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Chapter 9: Identity
Multiple Choice Questions
1) According to _____, the I and the Me are contrasting sides that make up the self.
A) Erik Erikson
B) William James
C) Jean Piaget
D) G. Stanley Hall
Answer: B
William James, an American psychologist, philosopher, and physician, proposed the theory of
the "I" and the "Me" as contrasting aspects of the self in his work "Principles of Psychology."
2) William James referred to the process that enables people to think, feel, and know about
themselves as the
A) ego.
B) Me.
C) I.
D) identity.
Answer: C
William James used the term "I" to refer to the self as the knower, thinker, or agent of action,
highlighting the active, experiencing aspect of the self.
3) One change in the self-concept that takes place during adolescence is that
A) teens move away from psychological thinking.
B) self-descriptions become more complicated.
C) teens use more concrete self-descriptions.

D) All of the above.
Answer: B
During adolescence, self-descriptions become more complex as individuals consider their
beliefs, values, and personal qualities in greater depth.
4) Which of the following self-descriptions is most likely to have been made by an
A) "I love sports!"
B) "I'm the shortest kid in my class."
C) "I get good grades in English so I really like it."
D) "I'm pretty outgoing with my friends, but I come on shy around grown-ups."
Answer: D
Adolescents are more likely to provide nuanced self-descriptions that reflect their awareness
of different aspects of their personality and behavior, such as the example provided in option
5) Those in _____ adolescence are most likely to notice discrepancies in their selfdescriptions and to be disturbed by these inconsistencies.
A) early
B) middle
C) late
D) All of the above.
Answer: B

Middle adolescence is a period marked by increased self-awareness and introspection,
leading individuals to notice inconsistencies in their self-descriptions and feel disturbed by
6) Compared to children, adolescents who describe themselves tend to use concepts that are
A) complex.
B) abstract.
C) integrated.
D) All of the above.
Answer: D
Adolescents' self-descriptions tend to be more complex, abstract, and integrated compared to
those of children, reflecting their cognitive and emotional development.
7) Charles Horton Cooley's term, the _____, refers to the idea that we learn who we are by
seeing how others react to us.
A) looking-glass self
B) social ego
C) referenced self
D) generalized other
Answer: A
Cooley's concept of the looking-glass self suggests that our self-concept is shaped by how we
believe others perceive us, highlighting the role of social interactions in self-development.
8) The stable positive or negative feelings that people have about themselves are known as
_____ self-esteem.
A) referential

B) barometric
C) predictive
D) baseline
Answer: D
Baseline self-esteem refers to the enduring, stable feelings of self-worth that individuals hold
about themselves over time.
9) "I felt so good about myself when my friend told me how helpful I was. It would be great
if I could feel that good all the time." This comment best reflects _____ self-esteem.
A) lack of
B) barometric
C) unstable
D) baseline
Answer: B
The statement suggests that the individual's self-esteem fluctuates based on external
feedback, indicating barometric self-esteem.
10) During early adolescence, baseline self-esteem
A) becomes more positive.
B) drops sharply.
C) stays at similar levels for boys and girls.
D) remains similar to levels in late childhood.
Answer: B

Research suggests that baseline self-esteem tends to drop sharply during early adolescence,
possibly due to the challenges and changes associated with this developmental period.
11) For adolescents, the most important single contributor to self-esteem is
A) having lots of friends.
B) getting good grades in school.
C) success in sports.
D) being physically attractive.
Answer: D
Research suggests that during adolescence, physical appearance plays a significant role in
shaping self-esteem, as adolescents often place high value on being physically attractive.
12) During the second stage of ________, typically in middle adolescence, teens embark on a
process of active exploration.
A) developing an ethno-cultural identity
B) achieved ethno-cultural identity
C) foreclosure
D) baseline self-esteem
Answer: A
The second stage of developing an ethno-cultural identity, according to Phinney's model,
involves active exploration of one's cultural background and identity, typically occurring in
middle adolescence.
13) Programs designed to raise the self-esteem of adolescents have
A) led to higher school achievement.
B) led to fewer problem behaviors.
C) led to better personal relationships.

