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Chapter 12: Positive Prospects
Multiple Choice Questions
1) The _____ approach to adolescence focuses on understanding how problems emerge and
developing ways to deal with them.
A) scientific
B) positive development
C) medical
D) nomothetic
Answer: C
The medical approach to adolescence focuses on understanding and treating problems that
may arise during this period, such as physical or mental health issues.
2) The _____ approach to adolescence involves trying to find the most accurate and
predictive ways to describe adolescence as it is.
A) medical
B) positive development
C) idiographic
D) scientific
Answer: D
The scientific approach to adolescence seeks to describe adolescence as it is through
systematic observation and research, aiming for accuracy and predictability.
3) The _____ approach to adolescence focuses on uncovering ways to support teens in their
eagerness to explore and understand.
A) positive development
B) nomothetic

C) scientific
D) medical
Answer: A
The positive development approach to adolescence emphasizes nurturing and supporting
adolescents in their growth and exploration, focusing on their strengths and potential.
4) At a lecture, the speaker says, "I see adolescents as active and capable individuals who
want to develop their potential and give back to their families and communities." The speaker
apparently holds a(n) _____ perspective.
A) behaviourist
B) evolutionary
C) psychoanalytic
D) positive youth development
Answer: D
The statement reflects the positive youth development perspective, which views adolescents
as capable individuals with the potential for growth and contribution.
5) A state of _____ mobilizes the body's resources in response to a perceived threat.
A) torpor
B) stress
C) awareness
D) negativity
Answer: B
Stress is the body's response to a perceived threat or challenge, activating physiological and
psychological resources to cope with the situation.

6) Esther has been studying for a university entrance exam and worrying about doing badly
for over two months. She carries vocabulary flash cards and sheets of math problems
everywhere. She has not been sleeping well, and this morning she felt a bad cold coming on.
Esther is apparently being affected by
A) unrealistic expectations.
B) "senior-itis."
C) chronic stress.
D) hypochondria.
Answer: C
Esther's prolonged worry, physical symptoms, and impact on daily functioning suggest she is
experiencing chronic stress, which results from ongoing demands and pressure.
7) Research on _____ focuses on the various ways adolescents try to deal with situations that
pose different levels of threat.
A) retaliation
B) self-determination
C) flow
D) coping
Answer: D
Coping refers to the strategies individuals use to manage demands that are perceived as
exceeding their resources, including those used by adolescents to deal with threats.
8) In the middle of an important exam, Raza's teacher picks up his answer sheet and accuses
him of cheating. Raza's first impulse is to grab the answer sheet back and loudly deny the
accusation. But he takes a deep breath and quietly asks the teacher to speak to him privately.
He successfully counters the charge and is allowed to finish the exam. Raza's responses
illustrate _____ of coping with stress.

A) a "hot," impulsive system
B) a "cool," regulatory system
C) two complementary systems
D) None of the above.
Answer: C
Raza initially experiences a "hot," impulsive response but then engages a "cool," regulatory
system by calming down and resolving the situation through a more controlled approach.
9) Just as Ethan is about to save the final draft of his term paper, his baby sister trips over the
computer's power cord and the screen goes blank. After taking a few deep breaths, Ethan
restarts the computer and begins searching for earlier versions of the paper. Ethan is engaging
A) problem-focused coping.
B) solution generativity.
C) emotion-focused coping.
D) goal-focused coping.
Answer: A
Ethan's actions focus on resolving the problem directly by restarting the computer and
searching for earlier versions of the paper, indicating problem-focused coping.
10) Just as Josh is about to print out the paper that is due the next morning, there is a power
failure. Josh tells himself that he's probably not the only one this happened to and that the
paper isn't really that important anyway. Josh is engaging in
A) intellectualization.
B) emotion-focused coping.
C) goal-focused coping.

