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Chapter 16 Families in Later Life 1) ________ refers to the average number of years a person can expect to live. A) Life expectancy B) Life fitness C) Living trajectory D) Living will Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Life expectancy is the average number of years a person can expect to live based on statistical data. It is a commonly used measure of population health and longevity. 2) Which of the following is True of Alzheimer’s disease? A) It is a degenerative disorder that diminishes the white blood corpuscles count. B) It is a degenerative disorder of the lungs. C) It is a degenerative disorder that attacks the brain and impairs thinking. D) It is a degenerative disorder of muscle fibers. Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. Alzheimer's disease is a degenerative disorder that primarily affects the brain, leading to cognitive decline, memory loss, and impairment of thinking and behavior. 3) Which of the following is True of social security? A) It is a public retirement pension system. B) It is an investment plan for older people. C) It is a federal health insurance program for people age 65 and older. D) It is a financial benefit provided exclusively to custodial caregivers. Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Social security is a public retirement pension system that provides financial benefits to retired workers and their dependents. 4) Which of the following would be an example of an involved and influential grandparent? A) Megan’s grandfather helps her get away with the mischievous things she does and supports her when her father scolds her. B) Rachel’s grandfather takes her for walks where he helps her with problems that she’s facing at school and at home. C) Henry’s grandmother lives far away from where he does, but she calls him on the weekends to speak to him. D) Jack’s grandmother invites him to spend the weekend with her once a month at her place, where he is pampered with gifts. Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. An involved and influential grandparent actively engages with the grandchild, provides support, and offers guidance, as demonstrated by Rachel's grandfather taking her for walks and helping her with problems. 5) ________ siblings are indifferent, rarely think about each other, and have little contact with each other. A) Hostile B) Apathetic C) Congenial D) Autocratic Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. Apathetic siblings have little emotional connection or involvement with each other and may have minimal contact or interaction. 6) The customary outward expression of loss is called ________. A) grief B) mourning C) depression D) remorse Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. Mourning refers to the outward expression of grief, including rituals, behaviors, and customs associated with coping with loss and honoring the deceased. 7) Which of the following is True of the differences between widowed women and their male counterparts in the age group of 65 and older? A) Men are more likely to want to remain single than women. B) Women are more likely than men to remarry. C) Men are more likely to be divorced or separated than women. D) Women are three times more likely than men to be widowed. Answer: D Rationale: Option D is correct. Women are more likely than men to be widowed, as they tend to have longer life expectancies, resulting in a higher proportion of widows in the older population. 8) Which of the following individuals would be an example of sporadic sibling? A) John, who visits his aged mother whenever he is in town B) Alex, who has always helped his sister when it comes to taking care of their aged parents C) Rita, who tells her younger brother that she wouldn’t be able to help with looking after their father during summer break D) Jake, who has taken up the responsibility of buying his parents medications for them every single week Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. A sporadic sibling provides assistance or support occasionally, such as visiting an aged parent when in town but does not consistently initiate involvement in caregiving responsibilities. 9) In the ________ style of caregiving, a brother or sister might step in when help is needed but don’t initiate involvement. A) routine help B) backup C) sporadic D) disassociated Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. In the backup style of caregiving, siblings may provide assistance when needed but do not take the lead in initiating caregiving responsibilities. They serve as a secondary support system rather than being consistently involved. 10) Discuss the five groups of siblings in later life. Answer: According to medical sociologist Deborah Gold, sibling relationships in later life generally fall into five groups, the last two of which are negative: • Intimate siblings are close and consider each other to be best friends and close confidants. They help each other no matter what and are in frequent contact. • Congenial siblings feel close and see each other as good friends, but they feel closer to a spouse or an adult child. They contact each other weekly or monthly but give help only when it doesn’t conflict with their obligations to their spouse or children. • Loyal siblings are available because of family bonds rather than affection or closeness. Disagreements don’t erode the siblings’ ties because they believe that family ties are important whether or not family members like each other. • Apathetic siblings are indifferent, rarely think about each other, and have little contact with each other. • Hostile siblings are angry and resentful and have had negative ties for a long time. They spend considerable time demeaning each other and arguing about the past, inheritances, and so on. 1) A scientist who studies the biological, psychological, and social aspects of aging is known as a(n) ________. A) gerontologist B) chronologist C) enologist D) cytologist Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. A gerontologist is specifically trained to study aging and its effects on individuals, including the biological, psychological, and social aspects of aging. 