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Chapter 8: Gender
Multiple Choice Questions
1) Professor Mushinski does research on the rate at which caffeine affects adolescent boys
and girls. This would best be described as a question of
A) gender roles.
B) sex differences.
C) gender differences.
D) gender typing.
Answer: B
This question is about the biological differences between males and females, specifically how
caffeine affects them differently. This falls under the category of sex differences, as it pertains
to the physiological and genetic distinctions between males and females.
2) Doctor Kawasaki is interested in the ways adolescent girls and boys use networking sites
on the Internet. This would best be described as a question of
A) sex differences.
B) sex-linked characteristics.
C) gender differences.
D) neurobiology.
Answer: C
Doctor Kawasaki's research is focused on the differences in behavior and usage patterns
between adolescent girls and boys on networking sites. This is more aligned with gender
differences, which encompass the social, cultural, and psychological distinctions between
males and females.
3) The expectations within a society about how males and females are supposed to be are
known as

A) gender roles.
B) sex differences.
C) culture specificity.
D) social influence.
Answer: A
Gender roles refer to the societal expectations and norms regarding the behaviors, attitudes,
and activities that are considered appropriate for males and females. This includes
expectations related to work, family, and social interactions.
4) Scholars maintain that the most important factor in gender typing is
A) biology.
B) socialization.
C) cognition.
D) All of the above.
Answer: D
Gender typing is influenced by a combination of biological, social, and cognitive factors.
While biology (such as prenatal hormone exposure) plays a role, socialization (learning from
one's environment) and cognition (how one thinks about gender) are also significant factors.
5) During prenatal development, the hormone testosterone
A) is present in male, but not female fetuses.
B) is equally high in all males and equally low in all females.
C) has an impact on the appearance of the external genitals in both sexes.
D) is produced only in the testes of the male fetus.
Answer: C

Testosterone plays a crucial role in the development of external genitals in both male and
female fetuses. While it is more commonly associated with male development, it also
influences the development of female genitalia to some extent.
6) A genetic disorder known as _____ leads to an overproduction of androgens in the
developing fetus.
A) hyperandrism
B) congenital adrenal hyperplasia
C) prenatal testosterone
D) automasculinization
Answer: B
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a genetic disorder that results in the overproduction
of androgens (male hormones) in the developing fetus. This can lead to atypical sexual
development, particularly in female fetuses.
7) Girls who were exposed to high levels of prenatal testosterone
A) tend to prefer playing with boys' toys.
B) play more with boys.
C) are sometimes born with ambiguous genitals.
D) All of the above.
Answer: D
Research suggests that girls exposed to high levels of prenatal testosterone may exhibit
behaviors typically associated with males, such as preferring boys' toys and engaging in more
rough-and-tumble play. In some cases, this exposure can also lead to ambiguous genitalia at
8) In Bandura's view, a central element in gender typing is

A) the child's belief that he or she has the resources needed for gender-typical activities.
B) the parents' awareness that the child was affected by prenatal hormones.
C) the child's ability to solve concrete operational problems.
D) the parents' commitment to avoid sex discrimination in child rearing.
Answer: A
According to Bandura's social cognitive theory, one central element in gender typing is the
child's belief in their ability to perform gender-typical activities. This belief, known as selfefficacy, plays a crucial role in the development of gender identity and behavior.
9) On Kristina's first day of nursery school, she hovers near the door, unsure what to do. The
teacher's aide leads her to the kitchen corner and suggests she have a tea party with another
girl and two dolls. This is best seen as an example of
A) cognitive dissonance.
B) gender socialization.
C) hormone-environment interaction.
D) gender consistency.
Answer: B
This scenario illustrates how Kristina is being socialized into gender roles through the
teacher's suggestion for her to engage in a stereotypically feminine activity (having a tea
party). Gender socialization refers to the process by which individuals learn and internalize
gender roles and expectations.
10) When Jared, who is 10, wears a skirt and wig for the school play, he has to explain to his
4-year-old sister that he is still a boy. Jared and his sister differ in their understanding of
A) gender roles.
B) gender consistency.
C) gender differences.

