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Chapter 12 Raising Children: Promises and Pitfalls 1) Which of the following is True of role overload? A) It indicates conflicts that a person feels within a role. B) It involves being overburdened by one primary role. C) It is also known as role strain. D) It refers to feeling overwhelmed by multiple commitments. Answer: D Rationale: Role overload occurs when individuals feel overwhelmed by the numerous commitments and responsibilities they have to fulfill. This can lead to feelings of stress and being stretched too thin due to the sheer volume of tasks and roles they must manage. 2) Which of the following is True about the relationship between role overload and role conflict? A) Role overload eliminates role conflict. B) They both result from realistic role expectations. C) Role overload can lead to role conflict. D) They both are a result of decreased responsibilities. Answer: C Rationale: Role overload and role conflict are closely related but distinct concepts. Role overload, as mentioned earlier, refers to the feeling of being overwhelmed by multiple commitments. Role conflict, on the other hand, occurs when individuals experience incompatible demands from different roles they occupy. Role overload can contribute to role conflict when the sheer volume of responsibilities makes it difficult to fulfill all roles effectively, leading to conflicts in priorities and demands. 3) Carol is a mother of three children. Her day-to-day responsibilities as a mother involve preparing food for her children, helping with their homework, and dropping them at school. Due to the wide range of responsibilities, she often finds it difficult to devote equal time to all three children. This is an example of a ________. A) role conflict B) role strain C) role enhancement D) role overload Answer: B Rationale: Role strain occurs when individuals experience difficulty in fulfilling the expectations associated with a particular role due to the demands or constraints placed upon them. In this scenario, Carol experiences strain in her role as a mother due to the challenges of balancing the responsibilities associated with caring for three children. 4) Devin expects absolute compliance from his children. He sets rigid rules and expects his children to follow them without questioning him. His style of parenting is an example of ________ parenting. A) authoritarian B) permissive C) authoritative D) uninvolved Answer: A Rationale: Authoritarian parenting is characterized by high demands and expectations from parents with little responsiveness to the child's needs or feelings. Parents using this style often enforce strict rules and expect obedience without question. 5) Which of the following parenting styles is considered to be most effective in contributing to healthy child development? A) authoritarian B) permissive C) uninvolved D) authoritative Answer: D Rationale: The authoritative parenting style is considered the most effective for healthy child development. It combines high levels of warmth and responsiveness with clear and reasonable expectations and boundaries. Children raised by authoritative parents tend to have better social, emotional, and academic outcomes. 6) Children who grow up in communities with high levels of crime and drug peddling benefit most from ________ parenting. A) indifferent B) permissive C) authoritarian D) uninvolved Answer: C Rationale: Authoritarian parenting, with its emphasis on strict rules and discipline, may be more effective in providing structure and guidance to children growing up in challenging environments where clear boundaries and authority figures are essential for safety and well-being. 7) Which of the following is an example of a boomerang child? A) Greg, who is married with children, is moving back into his parents’ home. B) Mary is moving out of her parents’ house because she has found a job. C) Chris is paying his own tuition fees at college. D) Harry, who is in high school, is working part-time to help out his parents financially. Answer: A Rationale: A boomerang child refers to an adult child who returns to live with their parents after previously living independently. In this case, Greg, who is married with children, is moving back into his parents' home, making him a boomerang child. 8) Which of the following best describes absentee fathers? A) fathers who died when their children were young B) fathers who have abandoned their families C) fathers who are away at work in another country D) fathers who spend more time at work and less time with their families Answer: B Rationale: Absentee fathers are those who have abandoned their families, either physically or emotionally, and are not actively involved in their children's lives. 