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Chapter 1: Adolescence: Understanding the Past and the Present, and Planning for the Future
Multiple Choice Questions
1) On the first day of class, Professor Parameswaran says, "We will look at adolescence as a
set of interacting changes to the person that take place in interacting contexts." This most
closely reflects a(n) _____ perspective.
A) psychodynamic
B) ecological systems
C) behaviourist
D) checks and balances
Answer: B
Rationale:
The statement by Professor Parameswaran reflects an ecological systems perspective, which
focuses on understanding development within the context of various interacting systems, such
as family, school, and community.
2) The concept of stage-environment fit implies that
A) teens should make special efforts to adapt to their settings.
B) the theater has special importance for those in adolescence.
C) teachers and parents need to adapt their approach to the developmental changes in teens.
D) teens are particularly concerned about ecological issues such as global warming.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Stage-environment fit suggests that there should be a match or compatibility between the
developmental stage of an individual (such as adolescence) and the environmental demands
(such as school or home environment). This implies that teachers and parents should adapt
their approach to meet the developmental needs of teens.

3) Back when Emily's parents were in school, practically all the kids were of the same ethnocultural background as them. On Emily's first day of school, they notice that her classmates
are from various ethnic backgrounds. This reflects the growth of _____ in Canada.
A) cultural diversity
B) age stratification
C) active learning
D) residential segregation
Answer: A
Rationale:
The scenario describes a change in the ethno-cultural background of Emily's classmates,
indicating an increase in cultural diversity in Canada.
4) Matthew wants to be an educated consumer of new social science discoveries. This
involves
A) searching the Internet for amazing facts.
B) telling his friends about the remarkable information he heard on a radio talk show.
C) comparing new discoveries to what is already known and trying to decide if the
differences make sense.
D) All of the above.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Being an educated consumer of new social science discoveries involves critically evaluating
new information by comparing it to existing knowledge and determining its credibility and
relevance.
5) As a community leader, Mr. Mandela wants to encourage programs to help teens be more
confident, productive, and caring. This reflects a focus on
A) neighbourhood safety.
B) economic progress.

C) positive development
D) anti-crime measures.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Mr. Mandela's goal of encouraging programs to help teens be more confident, productive, and
caring reflects a focus on positive development, which includes fostering the well-being and
growth of individuals.
6) As Alana was reading about the physical changes of puberty, she paused now and then to
try to remember her own experiences and the ways they did and did not fit with her reading.
Alana is making use of a learning strategy called
A) managed distraction.
B) deep processing.
C) directed reminiscence.
D) the power of suggestion.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Alana's strategy of pausing to relate her own experiences to the reading material demonstrates
deep processing, which involves actively engaging with the information to enhance
understanding and retention.
7) Ali wants to use active learning to improve his comprehension and retention of new course
material. One tactic he should probably try is to
A) explain what he has learned to a friend.
B) write a synopsis of the new material in his own words.
C) find and highlight key sentences.
D) All of the above.
Answer: D

Rationale:
All of the tactics mentioned—explaining the material to a friend, summarizing it in one's own
words, and identifying key points—are examples of active learning strategies that can
enhance comprehension and retention of new material.
8) Like many of her friends, Emma got her first driver's license soon after her 16th birthday.
For her, this constituted a(n)
A) puberty rite.
B) normative transition.
C) delayed phase shift.
D) idiosyncratic transition.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Emma's acquisition of her first driver's license after her 16th birthday is a normative
transition, as it is a common, expected milestone in many adolescents' lives.
9) When Brandon was 14, his parents separated and he moved with his dad to a new town.
For him, this constituted a(n)
A) equilibrium
B) stage change.
C) normative transition.
D) idiosyncratic transition.
Answer: D
Rationale:
Brandon's experience of his parents' separation and moving to a new town represents an
idiosyncratic transition, as it is a unique event in his life that may have significant impact on
his development.
10) Hannah, 12, is in 6th grade and is taller than most of the boys in her class, but has not yet
had her first period. Hannah would be considered in _____ adolescence.