D) gender typing.
Answer: B
Jared's need to explain his gender identity to his sister highlights a difference in their
understanding of gender consistency, which refers to the understanding that one's gender
remains the same over time despite changes in appearance or behavior. His sister may not yet
have developed a full understanding of this concept.
11) "Once children understand that their gender is a permanent aspect of the self, they begin
to identify with their gender role." This statement is closest to the view of
A) Albert Bandura.
B) G. Stanley Hall.
C) Sigmund Freud.
D) Lawrence Kohlberg.
Answer: D
Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of gender development posits that children's understanding of
gender as a stable, permanent aspect of themselves is a key factor in their identification with
gender roles. This understanding typically emerges in the later stages of Kohlberg's cognitive
development theory.
12) The term _____ refers to the structured knowledge that children acquire about the
characteristics and typical activities of males or females.
A) gender schema
B) gender consistency
C) gender identity
D) socialization
Answer: A

Gender schema refers to the cognitive framework that organizes information about gender,
including gender roles and expectations. Children develop gender schemas based on their
observations and experiences with gender-related information.
13) When a new and unusual toy is introduced in Sarah's nursery school class, two boys are
the first to start playing with it. Later Sarah turns down a chance to play with it because
"that's a boy toy." Her refusal reflects her
A) shyness with boys.
B) gender schemas.
C) gender consistency.
D) preoperational thinking.
Answer: B
Sarah's refusal to play with the toy because she perceives it as a "boy toy" demonstrates the
influence of her gender schemas, which are shaping her understanding of appropriate genderrelated behaviors and preferences.
14) At summer camp, the first time Aaron found himself on the list for dishwashing, he
protested that guys don't wash dishes, that's for girls. This reflected his particular
A) gender schemas.
B) hormonal imbalance.
C) dislike for housework.
D) talent for avoiding chores.
Answer: A
Aaron's protest reflects his adherence to gender schemas, which dictate that certain tasks, like
washing dishes, are more appropriate for one gender over another. This demonstrates how
gender schemas influence behavior and attitudes.
15) According to gender schema theorists, a child's sense of gender identity emerges

A) gradually, beginning in the preschool years.
B) once the child is able to solve conservation problems.
C) with the hormonal changes of puberty.
D) as a result of discrimination by those of the other gender.
Answer: A
Gender schema theorists suggest that children's sense of gender identity emerges gradually,
starting in the preschool years, as they acquire and internalize gender-related information and
16) A developmental systems account would point to _____ as important contributor(s) to
gender development.
A) biological characteristics
B) parents and peers
C) cultural beliefs
D) All of the above.
Answer: D
A developmental systems account considers gender development to be influenced by a
combination of biological, social, and cultural factors. Therefore, all of the above (biological
characteristics, parents and peers, cultural beliefs) are seen as important contributors to
gender development.
17) According to _____, parents and others react to the changes of puberty by pushing for
more gender-typical attitudes and behaviours.
A) the gender intensification hypothesis
B) gender diversity theory
C) biopsychological research

D) self-efficacy approaches
Answer: A
The gender intensification hypothesis suggests that during adolescence, individuals
experience increased pressure to conform to traditional gender roles and behaviors, which can
be reinforced by parents and other authority figures.
18) At 11, Vanessa's favorite activities are dirt-biking and rock-climbing. Her mother's
repeated and pressing offers to take her shopping for a party dress and to sign her up for
dance lessons can be seen as an example of
A) gender intensification.
B) passive gene-environment interaction.
C) informational social influence.
D) maternal deprivation.
Answer: A
Vanessa's mother's behavior reflects gender intensification, where there is increased pressure
for individuals to conform to traditional gender norms and roles, despite Vanessa's preference
for activities typically associated with boys.
19) The proportion of children who are put in remedial programs and become underachievers
A) is equally low for girls and boys.
B) is higher for girls than for boys.
C) is higher for boys than for girls.
D) is equally high for boys and girls.
Answer: C