2) During which of the following age groups is a person categorized as young-old? A) between 50 and 64 B) between 75 and 84 C) between 85 and 90 D) between 65 and 74 Answer: D Rationale: Option D is correct. The young-old category typically includes individuals aged 65 to 74 years old, who are generally considered to be in the early stages of older adulthood. 3) People between ages 75 and 84 are called ________ people. A) young-old B) old-old C) oldest-old D) young-senior Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. Individuals between the ages of 75 and 84 are often referred to as old-old, indicating a more advanced stage of older adulthood compared to the young-old category. 4) Which of the following age groups typically includes individuals aged 85 and older? A) young-old B) old-old C) oldest-old D) senior Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. The oldest-old category typically includes individuals aged 85 and older, representing the oldest segment of the older adult population. 5) The people of Marksenia have high-pressure jobs and most of them die at the average age of 60. This number would be referred to as the ________ of Marksenia. A) living will B) life fitness C) life expectancy D) old-age dependency ratio Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. The average age at which people die in a population is referred to as life expectancy, indicating the average lifespan of individuals within that population. 6) Latinos generally have lower education levels and households incomes but higher life expectancy. Which of the following is the reason for their higher life expectancy? A) Latinos are more likely to have a stronger social support system that helps them when they get sick. B) Foreign-born Latinos don’t tend to return to their country of origin when they fall ill. C) U.S.-born Latinos, compared with other populations, are more likely to smoke and take prescription drugs. D) Most Latinos who emigrate tend to be people in the young-old age group. Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Latinos often have extended family networks and stronger social support systems, which contribute to better health outcomes and higher life expectancy, despite lower socioeconomic status. 7) Which of the following is True of death and disability issues among Americans over the age of 65? A) There has been an increase in the death rates for heart disease and stroke. B) There has been an increase in chronic and long-term illnesses. C) There is an inversely proportional relationship found between better education and good health. D) There is a steep decrease in disability rates. Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. As people age, there tends to be an increase in chronic and long-term illnesses, leading to higher rates of disability and health-related issues among older adults. 8) Which of the following is found to be one of the most common mental health problems among older people? A) dementia B) ADHD C) paranoia D) dyslexia Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, is one of the most common mental health problems among older people, characterized by progressive cognitive decline and memory impairment. 9) ________ is the loss of mental abilities that most commonly occurs late in life. A) Depression B) Dementia C) Schizophrenia D) Dyslexia Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. Dementia refers to the loss of mental abilities, including memory, reasoning, and communication, which commonly occurs in late adulthood. 10) ________ is a progressive, degenerative disorder that attacks the brain and impairs memory, thinking, and behavior. A) Doublethink B) Dyslexia C) Alzheimer’s disease D) Cognitive dissonance Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive and degenerative neurological disorder that affects cognitive functions, particularly memory, thinking, and behavior, leading to significant impairment over time. 11) Jack’s grandfather has started leaving his things in awkward places. At times, he asks Jack over and over again where he is. He misplaces his money and doesn’t remember payments that he has already made. Jack’s grandfather is showing symptoms of ________. A) Alzheimer’s disease B) schizophrenia C) Parkinson’s disease D) dyslexia Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. The symptoms described, such as memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with everyday tasks, are characteristic of Alzheimer's disease, a progressive neurological disorder that affects cognition and memory. 12) Ageism refers to the ________. A) gradual loss of memory as a person gets older B) study of the aging process C) discrimination against people based on their age D) transition of an individual from work life to retirement Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. Ageism refers to discrimination, prejudice, and stereotypes against individuals based on their age, particularly against older adults. 