9) Children are put into a foster home when ________. A) they need to be medically treated B) there is a death of one of the parents C) they are subjected to parental neglect D) they need to be reunited with their biological parents Answer: C Rationale: Children are placed into foster care when they are subjected to parental neglect or abuse, and their safety and well-being are at risk. Foster care provides a temporary living arrangement for children until they can be reunited with their biological parents or placed in a permanent adoptive home. 10) Illustrate a scenario that explains the concept of role overload. Answer: Tanya, who works from home, has to juggle tasks between her work assignments and looking after her ailing mother. Her day-to-day responsibilities involve preparing meals for her mother, taking her for regular check-ups, and meeting deadlines at work. She often feels overwhelmed by the numerous responsibilities and experiences stress and anxiety because of them. This scenario exemplifies the concept of role overload. 1) The frustrations and uncertainties a person experiences when the expectations of two or more roles are incompatible is called role ________. A) conflict B) variation C) engagement D) strain Answer: A Rationale: Role conflict arises when individuals experience challenges or tensions due to conflicting demands from different roles they occupy, leading to frustration and uncertainty. 2) Role ________ can be described as the conflicts that someone feels within a role. A) overload B) strain C) engagement D) conflict Answer: B Rationale: Role strain refers to the internal conflicts or challenges individuals experience within a particular role, such as feeling overwhelmed or unable to meet the expectations associated with that role. 3) Which of the following factors contributes to parents’ role strain? A) realistic role expectations B) indifference to performing roles C) decreased responsibility D) decreased authority Answer: D Rationale: Decreased authority, such as feeling a lack of control or influence over one's role responsibilities, can contribute to parents' role strain by making it challenging to effectively manage and fulfill their parenting duties. 4) Ben needs to attend his son’s parent–teacher meeting. However, he also has an important meeting at work scheduled at the same time. Therefore, he may not be able to attend the parent–teacher meeting. This is an example of ________. A) role strain B) role conflict C) role fulfilment D) role remorse Answer: B Rationale: This scenario illustrates role conflict, as Ben faces conflicting demands between his role as a parent (attending the parent-teacher meeting) and his role as a professional (attending the work meeting). 5) One of the factors that contributes to role strain is unrealistic role expectations. Which of the following is an example of this factor? A) Many parents believe that they have less authority in raising kids than did parents in the past. B) Teachers don’t penalize students when they fare poorly in class assignments if they perform well in their exams. C) Parents are under a lot of pressure to ensure that their children grow up to be wellrounded, responsible adults. D) Parents today have lesser responsibilities in raising children because most schools have after-school programs. Answer: C Rationale: Unrealistic role expectations, such as the pressure for parents to ensure their children become well-rounded and responsible adults, can contribute to role strain by setting high and often unattainable standards for parenting. 6) The myth that mothering comes naturally creates several problems. One of the problems is that it________. A) assumes that a good mother cannot be perfect if she only follows her instincts B) implies that there’s something wrong with mothers who don’t devote all their time to child rearing C) encourages the involvement of the father of the baby in all child rearing activities D) expects mothers to seek help from her parents and relatives in rearing children effectively Answer: B Rationale: The myth that mothering comes naturally can create pressure on mothers to devote all their time to child rearing and can stigmatize those who seek assistance or prioritize other aspects of their lives. 7) Why is the transition to motherhood linked to a decline in marital satisfaction? A) Women believe that the child care and increased housework is unequal. B) Mothers experience lower levels of stress than married women without children. C) Most mothers believe in traditional gender roles when it comes to child rearing. D) Mothers feel that her parents should take an active part in child rearing activities. Answer: A Rationale: The transition to motherhood is often linked to a decline in marital satisfaction due to unequal distribution of childcare and household responsibilities, leading to increased stress and strain on the marital relationship. 8) Which of the following is an example of maternal gatekeeping? A) Linda often prioritizes her family’s needs over her own. B) Barbara criticizes the way her husband, Tom, prepares the baby’s meals. C) Patricia prioritizes her job over her domestic responsibilities. D) Melissa and John share their household tasks equally among themselves. Answer: B Rationale: Maternal gatekeeping refers to behaviors or attitudes exhibited by mothers that either facilitate or hinder fathers' involvement in parenting. In this example, Barbara's criticism of her husband's caregiving suggests a form of maternal gatekeeping that may discourage his participation. 