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Chapter 15 Separation, Divorce, Remarriage, and Step families 1) Glen’s relationship with his wife isn’t going very well and he is worried about who would complete paying their mortgage if they decided to separate. Which of the following stages of separation is Glen currently in? A) late separation B) early separation C) pre separation D) mid separation Answer: B Rationale: Glen's concern about financial obligations and the potential consequences of separation indicates that he is in the early separation stage. This stage is characterized by growing dissatisfaction in the relationship and the contemplation of separation, during which individuals may start considering practical issues such as financial arrangements and living arrangements. 2) According to Bohannon, couples typically argue about who should pay past debts, property taxes, and new expenses during the ________ station of divorce. A) emotional B) co-parental C) psychic D) economic Answer: D Rationale: Bohannon's research suggests that disputes over financial matters, such as debts, taxes, and new expenses, commonly arise during the economic station of divorce. This stage focuses on practical and financial issues related to the dissolution of the marriage, highlighting the challenges couples face in dividing assets and managing financial responsibilities. 3) Which of the following is a micro-level reason for divorce? A) military service B) technology C)extramarital affair D) the economy Answer: C Rationale: Option C, "extramarital affair," represents a micro-level reason for divorce as it involves individual behaviors and interpersonal dynamics within the marriage. Infidelity is a common factor contributing to marital breakdown at the individual or couple level, distinct from macro-level factors such as economic conditions or societal trends. 4) Which of the following best describes split custody? A) One parent is responsible for raising the child, while the other parent has specified visitation rights. B) Neither parent is allowed custody, and the authority to make final decisions for the child are handed over to a legal custodian. C) The children are divided between the parents either by sex or the children’s choice. D) The children divide their time between their parents, who share decisions about the children’s upbringing. Answer: C Rationale: Option C, "The children are divided between the parents either by sex or the children’s choice," accurately describes split custody. In split custody arrangements, siblings are divided between parents based on gender or the children's preferences, resulting in each parent having custody of at least one child. 5) Paula, a recent divorcee, asks her friend for advice on how to lessen the negative effects of the divorce on her kids. Which of the following statement would be effective in the given case? A) She should move her household and start again in a new community. B) She should keep her distance from the children and not be too rigid in setting household rules. C) She should blame the other parent so that they take her side. D) She should emphasize that the children are not responsible for the divorce. Answer: D Rationale: Option D, "She should emphasize that the children are not responsible for the divorce," offers effective advice to Paula for mitigating the negative impact of divorce on her children. Acknowledging and reassuring children that they are not to blame for the marital dissolution helps alleviate feelings of guilt, insecurity, and self-blame, promoting their emotional well-being and adjustment to the new family structure. 6) During the ________ remarriage stage, a divorced person has to establish a commitment to and trust in a new partner. A) emotional B) psychic C) formal D) parental Answer: A Rationale: Option A, "emotional," corresponds to the remarriage stage characterized by the need to establish emotional bonds and trust in a new partner following divorce. In this stage, individuals navigate feelings of vulnerability, fear, and hope as they open themselves up to a new relationship, seeking emotional connection and intimacy with a new partner. 7) Which of the following is True about a co-parent family with reference to lesbian families? A) The lesbian stepmother is the one who takes on the role of father as in a heterosexual family. B) The biological mother is responsible for all tasks and the nonbiological mother does the decision making. C) Both mothers have equal rights and responsibilities in everyday tasks. D) The nonbiological mother is a supporter and helper to the biological mother. Answer: D Rationale: Option D, "The nonbiological mother is a supporter and helper to the biological mother," accurately describes the role of the nonbiological mother in a co-parent family within lesbian families. In such family structures, both mothers typically share parenting responsibilities and decision-making, with the nonbiological mother providing support and assistance to the biological mother in raising the children. 8) According to ________ theories, children in stepfamily households have more problems than children in nuclear families because the stepparents often invest less time and energy in raising their children. A) risk and resilience B) family stress C) social capital D) cumulative effects Answer: C Rationale: Option C, "social capital," highlights the perspective that children in stepfamily households may experience more difficulties due to potential differences in parental investment and involvement compared to children in nuclear families. Social capital theories emphasize the importance of parental resources, support networks, and investment in children's well-being, suggesting that variations in parental engagement may contribute to differences in child outcomes between family types. 