Research suggests that boys are more likely than girls to be placed in remedial programs and
to become underachievers in school. This gender difference may be influenced by various
factors, including differences in learning styles and educational expectations.
20) One well-documented cognitive difference between adolescent boys and girls is that on
the whole
A) girls are more sociable.
B) boys are more logical.
C) boys perform better on tests of spatial abilities.
D) All of the above.
Answer: C
Research indicates that, on average, boys tend to outperform girls on tests of spatial abilities.
This cognitive difference is one of several that have been identified between boys and girls,
though individual differences within each gender are also significant.
21) Construction toys such as Lego blocks and Tinkertoys
A) are stereotyped as toys for boys.
B) are played with more often by boys than girls.
C) improve spatial abilities in both boys and girls.
D) All of the above.
Answer: D
Construction toys have been traditionally marketed and stereotyped as toys for boys, leading
to higher participation rates among boys. However, research suggests that these toys can
benefit both boys and girls by improving their spatial abilities and fostering creativity and
problem-solving skills.
22) Compared to boys, girls receive _____ in math during _____.
A) lower grades; elementary school

B) more encouragement; elementary school
C) higher grades; elementary school
D) equally high test scores; high school
Answer: C
Research indicates that, on average, girls receive higher grades than boys in math during
elementary school. This difference in grading may be influenced by various factors, including
teachers' perceptions of gender differences in math ability.
23) Compared to adolescent girls, adolescent boys
A) have a stronger feeling of self-efficacy in math and science.
B) gradually lose their confidence about doing well in math and science.
C) are less interested in fields that involve math and science.
D) are equally likely to have achievement in math drop off over the high school years.
Answer: A
Research suggests that adolescent boys tend to have a stronger sense of self-efficacy in math
and science compared to girls. This may contribute to boys' greater interest and confidence in
pursuing careers and fields related to math and science.
24) Last week, Marissa scored high on a math quiz. She told her best friend, "I lucked out this
time." This week her score was lower and she told her friend, "I just don't have the head for
this stuff." A likely consequence of these explanations is that she will
A) deliberately do poorly in math to avoid seeming unfeminine.
B) study harder for the next math quiz.
C) develop a sense of learned helplessness about math.
D) expect that her luck will change and she will do better next time.
Answer: C

Marissa's explanations for her performance on the math quiz ("I lucked out" and "I just don't
have the head for this stuff") suggest a tendency towards attributing her success or failure to
external factors (luck) and internal, stable traits (lack of ability). This attribution pattern is
associated with learned helplessness, where individuals feel powerless to change their
25) Yuan enters a summer program for high school students who are gifted in math. Of the 40
students, she is one of five girls. Her success in the program is likely to
A) be greater because she wants to prove that girls can handle it.
B) depend on making friends with the smartest boys.
C) suffer because of the effect of stereotype threat.
D) be unaffected by the unbalanced male-female ratio.
Answer: C
Yuan's success in the summer program may be affected by stereotype threat, which is the fear
of confirming a negative stereotype about one's group. Being one of the few girls in a
program for gifted students in math could increase the pressure on her to perform well,
leading to anxiety and potentially impacting her performance.
26) Carol Gilligan maintains that during adolescence, girls
A) become increasingly sure of themselves.
B) become more tentative and silence their "voice."
C) come to value their sensitivity to others more highly.
D) expect themselves to be more assertive.
Answer: B