9) Which theorist focused on social interaction as the core of the developing human being? A) Jean Piaget B) Erik Erikson C) George Herbert Mead D) Sigmund Freud Answer: C Rationale: George Herbert Mead focused on social interaction as the core of the developing human being, emphasizing the role of communication, symbols, and social relationships in shaping individual identity and behavior. 10) In the imitation stage of George Herbert Mead’s theory of the social self, children ________. A) mimic the behavior of significant others B) begin to use language C) distinguish between self and others D) learn social norms Answer: A Rationale: In the imitation stage, children observe and mimic the behavior of significant others in their environment, such as parents or siblings, as they begin to understand social interaction and roles. 11) The first stage in Erikson’s psychological theory of human development is the ________ stage. A) initiative vs. guilt B) identity vs. identity confusion C) trust vs. mistrust D) generativity vs. self-absorption Answer: C Rationale: According to Erikson's theory, the first stage of psychosocial development is trust vs. mistrust, occurring during infancy, where infants develop a sense of trust or mistrust in their caregivers based on their care and responsiveness. 12) In George Herbert Mead’s theory of the social self, a difference between the imitation and play stage is that in the ________. A) play stage, children learn to respond to and fulfill social roles B) play stage, children distinguish between self and others C) imitation stage, children learn to play multiple roles D) imitation stage, children participate in organized activities Answer: B Rationale: In the play stage, children begin to distinguish between themselves and others and engage in imaginative play, whereas in the imitation stage, they primarily mimic the behaviors of significant others without necessarily differentiating between self and others. 13) Kim is 13 years old. She knows that if she does not get good grades, her mother would not allow her to go out for movies. According to Piaget’s cognitive development theory, Kim is in the ________ stage. A) sensorimotor B) preoperational C) trust vs. mistrust D) formal operational Answer: D Rationale: Piaget's formal operational stage, typically occurring in adolescence, is characterized by the ability to think abstractly, reason logically, and understand hypothetical situations, as demonstrated by Kim's understanding of consequences based on her actions. 14) According to Erikson’s theory of human development, the identity vs. identity confusion stage occurs in the ________ age group. A) birth to 1 B) 13 to 19 C) 2 to 3 D) 31 to 64 Answer: B Rationale: The identity vs. identity confusion stage, according to Erikson, occurs during adolescence (ages 13 to 19), where individuals explore and develop a sense of identity, including their values, beliefs, and life goals. 15) Peyton is two years old. After watching her sister pat their dog, she starts doing the same. She often observes her sister and repeats her actions. According to Mead’s theory of social self, in which of the following stages is Peyton? A) the games stage B) the imitation stage C) the preoperational stage D) the initiative vs. guilt stage Answer: B Rationale: In the imitation stage, children observe and mimic the behaviors of significant others in their environment, which is demonstrated by Peyton copying her sister's actions with the dog. 16) According to the cognitive development theory, children learn to discern cause and effect and begin to understand the views of others in the ________ stage. A) sensorimotor B) preoperational C) concrete operational D) generativity vs. self-absorption Answer: C Rationale: In Piaget's concrete operational stage, typically occurring between ages 7 and 11, children develop the ability to think logically about concrete events, understand cause-and-effect relationships, and consider the perspectives of others. 17) Tiffany, who is four years old, pulled her sister’s hair and made her cry. Knowing that she has done wrong, Tiffany begins to cry as well. According to the psychosocial theory of human development, in which of the following stages is Tiffany? A) identity vs. identity confusion stage B) preoperational stage C) sensorimotor stage D) initiative vs. guilt stage Answer: D Rationale: According to Erikson, the initiative vs. guilt stage, occurring during early childhood (ages 3 to 6), involves children developing a sense of purpose and initiative in their actions while also experiencing guilt for violating rules or norms, as demonstrated by Tiffany's emotional response to her actions. 18) In the ________ stage in the theory of the social self, children learn social norms, especially that they are expected to behave in certain ways. A) play B) autonomy C) imitation D) trust Answer: A Rationale: In Mead's play stage, children learn social norms and expectations through imaginative play and interaction with peers, where they practice and internalize societal roles and behaviors. 19) Which of the following theorists traces human development through eight stages over an individual’s entire life span? A) Sigmund Freud B) George Herbert Mead C) Jean Piaget D) Erik Erikson Answer: D Rationale: Erik Erikson's psychosocial theory outlines eight stages of development that span an individual's entire lifespan, each characterized by a unique psychosocial crisis or challenge that must be resolved for healthy development. 