9) Gail, who has recently gotten married for the second time, tells her friend Sharon, who is also in her second marriage, that she wants this marriage to be successful as a stepmother. Which of the following is an accurate statement that would prove beneficial to Gail? A) She should restrict the children from mourning their losses. B) She should take the role of the disciplinarian. C) She should forge a strong couple relationship with her partner. D) She should continue the exact same rituals of her previous marriage. Answer: C Rationale: Option C, "She should forge a strong couple relationship with her partner," offers beneficial advice to Gail for successful stepmothering in her second marriage. Research suggests that a strong and supportive couple relationship between spouses is essential for effective co-parenting and stepfamily functioning. Prioritizing communication, cooperation, and mutual support with her partner can help Gail navigate the complexities of stepfamily dynamics and contribute to positive outcomes for both the couple and the children. 10) Describe a scenario which would serve as an example of pseudo reconciliation. Answer: Sam and Jenny separated due to Sam’s drinking habit. Two months later, after much thought, Jenny felt that, other than his drinking habit, Sam was a good husband. She felt that she never really gave him a chance to change and got back together with him to try and make the marriage work. But they separated six months later as all the previous issues came back. This is an example of pseudo reconciliation. In the mid separation phase, the pressures of maintaining two households and meeting the children’s emotional and physical needs mount, and stress intensifies. Because of such problems, as well as feeling guilty over breaking up the family, the couple may experience a “pseudo-reconciliation” and move back in together. The reunion rarely lasts. Soon the underlying problems that led to the separation in the first place surface again, conflicts reemerge, and the couple separates again. 1) The first phase in the separation process is the ________ phase. A) pre separation B) psychic divorce C) early separation D) pseudo-separation Answer: A Rationale: The pre separation phase marks the initial stage of the separation process, during which individuals or couples begin to experience dissatisfaction or unrest in their relationship. It precedes any formal or legal steps toward separation and involves emotional and psychological preparations for the impending changes in the relationship. 2) Jessica and Jake, a married couple, go out to social gatherings together, attend their children’s school events, and act like everything is normal while they are out of their home. However, they are having trouble in their relationship and their marriage is not going very well. Which of the following stages of separation are Jessica and Jake currently in? A) the emotional stage B) the early separation stage C) the pre separation stage D) the mid separation stage Answer: C Rationale: Jessica and Jake are exhibiting behaviours indicative of the pre separation stage. Despite experiencing relationship difficulties, they continue to maintain outward appearances of normalcy, suggesting that they are not yet actively contemplating separation but may be experiencing underlying dissatisfaction or discord in their marriage. 3) Which of the following is True of the early separation stage? A) The couple typically undergoes pseudo-reconciliation in this stage. B) The partners have to learn to live as singles again. C) The couple have questions about splitting of responsibilities and household items. D) The partners are overwhelmed with the pressures of maintaining two households. Answer: C Rationale: Option C accurately describes the early separation stage, during which couples grapple with practical and logistical considerations related to potential separation, such as division of responsibilities and household items. This stage involves initial adjustments and negotiations as partners begin to navigate the process of disentangling their lives from each other. 4) Kate and Chelsea argue about which stage of separation the couple they have been observing in their college study are in. Kate believes that they are in the early stage of separation, but Chelsea disagrees. Which of the following is an accurate statement that strengthens Kate’s assumption? A) They are plagued with questions of what they are going to tell their parents and how they will split household items. B) They have started avoiding each other, and are open to seeing other people socially. C) They are experiencing pseudo-reconciliation and have moved back in together. D) They are still pretending that nothing is wrong between them. Answer: A Rationale: Option A strengthens Kate's assumption that the observed couple is in the early separation stage by highlighting their preoccupation with practical concerns and uncertainties regarding communication with family members and the division of household items. These behaviors align with the typical challenges faced by couples during the early stages of contemplating separation. 5) Cathy and John have been undergoing pressures in their marriage and have decided that the relationship isn’t working out between them. Cathy is now in a dilemma as to how she is going to break the news to her mother and what she should tell her. John is more worried about who is going to continue paying for their son’s tuition fees at college. Cathy and John are in the ________ phase in the process of separation. A) late separation B) pre separation C) mid separation D) early separation Answer: D Rationale: Cathy and John are in the early separation phase, as indicated by their recognition of relationship difficulties and their contemplation of separation. Cathy's concern about communicating the news to her mother and John's focus on practical financial matters align with the initial stages of acknowledging marital problems and considering the possibility of separation. 