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Chapter 4 Racial and Ethnic Families: Strengths and Stresses 1) Evan, a social advocate, remarks that there has been a perceptible decrease in the unauthorized immigrant population since 2007. Which of the following could be a reason for this? A) the rise in the number of job opportunities B) the passage of laws that aim to protect undocumented immigrants C) the inefficient border management D) the doubling of deportations Answer: D Rationale: Option D is the most likely reason for the perceptible decrease in the unauthorized immigrant population since 2007. Increased deportations would deter undocumented immigrants from entering or remaining in the country, leading to a decline in their numbers. Options A, B, and C do not directly address enforcement actions that specifically target unauthorized immigrants. 2) Which of the following statements is True about undocumented immigrants in the United States? A) Most of the undocumented immigrants in the U.S. are of Indian descent. B) Undocumented immigrants are more likely than U.S.-born people to work in dangerous jobs. C) Most undocumented immigrants will benefit from social security when they reach the age of 65. D) Undocumented immigrants are not required to pay sales taxes. Answer: B Rationale: Option B is True. Undocumented immigrants are more likely than U.S.-born individuals to work in dangerous jobs, often due to limited employment opportunities and exploitation. Options A, C, and D are incorrect statements about undocumented immigrants. 3) What was the most restrictive feature of the anti-illegal immigrant law passed by the state of Arizona in 2010? A) It required immigrants to prove they had American ancestral links. B) It barred illegal immigrants from receiving state or local public benefits. C) It required immigrants to always carry documents on their person. D) It barred illegal immigrants from applying to acquire driving licenses. Answer: C Rationale: Option C highlights the most restrictive feature of the anti-illegal immigrant law passed by Arizona in 2010, which mandated immigrants to always carry documents proving their legal status. This provision subjected individuals to potential harassment and discrimination based on their appearance or perceived ethnicity. Options A, B, and D are incorrect features of the Arizona law. 4) Which of the following best describes the process of assimilation? A) It refers to the conformity of ethnic group members to the culture of the dominant group, including intermarriage. B) It involves the maintenance of many aspects of one's original culture by encouraging the members of an ethnic group to marry within their own community. C) It involves the adoption of many characteristics of a host culture but doesn't include intermarriage. D) It refers to the movement of ethnic groups from their native country to another country with the intention of permanently settling down. Answer: A Rationale: Option A accurately describes assimilation as the conformity of ethnic group members to the culture of the dominant group, which may include intermarriage as a form of integration. Options B, C, and D do not fully capture the process of assimilation as described in sociology. 5) Maria Gonzales is a 34-year-old Hispanic woman who lives in the city of Dallas in Texas. She is often treated differently because of her distinct cultural lineage. Which of the following choices most likely applies to Maria? A) Maria belongs to a minority group. B) Maria has a relatively high social status. C) Maria wields immense political power. D) Maria belongs to a dominant group. Answer: A Rationale: Option A is the most likely choice for Maria. As a Hispanic woman facing differential treatment due to her cultural lineage, Maria is more likely to belong to a minority group, which may experience discrimination or marginalization based on their ethnicity or cultural background. Options B, C, and D do not accurately reflect Maria's situation. 6) Which of the following groups is composed of people who identify with a particular national origin or cultural heritage? A) a focus group B) a social class C) a racial group D) an ethnic group Answer: D Rationale: Option D correctly identifies an ethnic group as composed of individuals who share a common national origin or cultural heritage. Ethnic groups are defined by cultural factors such as language, customs, and traditions. Options A, B, and C refer to different sociological concepts unrelated to national origin or cultural heritage. 7) A similarity between Latino families and Asian American families is that they both ________. A) instill the concept of machismo among their youth B) support the philosophy of individualism C) lay an emphasis on the importance of family D) encourage intercaste marriages Answer: C Rationale: Option C identifies a similarity between Latino families and Asian American families in their emphasis on the importance of family. Both cultural groups typically prioritize strong family bonds and intergenerational support networks. Options A, B, and D do not accurately represent shared characteristics between Latino and Asian American families. 8) Marriage in Middle Eastern families is ________. A) usually based on the western concept of romantic love B) often arranged or semi-arranged C) initiated by young adults without parental approval D) usually exogamous Answer: B Rationale: Option B correctly describes marriage in Middle Eastern families as often arranged or semi-arranged, reflecting cultural norms and traditions that prioritize familial involvement in marital arrangements. Options A, C, and D do not accurately represent common practices in Middle Eastern marital customs. 9) Laws against marriage or sexual relations between a man and a woman of different races were called ________. A) canon laws B) ant miscegenation laws C) Jim Crow laws D) double-jeopardy laws Answer: B Rationale: Option B correctly identifies ant miscegenation laws as those that prohibited interracial marriage or sexual relations. These laws were enforced in various states in the United States until the mid-20th century and were a form of legal segregation and discrimination. Options A, C, and D refer to different types of laws unrelated to interracial marriage restrictions. 10) What are the benefits of immigration? Answer: Immigrants work for low wages in jobs that native-born workers don't want to do. Undocumented immigrants constitute an untapped source of revenue to support Social Security and Medicare payments for older Americans. Naturalized citizens, on the other hand, earn higher wages, which decreases the likelihood of family poverty; pay billions in state and federal taxes; and contribute to U.S. culture. 