During a discussion about the effect of hormones, Carl states that male hormones are more likely to be responsible for long-term ailments in men as opposed to women. On the other hand, Sean argues that women produce higher levels of life-threatening hormones. Which of the following statements, if True, is likely to strengthen Carl's argument? A) Women are four times more likely than men to suffer from autism, attention deficit disorder, and dyslexia. B) Women undergo higher levels of stress than men. C) Testosterones in men strengthen muscles but also threaten the heart by clogging arteries. D) Research indicates that hormones have little or no impact on long-term ailments in men and women. Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. Carl's argument suggests that male hormones, such as testosterone, may contribute to long-term ailments in men. The statement that testosterone in men strengthens muscles but also threatens the heart by clogging arteries provides evidence supporting Carl's argument. Options A, B, and D present information unrelated to the effect of male hormones on long-term ailments. 10) James believes that male violence rates across the world are determined by cultural attributes of a society. Which of the following statements, if True, is most likely to strengthen James’s argument? A) Men are innately more violent and aggressive than women. B) Societies in which men are cooperative and sensitive, rarely engage in violence or warfare. C) Studies have shown that societies in which men are physiologically stronger have higher rates of crime. D) Research indicates that deviant behavior in individuals is determined by biological factors. Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. James's argument emphasizes the role of cultural attributes in shaping male violence rates. The statement that societies in which men are cooperative and sensitive rarely engage in violence or warfare supports James's argument by providing evidence that cultural factors influence male behavior. Options A, C, and D present information unrelated to cultural attributes or suggest biological determinism. 11) Male violence is more likely to occur in ________ societies. A) matriarchal B) patriarchal C) egalitarian D) classless Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. Patriarchal societies are characterized by male dominance and control over social, economic, and political institutions. In such societies, male violence is more prevalent due to the reinforcement of traditional gender roles that emphasize male power and aggression. Options A, C, and D describe social systems less associated with male dominance. 12) Lloyd was born with both male and female sex organs. During his early childhood, his parents decided to raise him as a boy. As he grew older, Lloyd identified himself as a boy rather than as a girl. In this scenario, Lloyd is a(n) ________. A) transvestite B) intersexual C) homosexual D) transsexual Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. Intersex individuals are born with variations in sex characteristics that do not fit typical definitions of male or female. Lloyd's situation of being born with both male and female sex organs qualifies him as intersex. Options A, C, and D describe different concepts unrelated to intersexuality. 13) ________ argue that evolution and genetic factors can explain why men are generally more aggressive than women. A) Symbolic interactionists B) Feminists C) Sociobiologists D) Social learning theorists Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. Sociobiologists propose that human behavior, including aggression, has evolved over time due to genetic factors and natural selection. They argue that differences in male and female aggression can be attributed to evolutionary pressures. Options A, B, and D describe different theoretical perspectives unrelated to sociobiology. 14) Which of the following is a reason why sociobiological explanations of behavioral differences between males and females are controversial? A) They assume that male and female behaviors will vary considerably across cultures. B) They overlook the effect of evolution and genetic factors on human behavior. C) There ignore that practically every behavior is influenced by socialization and culture. D) They focus excessively on the effect of imitation and reinforcement on social interaction. Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. Sociobiological explanations are controversial because they oversimplify human behavior by attributing it primarily to genetic and evolutionary factors, neglecting the complex influence of socialization, culture, and environment. Options A, B, and D present incorrect or unrelated reasons for the controversy. 15) Dorothy, a teenager, is often expected to help out her mother with household chores. Her mother often scolds her when she does not help out. However, she notices that Harold, her brother, is never expected to perform any domestic chores. Dorothy soon learns that girls need to perform domestic chores whereas boys need not. Which of the following best represents this scenario? A) direct reinforcement B) indirect reinforcement C) role modeling D) imitation Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Dorothy's learning that girls are expected to perform domestic chores due to her direct experiences of being scolded for not helping out and observing differential treatment between her and her brother constitutes direct reinforcement. Options B, C, and D describe other mechanisms of social learning but do not best represent Dorothy's scenario. 