13) ________ is a public retirement pension system administered by the federal government. A) Public offering B) Social capital C) Social security D) Living wills Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. Social security is a public retirement pension system administered by the federal government, providing financial assistance to eligible individuals, including retirees and people with disabilities. 14) Max’s grandparents live far apart from him, but they send him a birthday card on his birthday with a $10 note in it. Every summer Max goes to his grandparent’s house and spends two days with them. Max’s grandparents show an example of a(n) ________ grandparenting style. A) companionate and supportive B) formal C) decentralized D) remote Answer: D Rationale: Option D is correct. Remote grandparents live far away from their grandchildren and have infrequent contact with them, often maintaining relationships through occasional visits, phone calls, or sending gifts. 15) Jenny claims that she has a remote relationship with her grandparents. Which of the following statements would support her claim? A) Jenny’s grandparents live with her and help her do her homework. B) Jenny’s grandparents live in another country and visit her once a year. C) Jenny’s grandparents consider her a problem child unlike her brother who they consider special. D) Jenny’s grandparents live with her and pay for her tuition. Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. Jenny's statement about her grandparents living in another country and visiting her once a year supports the idea of a remote relationship, where physical distance limits frequent interactions. 16) Which of the following is True of remote grandparents? A) They live far apart from their grandchildren and see each other infrequently. B) They tend to provide emotional and instrumental support but don’t interfere with parenting. C) They can be spontaneous and playful and exert authority at times. D) They serve as advisors to their grandchildren. Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Remote grandparents typically live far away from their grandchildren, resulting in infrequent face-to-face interactions, although they may maintain emotional connections through other means. 17) Melody’s grandmother takes her to the park every Wednesday evening and visits her on weekends. Despite being close to Melody, she stays out of decisions that Melody’s parents make with regard to her well-being. Melody’s grandmother shows an example of a(n) ________ grandparenting style. A) authoritative and advisory B) companionate and supportive C) authoritative and companionate D) remote and involved Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. Melody's grandmother maintains a close and supportive relationship with her granddaughter but respects the authority of Melody's parents, indicating a companionate and supportive grandparenting style. 18) Leon claims that his grandparents follow a more companionate and supportive style of grandparenting rather than remote. Which of the following statements would strengthen his claim? A) Leon’s grandfather lives in another state and sends him a $20 note on his birthday. B) Leon’s grandfather lives in another state and comes to visit him every Christmas. C) Leon’s grandfather visits him every weekend and takes him out for a movie or ball game. D) Leon’s grandfather views Mark, Leon’s brother, as the favorite of all his grandchildren. Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. Leon's statement about his grandfather visiting him every weekend and engaging in activities together supports the idea of a companionate and supportive grandparenting style, involving regular interactions and emotional support. 19) Kelly claims that her grandmother used to follow an involved and influential grandparenting style. Which of the following statements would strengthen her claim? A) Kelly’s grandmother used to make her do her homework first and only then take her out to the park. B) Kelly’s grandmother used to spend most of her time in and out of rehab for alcohol addiction. C) Kelly’s grandmother used to only come visit her on her birthday every year and buy her a gift. D) Kelly’s grandmother used to live with her, pay for her school tuition and for her ballet classes, and make the rules of the house. Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Kelly's statement about her grandmother being involved and influential, particularly in setting rules and expectations, supports the idea of an involved grandparenting style. 20) Henry claims his grandparents follow an advisory and authoritative style of grandparenting. Which of the following statements would support his claim? A) Henry’s grandfather lives in a different state and only meets him on holidays. B) Henry’s grandmother never speaks to him much as she spends most of her time in a mental institute. C) Henry’s grandfather visits him frequently and takes him to ball games and movies. D) Henry’s grandmother pays his tuition fees and helps him with his homework every. Answer: D Rationale: Option D is correct. Henry's statement about his grandmother providing guidance, support, and assistance with homework and tuition fees supports the idea of an advisory and authoritative grandparenting style. 