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Chapter 4: Families
Multiple Choice Questions
1) Parents and families strive to give children the values, beliefs, and aspirations of their
culture through the process of
A) assimilation.
B) skills training.
C) socialization.
D) discrimination learning.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Socialization is the process through which individuals learn the values, beliefs, and behaviors
of their culture or society. Parents and families play a crucial role in socializing children by
transmitting cultural norms and expectations.
2) According to Robert LeVine, in raising children, families implicitly give higher priority to
_____ than to encouraging self-fulfillment.
A) social advancement
B) economically valuable skills
C) creativity
D) All of the above.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Robert LeVine suggests that in many cultures, including some Western cultures, families
prioritize imparting economically valuable skills to children over encouraging them to pursue
self-fulfillment or creativity.
3) Family members have a direct influence on each other. In addition, each ________between
two of the members has an indirect effect on a third member who also has an influence on

that relationship. Each of these relationships has a reciprocal effect on each of the other
relationships.
A) open relationship
B) one-way relationship
C) dyadic relationship
D) dynamic relationship
Answer: C
Rationale:
A dyadic relationship refers to a relationship between two individuals, such as parent-child or
sibling-sibling. The interaction between these two individuals can indirectly affect other
family members, leading to a complex web of reciprocal influences within the family.
4) Maria's cheerful "Good morning!" elicits a smile from her mother, which raises Maria's
spirits further and leads her to make a joke. This is an example of
A) assimilation.
B) a positive feedback loop.
C) a discriminative stimulus.
D) a negative feedback loop.
Answer: B
Rationale:
This scenario describes a positive feedback loop, where Maria's cheerful behavior elicits a
positive response from her mother, which then reinforces Maria's initial behavior, leading to
an escalation of positive feelings and interactions.
5) Carlos finds his brother's low spirits depressing, but he proposes a game they both like and
soon both are in a better mood. This is an example of a
A) negative feedback loop.
B) positive feedback loop.

C) phase transition.
D) disequilibrium.
Answer: A
Rationale:
This scenario illustrates a negative feedback loop, where Carlos's response to his brother's
low spirits (proposing a game) helps to counteract the negative feelings, leading to an
improvement in both of their moods.
6) _____ feedback loops tend to make a dynamic system _____.
A) Positive; stay the same
B) Positive; unpredictable
C) Negative; stay the same
D) Negative; change
Answer: C
Rationale:
Negative feedback loops tend to stabilize a dynamic system by counteracting changes and
maintaining equilibrium.
7) A situation in which even minor events can strongly affect developmental paths is known
as a(n)
A) pattern crisis.
B) phase transition.
C) crucial conjunction.
D) stage boundary.
Answer: B
Rationale:
A phase transition refers to a situation where small events or changes can lead to significant
shifts or alterations in the developmental trajectory of an individual or a system.

8) With adolescence, the function of the family tends to change because
A) issues of authority become more troublesome.
B) social interests focus more outside the family circle.
C) teens may expect more autonomy than parents are ready to allow.
D) All of the above.
Answer: D
Rationale:
Adolescence is a period of transition where individuals seek more independence and
autonomy, leading to changes in family dynamics, including issues with authority and a shift
in social interests.
9) In North America, the most common concept of a family is a single set of parents and
children, or a(n) _____ family.
A) nuclear
B) reconstituted
C) extended
D) isolated
Answer: A
Rationale:
The nuclear family is a family unit consisting of two parents and their children, and it is often
considered the most common family structure in North America.
10) The _____ family is more common among Aboriginal and ethno-cultural communities in
Canada.
A) nuclear
B) extended
C) reconstituted
D) isolated

Answer: B
Rationale:
Extended families, which include relatives beyond the nuclear family, are more common
among Aboriginal and ethno-cultural communities in Canada, reflecting cultural values and
traditions that prioritize familial connections and support networks.
11) Parents who praise their children's accomplishments and notice their signals are high on
the dimension of
A) democracy.
B) acceptance/responsiveness.
C) permissiveness.
D) demandingness/control.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Acceptance/responsiveness refers to the degree to which parents are supportive, responsive,
and accepting of their children's needs and signals. Praising accomplishments and being
attentive to signals are indicative of high acceptance/responsiveness.
12) According to Diana Baumrind, an _____ parenting style involves high responsiveness
and low demandingness.
A) authoritative
B) authoritarian
C) indulgent
D) indifferent
Answer: C
Rationale:
Diana Baumrind's parenting styles framework includes indulgent parenting, which is
characterized by high responsiveness but low demandingness or control over the child's
behavior.