16) At school, Timothy noticed that his friend Albert was teased by his classmates because he wore pink colored pants. They teased him saying, “Boys don’t wear pink. Don’t you know that?” After the incident, Timothy refused to wear pink clothes. According to the social learning theory, Timothy is learning gender roles through ________. A) direct reinforcement B) indirect reinforcement C) role modeling D) imitation Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Timothy's decision not to wear pink clothes after witnessing his friend being teased constitutes direct reinforcement. He associates wearing pink with negative consequences (teasing) and adjusts his behavior accordingly to avoid similar consequences in the future. Options B, C, and D describe other mechanisms of social learning not exemplified in Timothy's case. 17) Kimberly watches her mother vacuum the house and asks for a toy vacuum so that she can also clean the house. According to the social learning theory, Kimberly is learning gender roles through ________. A) reinforcement B) imitation C) modeling D) maturation Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. Kimberly's imitation of her mother's behavior (vacuuming the house) by asking for a toy vacuum suggests learning gender roles through imitation. She observes her mother's behavior and replicates it, indicating the influence of modeling or imitation on social learning. Options A, C, and D describe other concepts unrelated to Kimberly's behavior. 18) Which theory argues that children acquire male or female values on their own by thinking, reasoning, and interpreting information in their environment? A) the social learning theory B) the cognitive development theory C) the gender-schema theory D) the feminist theory Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. The cognitive development theory, proposed by Jean Piaget, posits that children actively construct knowledge and understanding of gender through cognitive processes such as thinking, reasoning, and interpreting environmental cues. This theory emphasizes the active role of children in shaping their gender identity and understanding. Options A, C, and D describe different theoretical perspectives unrelated to cognitive development. 19) Which of the following is True according to the cognitive development theory? A) Children use cues to evaluate the behavior of others as either gender appropriate or not. B) Individual differences among children are more important than the relationship between maturation and learning gender roles. C) Sex typing tends to be most rigid during childhood as opposed to during adolescence. D) Children acquire female or male values based on evolution and genetic factors. Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. According to the cognitive development theory, children use cognitive processes to interpret social cues and evaluate the gender appropriateness of behavior. This process involves actively observing and categorizing behaviors as either typical or atypical for their gender. Options B, C, and D present incorrect or unrelated statements regarding cognitive development theory. 20) Which of the following is a limitation of the cognitive development theory? A) It focuses excessively on the cultural context of behavior. B) It overlooks the relationship between maturation and learning gender roles. C) It ignores childhood behaviors and concentrates primarily on adult behaviors. D) It exaggerates gender learning as something that children do themselves. Answer: D Rationale: Option D is correct. A limitation of the cognitive development theory is that it overemphasizes children's active role in gender learning while overlooking the significant influence of socialization agents and cultural factors. This theory tends to downplay the role of socialization processes and external influences on gender development. Options A, B, and C present incorrect or unrelated limitations of the theory. 21) According to ________, gender roles are socially constructed categories that emerge in social situations. A) sociobiology B) evolutionary psychology C) the cognitive development theory D) the symbolic interaction theory Answer: D Rationale: Option D is correct. Symbolic interactionism emphasizes that gender roles are socially constructed through interactions with others and the meanings attributed to gender in various social contexts. This theory highlights the role of socialization and symbolic communication in shaping individuals' understanding and performance of gender. Options A, B, and C describe different theoretical perspectives unrelated to the social construction of gender roles. 