20) Which of the following best describes authoritarian parenting? A) parenting that is neither supportive nor demanding because parents are indifferent B) parenting that is supportive and responsive C) parenting that is demanding, controlling, and rigid D) parenting that is warm, responsive, and indulgent Answer: C Rationale: Authoritarian parenting is characterized by high demands, strict rules, and little warmth or responsiveness, with an emphasis on obedience and discipline rather than autonomy or emotional support. 21) Which of the following is True of authoritarian parents? A) They instill autonomy and self-reliance in children. B) They use forceful measures to control children’s behavior. C) They use positive reinforcement to encourage good behavior. D) They encourage verbal give-and-take. Answer: B Rationale: Authoritarian parents tend to use forceful or punitive measures to control their children's behavior, relying on strict rules and consequences rather than positive reinforcement or open communication. 22) Which of the following is a characteristic of permissive parents? A) indulgent B) punitive C) demanding D) indifferent Answer: A Rationale: Permissive parents are characterized by being indulgent, showing high levels of warmth and support but providing little structure or discipline for their children. 23) Which of the following is a difference between authoritarian and permissive parents? A) Authoritarian parents are more responsive. B) Permissive parents place fewer requirements on their children for orderly behavior. C) Authoritarian parents are less regulatory. D) Permissive parents demonstrate lesser warmth and support toward their children. Answer: B Rationale: The key difference between authoritarian and permissive parents is that authoritarian parents enforce strict rules and control, while permissive parents place fewer demands on their children, allowing more freedom and fewer requirements for orderly behavior. 24) The parenting style in which both parental control and parental support are high is ________ parenting. A) authoritative B) authoritarian C) permissive D) uninvolved Answer: A Rationale: Authoritative parenting involves setting clear rules and boundaries while also being warm, supportive, and responsive to the child's needs, creating a balance between control and support. 25) The ________ style involves parenting that is demanding but is also supportive and responsive. A) authoritative B) uninvolved C) authoritarian D) permissive Answer: A Rationale: Authoritative parenting combines high levels of parental demands with responsiveness to the child's needs and emotions, creating a nurturing yet structured environment. 26) Barry is the father of seven-year-old Kevin. Barry believes that adopting an authoritative parenting style would help Kevin grow up to become a mature, responsible adult. Which of the following, if True, would strengthen his belief? A) Healthy child development is most likely when parents consistently combine warmth and discipline. B) Children grow up to be responsible adults when they learn to accept parental authority without questioning them. C) Research indicates that healthy child development occurs when parents are detached from their children and do not interfere in their affairs. D) A child grows up to become a balanced, responsible adult when parents are indulgent and avoid being demanding. Answer: A Rationale: This strengthens Barry's belief by providing evidence that combining warmth and discipline, which is characteristic of authoritative parenting, contributes to healthy child development. 27) A difference between authoritative and uninvolved parenting is that ________. A) uninvolved parents establish more rules for their children B) uninvolved parents are more indulgent C) authoritative parents interact more often with their children D) authoritative parents are less demanding Answer: C Rationale: Unlike uninvolved parents, authoritative parents are actively involved in their children's lives, providing both structure and emotional support, which involves frequent interaction with their children. 28) Jenifer and Rachel are both mothers of teenage children. They are discussing which parenting style is most effective. Jenifer states that authoritative parenting is better than permissive parenting. However, Rachel argues that permissive parenting is a better approach. Which of the following, if True, would weaken Rachel’s argument? A) A majority of children who grow up in homes with disciplinary parents tend to be hyperactive and irritable. B) Studies show that children with responsive parents are able to assume leadership positions in adulthood more efficiently. C) Adolescents raised in lenient households tend to be less mature and less responsible. D) Research indicates that setting fewer boundaries for children helps them become more self-reliant. Answer: C Rationale: This weakens Rachel's argument by presenting evidence that adolescents raised in permissive households may be less mature and responsible compared to those raised in authoritative households. 