13) "I really want to watch that show tonight!" "Sorry, you know the rule: no TV on school
nights. But if it's really important, we'll make a point of taping or downloading it so you can
watch on the weekend." This exemplifies an _____ parenting style.
A) authoritative
B) authoritarian
C) indulgent
D) indifferent
Answer: A
Rationale:
This scenario demonstrates an authoritative parenting style, which combines high levels of
responsiveness (considering the child's request and offering a compromise) with high levels
of demandingness/control (maintaining rules about TV watching on school nights).
14) "Where are you going?" “Out with my friends." "Okay, but if those kids you hang out
with get you in trouble, I don't want to know about it." This best represents an _____
parenting style.
A) authoritative
B) authoritarian
C) indulgent
D) indifferent
Answer: D
Rationale:
This scenario depicts an indifferent parenting style, where the parent shows a lack of interest
or concern about the child's activities and associates.
15) Olga’s mother sets strict rules and punishes any infractions. When Olga tries to argue, her
response is, "I'm your mother, and Mother knows best." This is closest to an _____ parental
style.
A) authoritative

B) authoritarian
C) indulgent
D) indifferent
Answer: B
Rationale:
This scenario reflects an authoritarian parenting style, characterized by high
demandingness/control (strict rules and punishment) but low responsiveness (lack of
consideration for the child's perspective or negotiation).
16) Fong is self-confident, positive, and independent, and does well in school. Research
indicates that he is more likely to come from a family with _____ parents.
A) authoritative
B) authoritarian
C) indulgent
D) indifferent
Answer: A
Rationale:
Research suggests that children raised by authoritative parents, who are high in both
responsiveness and demandingness, tend to exhibit positive outcomes such as selfconfidence, independence, and academic success.
17) In considering the effects adolescents have on parental styles, it is important to remember
that
A) teens usually get the kind of parenting they need
B) parental expectations determine the child's temperament.
C) a child's characteristics may call forth some types of parenting more than others.
D) adolescents are more affected by siblings than by parents.
Answer: C

Rationale:
This statement highlights the bidirectional nature of parent-child interactions, suggesting that
a child's characteristics and behaviors can influence the parenting style that parents employ.
18) Among ethnic minority parents in Canada, ________ may be classified as authoritative.
A) all
B) a majority
C) fewer
D) none
Answer: B
Rationale:
Research indicates that a majority of ethnic minority parents in Canada may be classified as
authoritative, which is associated with positive developmental outcomes in children.
19) Diana Baumrind has described a fifth parenting style, labeled traditional parenting that is
_____ in warmth and _____ in parental authority.
A) high; low
B) low; high
C) high; high
D) low; low
Answer: C
Rationale:
Traditional parenting, as described by Baumrind, is characterized by high warmth and high
parental authority, suggesting a combination of nurturing behavior and clear, consistent rules
and expectations.
20) Obedience and respect for authority are values that _____ parents are especially likely to
stress to their children.
A) middle class

B) nontraditional
C) professional
D) working class
Answer: D
Rationale:
Working-class parents are more likely to emphasize obedience and respect for authority as
values to instill in their children, reflecting cultural values and socialization practices within
working-class communities.
21) According to Laurence Steinberg, the outcomes that are linked to authoritative parenting
A) vary according to ethnic group.
B) are highly desirable in contemporary industrialized societies.
C) are equally adaptive across all cultural contexts.
D) do not give adolescents any particular advantage.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Authoritative parenting, characterized by high levels of responsiveness and demandingness,
is linked to positive outcomes such as better academic performance, higher self-esteem, and
lower rates of problem behavior, which are highly desirable in contemporary industrialized
societies.
22) Teens whose parents take an authoritative approach have more positive outcomes
A) only if they are White and middle class.
B) in North America but not in other countries.
C) only in Western cultures.
D) regardless of racial, ethnic, class, or cultural background.
Answer: D
Rationale:

Research indicates that the positive outcomes associated with authoritative parenting are
observed across various racial, ethnic, class, and cultural backgrounds, suggesting that this
parenting style is beneficial across diverse contexts.
23) Without prompting, Makeeba makes sure she schedules study time, cleans her room, and
gets up in time to go to school. In this she is showing
A) psychological control.
B) the effects of authoritarian parenting.
C) behavioural autonomy.
D) psychological autonomy.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Makeeba's behavior demonstrates behavioral autonomy, which refers to the ability to make
independent decisions and take responsibility for one's actions without external prompting or
control.
24) With increased _____, Eric has come to see his parents as people who make as many
mistakes as anyone else and to depend on them less for a sense of security.
A) emotional autonomy
B) behavioral autonomy
C) family conflict
D) gender intensification
Answer: A
Rationale:
Eric's increased emotional autonomy suggests that he has developed a sense of independence
and self-reliance, allowing him to view his parents more realistically and rely less on them for
emotional security.
25) Moving toward autonomy is difficult for young adolescents because
A) their parents still see them as children.