A) early
B) middle
C) late
D) None of the above.
Answer: A
Rationale:
Hannah, who is 12 years old and in 6th grade, is considered to be in early adolescence, as she
has not yet experienced menarche (her first period) but is showing physical signs of puberty,
such as being taller than most boys in her class.
11) According to Havighurst, the developmental task of achieving psychological
independence from one's parents is most relevant to someone in _____ adolescence.
A) early
B) middle
C) late
D) delayed
Answer: B
Rationale:
Havighurst proposed that achieving psychological independence from one's parents is a major
developmental task of middle adolescence, typically occurring around ages 14 to 17.
12) According to Havighurst, adapting to one's changed body is a major developmental task
of _____ adolescence.
A) all of
B) middle
C) early
D) late
Answer: C

Rationale:
Havighurst suggested that adapting to one's changing body is a key developmental task of
early adolescence, typically occurring around ages 11 to 14.
13) The phase of middle adolescence corresponds roughly with
A) the last years of elementary school.
B) high school.
C) freshman year of college.
D) None of the above.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Middle adolescence typically corresponds with the high school years, roughly around ages 14
to 17, according to the developmental phase model.
14) "Until the 20th century, there were no teenagers, only children and adults." This statement
represents the view known as
A) youth denial.
B) retrospectivism.
C) inventionism.
D) historicism.
Answer: C
Rationale:
This statement reflects the inventionist view, which argues that the concept of adolescence as
a distinct stage of development separate from childhood and adulthood is a relatively recent
social construct.
15) Inventionism is the name given to the view that
A) teens are especially creative in developing new technologies.
B) the concept of adolescence was created to keep young people off the job market.

C) society needs to develop new opportunities for teens.
D) the Industrial Revolution gave teens an economic boost.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Inventionism refers to the idea that the concept of adolescence was created to delay young
people's entry into the workforce and to provide them with additional education and
preparation for adulthood.
16) In ancient Athens, boys became full citizens at the age of
A) 12.
B) 15.
C) 18.
D) 30.
Answer: D
Rationale:
In ancient Athens, boys became full citizens at the age of 30, after completing military
training and other requirements.
17) In ancient Athens, as in the Roman Empire, girls became legally adult at the age of
A) 12
B) 15
C) 18
D) None of the above.
Answer: D
Rationale:
In ancient Athens and the Roman Empire, girls did not have a specific age at which they
became legally adults; instead, it was based on other factors such as marriage or maturity.

18) In pre-industrial Europe, children often spent the adolescent years away from their
parents as apprentices or servants, in a custom known as
A) incest avoidance.
B) life-cycle service.
C) wander-years.
D) distancing.
Answer: B
Rationale:
In pre-industrial Europe, children often spent their adolescent years away from their parents
as apprentices or servants in a custom known as life-cycle service, where they learned skills
and contributed to the household or community.
19) The idea that the life stage of adolescence should be valued for itself was introduced into
Western thought by
A) Aristotle.
B) G. Stanley Hall.
C) William Wordsworth.
D) Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Answer: D
Rationale:
Jean-Jacques Rousseau introduced the idea that the life stage of adolescence should be valued
for itself, emphasizing the importance of this stage of development in preparing individuals
for adulthood.
20) Jeb, 12, lived in Canada in the year 1800. It is most likely that Jeb
A) was an orphan.
B) lived on a family farm.
C) worked in a textile factory.

D) was a street kid in a big city.
Answer: B
Rationale:
In the year 1800 in Canada, it is most likely that Jeb lived on a family farm, as agricultural
lifestyles were common during that time period.
21) During the early 20th century in Canada, adolescent education
A) was seen as the best path for children of the working and lower middle classes
B) was pursued by 50% of those 14 to 19 at the high school level
C) was promoted as a period of essential personal and social growth
D) All of the above.
Answer: D
Rationale:
During the early 20th century in Canada, adolescent education was indeed seen as the best
path for children of the working and lower middle classes, was pursued by about 50% of
those 14 to 19 at the high school level, and was promoted as a period of essential personal
and social growth.
22) Increasing numbers of teens graduated high school and went on to college in the 1930s as
a result of
A) nationwide "Stay In School" campaigns.
B) a lack of jobs during the Depression.
C) more widely available scholarships and loans.
D) None of the above.
Answer: B
Rationale:

The economic conditions of the Great Depression in the 1930s, characterized by a lack of
jobs, led to increasing numbers of teens graduating high school and going on to college as
they sought to improve their future prospects.
23) During the 1930s Depression and World War II, many Canadian couples delayed having
children, which led to a(n) _____ in the period immediately after that war.
A) baby boom
B) economic crisis
C) jazz age
D) major college expansion
Answer: A
Rationale:
The delay in having children during the 1930s Depression and World War II led to a baby
boom in the period immediately after the war, as couples had children they had postponed
having during the difficult economic times.
24) The proportion of adolescents in the Canadian population rose by as much as _____
during the 1960s.
A) 5%
B) 15%
C) 30%
D) 45%
Answer: C
Rationale:
The proportion of adolescents in the Canadian population rose by as much as 30% during the
1960s, reflecting a significant demographic shift during that decade.
25) In recent decades, Canadian adolescents have been affected by changes in family
structure that include all the following except
A) higher divorce rates.

B) couples having children at younger ages.
C) more single-parent families.
D) more working mothers.
Answer: B
Rationale:
While changes in family structure in Canada in recent decades have included higher divorce
rates, more single-parent families, and more working mothers, there is no evidence to suggest
that couples are having children at younger ages.
26) Canadian teens spend twice as much time with _____ as with _____.
A) siblings; friends
B) parents; friends
C) teachers; parents
D) friends; parents
Answer: D
Rationale:
Canadian teens spend twice as much time with their friends as they do with their parents,
indicating the importance of peer relationships during adolescence.
27) _____ percent of the Canadian population is younger than age 19.
A) Twelve
B) Twenty-two
C) Forty
D) Fifty
Answer: B
Rationale:

Approximately 22% of the Canadian population is younger than age 19, highlighting the
significant presence of adolescents in the country.
28) In Country X, those under 18 make up half the population. It is most likely that Country
X is part of
A) Eastern Europe.
B) Latin America.
C) Africa.
D) East Asia.
Answer: C
Rationale:
In countries where those under 18 make up half the population, such as in Country X, it is
most likely that the country is part of Africa, where the population is typically younger on
average compared to other regions.
29) A diagram that shows the percentage of people in a country who are of different ages is
known as a(n)
A) population pyramid.
B) age stratification.
C) cohort categorization.
D) birthyear chart.
Answer: A
Rationale:
A diagram that shows the percentage of people in a country who are of different ages is
known as a population pyramid, which visually represents the age distribution of a
population.
30) According to the text book, the welfare of those in a society who are too young, too old,
or too sick to take care of themselves depends on
A) the kindness of strangers.

B) those who are active and working productively.
C) taxes.
D) foreign aid.
Answer: B
Rationale:
According to the text book, the welfare of those in a society who are too young, too old, or
too sick to take care of themselves depends on those who are active and working
productively, as they contribute to the resources needed to support these vulnerable groups.
31) Children and adolescents in Canada’s Aboriginal communities
A) will be more similar to developing countries in their population pyramids.
B) would have the same life experiences like mainstream Canadian children and adolescents.
C) have interests that ally them with the elderly.
D) All of the above.
Answer: A
Rationale:
Children and adolescents in Canada's Aboriginal communities are more likely to have
population pyramids similar to those of developing countries, which typically have a higher
proportion of young people compared to developed countries.
32) International trade, faster communications, and economic interdependence are all factors
that contribute to
A) population pyramids.
B) national isolation.
C) age stratification.
D) globalization.
Answer: D
Rationale:

International trade, faster communications, and economic interdependence are all factors that
contribute to globalization, which involves the integration of economies, cultures, and
societies on a global scale.
33) According to the text book, a major reason that adolescents are especially affected by
globalization is that
A) their youth makes them better able to adapt to changing conditions.
B) the processes of puberty are impacted by worldwide pollution.
C) world trade standards forbid employment of children and teens.
D) All of the above.
Answer: A
Rationale:
According to the text book, adolescents are especially affected by globalization because their
youth makes them better able to adapt to changing conditions, including the rapid changes
brought about by globalization.
34) The tendency for adolescents throughout the world to want to have the clothing, video
games, and other goods that are currently fashionable is known as
A) status envy.
B) Westernism.
C) consumerism.
D) socialization.
Answer: C
Rationale:
The tendency for adolescents throughout the world to want to have the clothing, video games,
and other goods that are currently fashionable is known as consumerism, which is driven by
the desire for status and belonging.
35) While on vacation in a distant country, you notice a teen wearing a New York Yankees
cap. You should probably assume