6) During the ________ phase of separation, the pressures of maintaining two separate households and meeting the daily emotional and physical needs of the children mount, and stress intensifies. A) pre separation B) early separation C) mid separation D) late separation Answer: C Rationale: The mid separation phase is characterized by the challenges associated with managing two separate households and addressing the ongoing needs of children amidst the strain of the separation process. During this phase, stress levels typically escalate as individuals navigate logistical, financial, and emotional demands while adjusting to the new family dynamics. 7) During the __________ phase of separation, the partners must learn how to survive as singles again. A) pre separation B) early separation C) mid separation D) late separation Answer: D Rationale: The late separation phase involves the transition to singlehood as individuals finalize the separation process and adapt to living independently. During this phase, individuals focus on reestablishing their identities, routines, and social networks as they navigate life without their former partner, marking the culmination of the separation journey. 8) Which of the following is True of pseudo-reconciliation? A) The couple lives together temporarily to meet the provisions for divorce. B) The couple lives together but see other people. C) The couple feels guilty for breaking the family and moves back in together. D) The couple separates but are asked by the courts to remain as a couple till child custody is determined. Answer: C Rationale: Option C accurately describes pseudo-reconciliation, wherein a couple temporarily reunites or moves back in together following a period of separation due to feelings of guilt, familial pressure, or attempts to salvage the relationship. Pseudo-reconciliation may involve a temporary resumption of cohabitation without addressing underlying relationship issues, ultimately leading to further conflict or eventual re-separation. 9) Harry and Jessica move back in together after separating for a brief period. Harry’s father tells him that he is experiencing a mid separation and that he doubts that it would last. Which of the following is an accurate statement that will strengthen the father’s argument? A) Couples get influenced by their parents or peers negativity which causes them to split again. B) Couples that undergo pseudo-reconciliation rarely stay together for long. C) Couples must learn to live as singles again. D) Couples get overwhelmed with individual responsibilities and reconcile under the pressure. Answer: B Rationale: Option B supports the father's argument by highlighting the common outcome of couples experiencing pseudo-reconciliation. Research suggests that pseudo-reconciliation often fails to address underlying relationship issues, leading to a recurrence of problems and eventual separation. Therefore, the father's skepticism about the longevity of Harry and Jessica's reconciliation is supported by evidence suggesting that pseudo-reconciliations rarely result in lasting reunions. 10) According to Bohannon, the ________ divorce begins before people take any legal steps. A) emotional B) community C) economic D) co-parental Answer: A Rationale: Option A, "emotional," aligns with Bohannon's concept of the emotional divorce, which denotes the initial phase of marital dissolution characterized by emotional disengagement and the erosion of intimacy and connection between spouses. The emotional divorce precedes legal or formal separation processes and represents the beginning of the end of the marital relationship as individuals begin to disentangle their emotional bonds and attachments. 11) Colin has been trying to be more supportive of his wife. Despite his efforts they fight a lot and things don’t look promising between them, although he feels he can turn things around. Colin is in the ________ phase of emotional divorce. A) beginning B) pseudo reconciliation C) end D) middle Answer: A Rationale: Colin's situation, where he recognizes issues in his marriage but still holds hope for improvement, aligns with the beginning phase of emotional divorce. During this phase, individuals acknowledge marital problems and may attempt to address them, yet they remain uncertain about the future of the relationship. 12) Matt and Kim, who are both sociology students, argue about the stage of divorce that Kim’s mother is in. Matt believes that she is in Bohannon’s beginning phase of emotional divorce stage although Kim disagrees. Which of the following is an accurate statement that confirms Matt’s belief? A) She has hurt and angry feelings about the things her husband has done. B) She believes that the marriage will still work and that it’s not the end. C) She has started drifting further away from her husband. D) She has become happier and has become more independent. Answer: B Rationale: Option B confirms Matt's belief in Kim's mother being in the beginning phase of emotional divorce. This phase is characterized by continued belief in the possibility of salvaging the marriage and reluctance to accept the inevitability of divorce despite experiencing marital difficulties. 13) Which of the following occurs in the middle stage of emotional divorce? A) Spouses feel disappointment in each other but hope the marriage will improve. B) The unhappier partner begins to evaluate the rewards and costs of leaving the marriage. C) One of the partners stops caring and detaches emotionally from the other. D) One of the partners contacts a lawyer and files for divorce. Answer: B Rationale: Option B accurately describes the middle stage of emotional divorce. During this phase, the unhappier partner begins to weigh the potential benefits and drawbacks of ending the marriage, reflecting a shift towards considering divorce as a viable option. 14) According to Bohannon, the ________ divorce is the formal dissolution of a marriage. A) emotional B) legal C) economic D) co-parental Answer: B Rationale: Option B, "legal," corresponds to Bohannon's concept of the legal divorce, which involves the formal termination of the marital relationship through legal processes such as divorce proceedings and court decrees. 