D) None of the above.
Answer: D
Research suggests that programs designed to raise self-esteem in adolescents have not
consistently led to improvements in school achievement, reduced problem behaviors, or
better personal relationships.
14) According to Erikson, the most pressing psychosocial issue during adolescence is
A) preparing for adult employment.
B) being popular with other teens.
C) achieving a sense of identity.
D) finding the right romantic partner.
Answer: C
Erikson believed that the primary psychosocial issue during adolescence is the formation of a
coherent sense of identity, which involves exploring and defining one's values, beliefs, and
15) When Luka tells his parents he wants to be a rock musician, they offer to help him pay
for guitar lessons as long as he keeps his grades up. Erikson would say that their response is
an example of
A) permissive parenting.
B) a psychosocial moratorium.
C) identity foreclosure.
D) positive working models.
Answer: B

Erikson's concept of a psychosocial moratorium refers to a period during which individuals
are free from excessive obligations and can explore different roles and identities, as seen in
Luka's situation.
16) "I'm taking biology because my mom's a doctor and always intended for me to go into
medicine too." This statement is an example of what Erikson calls
A) intellectualization.
B) psychosocial moratorium.
C) identity diffusion.
D) identity foreclosure.
Answer: D
This statement reflects identity foreclosure, where an individual adopts an identity without
exploration, often based on the expectations or values of others.
17) Ariel's father is an attorney and his mother is a municipal judge. At 17, Ariel pierces his
tongue, gets a bright orange Mohawk haircut, and shows up shirtless at his parents' reception
for a prominent city official. Erikson would probably describe Ariel's behavior as indicating
A) a psychological disorder.
B) a psychosocial moratorium.
C) a negative identity.
D) role confusion.
Answer: C
Erikson would likely interpret Ariel's behavior as a manifestation of a negative identity,
where individuals adopt roles or behaviors that oppose societal expectations or their parents'
18) According to James Marcia, identity development involves the processes of _____ and

A) crisis; conflict
B) assimilation; accommodation
C) rewards; punishments
D) exploration; commitment
Answer: D
James Marcia's identity status model suggests that identity development involves the
processes of exploration (crisis) and commitment, where individuals explore different options
before making commitments to specific roles, beliefs, or values.
19) Marcia would say that teens who are exploring their beliefs and values but have not made
a commitment to them are in the _____ identity status.
A) diffusion
B) foreclosure
C) moratorium
D) achievement
Answer: C
In Marcia's model, individuals in the moratorium identity status are actively exploring
different identities and beliefs but have not yet made firm commitments to them.
20) Those who are in the _____ category of identity status are more likely to be apathetic,
depressed, and uninterested.
A) diffusion
B) foreclosure
C) moratorium
D) achievement
Answer: A

Individuals in the diffusion category of identity status are characterized by a lack of
exploration and commitment, which can lead to feelings of apathy, depression, and disinterest
in life's opportunities and challenges.
21) Lee hopes to go to a college known as a "party school," but has no idea what he might
want to major in. He says he'll figure that out when he has to. James Marcia would say that
Lee is in the ____ identity status.
A) moratorium
B) diffusion
C) foreclosure
D) achievement
Answer: B
Lee's attitude of postponing major life decisions and being unsure about his future direction
aligns with the diffusion status. He has not committed to exploring options or making
decisions about his identity.
22) Anastasia has taken a summer internship in a public relations firm because she thinks she
might enjoy that kind of work and wants to explore it further before choosing a major. In
Marcia's terms, Anastasia is in the _____ identity status.
A) foreclosure
B) diffusion
C) moratorium
D) achievement
Answer: C