B) they need to change long-established roles and habits.
C) they may be tempted to stay in the comfortable role of a child.
D) All of the above.
Answer: D
Rationale:
Young adolescents face challenges in moving toward autonomy due to factors such as
parental perceptions, the need to change established roles and habits, and the temptation to
remain in the familiar and comfortable role of a child.
26) Monitoring a child's behavior and structuring daily environments are important aspects of
A) psychological autonomy.
B) behavioral control.
C) psychological control.
D) emotional autonomy.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Monitoring a child's behavior and structuring daily environments are key components of
behavioral control, which involves setting clear expectations and limits for a child's behavior.
27) Anxiety, depression, and withdrawn behavior have all been linked to high levels of
A) emotional autonomy.
B) behavioral control.
C) authoritative parenting.
D) psychological control.
Answer: D
Rationale:

High levels of psychological control, which involve intrusiveness, manipulation, and
invalidation of a child's feelings, have been associated with negative outcomes such as
anxiety, depression, and withdrawn behavior in children.
28) Parents who are supportive and responsive have adolescents who are more likely to
A) tell them about difficulties and problem behaviors.
B) need close monitoring.
C) be low in emotional autonomy.
D) get involved in drug, alcohol, and tobacco use.
Answer: A
Rationale:
Supportive and responsive parents create a supportive environment where adolescents feel
comfortable sharing their difficulties and problem behaviors, leading to better communication
and potentially lower risk of engagement in negative behaviors.
29) Parents who are sensitive, affectionate, and responsive generally have babies who form
_____ attachments.
A) disorganized
B) avoidant
C) secure
D) resistant
Answer: C
Rationale:
Secure attachments are characterized by sensitive, affectionate, and responsive caregiving,
which fosters a sense of security and trust in the infant.
30) According to John Bowlby, experiences in infancy lead to the formation of _____ that
affect expectations about relationships with others.
A) internal working models

B) cathexes
C) engrams
D) generalized responses
Answer: A
Rationale:
John Bowlby's attachment theory posits that experiences in infancy shape the development of
internal working models, which are cognitive frameworks that influence how individuals
perceive and respond to relationships throughout their lives.
31) The working models of the self and others that form in infancy
A) usually change as the result of later experience.
B) affect relationships with the parents but not with others.
C) predict relationships with friends and romantic partners in adolescence.
D) lose their importance after early childhood.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Research suggests that the working models of self and others formed in infancy can predict
the quality of relationships with friends and romantic partners in adolescence and beyond,
indicating that these models remain influential throughout development.
32) Family conflicts in early adolescence are most likely to occur between
A) mothers and sons.
B) mothers and daughters.
C) fathers and sons.
D) fathers and daughters.
Answer: B
Rationale:

Family conflicts in early adolescence are more likely to occur between mothers and
daughters, possibly due to the closer emotional bonds and greater similarity in roles and
expectations between mothers and daughters compared to other parent-child pairs.
33) Research indicates that conflict between adolescents and parents
A) is a necessary feature of growing up.
B) gets more severe across the adolescent years.
C) generally involves fairly minor issues.
D) is usually worse than parents expect.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Studies suggest that conflict between adolescents and parents typically involves relatively
minor issues, such as chores, homework, or curfews, rather than major disagreements.
34) Adolescents are more likely to come into conflict with their parents on an issue such as
A) appropriate dress.
B) religious beliefs.
C) whether to go to college.
D) the value of tolerance.
Answer: A
Rationale:
Adolescents are more likely to come into conflict with their parents over issues related to
personal autonomy and self-expression, such as appropriate dress, rather than more abstract
or long-term issues like religious beliefs or the value of tolerance.
35) Twin studies and adoption studies are important tools for research on
A) ethology.
B) environmental psychology.
C) behavioural genetics.