1) Which of the following best describes a majority-minority state? A) It is a state in which the populations of the minority groups and the dominant groups are roughly equal. B) It is a state in which the population is solely composed of members of the dominant group. C) It is a state in which the members of minority groups make up less than half of the population. D) It is a state in which whites make up less than half of the population. Answer: D Rationale: Option D correctly defines a majority-minority state as one in which the white population constitutes less than half of the total population, with minority groups collectively comprising the numerical majority. This demographic composition contrasts with traditional states where whites make up the majority. Options A, B, and C describe different demographic scenarios not characteristic of majority-minority states. 2) New Mexico differs from most of the other states in the U.S. in that New Mexico ________. A) is a "majority-minority" state B) has the strictest anti-immigration laws C) has the lowest population of immigrants D) is the state with the highest population of immigrants Answer: A Rationale: Option A correctly identifies New Mexico as a "majority-minority" state, meaning that minority groups collectively outnumber the white population. This demographic distinction sets New Mexico apart from most other states where whites constitute the numerical majority. Options B, C, and D provide inaccurate descriptions of New Mexico's demographic characteristics. 3) The minority groups in Texas ________. A) wield more power than the dominant group B) have more privileges than the dominant group C) are of a higher social status than the dominant group D) outnumber the dominant group Answer: D Rationale: Option D accurately states that minority groups outnumber the dominant group in Texas, making it a majority-minority state. This demographic composition implies that whites make up less than half of the total population in Texas. Options A, B, and C present inaccurate assertions about the power dynamics and social status of minority groups in Texas. 4) Which of the following is True of immigration in the U.S.? A) The unauthorized immigrant population has significantly plummeted after the Great Recession. B) The United States is the nation that admits the highest number of immigrants every year. C) Most of the immigrants that have settled down in the U.S. in recent years have come from Europe. D) Most of the immigrants who come to the U.S. arrive as refugees who are fleeing political or religious oppression in their own countries. Answer: B Rationale: Option B accurately states that the United States is the nation that admits the highest number of immigrants every year, reflecting its historical role as a destination for immigrants seeking economic opportunities and better living conditions. Options A, C, and D provide inaccurate statements about immigration trends in the U.S. 5) Which among the following is the least significant reason for the decrease in unauthorized immigrant population in the U.S. since 2007? A) doubling of deportations of illegal immigrants B) conversion of immigrants to legal status C) decline in job opportunities brought about by the Great Depression D) passage of state laws aimed at undocumented immigrants Answer: B Rationale: Option B is the least significant reason because the conversion of immigrants to legal status would actually reduce the unauthorized immigrant population rather than decrease it. Options A, C, and D represent factors that could contribute to a decrease in unauthorized immigration. 6) Which of the following states passed the broadest and strictest anti-illegal immigration law in recent U.S. history that required immigrants to always carry documents? A) Arizona B) California C) Nevada D) New Mexico Answer: A Rationale: Option A correctly identifies Arizona as the state that passed the broadest and strictest antiillegal immigration law, known as SB 1070, in recent U.S. history. This law required immigrants to carry documents proving their legal status at all times, leading to controversy and legal challenges. Options B, C, and D are incorrect as they do not reflect Arizona's legislative actions on immigration. 7) Jeremy, a social advocate, believes that easing the illegal immigrants’ path to citizenship would bring more benefits than costs. Which of the following supports Jeremy's point of view? A) Undocumented immigrants constitute an untapped source of revenue to support Social Security and Medicare payments for older white Americans. B) Undocumented immigrants are more likely than U.S.-born people to work in dangerous jobs that have high fatality rates due to accidents. C) Undocumented immigrants earn higher wages, which decreases the likelihood of family poverty. D) Undocumented immigrants pay state and federal taxes and contribute to U.S. culture. Answer: A Rationale: Option A supports Jeremy's point of view by suggesting that easing the path to citizenship for undocumented immigrants could benefit the economy by providing additional revenue to support social programs like Social Security and Medicare. Options B, C, and D provide other potential benefits of legalizing undocumented immigrants but do not specifically address fiscal considerations. 8) Peter, a critic of free immigration, claims that illegal immigrants tend to overburden the limited resources and social services of a nation. However, Jonathan, a fellow scholar, argues that illegal immigrants provide numerous economic benefits for their host countries. Examine the following options and select the correct response. A) Jonathan is right because illegal immigrants pay state and federal taxes, and contribute to U.S. culture. B) Jonathan is right because illegal immigrants constitute an untapped source of revenue to support Social Security and Medicare payments. C) Peter is right because illegal immigrants increase unemployment by taking on jobs that are most sought after by naturalized citizens. D) Peter is right because illegal immigrants do not favor low-paying and difficult jobs. Answer: B Rationale: Option B correctly supports Jonathan's argument by highlighting that illegal immigrants can contribute to the economy as a potential source of revenue to support social welfare programs like Social Security and Medicare. This perspective emphasizes the economic benefits of immigration. Options A, C, and D present inaccurate or incomplete arguments that do not effectively counter Peter's claims. 9) People who may be treated differently because of their physical or cultural characteristics, such as gender, sexual orientation, religion, or skin color, belong to a(n) ________ group. A) minority B) dominant C) racial D) ethnic Answer: A Rationale: Option A correctly identifies individuals who may experience differential treatment due to physical or cultural characteristics as belonging to a minority group. Minority groups often face discrimination or marginalization based on factors such as race, ethnicity, gender, religion, or sexual orientation. Options B, C, and D do not accurately characterize the social dynamics associated with minority groups. 