22) Sociologist Erving Goffman refers to ________ as a process in which we provide information and cues to others to present ourselves in a favorable light while downplaying or concealing our less appealing qualities. A) gender scripting B) cognitive development C) impression management D) stereotyping Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. Erving Goffman coined the term "impression management" to describe the process of controlling the information and cues we present to others to shape their perceptions of us. It involves consciously or unconsciously managing one's selfpresentation to create a desired impression. Options A, B, and D describe different concepts unrelated to impression management. 23) Which of the following is a limitation of symbolic interactionism? A) It credits people with more free will than they have. B) It tends to focus excessively on structural factors. C) It fails to explain how gender roles shape people’s everyday lives. D) It focuses on childhood socialization rather than development across life courses. Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Symbolic interactionism often assumes that individuals have more agency and control over their behavior than they actually do, leading to an overestimation of individual freedom and choice. This limitation overlooks the influence of social structures and constraints on individual actions. Options B, C, and D describe incorrect or unrelated limitations of symbolic interactionism. 24) Which of the following is a similarity between feminist and symbolic interaction theories? A) Both argue that children undergo gender learning themselves, without the influence of external factors. B) Both believe that differences between gender roles are a result of genetic factors. C) Both state that gender scripts result, over time, in valuing women more than men. D) Both view gender as a role that is taught carefully and repeatedly. Answer: D Rationale: Option D is correct. Both feminist and symbolic interaction theories emphasize the social construction of gender roles through socialization processes. They view gender as a learned role that is continuously reinforced and reproduced through interactions with others and societal institutions. Options A, B, and C describe differences or incorrect statements about feminist and symbolic interaction theories. 25) ________ is an attitude or behavior that discriminates against one sex, usually females, based on the assumed superiority of the other sex. A) Genderism B) Homophobia C) Sexism D) Heterosexism Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. Sexism refers to discriminatory attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors that favor one sex (typically males) over the other (typically females) based on the belief in the superiority of one sex. It manifests in various forms, including unequal treatment, stereotypes, and prejudice, and perpetuates gender inequality. Options A, B, and D describe different forms of discrimination unrelated to sexism. 26) During a debate about feminism, Ben states that feminist theories are too narrow and focuses solely on women’s rights. However, Judith argues that feminist theories take a balanced approach toward men and women. Which of the following statements, if True, is likely to weaken Judith's argument? A) Feminists focus on a wide range of issues that range from poverty, gender discrimination, and education. B) Feminists overlook cases of women in upper classes who have more freedom than men in lower classes. C) Feminist theorists focus on how gender roles and sexist stereotypes harm men and women. D) Feminist theorists use egalitarian gender ideologies to explain gender roles. Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. If feminists overlook cases where women in privileged positions have more freedom than men in disadvantaged positions, it weakens Judith's argument that feminist theories take a balanced approach. This suggests that feminist theories may not adequately address intersecting forms of privilege and oppression. Options A, C, and D present reasons supporting Judith's argument or unrelated statements. 27) Jack states that parents treat their children in the same manner, irrespective of the sex of the child. However, Daniel argues otherwise and states that parents usually create gender-based discriminations. Which of the following statements, if True, is likely to strengthen Daniel's argument? A) Mothers usually expect the eldest child to shoulder more responsibilities than the younger child. B) Mothers often give sons a greater degree of freedom to explore their environment when compared to daughters. C) Research indicates that there is a rising trend of fathers teaching their children to play outdoor sports. D) Studies show that boys and girls in most households help out their mothers in performing household chores. Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. If mothers tend to give sons greater freedom to explore their environment compared to daughters, it strengthens Daniel's argument that parents create gender-based discriminations. This suggests differential treatment based on gender, supporting the existence of gender-based discrimination in parenting. Options A, C, and D describe different scenarios unrelated to gender-based discrimination in parenting. 