D) problem-focused coping.
Answer: B
Josh's response involves minimizing the emotional impact of the situation by rationalizing
that it is not a significant issue, indicating emotion-focused coping.
11) Among adolescents, girls are _____ boys to use emotion-focused coping strategies.
A) less likely than
B) more likely than
C) equally likely as
D) None of the above; it depends on the circumstances.
Answer: B
Research suggests that girls are more likely than boys to use emotion-focused coping
strategies, which involve managing emotions related to stressors rather than directly
addressing the stressor itself.
12) Kaitlyn is the most feminine of Emma's group of friends. When Emma tells her that she's
afraid her boyfriend is losing interest in her, Kaitlyn's response is likely to be along the lines
A) "Oh, you must feel awful! But you know, lots of other guys like you, so it's not really so
B) "The creep! I never understood what you saw in him anyway."
C) "I bet there are things you could do to get him interested again. Why don't we hit the mall
and find you something really cute to wear on Friday night?"
D) "Boys are all the same. You want to come over and watch television?"
Answer: A

Kaitlyn's response demonstrates empathy and reassurance, which are typical of emotionfocused coping strategies aimed at managing emotions related to the stressor.
13) Adolescents with _____ parents are more likely to use active, engaged coping.
A) distant
B) authoritative
C) coercive
D) permissive
Answer: B
Adolescents with authoritative parents, who are supportive and set clear expectations, are
more likely to use active, engaged coping strategies, as they feel more confident and
supported in dealing with challenges.
14) Adolescents who find themselves facing social and emotional problems tend to cope by
turning to _____ for emotional and practical support.
A) the same-sex parent
B) the other-sex parent
C) peers
D) school counselors
Answer: C
Adolescents often turn to their peers for emotional and practical support when facing social
and emotional problems, as peers can provide understanding and companionship.
15) Adolescents who find themselves facing uncontrollable sources of stress tend to cope by
turning to _____ for emotional and practical support.
A) their parents
B) same-sex friends

C) other-sex friends
D) school counselors
Answer: A
When facing uncontrollable sources of stress, adolescents often turn to their parents for
emotional and practical support, seeking comfort and guidance from trusted adults.
16) Sophie is falling badly behind in school, but feels that her parents are so busy with their
own problems that they don't want to hear about hers. She is most likely to adopt a coping
strategy that involves
A) going to her teachers and asking for help.
B) arranging to study with a friend who gets good grades.
C) telling herself that she'll somehow get her act together by the final.
D) going to the library after school to study.
Answer: C
Sophie's situation suggests she may adopt an avoidant coping strategy by denying the
problem or minimizing its significance, such as telling herself she will somehow manage by
the final without seeking external help.
17) The experience of coping effectively with a stressful problem tends to
A) strengthen a teen's sense of self-efficacy.
B) reduce the level of stress when similar problems come up.
C) promote a general ability to rise above difficulties.
D) All of the above.
Answer: D

Coping effectively with stress can strengthen a teen's belief in their ability to handle
challenges (self-efficacy), reduce stress in similar situations through learned strategies, and
promote a general sense of resilience.
18) Justin's parents lost their home and jobs to a hurricane and had to move to emergency
housing. Justin has made friends in his new school, is keeping up his grades, and finds time to
help his little brother with homework. Justin is an example of
A) extrinsic motivation.
B) catastrophizing.
C) resilience.
D) cognitive dissonance.
Answer: C
Justin's ability to adapt positively to significant adversity demonstrates resilience, which
involves the ability to bounce back from difficult experiences and thrive despite challenges.
19) The adaptational systems that promote resilience in adolescents include all the following
A) self-efficacy.
B) extrinsic motivation.
C) attachment relationships.
D) positive self-regard.
Answer: B
Extrinsic motivation, which comes from external rewards or pressures, is not a core
component of the adaptational systems that promote resilience in adolescents. Instead,
resilience is fostered by factors such as self-efficacy, attachment relationships, and positive

20) Research on resilience suggests that the most basic factor in helping teens develop
normally under very difficult conditions is
A) warm connections to caring adults.
B) critical thinking.
C) strict self-discipline.
D) acknowledgment of one's limitations.
Answer: A
Warm connections to caring adults, such as parents or mentors, are considered fundamental in
helping teens develop normally under very difficult conditions by providing support,
guidance, and a sense of security.
21) The "Five Cs" that are the basic goals of positive youth development include all the
following except
A) Connection.
B) Confidence.
C) Commitment.
D) Caring.
Answer: C
The Five Cs of positive youth development are Connection, Confidence, Competence,
Caring, and Character. Commitment is not typically included as one of the Five Cs.
22) Among the Five Cs of positive youth development, _____ focuses on respect for rules
and a sense of right and wrong.
A) Competence
B) Character
C) Connection