Anastasia's proactive approach to gaining experience and exploring potential career paths
indicates that she is in the moratorium status. She is actively seeking out information and
experiences to help shape her identity.
23) Anatoly's parents are activists in a political party. When Anatoly turns 18 and registers to
vote, he enrolls in the same party, though he is not sure if he agrees with that party's stand on
issues. In Marcia's terms, Anatoly's identity status is
A) identity diffusion.
B) identity moratorium.
C) identity achievement.
D) identity foreclosure.
Answer: D
Anatoly's decision to enroll in the same political party as his parents without fully exploring
his own beliefs or options indicates that he is in the foreclosure status. He has made a
commitment without exploring alternatives.
24) When a cousin asks Gregoire what he wants to do with his life, he replies, "I'll think
about that some other time. Rock on, dude!" According to Marcia, Gregoire is in the _____
identity status.
A) foreclosure
B) diffusion
C) moratorium
D) achievement
Answer: B
Gregoire's dismissive response and lack of interest in thinking about his future align with the
diffusion status. He is avoiding making decisions or commitments about his identity.

25) Oksana spent a lot of time discussing an upcoming election with friends and studying the
websites of different candidates and political bloggers. Now she has decided to spend the
summer working as a volunteer for the candidate she thinks is best, who is not her parents'
choice. Oksana's actions fit Marcia's description of _____ identity status.
A) foreclosure
B) achievement
C) moratorium
D) diffusion
Answer: B
Oksana's active engagement in exploring political views and volunteering for a candidate she
believes in indicates that she is in the achievement status. She has made a commitment based
on exploration and consideration of options.
26) According to Michael Berzonsky's description of identity styles, teens with a low
tolerance for ambiguity and a high need for structure are likely to use a _____ processing
A) normative
B) foreclosed
C) informational
D) diffuse-avoidant
Answer: A
Berzonsky suggests that individuals with a normative processing style prefer clear,
straightforward answers and tend to avoid ambiguous or complex situations. This aligns with
the characteristics described for teens in this question.
27) In Berzonsky's view, those in the _____ identity status are likely to seek out self-relevant
information and look skeptically at their own views.

A) moratorium
B) diffusion
C) achievement
D) Both A and C.
Answer: D
Both the moratorium and achievement statuses involve actively seeking out information and
considering different perspectives. Individuals in these statuses are more likely to critically
evaluate their own views and seek self-relevant information to shape their identity.
28) Recent research indicates that the identity status typical of most high school students is
A) achievement.
B) foreclosure.
C) diffusion.
D) B or C.
Answer: D
Research suggests that the majority of high school students are in either the diffusion or
foreclosure status, indicating that they have not fully explored or committed to their
29) Miguel is quiet and polite around his immigrant elders, but brash and funny with his
Anglo friends at school. His behavior is an example of
A) assimilation.
B) code switching.
C) marginalization.
D) accommodation.
Answer: B

Miguel's ability to adjust his behavior and communication style depending on the cultural
context is an example of code switching. He is adapting to different cultural norms and
expectations in each setting.
30) Teens are more likely to develop a solid ethnic identity when
A) they live in neighborhoods that are ethnically diverse.
B) they explore the history and customs of their ethnic culture.
C) their families take part in ethnic celebrations and serve ethnic meals.
D) All of the above.
Answer: D
Research suggests that exposure to diverse environments, exploration of cultural heritage,
and participation in cultural traditions can all contribute to the development of a strong ethnic
identity in teens.
31) Which of the following statements is the best example of heteronomous morality?
A) "He made a mess, but it wasn't wrong because he was trying to help."
B) "It doesn't matter what he meant to do, wrong is wrong."
C) "If you want to play the game with different rules, that's okay."
D) "Sometimes people do something bad and get away with it."
Answer: B
Heteronomous morality, according to Piaget, is characterized by a strict adherence to rules,
where actions are judged based on their outcomes rather than intentions. In this case,
statement B disregards the intention behind the action and focuses solely on the action itself,
reflecting a heteronomous moral perspective.
32) "Yeah, he knocked over the lamp, but he didn't mean to, so it wasn't that bad." This
statement represents what Piaget called