29) Chris’s mother agrees to let him go out to a movie on the condition that he would finish his homework first. In this scenario, Chris’s mother is an example of an ________ parent. A) authoritarian B) indifferent C) uninvolved D) authoritative Answer: D Rationale: Chris's mother demonstrates authoritative parenting by setting clear expectations (completing homework) while also being responsive to his desires (going out to a movie), combining control with support. 30) Authoritative parenting is different from authoritarian parenting in that ________. A) parents are more understanding in authoritarian parenting B) autonomy is more encouraged in authoritarian parenting C) lesser positive reinforcements are used in authoritative parenting D) verbal give-and-take is rarer in authoritarian parenting Answer: D Rationale: Unlike authoritarian parenting, which is characterized by strict control and limited communication, authoritative parenting encourages open communication and verbal giveand-take between parents and children. 31) Jake’s father, an entrepreneur, is too overwhelmed by his work to pay any attention to Jake. He never attends Jake’s school events and hardly ever interacts with Jake. This is an example of ________ parenting. A) permissive B) uninvolved C) indulgent D) authoritative Answer: B Rationale: Uninvolved parenting is characterized by low levels of responsiveness and involvement, as demonstrated by Jake's father's lack of attention and interaction with him. 32) Which of the following does corporal punishment involve? A) employing physical punishment B) using positive reinforcements C) threatening to kick a child out of the house D) calling a child names Answer: A Rationale: Corporal punishment involves the use of physical force or pain to discipline or correct a child's behavior, such as spanking or hitting. 33) Researchers and pediatricians believe that physical punishment is a futile disciplinary method. They state that it has negative, long-term effects. Which of the following, if True, is most likely to support their belief? A) Research indicates that children raised in permissive homes are less likely to be swayed by harmful peer pressure. B) Physical punishment discourages children from misbehaving. C) Studies show that physical punishment results in higher levels of aggression against parents. D) Corporal punishment reduces externalizing behavior of children. Answer: C Rationale: This option supports the belief that physical punishment has negative effects by providing evidence that it leads to higher levels of aggression against parents, indicating that it fails to effectively discourage misbehaviour and may cause harm to the parent-child relationship. 34) Which of the following best describes a middle-SES family? A) families in which parents work in minimum wage jobs B) families in which parents have a high school diploma and work in blue-collar jobs C) families in which parents work in managerial positions D) families in which parents are unemployed because they have no occupational skills Answer: B Rationale: Middle-SES families typically consist of parents with a high school diploma or equivalent who work in blue-collar or skilled trades jobs, representing a moderate socioeconomic status between low and high SES. 35) Dr. Williams is having a counselling session with his patient, Kelly. After listening to Kelly’s experiences, Dr. Williams finds that she is undergoing adultification. Which of the following statements, if True, is most likely to have contributed to Dr. William’s finding? A) When she turned 18, Kelly travelled to another country to pursue her graduation. B) Kelly was married by the time she was 28 years old. C) Kelly had to drop out of school to take care of her ailing mother. D) Kelly was a rebellious teenager and often skipped school to spend time with her friends. Answer: C Rationale: Adultification refers to situations where children or adolescents are expected to take on adult responsibilities prematurely. Dropping out of school to care for an ailing parent is an example of adultification, indicating that Kelly has assumed responsibilities typically associated with adulthood. 36) Research indicates that the most vulnerable low-SES families are those formed by adolescents. Which of the following, if True, is most likely to strengthen this finding? A) Families formed by adolescents often receive resources and support from their families. B) Teenage parents don’t have a strong parenting alliance in raising children. C) Research indicates that adolescents in the past tended to be less responsible than they are today. D) Adolescents are more inclined to maintain and nurture relationships with their partners. Answer: B Rationale: This option strengthens the finding by suggesting that teenage parents may lack the necessary support and parenting skills, making families formed by adolescents more vulnerable compared to those formed by older, more experienced parents. 