10) ________ refers to the conformity of ethnic group members to the culture of the dominant group, including intermarriage. A) Pluralism B) Assimilation C) Acculturation D) Immigration Answer: B Rationale: Option B correctly defines assimilation as the process by which ethnic group members conform to the cultural norms and practices of the dominant group, which may include intermarriage. Assimilation involves the adoption of mainstream cultural traits and behaviours by minority groups. Options A, C, and D describe related concepts but do not specifically address the process of assimilation. 11) ________ refers to maintaining many aspects of one's original culture — including using one’s own language and marrying within one's own ethnic group — while living peacefully with the host culture. A) Immigration B) Assimilation C) Pluralism D) Acculturation Answer: C Rationale: Pluralism involves maintaining aspects of one's original culture while peacefully coexisting with the host culture. It allows individuals to embrace their cultural heritage while engaging with and respecting other cultures. Options A, B, and D describe different processes related to cultural adaptation but do not specifically involve the coexistence of multiple cultures. 12) Rita lives with her family in Dallas. She is the oldest of three children and is of IndianAmerican descent. Rita's parents have raised her to value many aspects of her culture and have encouraged her to speak their native language at home. At the same time, they have also taught her to respect different cultures around her. They will eventually arrange Rita's marriage to an Indian boy from their own community. This scenario exemplifies the process of ________. A) assimilation B) acculturation C) pluralism D) xenophobia Answer: C Rationale: Rita's situation demonstrates pluralism because she maintains aspects of her IndianAmerican culture, such as language and marital traditions, while also respecting and engaging with other cultures. Pluralism emphasizes cultural diversity and coexistence within a society. Options A, B, and D describe different cultural processes or attitudes not applicable to Rita's situation. 13) The process of adopting the language, values, beliefs, roles, or other characteristics of a host culture, but which does not include intermarriage, is called ________. A) acculturation B) pluralism C) immigration D) assimilation Answer: A Rationale: Acculturation involves adopting aspects of a host culture while maintaining one's original cultural identity, but it does not necessarily include intermarriage with members of the host culture. This process allows individuals to adapt to a new cultural environment while retaining elements of their own culture. Options B, C, and D describe different concepts unrelated to the specific process described. 14) Which of the following is the best definition of a racial group? A) It refers to any physically or culturally distinctive group that has the most economic and political power, the greatest privileges, and the highest social status. B) It refers to a category of people who share physical characteristics, such as skin color, that members of a society consider socially important. C) It refers to a group of people who may be treated differently or unequally because of their physical or cultural characteristics, such as gender, sexual orientation, religion, or skin color. D) It refers to a category of people who identify with a common national origin or cultural heritage. Answer: B Rationale: Option B provides the best definition of a racial group by emphasizing shared physical characteristics, such as skin color, which are considered socially significant within a given society. This definition reflects the common understanding of race as a social category based on physical appearance. Options A, C, and D describe different aspects of social identity unrelated to the specific characteristics defining racial groups. 15) Which of the following is True of race? A) Race is a social concept that describes cultural characteristics. B) Race is determined biologically. C) Race-determining genes equal the number of genes that make humans similar. D) Race is a social concept that refers to physical characteristics. Answer: D Rationale: Option D correctly identifies race as a social concept that refers to physical characteristics such as skin color, facial features, or hair texture. Race is not biologically determined but rather socially constructed based on perceived physical differences. Options A, B, and C provide inaccurate or incomplete descriptions of race. 16) Sociologists view race as a ________. A) genetically-determined fact B) social construction C) biological trait D) evolutionary phenomenon Answer: B Rationale: Option B reflects the sociological perspective that race is a social construction rather than a biologically determined fact. Sociologists emphasize that racial categories are socially constructed and can vary across different societies and historical periods. Options A, C, and D present alternative viewpoints not supported by sociological research. 17) A(n) ________ refers to a set of people who identify with a particular national origin or cultural heritage. A) dominant group B) racial group C) assimilated group D) ethnic group Answer: D Rationale: Option D correctly defines an ethnic group as a social category characterized by shared national origin, cultural heritage, language, or other commonalities that contribute to a sense of group identity. Ethnic groups often share customs, traditions, and cultural practices. Options A, B, and C describe different social categories unrelated to ethnic identity. 18) A(n) ________ group has both distinctive physical and cultural characteristics. A) racial B) ethnic C) racial-ethnic D) dominant group Answer: C Rationale: Option C describes a racial-ethnic group, which possesses both distinct physical characteristics (related to race) and cultural characteristics (related to ethnicity). This term emphasizes the intersection of race and ethnicity in defining group identity. Options A, B, and D refer to different social categories without combining physical and cultural attributes. 19) ________ is an attitude that prejudges people, usually in a negative way, who are different from “us” in race, ethnicity, religion, or some other characteristic. A) Culture shock B) Cognitive dissonance C) Prejudice D) Dogma Answer: C Rationale: Option C correctly identifies prejudice as a negative attitude or preconceived judgment directed toward individuals or groups based on perceived differences in race, ethnicity, religion, or other characteristics. Prejudice often involves stereotypes, biases, or discriminatory beliefs. Options A, B, and D describe different psychological or cultural phenomena unrelated to prejudice. 