A) autonomous morality.
B) preoperational thought.
C) heteronomous morality.
D) moral realism.
Answer: A
Piaget described autonomous morality as the stage where individuals consider intentions, not
just outcomes, in their moral judgments. This statement reflects autonomous morality
because it takes into account the lack of intention behind the action, suggesting that intention
matters in evaluating the action's moral weight.
33) The term immanent justice refers to the belief that
A) judges should be prominent figures in a community.
B) it is only fair to take a person's intentions into account when judging what they do.
C) wrongdoing automatically leads to punishment.
D) illegal acts should be sanctioned as quickly as possible.
Answer: C
Immanent justice is the belief that punishment for wrongdoing is automatic and inherent to
the act itself, without external enforcement. It reflects a view that moral transgressions will be
naturally and inevitably followed by some form of punishment, regardless of human
34) "Of course what she did was wrong. She got sent to jail, didn't she?" This statement most
closely fits what Kohlberg called
A) preconventional morality.
B) conventional morality.
C) postconventional morality.

D) preoperational morality.
Answer: A
Kohlberg's preconventional level of moral reasoning is characterized by a focus on avoiding
punishment and seeking rewards. This statement implies that the person believes an action is
wrong solely because it leads to punishment, indicating a preconventional moral perspective.
35) Research indicates that the most common of Kohlberg's stages among adolescents is the
_____ orientation.
A) punishment
B) social contract
C) "Good boy/Good girl"
D) naive hedonism
Answer: C
Kohlberg identified the "Good boy/Good girl" orientation as the most common stage among
adolescents. At this stage, individuals seek approval from others by conforming to social
norms and expectations.
36) In Kohlberg's view, people move from one stage of moral development to the next
A) others confront them with arguments that are more morally adequate than their own.
B) they receive systematic instruction in moral rules and beliefs.
C) they want to fit in with peers who are more morally mature.
D) being at a lower moral stage arouses feelings of guilt.
Answer: A

According to Kohlberg, moral development occurs through exposure to moral arguments that
challenge one's existing beliefs and understanding. This process, known as moral education,
involves encountering viewpoints that are more morally sophisticated, leading individuals to
progress to higher stages of moral reasoning.
37) Carol Gilligan maintains that girls are more likely than boys to make moral judgments
based on a _____ orientation.
A) justice
B) social order
C) care
D) social equality
Answer: C
Gilligan argues that girls tend to prioritize care and relationships in their moral reasoning,
focusing on the needs and well-being of others. This care orientation contrasts with the
justice orientation, which is often emphasized in traditional moral theories.
38) Research aimed at testing Gilligan's ideas about moral judgment has found that
A) boys and girls are roughly equal in the importance they give to intimacy versus
B) boys are more likely to think that someone who commits a crime should be punished,
whatever the circumstances.
C) girls are more swayed by irrelevant sentimentality.
D) girls are more caring and boys are more objective in their judgments.
Answer: A
Studies examining gender differences in moral judgment have found that boys and girls show
similar importance in considering intimacy and obligations in their moral reasoning. This

finding challenges the notion that girls are significantly more inclined towards a care
orientation compared to boys.
39) Critics have charged that Kohlberg's approach to moral development
A) suffers from Eurocentric cultural bias.
B) underestimates the moral judgment ability of females.
C) studies what people think is right, but not whether they act according to their beliefs.
D) All of the above.
Answer: D
Critics argue that Kohlberg's theory has several limitations, including a potential bias towards
Western cultural values, an alleged underestimation of females' moral reasoning abilities, and
a focus on moral reasoning rather than actual moral behavior.
40) Sanjay says that Heinz should definitely steal the drug to save his wife. This clearly
indicates that Sanjay
A) is in Kohlberg's preconventional level of moral judgment.
B) is in Kohlberg's conventional level of moral judgment.
C) is from a culture that is collectivist rather than individualist.
D) None of the above.
Answer: D
Sanjay's statement suggests a moral judgment based on a higher moral principle (saving a
life) rather than merely seeking to avoid punishment or conform to societal expectations. This
aligns more with Kohlberg's postconventional level of moral judgment, where individuals
develop their moral principles beyond societal norms.
41) Freud maintained that the superego forms when the child
A) can use concrete operations to think about moral issues.