Carol Gilligan's research suggests that during adolescence, girls may become more tentative
and silence their "voice" as they navigate societal expectations and norms regarding
femininity. This can impact their sense of self and expression.
27) During adolescence, scores on measures of self-esteem
A) drop for girls.
B) drop for boys.
C) drop more for girls than for boys.
D) All of the above.
Answer: D
Research indicates that during adolescence, both boys' and girls' scores on measures of selfesteem tend to decrease. However, the drop in self-esteem is often more pronounced for girls,
which may be influenced by factors such as societal pressures and gender expectations.
28) According to gender stereotypes, girls feel more _____ and boys feel more _____.
A) anger; guilt
B) sadness; anger
C) fear; guilt
D) sadness; happiness
Answer: B
Gender stereotypes suggest that girls are more likely to experience feelings of sadness, while
boys are more likely to experience feelings of anger. These stereotypes can influence how
emotions are expressed and perceived based on gender norms.
29) During childhood, symptoms of depression
A) are much more likely in girls.
B) are much more likely in boys.

C) are just as likely in girls and boys.
D) are never found.
Answer: C
Research indicates that during childhood, symptoms of depression are equally likely to occur
in both girls and boys. However, the expression and manifestation of these symptoms may
differ based on gender.
30) The experience that is most likely to trigger an outbreak of depression in adolescence is
A) academic problems.
B) the breakup of a romance.
C) conflict with parents.
D) being turned down by your college choice.
Answer: B
The breakup of a romantic relationship is considered one of the most common triggers for
depression in adolescence. This can be a challenging and emotionally distressing experience,
particularly for teenagers who are still developing coping skills and emotional regulation.
31) When faced with emotional stress, girls are more likely than boys to
A) deal with the problem logically.
B) distract themselves with activities.
C) conceal the problem from parents.
D) brood about the problem.
Answer: D

Research suggests that girls are more likely than boys to ruminate or brood about their
problems when faced with emotional stress. This tendency may contribute to higher rates of
depression and anxiety among girls.
32) When faced with emotional distress, boys are more likely than girls to
A) brood about the problem.
B) distract themselves with activities.
C) discuss the problem with parents.
D) immerse themselves in their negative feelings.
Answer: B
Boys are more likely than girls to use distraction as a coping mechanism when faced with
emotional distress. This may be due to societal expectations for boys to be more active and
less emotional in their responses to stress.
33) Among _____, a small group is high in physical aggression from childhood and through
A) girls but not boys
B) boys but not girls
C) both boys and girls
D) None of the above.
Answer: C
Research suggests that a small group of both boys and girls exhibit high levels of physical
aggression from childhood through adolescence. This group is often characterized by
persistent aggressive behavior and may be at greater risk for behavioral problems later in life.
34) After Tom and Hakeem get into an argument, Hakeem spreads the (false) rumor that Tom
called him a racially charged name. This is best understood as an example of
A) hostile attributional bias.

B) relational aggression.
C) a hate crime.
D) the frustration-aggression hypothesis.
Answer: B
Hakeem's action of spreading a false rumor to damage Tom's reputation is an example of
relational aggression, which involves using social manipulation and harm to damage
relationships and social status.
35) Girls _____ personal relationships than boys.
A) put more energy into
B) are more distressed by problems with
C) want to feel closer in their
D) All of the above.
Answer: D
Girls tend to place more emphasis on and invest more energy into personal relationships than
boys. They are also more likely to be distressed by problems within these relationships and
seek to feel closer to others.
36) When personal relationships run into trouble, girls, more than boys, are likely to talk over
their problems and feelings with a friend, in what is known as
A) co-rumination.
B) soul-searching
C) accommodation.
D) relational aggression.
Answer: A

Co-rumination refers to the tendency to extensively discuss and dwell on problems and
feelings with a friend. Research suggests that girls are more likely than boys to engage in corumination, which can have both positive and negative effects on well-being.
37) A culture in which men are expected to control or dominate women would be described
by social scientists as
A) traditional.
B) homocentric.
C) modern.
D) antiquated.
Answer: A
A culture in which men are expected to control or dominate women is often described as
traditional, reflecting longstanding gender norms and power dynamics.
38) A culture in which men and women are said to be equal in rights, education, and job
opportunities would be described by social scientists as
A) gender-free.
B) modern.
C) traditional.
D) gynecological.
Answer: B
A culture in which men and women are considered equal in rights, education, and job
opportunities is typically described as modern, indicating a departure from traditional gender
roles and expectations.
39) Research among university students in many countries indicates that gender beliefs in
A) are on the traditional side of the spectrum.