D) internal working models.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Twin studies and adoption studies are commonly used in behavioral genetics to study the
relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences on behavior and development.
36) Samantha and her sister have very different memories of the family vacations they were
on together. A behavioral geneticist would therefore tend to see the vacations as
A) irrelevant.
B) shared environmental influences.
C) precipitating events.
D) nonshared environmental influences.
Answer: D
Rationale:
The fact that Samantha and her sister have different memories of the same family vacations
suggests that their experiences during the vacations were nonshared environmental
influences, which are unique to each individual and can contribute to differences in behavior
and development.
37) Everybody in Mustafa’s family is cheerful and outgoing, and his parents have always
liked having lots of friends and relatives around. Sandra Scarr would suggest that Mustafa’s
own outgoing nature probably reflects a(n) _____ genotype-environment correlation.
A) active
B) passive
C) evocative
D) latent
Answer: B
Rationale:

Sandra Scarr's concept of a passive genotype-environment correlation suggests that Mustafa's
outgoing nature is influenced by the genetic predispositions of his family members, which
create an environment that encourages and reinforces similar behavior in him.
38) The first day of gymnastics class, the coach noticed Vanessa's slim build, strong arms,
and sense of balance, and began giving her the special attention that helped her become a
champion. This exemplifies what Sandra Scarr has termed a(n) _____ genotype-environment
correlation.
A) passive
B) behavioral
C) active
D) evocative
Answer: D
Rationale:
This scenario illustrates an evocative genotype-environment correlation, where Vanessa's
genetic traits (slim build, strong arms, sense of balance) evoke a specific response from her
environment (special attention from the coach) that influences her development and behavior.
39) When Fazia discovered she was gifted at playing chess, she talked her parents into letting
her join an after-school chess club across town. For Sandra Scarr, this would be an example
of a(n) _____ genotype-environment correlation.
A) active
B) passive
C) evocative
D) inherent
Answer: A
Rationale:

Fazia's initiative to join the chess club represents an active genotype-environment correlation,
where her genetic predisposition for chess playing influences her active selection of an
environment that supports and enhances her skill.
40) For some individuals but not others, early stress may change the way their genes control
stress-linked hormones later in life. This would be an example of a
A) phase transition.
B) shared environmental influence.
C) gene-environment interaction.
D) behavioral shift.
Answer: C
Rationale:
This scenario illustrates a gene-environment interaction, where early stress modifies the
expression of genes related to stress-linked hormones, leading to different outcomes in
individuals based on their genetic predispositions and environmental experiences.
41) During adolescence, relationships between siblings generally become
A) more equal.
B) more distant.
C) less conflictful
D) All of the above.
Answer: D
Rationale:
During adolescence, relationships between siblings often become more equal as siblings
mature and develop more equal footing. However, they can also become more distant as
siblings pursue individual interests and activities. Conflict between siblings may also
decrease as they mature and learn to communicate and resolve conflicts more effectively.
42) During adolescence, siblings who are close in age may go out of their way to choose
different interests, activities, and friends, in a process called

A) separation anxiety.
B) de-identification.
C) sibling collusion.
D) nonshared environment.
Answer: B
Rationale:
De-identification is a process where siblings who are close in age differentiate themselves
from each other by choosing different interests, activities, and friends. This helps them
establish their own identities separate from their siblings.
43) Currently, 16.7% of families are lone-parent families (Statistics Canada, 2012), with the
number of lone-father families __________ than lone-mother families. The latter makes up 8
of 10 lone-parent families.
A) rising faster
B) rising slower
C) rising at the same rate
D) stabilizing
Answer: A
Rationale:
The number of lone-father families is rising faster than lone-mother families, although lonemother families still make up the majority of lone-parent families.
44) By way of comparison, among teens raised in non-divorcing homes, about _______%
show no long-term adjustment problems. This suggests that divorce is responsible for some
adolescents who develop psychological and behavior problems and a small fraction of the
entire group of teens who have experienced a parental divorce.
A) 60
B) 75
C) 81

D) 90
Answer: D
Rationale:
About 90% of teens raised in non-divorcing homes show no long-term adjustment problems.
This suggests that divorce contributes to the development of psychological and behavior
problems in some adolescents, but it is not the sole factor.
45) Most adolescents who experience their parents' divorce
A) also experience living in a stepfamily.
B) are likely to live in a single-parent home until they grow up.
C) have fewer problems if the custodial parent remarries.
D) get more attention if the custodial parent remarries.
Answer: A
Rationale:
Most adolescents who experience their parents' divorce also experience living in a stepfamily,
as one or both parents often remarry or enter into a cohabiting relationship.
46) Among adolescents, the remarriage of the custodial parent is most difficult for
A) younger boys.
B) younger girls.
C) older boys.
D) older girls.
Answer: B
Rationale:
The remarriage of the custodial parent is often most difficult for younger girls, as they may
struggle with adjusting to a new parental figure and changes in family dynamics.
47) The effects of having both parents employed tend to be _____ for adolescent boys and
_____ for adolescent girls.