B) internalizes the parents' moral code as part of dealing with the Oedipus complex.
C) is rewarded for doing what is morally correct.
D) is punished for morally wrong actions.
Answer: B
According to Freud, the superego develops as a result of the resolution of the Oedipus
complex, during which the child internalizes the moral standards and values of the parents.
This internalization forms the basis of the superego, which operates as a moral conscience.
42) For Freud, the most important factor in promoting moral behavior is the need to
A) gain the approval of peers.
B) keep the affections of parents.
C) avoid internal feelings of guilt.
D) avoid criticism from others.
Answer: C
Freud believed that moral behavior is primarily driven by the need to avoid feelings of guilt
that arise from the conflict between the id's impulses and the superego's moral demands.
Thus, the avoidance of internal guilt is seen as the most significant factor in promoting moral
43) Recent research has discovered the existence of "mirror-neurons" that may provide a
neurological basis for the feeling of
A) personal attractiveness.
B) empathy.
C) obligation to others.
D) ethnic identity.
Answer: B

Mirror neurons are believed to be involved in the understanding of others' actions and
intentions, as well as in the experience of empathy. They allow individuals to simulate the
emotional experiences of others, contributing to the development of empathy.
44) Martin Hoffman has suggested that the origin of moral development is in
A) observing others who act morally.
B) discussions with peers of moral issues.
C) the capacity to feel empathy.
D) strict parental discipline.
Answer: C
Hoffman proposed that empathy plays a central role in moral development, serving as the
foundation for moral reasoning and behavior. The capacity to feel empathy allows individuals
to understand and respond to the needs and feelings of others, forming the basis of moral
45) The earliest signs of a sense of empathy with the distress of others occur when
A) babies become upset by the sound of another baby crying.
B) toddlers offer a toy to an upset playmate.
C) schoolchildren give money to charity.
D) adolescents volunteer for community service projects.
Answer: A
The ability to empathize with others begins to develop in infancy, as evidenced by babies
becoming upset in response to the distress of others, such as hearing another baby cry. This
early form of empathy sets the foundation for more complex forms of empathy later in

46) Children are most likely to accept and internalize their parents' moral values when their
parents take a(n) _____ approach to parenting.
A) authoritarian
B) authoritative
C) permissive
D) nonjudgmental
Answer: B
According to research, children are most likely to internalize their parents' moral values when
their parents take an authoritative approach to parenting. Authoritative parents are warm and
responsive but also set clear and consistent limits, which helps children understand and
internalize moral standards.
47) The disciplinary technique of _____ is most closely associated with children's moral
A) permissiveness
B) power assertion
C) induction
D) love withdrawal
Answer: C
Induction is a disciplinary technique that involves explaining the consequences of a child's
actions on others and encouraging empathy and understanding. This approach is associated
with children's moral maturity because it promotes empathy and perspective-taking, which
are important aspects of moral development.
48) The disciplinary technique of induction helps promote more mature moral thinking