B) are on the modern side of the spectrum.
C) fall midway between traditional and modern.
D) are more modern than those in European countries.
Answer: C
Research suggests that gender beliefs among university students in Canada fall somewhere
between traditional and modern views, indicating a range of perspectives on gender roles and
40) The gender-related attitudes of Pakistani Canadians
A) are more traditional than those of Anglo Canadians.
B) are more traditional than those of Dutch Canadians.
C) are as traditional as Malaysian Canadians.
D) All of the above.
Answer: D
The gender-related attitudes of Pakistani Canadians are described as more traditional
compared to Anglo Canadians and Dutch Canadians. They are also similar in traditional
views to Malaysian Canadians.
41) Emma asks her father a question about earthquakes and tidal waves. In response, he is
likely to
A) go into more detail than she can easily take in.
B) suggest she look up the answer on the Internet.
C) use less complex language and concepts than he would with her brother.
D) help her find an episode of a TV science program on the topic.
Answer: C

The father is likely to use less complex language and concepts when explaining to Emma
compared to how he might explain to her brother, reflecting societal norms regarding gender
differences in communication styles and expectations.
42) Marisol, 11, and her younger brother need something to do on a rainy Saturday morning.
It is most likely that
A) she will suggest an activity such as an art project and he will agree.
B) he will suggest an activity such as a video game and she will agree.
C) they will flip a coin to decide who chooses the activity.
D) they will not agree and end up playing separately.
Answer: A
Marisol is more likely to suggest an activity like an art project, which is traditionally
associated with girls, and her brother is more likely to agree, reflecting typical gender
stereotypes in play preferences.
43) Where conformity to traditional gender roles is concerned, adolescent _____ who are
_____ are looked on least favorably by other adolescents.
A) girls; gender-typical
B) girls; gender-atypical
C) boys; gender-typical
D) boys; gender-atypical
Answer: D
Adolescent boys who are gender-atypical (i.e., do not conform to traditional masculine
norms) are often viewed less favorably by their peers compared to girls who conform to
traditional feminine norms or boys who conform to traditional masculine norms.
44) In media presentations that adolescents watch, women are typically presented as
A) young, beautiful, and thin.

B) high achieving executives.
C) the decision-makers in a family.
D) harassed by tasks such as paying bills and figuring taxes.
Answer: A
Women are often portrayed in media as fitting traditional beauty standards, emphasizing
youthfulness, beauty, and thinness. These portrayals can contribute to unrealistic standards of
beauty for women and girls.
45) On a personality test, Kim scores high in nurturance and expressiveness as well as in
assertiveness and analytical thinking. It is most likely that Kim would be classified as
A) masculine sex-typed.
B) undifferentiated.
C) psychologically androgynous.
D) feminine sex-typed.
Answer: C
Kim's high scores in both traditionally masculine (assertiveness, analytical thinking) and
feminine (nurturance, expressiveness) traits suggest that she would be classified as
psychologically androgynous, having a balanced combination of both types of traits.
46) Friends describe Leslie as very sensitive and supportive, but too dependent and
unassertive. Leslie best fits the description of those who are
A) masculine sex-typed.
B) psychologically androgynous.
C) feminine sex-typed.
D) undifferentiated.
Answer: C