A) that he plays baseball.
B) that he has visited New York City.
C) that he speaks English.
D) that he likes feeling in touch with the latest trends.
Answer: D
Rationale:
Seeing a teen wearing a New York Yankees cap while on vacation in a distant country likely
indicates that the teen likes feeling in touch with the latest trends, as the cap is a fashion
statement rather than necessarily indicating a specific interest in baseball, travel, or language.
36) When teens show up at school, a party, or a concert wearing the brand of clothing that is
currently popular, they are
A) letting others know that they have the power and means to choose their own clothes.
B) signalling that they belong to the "trendy" group.
C) offering a possible topic of conversation to teens they don't know.
D) All of the above.
Answer: D
Rationale:
When teens wear popular brands of clothing, they are often signaling that they belong to a
trendy group, expressing their ability to choose their own clothes, and providing a potential
conversation topic with others who notice their clothing choices.
37) While Jacintha is at a concert waiting for the band to come on, she starts a conversation
with the girl in the next seat. They are most likely to talk about
A) globalization.
B) the upcoming election.
C) their favorite bands.
D) sexual experiences.

Answer: C
Rationale:
While waiting for a concert to start, Jacintha and the girl next to her are most likely to talk
about their favorite bands, as they are attending a music event and likely share an interest in
music.
38) Major change(s) in the lives of Canadian adolescents across the 20th century was/were
that they
A) stayed in school longer.
B) waited longer to enter the workforce.
C) put off marriage and children to later ages.
D) All of the above.
Answer: D
Rationale:
Canadian adolescents experienced significant changes in the 20th century, including staying
in school longer, delaying entry into the workforce, and postponing marriage and children to
later ages.
39) In developed countries around the world, _____ children go through both primary and
secondary (high) school.
A) essentially all
B) about three-quarters of
C) not many poor
D) only middle class
Answer: A
Rationale:
In developed countries around the world, essentially all children go through both primary and
secondary (high) school, reflecting the widespread availability and importance of education
in these societies.

40) In developed countries, _____ teens who finish secondary education go on to some form
of higher education.
A) practically all
B) about half of
C) four of five
D) only wealthy
Answer: B
Rationale:
In developed countries, about half of teens who finish secondary education go on to some
form of higher education, indicating that while higher education is common, it is not
universally pursued by all secondary school graduates.
41) Primary or elementary education
A) is basically universal in Asia and Latin America.
B) is basically universal in Africa and the Middle East.
C) is considered a useless luxury by parents in developing countries.
D) All of the above.
Answer: A
Rationale:
Primary or elementary education is basically universal in Asia and Latin America, indicating
that a large majority of children in these regions have access to primary education.
42) In developing countries, _____ of those who finish primary school are likely to go on to
secondary school.
A) essentially all
B) very few
C) about half
D) only one in three

Answer: C
Rationale:
In developing countries, about half of those who finish primary school are likely to go on to
secondary school, indicating that while primary education is widespread, access to secondary
education is more limited.
43) The massive tendency for young people in developing countries to leave the countryside
for big cities is called
A) transmigration.
B) urbanization.
C) metropolitanism.
D) rural impoverishment.
Answer: B
Rationale:
The massive tendency for young people in developing countries to leave the countryside for
big cities is called urbanization, reflecting the migration of populations from rural to urban
areas.
44) The fastest growing cities in the world are in
A) Western Europe.
B) Australia and New Zealand.
C) the developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
D) Japan.
Answer: C
Rationale:
The fastest growing cities in the world are in the developing countries of Asia, Africa, and
Latin America, where rapid urbanization is occurring.
45) Among young women, those with more education tend to