28) If a father gives his son advice on how to play soccer and a mother teaches her daughter how to be a good cook, the parents’ expectations can be described as________. A) gender typed B) sexist C) sex-segregated D) gender stratified Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Gender-typed expectations refer to social norms and expectations associated with masculinity and femininity. In this scenario, the parents' expectations align with traditional gender roles by reinforcing stereotypical activities associated with each gender (soccer for boys, cooking for girls), indicating gender-typed expectations. Options B, C, and D describe different concepts unrelated to the scenario provided. 29) A(n) ________ can be described as a group of people who are similar in age, social status, and interests. A) family B) local community C) peer group D) outgroup Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. A peer group consists of individuals who are similar in age, social status, and interests, and who interact with and influence one another in various social contexts. Peer groups play a significant role in socialization, identity formation, and the reinforcement of norms and values. Options A, B, and D describe different social groups unrelated to peer groups. 30) Charles's family lives in a suburban neighborhood. He plays and socializes with kids of his age living in the neighborhood. His parents often discourage him from playing with kids outside the neighborhood, who belong to a different socio-economic group. In this scenario, the kids Charles plays with can be referred to as his ________. A) peer group B) family C) outgroup D) interest group Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. The children Charles plays and socializes with in his suburban neighborhood, who are similar in age and social status, constitute his peer group. Peer groups provide opportunities for social interaction, friendship, and shared experiences, contributing to social development and identity formation. Options B, C, and D describe different social groups unrelated to Charles's neighborhood peers. 31) Which of the following is True of peer influences as socialization agents? A) It reduces when children enter their adolescent years. B) Peers and not siblings serve as role models. C) They are especially influential until people reach their mid-twenties. D) Peer influences are always negative. Answer: C Rationale: Peer influences are especially influential during adolescence and young adulthood until individuals reach their mid-twenties. During this period, peers play a significant role in shaping attitudes, behaviors, and social norms. 32) Which of the following is True of the role that schools play as socialization agents? A) Teachers become a part of a child’s peer group when he/she joins school. B) Teachers encourage gender stereotypes solely in high school. C) Teachers are among the most important socialization agents. D) Schools are always a child’s first socialization agent. Answer: C Rationale: Teachers are among the most important socialization agents in a child's life, as they not only impart academic knowledge but also instill social values, norms, and behaviors. 33) During a discussion about the effects of media advertising on women, David states that media has a very limited effect on audiences. However, his colleague, Jane, argues that exposure to unrealistic advertisements can create an adverse effect on women. Which of the following statements, if True, is likely to support Jane's argument? A) Recent surveys have indicated that over 90 percent of the public do not pay attention to marketing activities and advertisements. B) Print media advertisements reinforce sex stereotyping twice as much as Internet media. C) Media advertising portraying women often encourage audiences to eat healthy and be fit. D) Studies show that there’s a direct correlation between unhealthy eating habits and ads depicting ultrathin models. Answer: D Rationale: Jane's argument that exposure to unrealistic advertisements can create adverse effects on women is supported by studies indicating a direct correlation between unhealthy eating habits and advertisements depicting ultrathin models. 34) ________ gender ideologies endorse women’s and men’s shared breadwinning and nurturing family roles. A) Egalitarian B) Matriarchal C) Patriarchal D) Traditional Answer: A Rationale: Egalitarian gender ideologies endorse the idea of shared breadwinning and nurturing family roles between men and women, promoting equality in household responsibilities. 35) A father who is the sole breadwinner for his family is performing a(n) ________ role. A) expressive B) instrumental C) institutional D) nurturing Answer: B Rationale: The instrumental role in family dynamics refers to the role of providing financial support and resources, typically associated with the breadwinner in traditional family structures. 36) The person, usually the mother or a daughter, who spends a lot of time emailing family members, visiting friends and families, and organizing family gatherings during special events like birthdays and anniversaries is called a(n) ________. A) kin-keeper B) protector C) instrumental role player D) breadwinner Answer: A Rationale: The kin-keeper role refers to the individual, often a mother or daughter, who takes on the responsibility of maintaining family relationships, organizing gatherings, and keeping communication channels open among family members. 