21) Which of the following is True of involved and influential grandparents? A) They live far apart from their grandchildren and see each other infrequently. B) They don’t talk to their grandchildren due to indifferences with their parents. C) They can be spontaneous and playful and exert authority at times. D) They only serve as an advisor to their grandchildren. Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. Involved and influential grandparents are actively engaged in their grandchildren's lives, providing emotional support, guidance, and occasionally exerting authority when necessary. Their involvement extends beyond mere advisory roles to include active participation in the grandchildren's upbringing. 22) ________ grandparents have a legal relationship with their grandchildren through adoption and guardianship. A) Remote B) Custodial C) Supportive D) Living-with Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. Custodial grandparents have a legal relationship with their grandchildren through formal arrangements such as adoption or guardianship, indicating a significant level of responsibility and involvement in their grandchildren's lives. 23) ________ grandparents assume responsibility for the physical care of their grandchildren. A) Sporadic B) Apathetic C) Day-care D) Remote Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. Day-care grandparents assume primary responsibility for the physical care of their grandchildren, often providing childcare services on a regular basis while the parents are working or unavailable. 24) Which of the following is True of congenial siblings? A) They rarely think about each other. B) They help each other no matter what the situation. C) They result from family bonds rather than affection. D) They give each other help when it doesn’t conflict other obligations. Answer: D Rationale: Option D is correct. Congenial siblings maintain a positive relationship based on family bonds and mutual respect, offering help and support to each other as needed without allowing it to conflict with their other obligations or responsibilities. 25) ________ siblings are available because of family bonds rather than affection or closeness. A) Congenial B) Loyal C) Apathetic D) Intimate Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. Loyal siblings maintain a sense of obligation and commitment to each other based on family ties, even if they may not share strong affection or closeness. 26) Which of the following is True of hostile siblings? A) They have negative ties for a long time. B) They are available because of family bonds rather than affection. C) They are in contact with each other weekly or monthly. D) They have no time for each other. Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Hostile siblings have long-standing negative ties characterized by conflict, resentment, and animosity towards each other, often resulting from unresolved issues or past grievances. 27) Chelsea and Charles are siblings who are very affectionate and genuinely close to each other. Charles asked Chelsea if she could look after his dog as he had to go out of town. Chelsea said as much she would love to help out, she wouldn’t be able to as she had to attend a dinner party with her husband. This is an example of a(n) ________ sibling relationship. A) congenial B) intimate C) loyal D) apathetic Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Chelsea's willingness to help her brother despite having prior commitments reflects a congenial sibling relationship characterized by mutual affection, support, and willingness to assist each other when possible. 28) Jack said that he would cancel his vacation to New York as his sister Sandy needed his help moving her home. Jack and Sandy exhibit a(n)________ sibling relationship. A) congenial B) apathetic C) intimate D) hostile Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. Jack's willingness to prioritize his sister's needs over his vacation plans demonstrates an intimate sibling relationship characterized by emotional closeness, mutual support, and willingness to sacrifice personal interests for the well-being of the sibling. 29) Hayden tells his friend how his brother Mark had borrowed money from him years ago and didn’t have the courtesy of returning it. They rarely keep in touch now. He also tells him that Mark was the problem child of the family and would frequently steal from their father’s wallet. Hayden and John are an example of ________ siblings. A) congenial B) apathetic C) hostile D) autocratic Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. Hayden's description of unresolved conflicts, lack of communication, and negative experiences with his brother Mark indicates a hostile sibling relationship characterized by animosity, distrust, and unresolved issues. 30) Peyton calls her sister Sanchez on special occasions, but she keeps the conversation brief as she isn’t interested in her sister’s affairs and knows that the feeling is mutual. Peyton and Sanchez are an example of ________ siblings. A) hostile B) intimate C) congenial D) apathetic Answer: D Rationale: Option D is correct. Peyton and Sanchez's limited communication and mutual disinterest in each other's lives suggest an apathetic sibling relationship characterized by indifference, minimal contact, and lack of emotional connection. 