20) Sam believes that his new coworker, Drogo, is incompetent for the job. He has a preset notion that all the members of Drogo's ethnic group are lazy and unskilled workers. In spite of his views, Sam doesn't treat Drogo any differently from the rest of his coworkers because he is afraid of being fired. Which of the following terms best describes Sam's behavior? A) sexism B) zealotry C) prejudice D) discrimination Answer: C Rationale: Option C describes Sam's behavior as prejudice, as he holds negative beliefs about Drogo's ethnic group without objective evidence. Although Sam does not discriminate against Drogo directly, his prejudiced attitudes may still influence his perceptions and interactions with Drogo and other members of the same ethnic group. Options A, B, and D describe different attitudes or behaviors not applicable to Sam's situation. 21) Prejudice differs from discrimination in that prejudice ________. A) is an attitude that prejudges people in a negative way B) is behavior that treats people unequally or unfairly C) is more harmful than discrimination D) encompasses all sorts of actions, ranging from social slights to racially motivated hate crimes Answer: A Rationale: Prejudice refers to preconceived negative attitudes or beliefs about individuals or groups based on stereotypes or generalizations. It is an attitude or mindset that influences one's perceptions and interactions. Discrimination, on the other hand, involves the unequal or unfair treatment of individuals or groups based on their perceived differences. Option B describes discrimination, not prejudice. Options C and D provide inaccurate descriptions of prejudice and discrimination. 22) Behavior that treats people unfairly or unequally is called ________. A) stereotyping B) discrimination C) dogmatism D) acculturation Answer: B Rationale: Discrimination refers to actions or behaviors that treat people unfairly or unequally based on their perceived differences, such as race, ethnicity, gender, or religion. It involves actions that result in the denial of rights, opportunities, or resources to individuals or groups. Options A, C, and D describe different concepts unrelated to discrimination. 23) Zulu belongs to a certain minority group. He works for Orion Works, an IT company, in Virginia. Zulu’s boss, Mike, treats him unfairly and constantly slights him in public. Zulu is not invited to social events in the office and is assigned only insignificant tasks. Which of the following is illustrated in the context of Zulu's treatment by his boss? A) prejudice B) discrimination C) zealotry D) sexism Answer: B Rationale: Zulu's treatment by his boss, Mike, illustrates discrimination, as he is being treated unfairly and unequally based on his membership in a minority group. Discrimination involves actions or behaviors that result in the denial of opportunities or resources to individuals or groups based on their perceived differences. Prejudice (Option A) refers to negative attitudes or beliefs, while sexism (Option D) specifically relates to discrimination based on gender. Option C, zealotry, is unrelated to the context described. 24) In the state of Argonia, the citizens belonging to a certain minority group are not allowed to vote and are treated unequally because of their distinct color and religion. The laws of the state do not allow them to enjoy the social benefits that are granted to its other citizens. This scenario illustrates the concept of ________. A) zealotry B) individual discrimination C) structural discrimination D) racial socialization Answer: C Rationale: The scenario described illustrates structural discrimination, where discriminatory practices or policies are embedded within the social, political, or economic structures of a society or institution. In this case, laws and policies in the state of Argonia systematically deny rights and privileges to members of a minority group based on their race and religion. Options A, B, and D describe different concepts unrelated to structural discrimination. 25) Which of the following is True of African American families? A) African American families often display an egalitarian family pattern, in which both men and women share equal authority. B) All African American families speak the same language and have similar customs, cuisines, and religious practices. C) African American children are less likely than children in other racial-ethnic groups to grow up with only one parent, usually a mother. D) African American fathers do not make an effort to be involved in their children’s lives and are unlikely to share household chores. Answer: A Rationale: Option A is True. Many African American families exhibit an egalitarian family pattern where both men and women share authority and responsibilities within the household. This pattern contrasts with traditional patriarchal family structures. Options B, C, and D provide inaccurate or stereotypical descriptions of African American families. 26) African American families often display a(n) ________. A) matriarchal family pattern B) egalitarian family pattern C) patriarchal family pattern D) authoritarian family pattern Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. African American families often exhibit an egalitarian family pattern where authority and responsibilities are shared between men and women. This contrasts with patriarchal or matriarchal family patterns where authority is primarily held by one gender. Options A, C, and D describe different family patterns not typically associated with African American families. 27) Which of the following is True of the differences between African Americans and their white counterparts? A) Black men and women are less likely to die of heart disease and stroke than their white counterparts. B) Black women have lower maternal death rates than any other group. C) Black husbands are more likely than their white counterparts to share household chores. D) Black families tend to inherit more wealth than white families do. Answer: C Rationale: Option C is True. Research suggests that African American husbands are more likely than their white counterparts to share household chores and participate in domestic responsibilities. This challenges traditional gender roles and stereotypes regarding division of labor within households. Options A, B, and D provide inaccurate statements or stereotypes about differences between African Americans and white Americans. 28) Akello, an African American woman enrolls her 3-year-old son, Ababuo, at Redwood Learning Academy. Within the first few days of attending school, Ababuo begins to notice that he differs from his classmates both physically and culturally. Akello notices her son's confusion and decides to teach him to overcome race-related barriers and to be proud of his cultural heritage. In this scenario, Akello is actively engaging in the process of ________. A) racial discrimination B) segregation C) racial socialization D) acculturation Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. Akello is engaging in racial socialization, a process where parents or caregivers transmit knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to race and ethnicity to their children. By teaching Ababuo to overcome race-related barriers and be proud of his cultural heritage, Akello is helping him navigate his racial identity and understand how to respond to societal perceptions and challenges related to race. Options A, B, and D describe different processes or concepts unrelated to racial socialization. 