A) positive; positive
B) positive; negative
C) negative; positive
D) negative; negative
Answer: C
Rationale:
The effects of having both parents employed tend to be negative for adolescent boys and
positive for adolescent girls. Boys may experience fewer negative effects if their mothers are
employed, while girls may benefit from having working mothers as role models.
48) Adolescents who are on their own after school and on vacation days, often because their
parents are at work, are called _____ teens.
A) latchkey
B) trouble-prone
C) neglected
D) abandoned
Answer: A
Rationale:
Adolescents who are on their own after school and on vacation days, often because their
parents are at work, are called latchkey teens.
49) Adolescents who have to take care of themselves after school and on holidays because
their parents are employed
A) become more confident and self-reliant.
B) benefit when they receive close parental monitoring.
C) spend more time doing their homework.
D) take on a greater share of household chores.
Answer: B

Rationale:
Adolescents who have to take care of themselves after school and on holidays may benefit
from close parental monitoring, which can provide support and guidance during their
unsupervised time.
50) Compared with adolescents raised by heterosexual parents, those raised by gay and
lesbian parents
A) have low self-esteem.
B) are just as likely to develop a heterosexual orientation as adults.
C) are less likely to become involved in romantic relationships.
D) have more academic difficulties.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Research suggests that adolescents raised by gay and lesbian parents are just as likely to
develop a heterosexual orientation as adults as those raised by heterosexual parents. There is
no evidence to suggest that they have low self-esteem, are less likely to become involved in
romantic relationships, or have more academic difficulties.
Essay Questions
1) What are the four patterns of parenting described by Baumrind, and how are they related to
important dimensions of child rearing? Is one of these patterns more closely associated with
positive adolescent outcomes? How and why?
Answer: The patterns and their association with child rearing dimensions are: authoritative
(high responsiveness, high demandingness); authoritarian (low responsiveness, high
demandingness); indulgent (high responsiveness, low demandingness); and indifferent (low
responsiveness, low demandingness). The authoritative pattern is consistently linked to more
positive outcomes because of its merging of age-appropriate demands and age-appropriate
granting of autonomy.
2) When Jaime's mother tells him to clean his room, he gets upset and tells her it’s his room
and he'll keep it the way he likes it. They end up in a shouting match. Analyze the sources of
this argument.

Answer: According to Smetana's work, parents and teens broadly agree about who has final
say in different domains (safety, moral, personal, etc.), but often disagree about what issues
belong to which domains.
3) Amit's and Leila's marriage is in trouble, but they worry about the effects of any breakup
on 8-year-old Indira and 13-year-old Lallchand. What could you tell them about how their
children are likely to react to a divorce, and what advice could you give to help them and the
kids to adapt to the breakup?
Answer: If the divorce is preceded or accompanied by overt hostility, the negative effects on
children are more severe. Parents should assure children that they are not among the causes of
the breakup.
4) What are some of the benefits and costs of growing up with a younger sibling? Of growing
up with an older sibling?
Answer: Sibling relationships offer chances to exercise authority and to follow instruction
within a basically equal relationship. The joint pattern of older/younger and sister/brother has
generally positive effects on gender roles and social perspective taking.
5) In grade school, Jorge's sweet singing voice attracted the attention of his church's choir
director, who pushed his parents to give him singing lessons. Now, in high school, he is a
soloist in the school chorus and a candidate for a big role in the annual school musical.
Assuming that one's voice is affected by genetic factors, analyze Jorge's situation in terms of
Starr's gene-environment interactions.
Answer: This is primarily an instance of an evocative gene-environment interaction. A
genetically affected characteristic -- the voice -- evoked a positive environmental response the choir director's interest - that furthered the development of the characteristic.

Test Bank for Adolescence
Ian McMahan, Susan Thompson
9780205990559, 9780133957341, 9780205482320, 9780205843718

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