31) Kirstin debates with Chris that there are no differences between intimate siblings and congenial siblings. Which of the following is an accurate statement that weakens Kirstin’s claim? A) Congenial siblings would offer help no matter what, whereas intimate siblings would only help if they have no prior obligations. B) Intimate siblings would offer help no matter what, whereas congenial siblings would only if help they have no conflicting obligations. C) Congenial siblings result from family bonds, whereas intimate siblings results from genuine affection and closeness. D) Intimate siblings result from family bonds, whereas congenial siblings results from genuine affection and closeness. Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. This statement weakens Kirstin's claim by highlighting a distinction between intimate and congenial siblings based on their response to offering help. Intimate siblings are portrayed as prioritizing help regardless of prior obligations, while congenial siblings are depicted as providing assistance only when it does not conflict with other commitments. 32) Jessica believes that her brother James and she are loyal siblings. Which of the following statements will strengthen Jessica’s claim? A) They give each other help only if it doesn’t conflict with other obligations. B) Their relationship results from family bonds and not genuine affection and closeness. C) They rarely think about each other but are in contact with each other. D) They are very indifferent to each other and never keep in touch. Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. This statement strengthens Jessica's claim by emphasizing that her relationship with her brother is based on family bonds rather than genuine affection and closeness, aligning with the characteristic of loyal siblings who maintain a sense of obligation and commitment to each other despite the absence of strong emotional ties. 33) Pete claims that his brother and he are congenial siblings. Which of the following statements will strengthen Pete’s claim? A) They are indifferent and rarely think about each other. B) They have had negative ties for a long time. C) They are ready to help each other if it doesn’t conflict other obligations. D) They are available because of family bonds rather than affection or closeness. Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. This statement strengthens Pete's claim by highlighting the readiness of him and his brother to help each other when needed, as characteristic of congenial siblings who maintain a positive relationship based on mutual support and assistance. 34) Gail believes that her sister and she are hostile siblings. Which of the following statements will weaken Gail’s claim? A) They have had negative ties for a long time. B) They talk ill of the other to their friends. C) They resent each other and rarely meet. D) They consider each other to be their confidant. Answer: D Rationale: Option D is correct. This statement weakens Gail's claim by suggesting a level of trust and emotional closeness between her and her sister, as evidenced by considering each other as confidants. Hostile siblings typically lack such mutual trust and emotional intimacy. 35) Tatiana believes that her brother and she would be considered apathetic siblings. Which of the following statements will strengthen Tatiana’s claim? A) They are ready to help each other if it doesn’t conflict with other obligations. B) They have been in negative ties with each other for a long time. C) They are indifferent about each other’s business. D) They are available for each other because of family bonds rather than genuine affection. Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. This statement strengthens Tatiana's claim by highlighting the indifference between her and her brother regarding each other's affairs, indicative of an apathetic sibling relationship characterized by minimal emotional connection or interest in each other's lives. 36) A ________ refers to the speed with which a person dies. A) living will B) dying trajectory C)dying velocity D)quantum trajectory Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. A dying trajectory refers to the expected course or speed with which a person approaches death, encompassing various factors such as the progression of illness, treatment effectiveness, and overall health condition. 37) According to Kubler-Ross, the first stage of dying is ________. A) depression B) bargaining C) denial D) anger Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross's model of the five stages of grief, the first stage of dying is denial, during which individuals may refuse to accept the reality of their impending death as a defense mechanism against overwhelming emotions. 38)A(n)________ refers to a place for the care of terminally ill patients. A) infirmary B) hospice C) sanatorium D) foster home Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. A hospice is a specialized facility or program designed to provide comprehensive care and support for terminally ill patients, focusing on enhancing their quality of life and ensuring comfort and dignity during the end-of-life stage. 39) A legal document that specifies the medical treatments a person would like to receive if incapacitated is known as a ________. A) medical power of attorney B) living will C) codicil D) medical contract Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. A living will is a legal document that allows individuals to express their preferences regarding medical treatment and end-of-life care in the event they become incapacitated or unable to communicate their wishes. 