D) Caring
Answer: B
Character focuses on ethical and moral development, including respect for rules and a sense
of right and wrong.
23) Among the Five Cs of positive youth development, _____ focuses on cognitive, social,
and academic skills.
A) Competence
B) Confidence
C) Connection
D) Caring
Answer: A
Competence refers to the development of cognitive, social, and academic skills, among
24) Among the Five Cs of positive youth development, _____ focuses on positive bonds with
others, such as peers, family members, and those in the community.
A) Character
B) Connection
C) Confidence
D) Caring
Answer: B
Connection focuses on building positive relationships and bonds with others.
25) According to Richard Lerner, as teens develop the Five Cs, they are on the way to a
"Sixth C," which is

A) Curiosity about the world and its people.
B) Contributions to the self, family, and community.
C) Calculations of the place they hope to fill in society.
D) Celebrations of the help they have received from others.
Answer: B
The "Sixth C" is Contributions, referring to the positive contributions teens make to
themselves, their families, and their communities as they develop the Five Cs.
26) Terms such as positive self-concept, future orientation, and communication skills are
frequently given by both adults and teens as important characteristics of _____ adolescents.
A) coping
B) resilient
C) thriving
D) normal
Answer: C
Thriving adolescents are described as having a positive self-concept, future orientation, and
strong communication skills, among other positive attributes.
27) When Zelda joined a school service organization, it gave a new focus to her desire to help
others. Her enthusiasm helped make the organization more lively and attractive to other
students, which made her enjoy it even more. The relationship between her and the
organization is an example of
A) a dynamic person-context interaction.
B) an adaptive developmental regulation.
C) goodness of fit.
D) All of the above.

Answer: D
The scenario illustrates a dynamic person-context interaction, where Zelda's involvement in
the organization influences and is influenced by the organization itself, leading to a positive
experience for her.
28) Among the recent social changes that reduce the resources teens need in order to thrive,
social scientists list all the following except
A) age segregation.
B) after school programs.
C) increased use of popular media.
D) reduced parental presence.
Answer: B
After-school programs are considered a resource that can support teens' positive
development, rather than reduce the resources they need to thrive.
29) Nailah’s parents are warm and accepting and hold appropriate goals and expectations for
her. Their _____ approach to parenting is a key element in her positive development.
A) authoritative
B) aspiring
C) authoritarian
D) efficacious
Answer: A
The authoritative approach to parenting, characterized by warmth, acceptance, and
appropriate goals and expectations, is associated with positive youth development.

30) Parents who are confident, caring, and involved in their community promote their
children's positive development by
A) serving as models.
B) encouraging intrinsic motivation for positive actions.
C) setting unrealistic expectations.
D) Both A and B.
Answer: D
Confident, caring, and involved parents can serve as positive models for their children and
encourage intrinsic motivation for positive actions, both of which promote positive
development. Setting unrealistic expectations, however, may not necessarily promote positive
31) One way parents can help foster positive development in their adolescent children is
through their knowledge of and associations in the community, or what is known as
A) synergy.
B) primary influence.
C) social capital.
D) working models.
Answer: C
Social capital refers to the resources and benefits that come from being connected to a
network of relationships within a community, which can help parents support their children's
positive development.
32) Gabriela became friends with Emily when they were in the same modern dance class.
This year Emily urged Gabriela to join a dance group that performs in old age homes.
Gabriela has found this an inspiring experience and intends to do more volunteer work with
the elderly. Emily's impact on Gabriela's positive development is an example of