37) Which of the following is a benefit of traditional gender roles? A) They provide stability and continuity. B) They encourage men to help out with household chores. C) They allow men to spend lots of time with their children. D) They encourage women to take part in activities other than domestic work. Answer: A Rationale: Traditional gender roles are often associated with providing stability and continuity in family and societal structures, as they prescribe specific roles and responsibilities for men and women within the family unit. 38) Research indicates that stay-at-home mothers are more likely than employed mothers to report experiencing negative emotions such as sadness, anger, and depression. Which of the following is most likely to strengthen this statement? A) Studies show that children of stay-at-home mothers tend to be happier and wellrounded than those of working mothers. B) Most stay-at-home mothers have the time to nurture and strengthen the husband-wife relationship. C) Most women in traditional relationships have to juggle between domestic work and employment tasks which prevent them from giving sufficient time to their families. D) Many husbands in traditional relationships take their wives for granted which makes them feel unappreciated. Answer: D Rationale: The statement is strengthened by the assertion that many husbands in traditional relationships may take their wives for granted, contributing to feelings of sadness, anger, and depression among stay-at-home mothers. 39) During a debate about gender roles, Keith states that traditional gender roles are profitable for businesses. However, James disagrees and states that egalitarian and not traditional gender roles are profitable for businesses. Which of the following statements is most likely to strengthen Keith's argument? A) Companies have a wider pool of employees to choose from when traditional gender roles exist. B) Traditional gender roles can provide a sense of accomplishment in meeting a family’s needs. C) Traditional roles allow companies to pay lesser salary packages and benefits to men in comparison to those provided to women. D) Companies do not have to provide their employees child care services because of the unpaid work that stay-at-mothers do. Answer: D Rationale: Keith's argument that traditional gender roles are profitable for businesses is supported by the statement that companies do not have to provide childcare services when stay-at-home mothers fulfill unpaid caregiving roles, potentially reducing overhead costs for businesses. 40) ________ refers to people's unequal access to wealth, power, status, opportunity, and other valued resources because of their sex. A) Gender stratification B) Status accentuation C) Gender classification D) Economic differentiation Answer: A Rationale: Gender stratification refers to the unequal distribution of resources, opportunities, and privileges based on gender, leading to disparities in wealth, power, and status between men and women. 41) Jake, a researcher at AVS Corporation, conducted a study on families which revealed that fathers are more likely to be worried about neglecting their children than mothers. However, his colleague, Ryan, disputed the findings and argued that mothers tend to worry more than fathers. Which of the following statements, if True, is likely to strengthen Jake's argument? A) Mothers are more likely to experience guilt about being preoccupied with external work pressures as compared to men. B) Fathers devote lesser time per week to childcare compared to mothers which makes them feel more concerned about their children. C) In egalitarian families, men and not women have equal responsibilities in childcare, nurturing, and sustaining a family. D) Most fathers in traditional relationships feel it is important to prioritize the breadwinner and protector roles over the nurturer role. Answer: B Rationale: Jake's argument that fathers are more worried about neglecting their children is strengthened by the fact that fathers generally devote less time to childcare compared to mothers, which may lead to heightened concerns about their children's well-being. 42) Sexual harassment includes verbal behavior, nonverbal behavior, and physical contact. Which of the following is an example of verbal behavior? A) demands for sexual favors in return for promotions B) indecent gestures C) sharing posters, photos, or drawings of a sexual nature D) touching inappropriately Answer: A Rationale: Verbal behavior in sexual harassment includes making demands for sexual favors in return for promotions or other benefits, creating a hostile or offensive work environment. 43) Gary, a manager, offers to take Susan, his manager, out on a date. However, Susan declines his offer, stating that she is married. Despite her refusal to go out with him, Gary constantly asks her out. This scenario is an example of ________. A) verbal harassment B) nonverbal harassment C) physical harassment D) power harassment Answer: A Rationale: Gary's persistent advances despite Susan's refusal constitute verbal harassment, as he continues to engage in unwanted verbal behavior that creates discomfort or distress for Susan. 