37) Which of the following is True of low SES-families? A) Mothers in SES families are more likely to talk to their infants than those in middleSES families. B) Parents in low-SES families are less likely to experience interpersonal conflict than middle-SES families. C) Parents in low-SES families are more likely to work in blue-collar jobs than those in middle-SES families. D) Mothers in low-SES families are more likely to be depressed than those in high-SES families. Answer: D Rationale: This option highlights a characteristic of low SES-families by stating that mothers in these families are more likely to experience depression compared to those in higher SES families, indicating some of the challenges faced by families with lower socioeconomic status. 38) A difference between low-SES families and middle-SES families is that ________. A) middle-SES families face more problems of unemployment and racism B) low-SES families have more occupational skills C) low-SES families experience more problems associated with unemployment D) low-SES families are more likely to seek professional advice about a child’s development Answer: C Rationale: This option emphasizes a difference by highlighting that low-SES families experience more problems associated with unemployment compared to middle-SES families, indicating a specific challenge faced by families with lower socioeconomic status. 39) Which of the following is a difference between heterosexual families and homosexual families? A) There exists a genderless division of labor in homosexual families unlike in heterosexual parents. B) Heterosexual families are subjected to more prejudice and discrimination than homosexual families. C) Parents in homosexual families tend to co-parent more equally than parents in heterosexual families. D) Parents in homosexual families do not have to juggle work and domestic responsibilities like parents in heterosexual families. Answer: C Rationale: This option highlights a difference by stating that parents in homosexual families tend to co-parent more equally compared to parents in heterosexual families, indicating a unique characteristic of family dynamics in homosexual households. 40) Which of the following is a myth about child development? A) Crying is the only way that babies can tell parents that they are hungry. B) The more stimulation a baby gets, the better. C) Special talents can surface in adolescence or in later life. D) Parental conflicts affect babies. Answer: B Rationale: This option identifies a myth by stating that increased stimulation is always beneficial for babies, which may not always be the case as excessive stimulation can overwhelm infants and hinder their development. 41) Raymond, a researcher, is conducting a study on child development. After observing several infants, he finds that parental conflicts have no effect on babies as they are too young to understand. Which of the following, if True, would weaken Raymond’s argument? A) Babies understand the facial expressions of people around them and react accordingly. B) Many gifted children don’t recognize or develop their skills until adolescence. C) A baby’s early achievements—such as reaching, sitting, crawling, or talking—are rarely good indicators of intelligence. D) Babies are oblivious to parental yelling because they are at a development stage when they are only aware of their physiological needs. Answer: A Rationale: This option weakens Raymond's argument by providing evidence that babies are capable of understanding and reacting to social cues, such as facial expressions, indicating that they may be affected by parental conflicts even at a young age. 42) ________ bed sharers are parents who reluctantly bed share because of an infant’s nighttime problems. A) Reactive B) Permissive C) Intentional D) Proactive Answer: A Rationale: Reactive bed sharers are characterized by reluctantly bed sharing due to the infant's nighttime issues, contrasting with intentional bed sharers who choose to bed share as a parenting strategy. 43) Intentional bed sharers are ________. A) siblings who prefer to share their beds with each other B) parents who share their beds only because their children are used to sleeping with them C) siblings who prefer to share their beds with their parents instead of their siblings D) parents who endorse the ideology of bed sharing Answer: D Rationale: Intentional bed sharers are parents who deliberately choose to share their beds with their children, often as a parenting philosophy or cultural practice, rather than due to convenience or necessity. 44) Clara is the mother of five-year-old Ashton. Ashton is an energetic child who often behaves violently and goes into rages when he doesn’t get his way with things. Ashton’s doctor has diagnosed him with a behavioral disorder. In this scenario, Ashton’s diagnosis is an example of ________. A) generalization B) medicalization C) socialization D) stigmatization Answer: B Rationale: Ashton's diagnosis with a behavioral disorder represents medicalization, which involves defining a behavior or condition as a medical problem that requires medical intervention or treatment. 45) How is medicalization beneficial for parents? A) Children have more free time a week, including unstructured play at home. B) DSM maladies are likely to be covered by insurance plans or receive special treatment. C) It helps generate profit for pharmaceutical corporations. D) Antipsychotic drugs given for behavioral disorders are largely untested. Answer: B Rationale: Medicalization can be beneficial for parents because conditions diagnosed under the medical model, such as those listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), are more likely to be covered by insurance plans or receive specialized treatment, alleviating financial burdens associated with treatment. 