Leslie's description aligns more closely with traits traditionally associated with femininity
(sensitive, supportive) and less with traits associated with masculinity (assertive,
independent), indicating a feminine sex-typed classification.
47) Those who are high in both feminine and masculine personality traits are called
A) sexually ambiguous.
B) sinistrodextrous.
C) psychologically androgynous.
D) doubly stereotyped.
Answer: C
Individuals who are high in both traditionally masculine and feminine traits are referred to as
psychologically androgynous, indicating a flexibility and balance in their personality traits
that transcends traditional gender stereotypes.
48) Psychologists suggest that androgynous adolescents
A) are better adjusted and have higher self-esteem.
B) will work through their gender confusion once they near adulthood.
C) have a disorder that requires treatment.
D) will only be attracted to other androgynous teens.
Answer: A
Research suggests that androgynous individuals, including adolescents, tend to be better
adjusted and have higher self-esteem compared to those who adhere strictly to traditional
gender roles. Androgyny is not considered a disorder, but rather a flexible and adaptive
approach to gender identity and expression.
49) Research suggests that once children enter adolescence, psychological androgyny has
_____ effects for _____.

A) negative; boys and girls
B) positive; boys and girls
C) positive; boys but not girls
D) positive; girls but not boys
Answer: D
Research indicates that psychological androgyny, characterized by a balanced mix of
traditionally masculine and feminine traits, is associated with positive outcomes for girls in
adolescence, such as higher self-esteem and greater psychological well-being. The effects for
boys are less clear-cut.
50) _____ who are high in masculine traits are accepted, as are _____ who are high in
feminine traits.
A) Boys; boys
B) Boys and girls; girls
C) Girls; boys
D) All of the above.
Answer: B
Both boys and girls who exhibit high levels of traditionally masculine or feminine traits are
generally accepted by their same-gender peers. However, there may be more acceptance of
girls who display masculine traits than boys who display feminine traits due to societal
gender norms.
Essay Questions
1) Two friends are arguing about the origins of sex and gender differences in teens. One says it's
all biology, the other says it's mainly society and culture. They appeal to you to settle the
question. What do you tell them, and what evidence do you offer to support your conclusions?

Answer: While genetic, hormonal, and physical differences between males and females have an
impact on neurological development, the models of gendered behaviours that parents and peers
present and the ways others respond to gender typical and gender atypical attitudes and behaviours
channel the expression of biological differences according to the beliefs of the culture.
2) Discuss the similarities and differences between Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental
approach to gender development and the gender schema approach of Martin and Halverson.
Answer: Both theories focus on the person's cognitive understanding of the concept and
implications of gender. Kohlberg presents a stage theory in which the achievement of gender
identity is critical, while Martin and Halverson see the construction of gender schemas as an
ongoing process that begins early in childhood.
3) Discuss the relationship between gender and self-esteem in adolescence. How has this
relationship been explained by theorists such as Carol Gilligan?
Answer: During early adolescence, self-esteem declines more sharply for girls than for boys.
One reason is that girls experience greater body dissatisfaction than boys. Girls self-esteem
and confidence may also suffer as they realize that their interest in and sensitivity to human
relationships is not as highly valued by society as the practical problem solving more typical
of boys. This is said to lead to them silencing their distinctive voice.
4) How does exposure to mass media influence gender roles during adolescence?
Answer: The media are a major source of information and influence on gender roles for teens.
The media portray adults in heavily gender-stereotyped ways. Men are strong, active, and
effective, and women are young, beautiful, dependent, and thin. Television watching and
reading teen magazines have been linked to gender-stereotyped attitudes and poor body
image in adolescent boys and girls.
5) Discuss the concept of psychological androgyny and the suggestion that teens who are
androgynous are better adjusted.
Answer: Adolescents who have both masculine- and feminine-type characteristics are called
androgynous. Androgynous girls often are better adjusted and have higher self-esteem than those
with more traditional gender attitudes, but it is not clear that this is the case for androgynous boys.

Test Bank for Adolescence
Ian McMahan, Susan Thompson
9780205990559, 9780133957341, 9780205482320, 9780205843718

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