15) Monetary payment made by one ex-spouse to the other after a divorce is known as ________. A) marital dividends B) paternal gatekeeping C) alimony D) accommodation Answer: C Rationale: Option C, "alimony," refers to the monetary support provided by one former spouse to the other following divorce, typically intended to mitigate financial disparities resulting from the dissolution of the marriage. 16) Mark’s wife gained custody of their son and he is required to pay $2,000 a month toward his son’s upkeep to his ex-wife. This payment is known as________. A) marital dividends B) litigation C) alimony D) child support Answer: D Rationale: Option D, "child support," denotes the financial payments made by the noncustodial parent to the custodial parent to contribute to the expenses associated with raising the child after divorce or separation. 17) Monetary payment made by the noncustodial parent to the parent who has custody of the child to help pay for the child’s expenses is known as ________. A) child dividend B) spousal maintenance C) alimony D) child support Answer: D Rationale: Option D, "child support," accurately describes the financial support provided by the noncustodial parent to assist with the costs of raising the child post-divorce, including expenses such as education, healthcare, and living essentials. 18) Kelly believes that her friend Mark’s parents are in the emotional stage of divorce, while her brother, Jacob, believes that the divorce is in the legal stage. Which of the following is an accurate statement that strengthens Jacob’s belief? A) Mark’s parents have started seeing other people. B) Mark’s parents are still together. C) Mark’s parents are trying to decide on child support payments. D) Mark’s parents have started informing their relatives that they are no longer together. Answer: C Rationale: Option C supports Jacob's belief by indicating that Mark's parents are in the legal stage of divorce, as they are navigating practical considerations such as child support payments, which are typically addressed during the legal proceedings of divorce. 19) Lydia and Gregory are in the process of a divorce and are currently fighting over who should complete the payment of the education loan that they took for their daughter’s university tuition. According to Bohannon, which of the following stages of divorce are Lydia and Gregory going through? A) emotional divorce B) economic divorce C) psychic divorce D) community divorce Answer: B Rationale: Option B, "economic divorce," corresponds to the stage of divorce characterized by disputes over financial matters, such as the division of assets, debts, and ongoing financial responsibilities, including educational expenses for children. 20) Jacob tells his boss that he and his wife are no longer together. His friends have also talked him into going out with one his colleagues. This is an example of a(n) ________ divorce. A) quasi B) informal C) psychic D) community Answer: D Rationale: Option D, "community," denotes a divorce characterized by social acknowledgment and acceptance of the marital dissolution, where individuals inform others about the end of their marriage and begin to reintegrate into social circles as single individuals. This phase marks the public acknowledgment and adjustment to the divorce within the broader community. 21) Kristin, having separated from her husband and who is now living on her own, still feels sorry that her marriage didn’t work out. Even though her ex-husband is seeing another woman, Kristin is finding it difficult to move on. According to Bohannon, which of the following stages of divorce is Kristin going through? A) emotional divorce B) economic divorce C) psychic divorce D) community divorce Answer: C Rationale: Kristin's lingering emotional attachment and difficulty in moving on despite physical separation align with the psychic divorce stage, where individuals struggle to disengage emotionally from their former spouse and come to terms with the end of the relationship. 22) A ________ is when neither partner has to establish the guilt or wrongdoing of the other. A) psychic divorce B) nullified divorce C) no-fault divorce D) voidable divorce Answer: C Rationale: Option C, "no-fault divorce," refers to a type of divorce where neither party is required to prove fault or wrongdoing by the other spouse as grounds for the dissolution of the marriage. This approach allows for divorce to be granted based on irreconcilable differences or similar reasons without assigning blame. 23) Which of the following statements is True of no-fault divorce laws? A) It does not consider “incompatibility” as a valid reason for divorce. B) It is not applicable for individuals who have served in the military. C) It is only granted for divorces resulting from adultery, desertion, or physical and mental cruelty. D) It allows for divorce to be granted on the basis of “irreconcilable differences.” Answer: D Rationale: Option D accurately describes no-fault divorce laws, which permit divorce to be granted based on reasons such as irreconcilable differences, breakdown of the marital relationship, or similar grounds without requiring proof of fault or misconduct by either spouse. 24) Which of the following is a macro-level reason for divorce? A) extramarital affairs B) education C) communication problems D) military service Answer: D Rationale: Option D identifies military service as a macro-level reason for divorce. Factors such as prolonged separations, stress related to deployments, and challenges associated with reintegration after military service can contribute to marital strain and divorce among military personnel and their spouses. 