44) Which of the following is an example of nonverbal sexual harassment? A) Tammy’s colleague, Jack often passes lewd comments at her during work. B) Melissa sends a note to her colleague, Toby, asking him to join her for a drink. C) Howard calls Phil for a meeting, and offers to hire him in return for a sexual favor. D) Peter stares and leers at Johanna while she works at her desk. Answer: D Rationale: Peter's behavior of staring and leering at Johanna constitutes nonverbal sexual harassment, as it creates an uncomfortable or hostile work environment through nonverbal actions. 45) Paul has been researching on women’s role in politics. During his research, he observes that women often spend many hours organizing support for a candidate instead of running for political office themselves. Which of the following best explains the reason behind this? A) Women are more likely than men to receive encouragement to run for office. B) Women see themselves as supporters rather than doers. C) The public prefers women candidates over men candidates to run for office. D) Women believe that they have leadership qualities in them. Answer: B Rationale: The observation that women often engage in support roles rather than running for political office themselves suggests that they may perceive themselves as supporters rather than leaders, contributing to their lower representation in political office. 46) Which of the following best describes “the feminization of higher education”? A) Women are more likely than men to have doctoral degrees. B) Men tend to score higher in exams than women. C) Women are more likely than men to teach in high schools. D) Women are more likely than men to finish college. Answer: D Rationale: "The feminization of higher education" refers to the trend where women are more likely than men to enroll in and complete college education, leading to a higher proportion of women in higher education institutions. 47) Studies have shown that women across all racial groups are far more likely to finish their higher education than men. Moreover, one-third of all doctoral recipients are women. However, the percentage of women found in STEM fields is relatively poor. Which of the following is likely to be a reason for this? A) Women working in STEM fields are discouraged from devoting time to their family. B) Women are less likely than men to be hired in STEM fields. C) Women tend to see themselves as overqualified and prefer to avoid STEM fields. D) There is a higher percentage of women earning professional degrees in comparison to men. Answer: B Rationale: The relative poor representation of women in STEM fields despite their higher education attainment can be attributed to factors such as gender biases in hiring practices, which may result in women being less likely to be hired in STEM-related positions. 48) Harry believes that men are more likely than women to pass religious values to their children. However, Steven disagrees and argues that religious values are most often passed down by women. Which of the following statements, if True, is likely to weaken Harry's argument? A) Fathers with a religious affiliation are more likely to spend time with their children than fathers with no religious affiliation. B) Men are expected by the society to be more pious and spiritual than women. C) Men are proactively involved in public life that demands more of their time and energy than their families. D) Research indicates that over 85 percent of men across 145 countries believe that religion is an important part of their lives. Answer: C Rationale: If men are actively involved in public life, as suggested in option C, they may have less time to pass down religious values to their children, weakening Harry's argument that men are more likely to pass religious values. 49) Generally, men are capable of speaking more frequently and for longer periods. This trait is referred to as ________. A) conversational analysis B) conversational maintenance work C) discourse analysis D) conversational dominance Answer: D Rationale: The trait of speaking more frequently and for longer periods in conversations is referred to as conversational dominance, often observed more in men than women. 50) Which of the following is True of the Global Gender Gap Index? A) It is a complete measure of a country’s development. B) It is based on key indicators in two main categories: social status and cultural development C) It gauges the relative equality between men and women on an indicator. D) It indicates a country’s overall wealth. Answer: C Rationale: The Global Gender Gap Index measures the relative equality between men and women on various indicators related to health, education, economic participation, and political empowerment, rather than being a comprehensive measure of a country's development or indicating its overall wealth. 