46) Which of the following is a characteristic of helicopter parents? A) overinvolvement B) indifference C) empowering D) unresponsiveness Answer: A Rationale: Helicopter parents are characterized by their overinvolvement in their children's lives, often excessively monitoring and intervening in their activities and decisions. 47) Problem parents have an adverse effect on their children by ________. A) overcontrolling their children’s lives B) not telling their children to do the right thing C) setting very high standards for children to live up to D) not being good role models Answer: D Rationale: Problem parents negatively impact their children by not serving as good role models, potentially leading to the adoption of negative behaviors or attitudes by the children. 48) Caroline, the mother of sixteen-year-old Melody, is an interfering and intrusive parent. She wants to know where Melody is at all times. Whenever Melody steps out of the house, Caroline calls her every hour to check in on her. In this scenario, Caroline is a(n) ________ parent. A) reactive B) unresponsive C) helicopter D) problem Answer: C Rationale: Caroline's behavior of constantly monitoring and interfering in Melody's life aligns with the characteristics of a helicopter parent, who tends to be overly involved in their children's activities and decisions. 49) Which of the following is a consequence of a rise in dual-employed with kids (DEWKs) families? A) lower standards of living B) higher number of latchkey children C) decreased role overload D) more time that parents spend with children Answer: B Rationale: A rise in dual-employed with kids (DEWKs) families leads to a higher number of latchkey children, as both parents are working and may not be available to supervise their children after school. 50) Which of the following best describes latchkey kids? A) kids who are left home alone while parents are at work B) kids who interact regularly with their parents C) kids who share beds with their parents D) kids left with relatives when their parents travel out of town Answer: A Rationale: Latchkey kids are children who are left home alone without adult supervision while their parents are at work or otherwise unavailable. This situation arises when both parents work outside the home or when a single parent works. 51) Discuss three factors that cause role strain for parents. Answer: Role strain refers to conflicts that someone feels within a role. Parents can experience role strain because of several factors. 1) Unrealistic role expectations: Parents expect and are expected to succeed with every child and may feel guilty if they “fail.” The way children turn out is often the only measure culture uses to assess whether men and women are “good” parents. 2) Decreased authority: Parents may feel that they have less authority in raising kids than did parents in the past. 3) High parenting standards: In contrast to previous generations, parents are now expected to live up to high standards such as being informed about the latest medical technologies, watching their children closely for early signs of physical or mental abnormalities, and consulting specialists immediately if they detect learning problems. 52) In Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, how does the preoperational stage differ from the concrete operational stage? Explain. Answer: In the preoperational stage, children have difficulty seeing things from another person’s viewpoint. However, in the concrete operational stage, children begin to understand the views of others. They also understand that quantities remain the same even when their shape or form changes. Additionally, the preoperational stage occurs when a child is between the age of 2 and 7 years, whereas the concrete operational stage occurs when the child is between the age of 8 and 12 years. 53) In Mead’s theory of the social self, what does the games stage involve? Describe briefly. Answer: In Mead’s theory of the social self, the games stage is the third stage and occurs after the play stage. In this stage, children grow older and interact with a wider range of people. They learn to respond to and fulfil social roles. They also learn to play multiple roles and to participate in organized activities. 54) Describe the concept of permissive parenting. Illustrate this with an example. Answer: Candice is thirteen years old. Her mother, Janet, is an affectionate, caring, and lenient parent. She listens to Candice’s problems at school and never scolds her when she does something wrong. Even when she comes home late, Janet never scolds her or asks why she’s late. Janet believes that by being a liberal parent, she will help in still selfreliance and independence in Candice. This is an example of permissive parenting. In the permissive style, parents are usually warm and responsive but not demanding. They place few requirements on their children for orderly behavior or doing household tasks. Instead of setting boundaries, permissive parents are indulgent. They don’t bully or tyrannize their children, but adolescents raised in lenient households are often less mature, less responsible, and less able to assume leadership positions in adulthood. 