A) selection.
B) socialization.
C) assortative friendship.
D) assimilation.
Answer: B
Socialization refers to the process through which individuals learn and adopt behaviors,
values, and attitudes from those around them, such as friends or peers.
33) Shimon's family just moved to a new area. Shimon's parents are warm, responsive, and
communicate well with him. It is likely that the friends he makes in his new school will be
A) prosocial and involved in school activities.
B) disengaged and apathetic.
C) whoever he happens to run across in the first few days.
D) hostile to authority.
Answer: A
Warm, responsive parents tend to foster positive social development in their children, leading
them to seek out and form relationships with other prosocial individuals.
34) An effective way for teens to develop their teamwork, leadership, communication, and
conflict resolution skills is by participating in
A) online forums.
B) individual sports.
C) structured youth activities.
D) foreign travel.
Answer: C

Structured youth activities, such as team sports or clubs, provide opportunities for teens to
develop these skills through collaboration and interaction with others.
35) Choosing to join a structured youth organization increases _____, which in turn promotes
more intense involvement.
A) intrinsic motivation
B) self-determination
C) a sense of empowerment
D) All of the above.
Answer: D
Joining a structured youth organization can increase intrinsic motivation, self-determination,
and a sense of empowerment, all of which can lead to more intense involvement in the
36) Scholars describe three features of youth activities that are important for promoting
positive development. These "Big Three" include
A) sustained positive relationships with adults.
B) opportunities to exercise personal authority.
C) peer counseling for deviant youth.
D) programs to help substance users quit.
Answer: A
The "Big Three" features of youth activities that promote positive development include
sustained positive relationships with adults, opportunities to exercise personal authority, and
opportunities for skill-building and mastery.
37) The developmental benefits from organized activities that have all the "Big Three"

A) include higher rates of college admission.
B) vary according to the type of activity.
C) depend on the amount of social capital a teen can access.
D) are greater for ethnic minority teens.
Answer: B
The developmental benefits of organized activities with the "Big Three" features can vary
depending on the specific type of activity and how well it aligns with the individual's interests
and needs.
38) A statistic that helps predict whether adolescents will feel a sense of membership in their
school is
A) annual spending per student.
B) the football team's win-loss record.
C) the ratio of teachers to students.
D) None of the above.
Answer: C
The ratio of teachers to students can influence the quality of relationships and support
students receive in school, which can impact their sense of membership and belonging.
39) Research indicates that adolescents spend much of their time feeling bored, especially
A) doing schoolwork.
B) watching television.
C) hanging with friends.
D) listening to music.
Answer: A

Research suggests that adolescents often report feeling bored while engaged in activities that
are not challenging or stimulating, such as schoolwork.
40) According to Reed Larson, the battle against boredom involves developing an intrinsic
motivation to direct effort toward a challenging goal, or
A) incentive.
B) flow.
C) initiative.
D) reward orientation.
Answer: C
Reed Larson suggests that overcoming boredom involves developing an intrinsic motivation
to pursue challenging goals, which requires initiative and a sense of purpose.
41) Shakira, 13, is generally very interested in the activities she undertakes. Research
suggests that
A) as she gets older, boredom will take over.
B) she believes what she does has an impact on what happens to her.
C) she has low expectations for the future.
D) she tends to choose easily achievable tasks.
Answer: B
Research suggests that individuals who are interested in their activities tend to believe that
their actions have an impact on outcomes, which is known as having an internal locus of
42) Activities that offer high levels of interest, intrinsic motivation, and realistic challenge are
more likely to lead to

A) the state of involvement called flow.
B) deeper frustration after setbacks.
C) the state of apathy called burnout.
D) competitiveness and hostility toward rivals.
Answer: A
Activities that provide a balance of interest, intrinsic motivation, and challenge are more
likely to lead to the state of flow, characterized by deep engagement and satisfaction.
43) According to Reinders and Youniss, community service experiences have more impact on
teen participants when they include
A) endorsements by prominent figures such as entertainers.
B) media involvement.
C) direct interaction with people in need.
D) online exchanges with people in distant lands.
Answer: C
Reinders and Youniss suggest that community service experiences have a greater impact
when they involve direct interaction with people in need, as it fosters empathy and a sense of
44) Living well the sort of life that is good for one to live is a common definition of
A) autogratification.
B) ambition.
C) happiness.
D) achievement.
Answer: C