51) Explain gender identity with the help of an example. Answer: People develop a gender identity, a perception of themselves as masculine or feminine, early in life. Many Mexican baby girls but not boys have pierced ears, for example, and hairstyles and clothing for American toddlers differ by sex. Gender identity, which typically corresponds to a person’s biological sex, is learned in early childhood and usually remains relatively fixed throughout life. 52) Explain gender stereotypes with the help of examples. Answer: Gender stereotype are expectations about how people will look, act, think, and feel based on their sex. Stereotypes may seem harmless, but they can have negative consequences. A study of 624 letters of recommendation for college faculty jobs found that women and men, regardless of qualifications, were often described differently. Female candidates were often characterized as “agreeable,” “warm,” and “kind.” Male candidates were often described as “assertive,” “confident,” and “ambitious.” 53) Explain with illustrations why sociobiological explanations are controversial. Answer: Sociobiological explanations are controversial because practically every behavior is influenced by the environment, socialization, and culture. For instance, male aggression and violence vary considerably across societies. And, when cultural groups are invaded or attacked by enemies, women warriors can be as fierce as their male counterparts. 54) With the help of examples, illustrate how direct and indirect reinforcement are different. Answer: A little girl who puts on her mother’s makeup may be told that she is cute, but her brother will be scolded saying “boys don’t wear makeup”. This is an example of direct reinforcement. Children also learn gender roles through indirect reinforcement. For example, if a little boy’s male friends are punished for crying, he will learn that “boys don’t cry.” 55) Illustrate the cognitive development theory with the help of an example. Answer: The cognitive development theory states that children acquire female or male values on their own by thinking, reasoning, and interpreting information in their environment. By age 3 or 4, a girl knows that she is a girl and prefers “girl things” to “boy things” simply because she likes what is familiar or similar to her. By age 5, most children anticipate disapproval from their peers for playing with opposite- sex toys, and they avoid those toys as a result. After acquiring masculine or feminine values, children tend to identify with people of the same sex as themselves. 56) Explain gender script. Answer: Gender script refers to how society says someone is supposed to act because of her or his sex. Gender scripts result, over time, in valuing men more than women. In Women’s Studies courses, many of the female college students want to focus on male experiences and perspectives, are concerned that men in the class may feel uncomfortable, and sometimes even express a preference for male faculty in these courses. 57) Ethan is the proprietor of a clothing retail company. He believes that men are better workers and prefers to hire only men. He often rejects highly qualified female candidates without deliberation. Based on the feminist theory, what attitude is Ethan demonstrating? Answer: In this scenario, Ethanis demonstrating sexism. Sexism is an attitude or behavior that discriminates against one sex, usually females, based on the assumed superiority of the other sex. 58) What benefits do men have over women with reference to traditional gender roles? Answer: There are several benefits that men have over women with reference to traditional gender roles. First, men have a positive self-image in being the provider whereas women do not because they are not employed. Second, there is little marital stress for men in climbinga career ladder because the wife takes care of the kids and the home. Third, men don’t have to do much, if any, housework or child care because the wife takes care of them. Fourth, husbands have a sexual partner who isn’t stressed out by having a job and caring for the family simultaneously. 59) What are the costs of traditional gender roles? Answer: A sole breadwinner is under a lot of economic pressure to provide for the family. Losing a job can send a man into severe depression, frustrated rages that end in violence, and even suicide. Additionally, traditional wives get little relief from household tasks that may be exhausting and monotonous. Traditional values such as being nurturing, dependent, and submissive can discourage some women from leaving abusive relationships. 60) Explain the difference between maintenance work and conversational dominance. Answer: Women are much more likely than men to do conversational “maintenance work.” Conversational maintenance work involves asking questions that encourage conversation. Compared with women, men’s speech often reflects conversational dominance, such as speaking more frequently and for longer periods of time. Men also show dominance by interrupting others, reinterpreting the speaker’s meaning, or rerouting the conversation. They tend to express themselves in assertive, often absolutist, ways. Test Bank for Marriages and Families Nijole V Benokraitis 9780205957224, 9780134736150

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