A) reject their parents' values and goals.
B) have smaller families.
C) settle into traditional adult roles.
D) All of the above.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Among young women, those with more education tend to have smaller families, as education
is associated with greater access to contraception, better knowledge of family planning, and
greater economic opportunities that may lead to delayed childbearing.
46) Kumar and Lata finished high school and some university before getting married and
going to work in information technology. They have two children and are able to put aside
money for their future education. According to the textbook, they and their children are
involved in
A) assimilation.
B) a virtuous cycle.
C) globalization.
D) a vicious cycle.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Kumar and Lata and their children are involved in a virtuous cycle, where their education and
economic success contribute to further opportunities and success for themselves and their
children.
47) Benito, 13, lives in the capital city of a Third World country. His parents are too poor to
pay for school fees and uniforms for him and his brothers and sisters, so he quit school after
4th grade to go to work running errands for a neighbour who has a stand in the market.
Benito and his family are directly affected by what the textbook describes as
A) globalization.

B) a virtuous cycle.
C) a vicious cycle.
D) a business cycle.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Benito and his family are directly affected by a vicious cycle, where poverty limits access to
education and economic opportunities, trapping them in a cycle of poverty and limited
prospects.
48) The AIDS epidemic has had its most drastic effect in
A) the United States and Canada.
B) Eastern Europe.
C) sub-Saharan Africa.
D) East Asia.
Answer: C
Rationale:
The AIDS epidemic has had its most drastic effect in sub-Saharan Africa, where the
prevalence of HIV/AIDS is highest compared to other regions of the world.
49) Adolescents and young adults are particularly in danger from HIV/AIDS because of
A) unprotected sex.
B) intravenous drug use.
C) ignorance about risks and protective measures.
D) All of the above.
Answer: D
Rationale:

Adolescents and young adults are particularly in danger from HIV/AIDS because of
unprotected sex, intravenous drug use, and ignorance about risks and protective measures,
highlighting the need for targeted prevention efforts among this age group.
50) The "basic survival skills" that experts say all adolescents need include
A) competence in martial arts.
B) knowing how to use a computer.
C) a caring relationship with an adult.
D) the ability to get along without friends.
Answer: C
Rationale:
The "basic survival skills" that experts say all adolescents need include a caring relationship
with an adult, which provides emotional support, guidance, and a sense of security during the
often turbulent adolescent years.
Essay Questions
1) Why have observers called the 20th century in North America "The Age of Adolescence"?
Cite some demographic, educational, and social trends that contributed.
Answer: The spread of compulsory education contributed to age segregation and the notion
of "teenagers" as a separate category. The Baby Boom of the 1940s and 1950s gave teens a
greater prominence in the population during the 1960s and 1970s and created the notion of a
"Youth Culture", while the speed of technological change moved the society in the direction
of a cofigurative culture.
2) If you had to choose a single issue as the most urgent one facing Canadian adolescents,
what would it be? Describe the important aspects of the issue. Why that one?
Answer: Issues cited could include: the changing nature of the family; the increasing
importance of peers; the lack of communication between adolescents and adults; teen crime
and substance use; and contradictory attitudes toward teen sexuality.
3) Discuss the ways the proportion of adolescents are different within the populations of
different countries. What are some implications of these differences?

Answer: Adolescents make up a much larger part of the population in developing countries,
which puts them at much greater competition with each other for education and work and
makes fewer resources available because of the relatively few productive workers.
4) What is "globalization" and what are some important ways the process affects adolescents
today? Would you evaluate globalization as a positive, a negative, or a mixed influence?
Why?
Answer: Globalization has made it possible for teens in different parts of the world to be in
touch with one another and to exert mutual influence. It has also made teens worldwide
targets of the same commercial and political campaigns by adult interests. Globalization has
also alerted those in power throughout the world to the importance of helping children and
teens acquire the skills they will need to achieve satisfying and productive lives.
5) What is the connection between the wave of urbanization in developing countries and the
setting in motion of a vicious circle for many young people in these countries?
Answer: As teens leave the countryside for the city, they lose the support and social controls
of the family. Unlikely to be able to afford to continue their education, they become prey to
economic and sexual exploitation. Their poverty and lack of qualifications makes it likely
that their children, of whom they generally have many at early ages, will be trapped in a
similar cycle.

Test Bank for Adolescence
Ian McMahan, Susan Thompson
9780205990559, 9780133957341, 9780205482320, 9780205843718

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