29) Adam Gillhorn and Derek Cosby are students of sociology. Adam claims that lowincome African American parents and their children generally behave irresponsibly and make poor decisions. Derek believes that low-income African American families are more responsible as they have to adapt to problems beyond their control. Which of the following statements strengthens Derek's argument? A) Most African American men in low-income families are employed and work hard to support their wives and children. B) Low-income African American youth usually make good purchasing decisions. C) African American children from low-income families are more likely to grow up in households with both parents. D) Black married men in low-income families are more likely than women to do most of the traditional chores, such as cooking, cleaning, and laundry, and to be overworked. Answer: B Rationale: Option B strengthens Derek's argument by highlighting a positive characteristic of lowincome African American families. It suggests that despite economic challenges, African American youth in low-income families demonstrate responsible decision-making, countering Adam's negative stereotype. Options A, C, and D provide additional information but do not directly support Derek's argument. 30) Which of the following is True concerning the health and economic well-being of African American families? A) Minorities typically receive lower quality health care. B) The median family income of African Americans is the highest of all minority groups. C) Despite low incomes, most African Americans have other assets, such as stocks and bonds. D) Most African Americans tend to have better health because of the support of the extended family. Answer: A Rationale: Option A is True. African Americans, like other minority groups, typically receive lower quality health care compared to white Americans. This disparity contributes to poorer health outcomes and higher rates of chronic diseases among African Americans. Options B, C, and D provide inaccurate statements or generalizations about the economic wellbeing and health of African American families. 31) What reason do American Indian tribal leaders give for the high alcoholism and suicide rates among their youth? A) the gradual erosion of American Indian culture B) the oppression imposed on the youth by native cultural practices C) the remigration of youth back to rural areas D) the poverty and poor access to services in the reservations Answer: A Rationale: American Indian tribal leaders often attribute the high alcoholism and suicide rates among their youth to the gradual erosion of American Indian culture. This erosion can result from various factors, including historical trauma, loss of traditional practices, and the impact of colonization. Options B, C, and D do not directly address the cultural factors that tribal leaders typically cite as reasons for these issues. 32) Which of the following is True of American Indian families? A) In American Indian families, the man of the house does not participate in any of the household activities. B) American Indian families have a slightly higher median household income than that of African American families. C) In American Indian families, elders are not given any importance and are excluded from a family’s decision making. D) American Indian families steadily assimilate into western culture and are not spiritually inclined. Answer: B Rationale: Option B is True. American Indian families, on average, have a slightly higher median household income compared to African American families. This may be due to various factors, including differences in educational attainment, employment opportunities, and access to resources. Options A, C, and D provide inaccurate or stereotypical descriptions of American Indian families. 33) Riko Gonzales hails from Mexico. He is the breadwinner of his family and takes great pride in upholding family tradition. He believes that a man should hold authority over his woman and children and should uphold the family honor. In this scenario, Riko is displaying the elements of ________. A) marianismo B) respeto C) familism D) dignidad Answer: B Rationale: Option B is correct. Riko's belief in upholding family tradition, maintaining authority over his family, and preserving family honor reflects the cultural value of "respeto" (respect) commonly observed in Latin American societies. This value emphasizes respect for authority, tradition, and familial roles. Options A, C, and D describe different cultural elements not reflected in Riko's behavior. 34) Carlo Bandaras, a 34-year-old Latin American, lives with his family in Texas. At times, he displays aggression to keep the other members of the family in check. He believes that men are superior to women and that violence and aggression emphasize masculinity. In this scenario, Carlos is displaying the elements of ________. A) marianismo B) dignidad C) familism D) machismo Answer: D Rationale: Option D is correct. Carlo's belief in male superiority, the use of aggression to assert dominance, and the emphasis on traditional masculine roles align with the cultural concept of "machismo" commonly associated with Latin American societies. Machismo often involves attitudes of male dominance, authority, and toughness. Options A, B, and C describe different cultural elements not reflected in Carlo's behavior. 35) Derek, a social advocate, claims that machismo among Latin American men can have a negative impact on their families and lifestyle. Which of the following statements weakens Derek's claim? A) Latin American men often display violence and aggression in an attempt to emphasize their masculinity. B) Latin American men are primarily responsible for managing the children and other domestic responsibilities. C) Latin American men are less susceptible to depression and substance abuse. D) Latin American men have a deep sense of honor and try their best to avoid loss of dignity in front of others. Answer: D Rationale: Option D weakens Derek's claim by highlighting a positive aspect of machismo, namely, the emphasis on honor and dignity. This suggests that machismo, while associated with certain negative behaviors, also promotes values such as honor and integrity. Options A, B, and C describe negative aspects of machismo that support Derek's claim. 