40) ________ refers to the process of recovery after the death of someone one felt close to. A) Accommodation B) Resentment C) Bereavement D) Indictment Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. Bereavement refers to the period of mourning and adjustment following the death of a loved one, during which individuals experience various emotional, psychological, and behavioral responses as they cope with the loss and adapt to life without the deceased person. 41) ________ has been found to be the most important reason for dating in widowhood. A) Peer pressure B) Maintaining financial stability C) Need for companionship D) Boredom Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. The need for companionship is commonly cited as the most significant reason for dating in widowhood. After the loss of a spouse, individuals often seek social connections and emotional support, making companionship a primary motivation for engaging in romantic relationships. 42) Every week, Melissa buys her old parents their provisions and anything else that they may require on a daily basis. Which of the following styles of caregiving does Melissa follow? A) sporadic style B) routine help style C) circumscribed style D) contingent style Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. Melissa's consistent weekly assistance to her parents, involving the regular provision of necessities, aligns with the routine help style of caregiving. This style involves providing assistance on a regular basis without specific triggers or conditions. 43) Rachel prepares and delivers breakfast to her mother every day. She also visits her every evening to make her tea. However, on days when Rachel is unable to deliver the breakfast, she asks her brother, Steve, who lives nearby, if he could help. Steve is generally ready to help out unconditionally. Which of the following styles of caregiving does Steve follow? A) sporadic style B) backup style C) routine help style D) circumscribed style Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. Steve's readiness to assist his mother when Rachel is unable to fulfill her caregiving responsibilities indicates that he follows the backup style. In this style, siblings provide support to their parents when the primary caregiver is unavailable or unable to fulfill their duties. 44) In the ________ style of caregiving, siblings provide services to their parents at their convenience. A) disassociated B) sporadic C) contingent D) backup Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. The sporadic style of caregiving involves siblings providing assistance to their parents inconsistently and at their convenience rather than in response to specific needs or situations. 45) In the ________ style of caregiving, sisters and brothers know that they can’t count on each other at all. A) sporadic B) circumscribed C) contingent D) disassociated Answer: D Rationale: Option D is correct. The disassociated style of caregiving reflects siblings' minimal involvement and lack of reliance on each other for caregiving responsibilities. In this style, siblings have little to no contact or support for each other in caring for their parents. 46) Caroline drops in to visit her old parents once or twice a month and gives them some money for their upkeep. However, there are certain months where she doesn’t visit them at all and just calls them occasionally. Which of the following styles of caregiving does Caroline follow? A) contingent style B) circumscribed style C) sporadic style D) backup style Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. Caroline's intermittent visits and irregular support to her parents, combined with occasional financial assistance, indicate that she follows the sporadic style of caregiving. This style involves siblings providing assistance inconsistently and infrequently. 47) Greg has made it clear to his sister that he would not be able to offer her any help toward taking care of their parents, who stay with her, as he has a very stressful work-life and will be traveling a lot. Which of the following styles of caregiving does Greg follow? A) disassociated style B) contingent style C) backup style D) circumscribed style Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Greg's refusal to provide assistance to his sister in caring for their parents, combined with his explanation of work-related stress and frequent travel, indicates that he follows the disassociated style of caregiving. In this style, siblings have minimal involvement and do not contribute to caregiving responsibilities. 48) Calvin claims that his siblings follow a circumscribed style of caregiving to their parents, both of whom stay with him. Which of the following statements would strengthen Calvin’s claim? A) His siblings incorporate assistance into their ongoing activities and are regularly available. B) His siblings’ caregiving is limited to a predictable once-a-week call to their parents. C) His siblings are always ready to step in and help him when he has other obligations. D) His siblings never make attempts to regularly contact their parents, nor are they available in time of need. Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. This statement strengthens Calvin's claim by describing a limited and infrequent level of caregiving involvement by his siblings, as evidenced by their predictable once-a-week calls to their parents. This aligns with the circumscribed style, where siblings provide minimal support and have limited contact with their parents. 