25) Which of the following scenarios would serve as an example of a macro-level reason for divorce? A) Jim spends most of his days away from his wife on combat missions and as a result his wife wants a divorce. B) Mia’s husband always misunderstands what she tries to tell him, and, as a result, she has filed for a divorce. C) Jack’s wife can no longer bear his drinking habit and has filed for a divorce. D) Cindy expected her marriage with her husband to be a fairytale and wants a divorce as it isn’t what she expected it to be. Answer: A Rationale: Option A exemplifies a macro-level reason for divorce, as Jim's military service and prolonged absences due to combat missions contribute to marital strain and ultimately lead to his wife's desire for divorce. 26) Which of the following is True of social integration? A) Lower social integration increases divorce rates. B) Higher social integration increases divorce rates. C) Lower social integration decreases divorce rates. D) Rising individualism increases social integration. Answer: A Rationale: Option A correctly identifies lower social integration as a factor associated with higher divorce rates. Social integration refers to the degree of connectedness and involvement individuals have within their social networks and communities. Lower social integration may lead to weaker social support networks, contributing to higher divorce rates. 27) Jude believes that cohabitation results in a successful marriage and reduces chances of divorce. However, his friend Jake disagrees with him. Which of the following is an accurate statement that strengthens Jude’s argument? A) Cohabitants tend to be less accepting of divorce and more committed to marriage. B) Cohabitants are found to have better marital managing skills than married couples. C) The risk of divorce is found to be lowest among serial cohabitants. D) A marital commitment prior to cohabitation decreases the likelihood of divorce. Answer: D Rationale: Option D supports Jude's argument by highlighting that a pre-existing marital commitment before cohabitation can decrease the likelihood of divorce. This suggests that individuals who enter into marriage after cohabiting with a committed partner may have stronger marital bonds and lower divorce rates. 28) Ron debates that women are more likely to initiate divorce in most marriages. However, his wife Clarice believes that men are the ones who initiate divorce. Which of the following is an accurate statement that strengthens Ron’s argument? A) Women have higher expectations than men of how a marriage should be. B) Men generally tend to be more responsive to relationship problems. C) Women in unhappy marriages are more likely to divorce if they can support themselves. D) Women are less likely to break up a cohabitation relationship. Answer: C Rationale: Option C supports Ron's argument by indicating that women in unhappy marriages are more likely to initiate divorce, particularly if they have the financial means to support themselves independently. This aligns with research showing that women often seek divorce when they feel economically empowered to do so. 29) Tanya, a teenager, argues with her friend that teen marriages will lead to stronger marriages. Which of the following is an accurate statement that weakens Tanya’s argument? A) Teens are less likely to divorce as they live in a shrinking marriage market. B) First marriages of teens tend to last longer than first marriages of adults. C) Teens are more likely to be involved in a cohabitation arrangement. D) Teen marriages are typically hastened by a premarital pregnancy. Answer: D Rationale: Option D weakens Tanya's argument by highlighting that teen marriages are often precipitated by factors such as premarital pregnancy, which may not necessarily contribute to the formation of stronger marriages. Instead, teen marriages driven by external pressures may face greater challenges and higher divorce rates. 30) Which of the following is True of the differences between African Americans and their Asian-American counterparts when it comes to divorce? A) African-American women have lower divorce rates than Asian Americans. B) African-Americans are more likely to divorce than Asian-Americans. C) Older Asian-Americans have higher divorce rates than their African-American counterparts. D) Educated African-Americans tend to have lower divorce rates than their AsianAmerican counterparts. Answer: B Rationale: Option B correctly identifies that African-Americans are more likely to divorce than Asian-Americans. This reflects demographic trends indicating higher divorce rates among African-American populations compared to Asian-American populations. 31) The likelihood of divorce is ________ if partners belong to different faiths. A) low B) high C) absent D) moderate Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. Research indicates that couples belonging to different faiths often face challenges related to religious differences, which can contribute to higher rates of divorce compared to couples who share the same religious beliefs. 32) Which of the following scenarios would serve as an example of a micro-level reason for divorce? A) Gary finds it hard to cope with the fact that his wife is constantly away on military duty. B) Tiffany has found out that her husband Jeff is cheating on her with another woman. C) Donna has filed for divorce from Colin after he lost his job during an economic downturn. D) Harry has found a website which offers to help people divorce for a very low price. Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. Infidelity (cheating) within the marriage, as described in scenario B, is a micro-level reason for divorce because it involves actions or behaviors within the relationship itself, rather than external factors such as economic downturns or legal processes. 33) A court-mandated ruling regarding which divorced parent will have the primary responsibility for the children’s upbringing is known as ________. A) an indictment B) alimony C) custody D) a litigation Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. Custody refers to the legal determination of which parent will have primary responsibility for the care, upbringing, and decision-making regarding the children following a divorce. 