36) Evan Rathbone, a sociologist, claims that machismo among Latin American men is a ludicrous stereotype. Which of the following statements supports his claim? A) Many Latino men are the primary source of financial support for their families. B) Latino men have a deep respect for authority, tradition, and family. C) Many Latino men participate in domestic work and child rearing activities. D) Latino men strive to maintain close ties with their extended families. Answer: C Rationale: Option C supports Evan's claim by highlighting the reality that many Latino men actively participate in domestic work and child-rearing activities. This challenges the stereotype of machismo, which often portrays Latino men as uninvolved in household responsibilities. Options A, B, and D provide additional examples of positive attributes of Latino men but do not directly address the stereotype of machismo. 37) Agatha is a 52-year-old Catholic woman of Spanish descent. She has raised her daughters to be self-sacrificing and virtuous. Agatha herself was raised by a strict Catholic family and remained a virgin until marriage. Which of the following aspects of the feminine role has been exemplified in this scenario? A) familism B) dignidad C) marianismo D) machismo Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. Agatha's emphasis on self-sacrifice, virtue, and adherence to traditional Catholic values reflects the cultural concept of "marianismo" prevalent in Latin American societies. Marianismo idealizes women as selfless, nurturing, and morally upright, drawing parallels with the Virgin Mary's virtues. Options A, B, and D describe different cultural concepts unrelated to Agatha's behavior. 38) Which of the following factors strengthens the argument that marianismo is more of an ideal than a reality in Latino society? A) Girls are more likely to be monitored and supervised. B) There is growing acceptance of the traditional gender roles in Latino society. C) More Latino men participate in domestic work and child rearing activities now than ever before. D) There is a high incidence of nonmarital pregnancy among Latina adolescents. Answer: D Rationale: Option D strengthens the argument by pointing out a significant discrepancy between the idealized notion of marianismo and the reality of nonmarital pregnancies among Latina adolescents. This suggests that despite cultural ideals emphasizing female virtue and purity, the prevalence of nonmarital pregnancies indicates a gap between cultural expectations and behavior. Options A, B, and C do not directly address the discrepancy between marianismo as an ideal and its manifestation in reality. 39) Sam Wentsworth, a social advocate, claims that marianismo may be an ideal rather than a reality. Which of the following factors best serves as evidence to support Sam's claim? A) the high separation and divorce rates among Latin American couples B) the reduction in the number of out-of-wedlock births among Latinas C) the high nonmarital pregnancy rates of Latina adolescents D) the increase in the number of working Latin American women Answer: C Rationale: Option C best supports Sam's claim by highlighting the discrepancy between the idealized notion of marianismo, which emphasizes female virtue and chastity, and the reality of high nonmarital pregnancy rates among Latina adolescents. This indicates that despite cultural ideals, there is a significant divergence between behavior and expectations. Options A, B, and D describe different trends or phenomena unrelated to the idealization of marianismo. 40) Andrew, a sociologist, claims that acculturation among Latin American families poses many benefits. However, his colleague, Matt, argues that acculturation also brings its share of negative consequences. Examine the following choices and select the correct response. A) Andrew is right because during the acculturation process, first and later generations often acquire the necessary English language skills, competitive values, and education that increase the likelihood of moving up the economic ladder. B) Andrew is right because acculturation, particularly in low-income neighborhoods, may result in lowering the rates of delinquency and crime among Latino adolescents. C) Matt is wrong because there has been a reduction in the divorce rates among married couples in Latin American families who have acculturated to U.S. society. D) Matt is wrong because middle-class Latinos who have acculturated to U.S. society tend to be less permissive in raising their children, thereby instilling a sense of discipline among their youth. Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Andrew's claim is supported by the benefits often associated with acculturation, such as acquiring English language skills, competitive values, and education, which can improve economic opportunities for Latin American families. This aligns with the positive aspects of acculturation, contributing to upward social mobility. Options B, C, and D either do not directly address the benefits of acculturation or present incorrect statements about its consequences. 41) Like their white counterparts, middle-class Latinos who have acculturated to U. S. society tend to ________. A) be more permissive in raising their children B) use harsh punishments to control their children C) lack the motivation to care for their children D) teach their children to disrespect authority Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Middle-class Latinos who have acculturated to U.S. society tend to be more permissive in raising their children, similar to their white counterparts. This reflects a common trend observed in many acculturated families where parenting styles may become more permissive compared to traditional cultural norms. Options B, C, and D present incorrect statements or stereotypes about the behavior of middle-class acculturated Latinos. 42) Aria Gonzales and her husband have just emigrated to the U.S. from Mexico. At first, they were apprehensive about settling down in a new country since they're not very familiar with American culture. However, Aria's relatives and cousins who arrived in the U.S. earlier are helping them adjust to their new environment by providing them with both emotional and economic support. What aspect of Latin American tradition has been illustrated in this scenario? A) marianismo B) machismo C) dignidad D) familism Answer: D Rationale: Option D is correct. The scenario illustrates the cultural value of "familism" where family members provide emotional and economic support to newly arrived relatives, aiding in their adjustment to a new environment. Familism emphasizes the importance of family cohesion, mutual support, and solidarity, often observed in Latin American traditions. Options A, B, and C describe different cultural concepts unrelated to the family support depicted in the scenario. 