49) Laura believes that her siblings follow a sporadic style of caregiving. Which of the following statements would strengthen Laura’s claim? A) Her siblings are only ready to help out if it doesn’t affect any of their other obligations. B) Her siblings never make attempts to regularly contact their parents, nor are they available in time of need. C) Her siblings’ caregiving is limited to a predictable once-a-week call to their parents. D) Her siblings are always ready to step in and help her when she has other obligations. Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. This statement strengthens Laura's claim by describing her siblings' readiness to help only if it does not conflict with their other obligations, reflecting the sporadic nature of their caregiving involvement. In the sporadic style, siblings provide assistance inconsistently and at their convenience. 50) Kimberly believes that her brother follows a backup style of caregiving. Which of the following statements would strengthen Kimberly’s claim? A) Her siblings only help out if it’s convenient for them. B) Her siblings step in to help whenever needed. C) Her siblings are never ready to help out. D) Her siblings stay geographically far away. Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. This statement strengthens Kimberly's claim by describing her brother's readiness to step in and provide assistance whenever needed, indicating a supportive backup style of caregiving. In this style, siblings offer help unconditionally and provide support to the primary caregiver when required. 51) What is life expectancy? Describe how it varies with sex, race–ethnicity, and social class. Answer: Life expectancy is the average number of years a person can expect to live. Historically and currently, women live longer than men. Across the three largest racial-ethnic groups, women have higher life expectancy rates than men, and Latinos have the longest lifespans. Women begin to outnumber men at about age 35, but the gender gap widens considerably at age 70. Between 2003 and 2008, the life expectancy gap between whites and blacks narrowed by about two years partly because the health of blacks improved and, for both groups, fewer deaths were due to heart disease, cancer, and HIV/AIDS. The primary reason for the smaller gap, however, was a surge of white deaths (for both sexes) from overdoses of powerful prescription medications such as Oxycontin and Vicodin and accidental poisoning due to illicit drugs (e.g., opium, heroin, cocaine). 52) List a few rules that would enable a person to live to an old age. Answer: Some of the common things people can follow are: • Exercise physically. Exercise increases blood and oxygen flow to the brain, which, in turn, cleanses the body of impurities and decreases the risk of disease and death. • Exercise mentally. The brain is like a muscle that grows stronger with use. You can keep your brain nimble by engaging in behaviours that increase thinking, such as playing board games, musical instruments, and “cognitive” computer games that require quick decisions. • Lose weight and don’t smoke. Smoking and obesity are linked to diabetes, heart disease, some cancers, and arthritis, among other diseases. • Watch what you eat. Eating a diet that includes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and nuts and avoiding food that contains saturated fats is healthy at any age. Well before we reach age 65, fat concentrates around vital organs and increases the risk of disease. • Control your blood pressure and avoid diabetes. High blood pressure increases the likelihood of stroke, heart attack, and kidney failure. Diabetes, which affects every organ in the body, can cause blindness and kidney and heart failure. • Establish strong social networks. Social relationships lower blood pressure (which decreases the risk of stroke) and reduces stress, anxiety, and depression. 53) List three reasons why older Americans work full time or part time past the age of 65. Answer: Some of the reasons include the following: • Social Security, a public retirement pension system administered by the federal government, provides income to more than 90 percent of older Americans, but the benefits depend on how long people have been in the labor force and how much they’ve earned. Because Social Security replaces only about 42 percent of the average older person’s preretirement income, many must continue to work. • The retirement age for full Social Security benefits increased from 65 to 66 for people born between 1943 and 1954, and has risen to age 67 for those born after 1959. As a result, Americans must work longer to receive full retirement benefits. • The Great Recession destroyed 40 percent of Americans’ personal wealth. Since then, many older people have been unemployed; their health-care costs and debt have surged; interest rates on savings have plummeted; they’ve dipped into their retirement savings to pay for everyday expenses; and of the pre-retirement workers who consulted professional financial advisors, only 27 percent followed the advice about investments. • Medicare, created in 1965, is a federal health insurance program for people age 65 and older that provides almost universal health coverage. However, the higher one’s retirement income, the higher are the monthly premiums. Also, Medicare doesn’t cover dental and eye care, long-term care, and coverage of prescription drugs is minimal. This means that low- and middle-income retirees must pay these costs themselves or postpone retirement. • Since the early 1990s, many companies (especially in the steel, airline, and auto industries) have reduced or eliminated their employee pension plans. As a result, many older people plan to continue working indefinitely. 