34) Which of the following is True of split custody? A) The children are divided either by choice or by sex between the partners. B) The children divide their time between their parents. C) Both parents share decision making with regard to the children’s affairs. D) Both parents have physical custody of the children. Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Split custody involves dividing the children between the parents, either based on the children's choice or by sex, with each parent assuming primary custody of specific children. 35) Karin and Steve have recently divorced each-other. The court had ordered that Steve would gain custody of their son and Karin would gain custody of their daughter. This is an example of ________ custody. A) split B) dual C) sole D) gender-based Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Split custody, as described in the scenario, involves each parent gaining custody of specific children, with one parent having primary custody of one child and the other parent having primary custody of another child. 36) Joint custody differs from split custody in that in a joint custody ________. A) the mother gets the daughters and the father gets the sons B) the children divide their time between their parents, who share decisions about the children’s upbringing C) the children are allowed to choose the parent with whom they want to live D) neither parent gets legal or physical custody of the children Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. Joint custody involves both parents sharing legal responsibility for decision-making about the children's upbringing and physical custody, with the children dividing their time between the parents' homes. 37) A joint physical custody differs from a joint legal custody in that in a joint physical custody________. A) the mother gets the daughters and the father gets the sons B) the court specifies how much time children will spend in each parent’s home C) the children are allowed to choose the parent with whom they want to live D) both parents share decision making on issues such as the child’s education, health care, and religious training Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. In joint physical custody, the court specifies how much time children will spend in each parent's home, whereas joint legal custody involves both parents sharing decision-making authority over the children's upbringing. 38) Which of the following is True of co-parenting? A) It isn’t a legal type of custody. B) It does not require for the partners to communicate with each other. C) It is not a part of the divorce process. D) It only allows for either partner to have physical custody and not legal custody. Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Co-parenting refers to a parenting arrangement in which both parents share responsibility for raising their children after divorce or separation. It is not a legal type of custody but rather a collaborative approach to parenting. 39) Which of the following is a way in which parents could reduce the negative effects of divorce on their children? A) They should avoid talking to their children about their problems. B) They should try and give their children space by keeping a distance from them. C) They should never tell their children that the other parent is to blame. D) They should emphasize the importance of child support to the children. Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. Parents can reduce the negative effects of divorce on their children by refraining from blaming the other parent for the divorce, which can alleviate feelings of guilt or responsibility in the children and promote healthier adjustment to the changes. 40) During the ________ remarriage stage, people’s identity changes from that of a single individual to that of a couple. A) community B) psychic C) emotional D) parental Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. During the psychic remarriage stage, individuals transition from being single to identifying themselves as part of a couple, which involves adjusting their sense of self and identity to incorporate their new marital status and relationship dynamic. 41) Harry, a sociology student, after observing his aunt who is about to remarry, believes that she is in the psychic stage of remarriage. Which of the following would confirm his belief? A) She has started cutting away from people whom she was once close to after her divorce. B) She is thinking of visiting her fiancé’s children and wants to spend time with them. C) She is sad about the fact that she is no longer going to be independent and do what she likes. D) She has started separating expenses to what she would take care of and those that her husband should. Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. The psychic stage of remarriage involves internal adjustments, such as changes in identity and independence. Feeling sad about losing independence and the ability to do as one pleases aligns with the emotional transitions typical of the psychic stage. 42) Brad has just remarried. He has started to avoid and cut away from his close friends as they were against his remarriage. He plans to move to a new city and start over again after his remarriage. Based on the example, Brad is in the ________ stage of remarriage. A) community B) psychic C) formal D) emotional Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Brad's actions indicate that he is focused on establishing a new social network and community after his remarriage, which aligns with the community stage of remarriage where couples typically sever close personal ties established after a divorce. 43) Which of the following best describes the community remarriage stage? A) Couples often sever close personal ties that they establish after a divorce. B) Couples develop a relationship with the children of their new spouse. C) Couples officially announce that they are remarried to friends and family. D) Couples start deciding on allocation of expenses between them. Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. The community remarriage stage involves severing close personal ties established after divorce as couples focus on building new social networks and communities separate from those formed during their previous marriage. 44) Chris has remarried and is going to meet his spouse’s children. He plans to establish a close relationship with the children. Which of the following stages of remarriage is Chris in? A) the community stage B) the parental stage C) the formal stage D) the emotional stage Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. Chris's intention to establish a close relationship with his spouse's children aligns with the parental stage of remarriage, where couples focus on developing relationships with each other's children from previous marriages. 45) The ________ stage involves developing a relationship between a partner and the children of the new spouse. A) parental remarriage B) community remarriage C) psychic remarriage D) emotional remarriage Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. The parental remarriage stage involves the process of establishing relationships between a partner and the children of the new spouse, focusing on parental roles and responsibilities. 46) In a ________ stepfamily, both adults have children from previous marriages. A) complex B) nuclear C) compound D) joint biological Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. In a complex stepfamily, both adults have children from previous marriages, resulting in a blended family structure with multiple sets of children from different parental relationships. 47) Jessica and Ruth are lesbian mothers. Jessica has a son from her previous heterosexual marriage. Jessica retains all decision-making rights regarding their child’s education and well-being, while Ruth takes care of his nutrition, drops him at school, and picks him up from soccer practice. Which of the following lesbian stepfamilies is this an example of? A) a stepmother family B) a co-mother family C) a mother-stepfamily D) a quasi-stepfamily Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. This scenario describes a stepmother family, where one partner takes on the role of a stepmother to the child from the other partner's previous heterosexual relationship. 48) Stepfamilies differ from nuclear families in that stepfamilies typically ________. A) have simpler structures B) tend to create new roles in the family structure C) experience lesser stress and conflict D) have quicker integration periods between family members Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. Stepfamilies often create new roles in the family structure, such as step-parenting roles, which differ from traditional nuclear family roles and may require adjustments and adaptations by family members. 49) Which of the following is a characteristic of a successful stepfamily? A) Stepparents let children mourn their losses. B) Stepparents follow the same rituals that the couple did in their previous families. C) Stepparents immediately take on the role of disciplinarian with the children. D) Stepparents encourage high and challenging expectations from each other. Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Allowing children to mourn their losses from previous family structures and acknowledging their feelings is a characteristic of successful step families, as it helps in the emotional adjustment and integration process. 50) Clive gives his friend Leon advice on how to have a successful stepfamily. Which of the following is an accurate statement that would prove beneficial for Leon? A) He should let the children mourn their losses. B) He should follow the same rituals as he did in his previous family. C) He should take on an easy-going role. D) He should develop high and challenging expectations. Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Allowing children to mourn their losses and supporting them through the emotional adjustment process is important for creating a successful stepfamily environment that fosters emotional well-being and integration. 51) Briefly describe the four phases of separation. Answer: Pre separation phase: During the pre separation phase, the couple experiences gradual emotional alienation. Early separation: During the early separation phase, besides feeling ambivalent about leaving a marriage, the couple is plagued by many questions, both important and trivial. Mid separation: In the mid separation phase, the pressures of maintaining two households and meeting the children’s emotional and physical needs mount, and stress intensifies. Late separation: During the late separation phase, the partners must learn how to survive as singles again, such as doing all the housework and home maintenance. 52) Discuss the difficulties that are encountered in a same-sex divorce. Answer: Many same-sex couples are also running into difficulties if they want to get a divorce in a state that doesn’t recognize same-sex marriages. Moreover, because same-sex marriage is still a relatively new legal concept, same-sex divorces are more expensive than for heterosexual couples. Attorneys must spend more time unravelling issues such as when the gay partners’ legal commitments began and who owns which assets. 53) Melissa debates with her mother that early marriage has nothing to do with divorce. Give a suitable answer that would weaken Melissa’s argument. Answer: The younger the partners are when they marry, the more likely they are to divorce. Early marriage—especially before age 18—is one of the strongest predictors of divorce. Those who delay marriage until their twenties are usually more mature than teens and better able to handle the challenges of married life. Moreover, teen marriages are often hastened by a premarital pregnancy, another high-risk factor that increases the likelihood of divorce. However, marrying during one’s mid-twenties or later doesn’t guarantee a happy marriage if one “settles” for a spouse due to a shrinking marriage market. 