43) David, a sociologist remarks that "familism" helps pull families together. However, his colleague, Mark, argues that the results of familism are not always positive. Which of the following statements supports Mark's argument? A) Familism tends to increase the likelihood of stressed parents treating their children in more negative ways. B) Familism tends to increase stress and depression among Latino adolescents who are expected to care for their teenage sisters' infants. C) Familism tends to increase parental conflict which, in turn, has a negative impact on the children’s' performance in school. D) Familism tends to have an oppressing effect on Latino adolescents, thereby making them more rebellious and self-centered. Answer: B Rationale: Option B supports Mark's argument by highlighting a negative consequence of familism, specifically the increased stress and depression among Latino adolescents who may be burdened with caregiving responsibilities for siblings' infants due to familial expectations. This suggests that while familism promotes family cohesion, it may also impose stressors on individuals, particularly adolescents. Options A, C, and D describe other potential negative outcomes of familism. 44) Antonio lives in California with his family. He is of Mexican descent and works for an automobile industry. His cousin, Marco, wants to move to the U.S. So, Antonio decides to sponsor him and promises to help him find accommodation and a job. Which of the following practices has been illustrated in this scenario? A) miscegenation B) acculturation C) assimilation D) chain migration Answer: D Rationale: Option D is correct. The scenario depicts chain migration, where an immigrant sponsors or assists a family member or relative to immigrate to the same country or area. Antonio's sponsorship and assistance to his cousin Marco reflect the practice of chain migration, commonly observed among immigrant communities. Options A, B, and C describe different processes or practices unrelated to Antonio's actions. 45) How do Latin Americans differ from White Americans with regard to their health and economic wellbeing? A) Latinos as a group have lower life expectancy rates than whites. B) Latino families are less likely than white families to financially aid their kin. C) Latino families are more likely than white families to support their parents. D) Latinos are more likely than whites to engage in binge drinking and to die from illicit drugs and prescription abuse. Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. Latino families are more likely than white families to support their parents, reflecting a cultural value of familism where family cohesion and support are prioritized. Options A, B, and D present incorrect statements or stereotypes about health and economic differences between Latin Americans and White Americans. 46) Vikram, a 45-year-old Asian Indian, lives with his family in Texas. With regard to the characteristics of an average Asian Indian family, which of the following choices most likely applies to Vikram’s family? A) Vikram's family has a lower median household income than the other minority groups in the neighborhood. B) Vikram and his wife tend to be more permissive in raising their children. C) Vikram and his wife sacrifice their personal needs in the interests of their children and expect filial piety in return. D) Vikram and his wife allow their children to make their own decisions and do not play a significant role in their lives. Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. Vikram's family most likely exemplifies the cultural value of sacrificing personal needs for the sake of their children and expecting filial piety in return, reflecting the concept of familism common in Asian Indian families. Options A, B, and D describe characteristics inconsistent with typical Asian Indian family values. 47) Dev, an Asian Indian, lives with his family in Virginia. He has raised his children to be focused and responsible. He lays great emphasis on the importance of education and expects both his children to excel in school and go on to college. Which of the following methods is Dev most likely to adopt to reinforce his children's obligations to the family, and would be most consistent with his cultural upbringing, if the children fail to meet his expectations? A) physical punishment B) isolation from the family C) guilt and shame D) family counselors Answer: C Rationale: Option C is correct. Dev, consistent with Asian Indian cultural values, is likely to use guilt and shame to reinforce his children's obligations to the family if they fail to meet his expectations. This approach aligns with the emphasis on familial duty and achievement common in Asian Indian families. Options A, B, and D describe methods inconsistent with typical Asian Indian parenting approaches. 48) How do Asian Americans differ from the other minority groups in the U.S.? A) Asian Americans are less likely than other racial-ethnic groups or whites to be concentrated in highly skilled occupations. B) Compared to other groups, Asian Americans have the lowest median household income. C) Asian American parents tend to exercise less control over their children’s lives than do non-Asian American parents. D) Compared to other groups, Asian Americans have the highest life expectancy rates. Answer: D Rationale: Option D is correct. Asian Americans, compared to other minority groups, have the highest life expectancy rates in the U.S., reflecting better overall health outcomes. This difference sets them apart from other minority groups. Options A, B, and C present incorrect statements or stereotypes about Asian Americans. 49) Abdul is a traditional Middle-Eastern American who lives with his family in Texas. Which of the following beliefs is Abdul most likely to believe in himself? A) Boys and girls are both expected to perform domestic chores. B) Girls are expected to scold their brothers if they misbehave. C) Boys are expected to date only within their community. D) Girls are expected to serve the men in the family. Answer: D Rationale: Option D is correct. Abdul, as a traditional Middle-Eastern American, is most likely to believe in the belief that girls are expected to serve the men in the family, reflecting patriarchal gender norms common in some Middle Eastern cultures. Options A, B, and C describe beliefs inconsistent with traditional Middle Eastern cultural norms. 50) Abda is a 24-year-old Middle-Eastern American woman who lives with her husband in Arkansas. Abda's parents had wanted to arrange their daughter's marriage to a boy from their own community. However, Abda fell in love with and married an American of German descent. Abda's marriage reflects ________. A) exogamy B) polygamy C) endogamy D) hypogamy Answer: A Rationale: Option A is correct. Abda's marriage to someone outside of her own community reflects exogamy, the practice of marrying outside of one's social or cultural group. This contrasts with endogamy, which involves marrying within one's own group. Options B, C, and D describe different marital practices unrelated to Abda's situation. 