54) Give a suitable example of a companionate and supportive style of grandparenting. Answer: Jessica’s grandparents come home to visit her every single evening. On weekends, her grandmother teaches her how to make various desserts that she likes. When Jessica gets into difficult situations, she normally speaks to her grandfather who most of the time gives her solutions. 55) Give a suitable answer that would serve as an example of apathetic siblings. Answer: Ron has not spoken to his brother in six months. Ron says that it has always been this way all through their adult lives. He also stated that the only time he sees his brother is at weddings or funerals of relatives that hasn’t occurred in a long time. Stated above is an example of Apathetic Siblings. Apathetic siblings are indifferent, rarely think about each other, and have little contact with each other. 56) Discuss the various phases of grief. Answer: There are different phases of grief. People respond initially with shock, numbness, and disbelief. The grieving person may be unable to sleep, lose interest in food, and not answer phone calls or even read sympathy cards because of an allencompassing sorrow. In the intermediate stage of grief, people often idealize loved ones who have died and may even actively search for them. A widow may see her husband’s face in a crowd. Recent widows or widowers may also feel guilty, regretting every lapse: Why wasn’t I more understanding? Why did we argue that morning? Survivors may also become angry, blowing up at children and friends over little things in a seemingly irrational way. The final stage of grief, recovery and reorganization, may not occur for several years, although many people begin to adjust after about six months. In later life, grieving is often more complex than it is for younger people because an older person may experience, over a few years, the deaths of many people who were important to him or her. 57) Larry believes that there are more widowed women in the world than men. Give a suitable answer that would support and strengthen Larry’s belief. Answer: There are five major reasons for the gender differences in widowhood. First, women tend to live longer than men, which increases their likelihood of being widowed. Second, a wife typically is three or four years younger than her husband, which also increases the likelihood that she will survive him. Third, at age 65 and older, there are 77 males for every 100 females. This means that the marriage market for older males is better than for their female counterparts. Fourth, among women and men age 50 and older, 63 percent of men, compared with only 22 percent of women, want to date someone who’s much younger. And the older a man is, the more likely that he wants to date a much younger woman. 58) Give a suitable answer that would be an example of a backup sibling. Answer: Michelle has taken up the task of cleaning her aged mother’s house once a week and taking her to the doctor for regular check-ups once a month. However, at times when Michelle is not able to take her mother to the doctor, she asks her sister Samantha, who willingly obliges to help her. On the other hand, she states that Samantha would never initiate any help unless she is asked to do so. Stated above is an example of a backup sibling. In one of thecaregiving styles, siblings serve as backups. One person gives routine care to an aging parent, but a brother or sister may step in when needed. 59) Discuss the general strains of caregiving. Answer: Caregiving also creates stress and strain. Older people usually need support at a time when their children’s lives are complicated and demanding. Families are often unprepared for the problems involved in caring for an older person. Sandwiched caregivers frequently experience a lower quality of life because daily routines are disrupted and parent–adult child conflict may increase. Parents who are mentally impaired, can’t perform basic daily self-care tasks, or engage in disruptive behavior are the most difficult to care for. The most common difficulties include always feeling rushed, social isolation, exhaustion, spending an average of more than 10 percent of one’s annual income on caregiving expenses, and missing work, which, in turn, decreases pay, retirement savings, and Social Security income. Moreover, employed caregivers of older family members who are chronically ill experience increased physical and psychological problems such as high blood pressure, weight gain or loss, sleep problems, continuous anxiety, and depression. 60) Jack believes that there is no way to fix America’s increasing health care costs. However, he believes that there are ways to curb costs. Give a suitable answer that would confirm and strengthen Jack’s belief. Answer: Analysts have suggested some ways to curb health care costs: Reform immigration laws to allow more people to work legally and pay taxes; require higher-income people to pay a larger share of the Medicare costs; standardize health care costs nationally; decrease fraud and waste; and closely monitor doctors’ and other medical professionals’ unnecessary treatments and deliberately inflating their bills. Providing people, especially boomers, with incentives for healthier behaviours—including reducing smoking and obesity—would also lower health care costs in the future. Test Bank for Marriages and Families Nijole V Benokraitis 9780205957224, 9780134736150

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