A) asking the child to imagine the other person's feelings encourages sympathy and
perspective taking.
B) fear of punishment leads the child to follow rules more closely.
C) the child comes to realize that immature moral thinking will lead to loss of the parent's
approval or love.
D) the internal feelings of guilt it creates motivate the child to behave better.
Answer: A
Induction encourages children to consider the feelings and perspectives of others, fostering
empathy and perspective-taking. By asking the child to imagine how their actions affect
others, induction helps promote more mature moral thinking by emphasizing the impact of
one's behavior on others.
49) A person whom others consider to be outstanding in moral commitment and character is
referred to as a moral
A) paragon.
B) apogee.
C) exemplar.
D) archetype.
Answer: C
An exemplar is a person who is considered to be an outstanding example of moral
commitment and character. They serve as a model for others to emulate in their moral
behavior and values.
50) "Trying to live up to my moral beliefs is very important to the way I think of myself."
This statement suggests someone with a strong
A) sense of guilt.
B) fear of punishment for misdeeds.

C) tolerance for ambiguity.
D) moral identity.
Answer: D
The statement reflects a strong sense of moral identity, indicating that the individual's selfconcept is closely tied to their moral beliefs and values. This suggests that the person places a
high importance on living in accordance with their moral principles.
Essay Questions
1) Describe the ways the self-concept changes from childhood to adolescence and discuss the
reasons for these changes.
Answer: With adolescence, the self-concept becomes more differentiated, more abstract, and
more integrated. The abstract reasoning powers of adolescence make it easier to imagine
possible selves that play a role in planning, setting priorities, and self-regulation. The selfconcept develops as children and adolescents think about themselves, but also as a lookingglass self based on noticing the ways others respond to them, leading to a sense of the
generalized other.
2) Why is it important to distinguish between baseline self-esteem and barometric selfesteem? How does each respond to adolescence?
Answer: Baseline self-esteem is reasonably stable over time, while barometric self-esteem
goes up and down in response to particular incidents and experiences. During early and
middle adolescence, baseline self-esteem drops sharply, and then levels off in late
adolescence and rises slightly in early adulthood.
3) Discuss Erikson's description of the psychosocial crisis of adolescence and the possible
Answer: Erikson proposed that adolescence sets off the identity crisis, in which childhood
identifications with the goals, beliefs, and attitudes of parents may be brought into question.
Many teens benefit from a psychosocial moratorium, in which they have greater freedom to
explore their talents and interests and try out different, even unconventional, roles.
Exploration typically results in choice, followed by commitment and consolidation. Some

teens take over a rigid definition of identity and roles prescribed for them by parents and
community, in a process called foreclosure. Some who find it hard to face the process of
identity exploration and construction fall into a state of identity diffusion and waste their
energies in meaningless activities. Teens who feel that their social world ignores them may
adopt a negative identity that forces others to acknowledge them.
4) What is ethnic identity and why is it important?
Answer: Ethnic identity is an important part of an adolescent's sense of identity as a whole,
especially for those who belong to a non-dominant ethnic minority. Like identity
development generally, the development of ethnic identity involves active exploration,
choice, commitment, and consolidation. A well-developed sense of ethnic identity has been
linked to less depression, a greater ability to shrug off stressful events, and a stronger sense of
well being. Teens who are members of an ethnic minority are usually exposed to two cultures,
that of their ethnic group and that of the wider society. Their response to this may be
biculturalism, assimilation, separation, or marginalization. Bicultural adolescents may
combine features of both cultures in their attitudes and behaviours (blended biculturals) or
move between aspects of the two cultures (alternating biculturals).
5) Discuss the ways parents affect the moral development of children and adolescents.
Answer: Parents affect the moral development of their children both as models of mature
adult behaviour and through the disciplinary techniques they use. In induction, parents
explain the effects of an action and how it has affected others, and then suggest ways to repair
any damage. In power assertion, parents use their dominant position to control what the child
does, through the threat of punishment or loss of privileges. In love withdrawal, parents
threaten the child with a loss of affection or approval. Authoritative parents are more likely to
use induction, which is linked to more mature moral thinking and behaviour, while
authoritarian parents are more likely to rely on power assertion.

Test Bank for Adolescence
Ian McMahan, Susan Thompson
9780205990559, 9780133957341, 9780205482320, 9780205843718

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