55) What are the effects of corporal punishment on children? Answer: Physical punishment stops misbehaviour in the short term, but usually has serious long-term negative outcomes. Researchers who examined 20 years of research concluded that, regardless of the country or methodology, Virtually without exception, these studies found that physical punishment was associated with higher levels of aggression against parents, siblings, peers, and spouses. Research also indicates that corporal punishment increases externalizing behavior. The negative effects of corporal punishment continue into adolescence and adulthood. Adolescents who grow up in authoritarian homes (in which parents rely on spanking as a form of discipline) are more likely than children raised in authoritative homes to experience depressive symptoms such as sadness and anxiety. They’re more likely than their nonpacked counterparts to hit their parents and other children and to physically abuse their dating and marital partners and their own children later in life. 56) In what ways are low-SES families different from high-SES families? Answer: Low-SES families are those at the bottom of the economic ladder because the parents have little education and few occupational skills, work in minimum wage jobs, or are often unemployed. Most of the low-SES families are poor, but many are headed by a married couple with at least one full-time, full-year worker. In contrast, in high-SES families, the parents’ occupations—mainly professional and managerial—usually require a Ph.D. or advanced degree in business, law or medicine. This group also includes super-rich families that have inherited their wealth, and those who have earned rather than inherited their wealth. 57)What are some of the reasons why bed sharing is advocated by paediatricians? Answer: Some groups and paediatricians advocate bed sharing. They contend that bed sharing promotes parent–infant bonding, makes nighttime breast-feeding easier, and gives everyone a good night’s sleep. The mother may “instinctively” awaken if the baby’s breathing changes. Proponents also say that when mothers work outside the home, bed sharing gives them more opportunities to touch and be close to the infant, both of which are beneficial to the baby’s development. 58) How does helicopter parenting impact children? Answer: Helicopter parenting diminishes teens’ and young adults’ ability to develop decision-making and problem-solving skills. However well-intentioned, helicopter parents increase their own stress and decrease their children’s feelings of autonomy and competence. In turn, not believing in one’s ability to successfully accomplish tasks and achieve goals on one’s own leads to young adults’ feeling anxious, depressed, and more dissatisfied with life. Helicopter parenting also lowers the quality of parent–child communication because neither talks openly about their True feelings, and increases the young adult’s sense of entitlement. 59) List out some of the factors that cause fathers to be absent. Discuss briefly its effect on families. Answer: A father’s absence is due to many factors, including having babies during the teen years and not being able to provide for them financially, deserting unwed mothers, incarceration, physical or mental disabilities, drug abuse, divorce, and not paying child support. Regardless of the reasons, absentee fathers increase their children’s likelihood of economic and social deprivation. Many single-mother families were poor even before the father left, but his departure reduced a child’s economic resource seven further. Absent fathers have a huge cost beyond their economic impact. Compared with two-parent homes, children of fatherless families have more behavior problems, do less well in school, have higher drug and alcohol usage rates, have poorer physical and mental health, and are more likely to enter the juvenile justice system. 60) What is cyber bullying? Answer: Cyber-bullying refers to wilful and repeated harm using computers, cell phones, or other electronic devices. Cyber-bullying among children begins before age 12, but is most common during the teen years. Many parents are wary of the electronic media’s impact on their children, and cyber bullying is one of the sources of parental concern. 61) What is a foster home? What are some of the benefits of foster homes? Answer: A foster home is an out-of-home placement in which adults raise children who aren’t their own. Foster homes are supposed to provide short-term care until children can be adopted or returned to their biological parents. The obvious benefit of foster homes is that many children experience physical and emotional safety. Poverty, child abuse, and parental neglect are some of the major reasons for children’s out-of-home placements, including care by relatives, residential treatment facilities, and group homes. Test Bank for Marriages and Families Nijole V Benokraitis 9780205957224, 9780134736150

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