51) What are some benefits of immigration? Answer: Immigrants work for low wages in low level service jobs that native-born workers don't want. Many small towns would disappear without the influx of immigrant workers. Undocumented immigrants are also more likely than U.S.-born people to work in dangerous jobs (such as mining, logging, and construction) that have high fatality rates due to accidents. There is also a large and growing number of highly skilled immigrants from Asia who attend college or are in America's high-tech Work force. Immigrants constitute an important labor force for an aging America that will require many workers to support Social Security and Medicare payments for the elderly. 52) Why do social scientists argue that we do not live in a color-blind society? In other words, what are some benefits associated with white skin color? Answer: White people are rarely conscious of the advantages and disadvantages associated with skin colour because they enjoy a variety of everyday benefits that they take for granted. Some of the advantages enjoyed by white people include: 1) shopping alone without harassment, 2) skin colour widely represented on television and the news, 3) curricular materials that reflect race, 4) viewed as financially reliable, 5) not singled outby the police because of race, 6) being late to a meeting does not reflect on race, 7) can easily buy greeting cards, toys, etc. that reflect race, 8) are never called a "credit to their race." 53) What is the difference between prejudice and discrimination? Answer: Prejudice is an attitude that prejudges people usually in a negative way. It may lead to discrimination. Discrimination, on the other hand, refers to behavior that treats people unequally or unfairly. 54) Discuss the strengths of African American families. Answer: African American families have strong kinship bonds, an ability to adapt family roles to outside pressures, a strong work ethic despite recessions and unemployment, determination to succeed in education, and an unwavering spirituality that helps them cope with adversity. Numerous self-help institutions such as churches and extended family networks enhance the resilience of black families. Despite economic adversity, parents love their children, provide them with a strong religious foundation and teach them to be proud of their heritage and to contribute to their communities. Cooperation in the family is also stressed. 55) Discuss the strengths of American Indian families. Answer: The strengths of American Indian families include "relational bonding," a core behavior that is built on widely shared values such as respect, generosity, and sharing across the tribe, band, clan, and kin group. Individuals are taught to put the community and family needs before their own achievements. Another strength is a spirituality that sustains the family's identity and place in the world. Tribe members work together to develop selfsufficient industries. 56) What are the strengths of the Latino American family system? Answer: Despite their economic vulnerability and considerable discrimination, many Latino families are resilient and adaptive. A relatively large percentage of Latinos believe that most people can get ahead if they work hard. They also believe that religion is very important in their lives. Compared with black and white families, Latinos are much less likely to get large monetary gifts or inheritances. In fact, Latino families are more likely to give than to receive financial support. For example, they’re five times as likely as white families to support their parents, and many immigrants send large amounts of income to family members and relatives in their home country. 57) Discuss gender roles within Asian American families. Answer: Gender roles tend to be traditional in many Asian American families, but vary by social class, country of origin, and length of residence in the United States. For example, both Korean and Vietnamese immigrant women have almost always worked outside the home, but those in later generations have created a more gender-balanced family environment, such as men’s greater participation in housework, instead of following traditional gender roles where all housework is the woman’s responsibility. Because Filipino culture historically has had a less patriarchal gender role structure than other groups, husbands and wives tend to have egalitarian relationships. 58) Write a note on the health and economic well-being of Asian Americans. Answer: Asian Americans seem to be healthier than other racial-ethnic groups and whites. They are more likely than blacks or Latinos to have health insurance. They also have the highest life expectancy rates— 81 years for males and 87 years for females. Longer life spans may be due to a number of interrelated factors. For example, this group has the lowest (or one of the lowest) rates of obesity, heart disease and stroke deaths, vehiclerelated deaths, suicides and homicides, drug-induced deaths, and deaths due to AIDS. A major reason for many Asian Americans’ better health is their high SES. They have the highest median household income. They also have the highest education levels. Almost 21 percent, compared with 11 percent of the general population, have a graduate or professional degree. Because of their high education levels, Asian Americans are more likely than other racial-ethnic groups or whites to be concentrated in highly skilled occupations and high-paying occupations such as information technology, science, engineering, and medicine. The most successful are Asian Indians: 70 percent have at least a college degree, and they have the highest annual median household income. 59) Why have many Asian American families become successful? Answer: One, many Asian immigrants are the "cream of the crop," or professionals with advanced degrees. Two, the mixture of Confucian and Buddhist values and traditions resembles the traditional middle-class prerequisites for success in America: hard work, education, achievement, self-reliance, sacrifice, stead fast purpose, and long-term goals. At the same time, an emphasis on interdependence has enabled immigrants to succeed through cooperating and pooling resources. Three, they usually work harder than their non-Asian counterparts. 60) List four reasons why racial-ethnic intermarriage has increased. Answer: One, we have greater opportunity for contact through housing, school, and work. Two, people marry outside their racial-ethnic group when there is a shortage of spouses in their own group. Three, the racial-ethnic groups that are most acculturated to U.S. society are also most likely to intermarry. Four, it is observed that the higher one's social class, the greater the likelihood of intermarriage and college educated people, especially young adults, are more likely than those with lower educational levels to see intermarriage in a positive light. Test Bank for Marriages and Families Nijole V Benokraitis 9780205957224, 9780134736150

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