Happiness is often defined as living well and experiencing a life that is good for oneself,
which encompasses aspects of fulfillment and satisfaction.
45) The view that people are happiest when they develop their potentials to contribute to the
greater good is known as
A) hedonism.
B) altruism.
C) communitarianism.
D) eudaimonia.
Answer: D
Eudaimonia is a philosophical concept suggesting that people are happiest when they fulfill
their potential and contribute to the greater good, leading to a sense of meaning and
46) The philosophical point of view that says happiness results from the pursuit of pleasure is
A) hedonism.
B) self-indulgence.
C) eudaimonia.
D) gluttony.
Answer: A
Hedonism is the philosophical view that pleasure and happiness are the primary or most
important intrinsic goods and that the pursuit of pleasure is the ultimate goal.
47) When adults were asked about the sources of happiness, those with the greatest life
satisfaction endorsed the _____ orientation.

A) eudaemonic
B) engagement
C) hedonistic
D) All of the above.
Answer: D
People with the greatest life satisfaction often endorse a combination of eudaemonic (focused
on fulfilling one's potential) and hedonistic (focused on pleasure and enjoyment) orientations
towards happiness.
48) The psychological characteristics that are linked to greater life satisfaction in teens
include all the following except
A) intrinsic motivation.
B) high social status.
C) mastery orientation.
D) prosocial attitudes.
Answer: B
High social status is not necessarily linked to greater life satisfaction in teens. Instead,
intrinsic motivation, mastery orientation, and prosocial attitudes are associated with higher
life satisfaction.
49) People who are happier are
A) refusing to see the world's misery.
B) more cooperative and prosocial.
C) more self-centered.
D) less well informed.
Answer: B

Research suggests that happier individuals tend to be more cooperative and prosocial, as they
have a positive outlook and are more likely to engage positively with others.
50) When teens allow themselves to hope that they can achieve happiness, they
A) imagine a happier future.
B) think that they can exert some control over their future.
C) expect that a happier future is actually a possibility.
D) All of the above.
Answer: D
Allowing oneself to hope for happiness involves imagining a happier future, believing in the
possibility of achieving happiness, and feeling a sense of control over one's future.
Essay Questions
1) What are the two major kinds of coping strategies, and under what circumstances is each
likely to be more useful?
Answer: Problem-focused coping involves trying to manage a threat and seeking practical
support. It is a more likely response when a threatening situation seems open to change.
Emotion-focused coping involves trying to reduce the negative emotions created by the threat
and seeking emotional support. It is a more likely response when a threatening situation
seems impossible to change or avoid. Girls are more likely to prefer emotion-focused
strategies and boys to prefer problem-focused strategies, but adolescents are flexible in
switching between problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, depending on the situation.
2) What is resilience, and what adaptational systems encourage its development?
Answer: Resilience is a general ability to rise above problems. The adaptational systems that
foster resilience include cognitive skills; attachment relationships; self-regulation of emotions
and behaviour; positive self-regard; self-efficacy; and intrinsic motivation. The most basic of
these is having warm, supportive connections to competent and caring adults in the family
and community.

3) What is meant by Lerner's statement that the arrow joining teens to their social
environment points both ways? How does this relate to his idea of a "sixth C"?
Answer: Lerner stresses the concept that adolescents are active participants in their own
development. Their choices and actions contribute to their well-being, and as they change, so
does the effect they have on their environment. This puts them on course toward the "Sixth
C" of Contributions to the self, the family, and the community.
4) Discuss the features that extracurricular and community based activities should have to
play in positive development.
Answer: Structured activities that include positive sustained relationships between teens and
adults, activities that build competencies and ways to use skills productively provide positive
developmental experiences. This implies settings with such features as physical and
psychological safety, clear rules and expectations, supportive relationships, and opportunities
to belong and to build skills.
5) How do initiative, interest, and engagement contribute to positive development?
Answer: Initiative is an internal motivation that directs effort toward meaningful and
challenging goals. Taking an interest in events and activities becomes part of a dynamic
system that generates continued and increasing interest. For teens, engagement with civil
society involves seeing themselves as active, involved members of their community whose
own welfare, and that of their families, friends, and neighbours, is affected by their efforts
and contributions.

Test Bank for Adolescence
Ian McMahan, Susan Thompson
9780205990559, 9780133957341, 9780205482320, 9780205843718

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