54) Megan argues with her professor that race and ethnicity is one of the major causes of divorce. Give a suitable answer that would weaken her argument. Answer: Race and ethnicity don’t “cause” divorce. Rather, divorce is more prevalent among African Americans because of a combination of macro, demographic, and micro factors that include the following: Higher rates of teenage premarital pregnancy; young age at marriage; presence of children from previous relationships; serial cohabitation; and poverty, financial strain, and male unemployment. Low Asian American divorce rates also reflect a combination of variables. Recent immigrants, for example, are likely to endorse traditional values that encourage staying married, even if there’s domestic violence. Moreover, nonmarital birthrates for Asian American women are low—another factor that decreases the risk of divorce. 55) List out five micro-level reasons for divorce. Answer: People grow apart for many reasons. Five micro-level reasons for divorce are: • People often have unrealistic expectations about marriage that are fueled by television shows and movies that always have a happy ending. • Financial problems and disagreements are a stronger predictor of divorce than arguments about issues such as household tasks, spending time together, sex, or in-law relationships. • Extramarital affairs are one of the top reasons for divorce. The cheater is almost always repentant, but infidelity crumbles a relationship. • Communication problems—chronic complaining, criticizing, yelling, withdrawing, blaming—and the inability to resolve conflict lead to marital dissatisfaction and divorce. A strong predictor of divorce is negative interaction before the couple marries. • Substance abuse often leads to divorce because the user focuses on obtaining and consuming a drug and neglects the marriage and family. 56) Describe a suitable scenario that would be an example of split custody. Answer: Tory and Jack have just gotten divorced. The judge had ruled in the case that the children could choose which parent they wanted to live with. This is an example of a split divorce. In split custody, the children are divided between the parents either by sex (the mother gets the daughters and the father gets the sons) or by choice (the children are allowed to choose the parent with whom they want to live). 57) Discuss the positive outcomes of divorce. Answer: The biggest benefit of divorce is that it decreases the amount of stress that children undergo in a high-conflict, quarrelsome home in which adults yell, scream, throw things, or poison the atmosphere with emotional or physical abuse. Children and young adults fare well if the ex-spouses maintain good communication with their children and each other, if the children are comfortable staying in both parents’ homes, if they can spend a lot of time with their non-resident parent, and if a parent’s relocation doesn’t disrupt the children’s everyday life. Noncustodial fathers may spend more time with their children than they did before the divorce. Also, noncustodial fathers’ and their children’s ties improve when adolescents and young adults—especially those with few educational or occupational resources—feel that they can count on their fathers for financial support and advice regarding issues such as an unwanted pregnancy or marriage at a young age. The major positive outcome for adults is ending a high-conflict marriage. Those who leave a violent or abusive marriage are physically and mentally stronger and, consequently, more able to establish a healthier relationship with their children. 58) Describe a scenario that would serve as an example of a person who is in the psychic stage of remarriage. Answer: Penny, who is about to marry for the second time in a few weeks, has started looking up recipes of food that her new husband-to-be likes, and has started to be more attentive toward him to prove that she is going to be a wonderful wife. This is an example of an individual in the psychic remarriage stage. In the psychic remarriage stage, people’s identity changes from that of a single individual to that of a couple. For many men, a shift in marital status doesn’t require an extreme change in personal identity. For a traditional woman, the remarriage represents recovery of a valued identity as a wife. A nontraditional woman, on the other hand, may worry about the loss of her highly valued independence. 59) List and discuss the different types of stepfamilies. Answer: Although they vary in parent-child relationships, there are three basic types of stepfamilies: • In a mother–stepfather family, all the children are biological children of the mother and stepchildren of the father. • In a father–stepmother family, all the children are biological children of the father and stepchildren of the mother. • In a joint stepfamily, at least one child is the biological child of both parents, at least one child is the biological child of only one parent and the stepchild of the other parent, and no other type of child is present. Stepfamilies can be even more complicated. In a complex stepfamily, both adults have children from previous marriages. And in joint step–adoptive families and in joint biological–step–adoptive families, at least one child is a biological child of one parent and a stepchild of the other parent, and one or both parents have adopted at least one child. 60) List out a few characteristics of successful stepfamilies. Answer: 1) Successful stepfamilies develop realistic expectations. 2) Adults in successful stepfamilies let children mourn their losses because they’re sensitive to children’s sadness and depression after their parents’ divorce. 3) The adults in well-functioning stepfamilies forge a strong couple relationship. 4) Except when young children are present, the stepparent takes on a disciplinary role gradually. 5) Successful stepfamilies develop their own rituals. Test Bank for Marriages and Familes Dr Nijole V Benokraitis 9780205957224, 9780134736150

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