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Chapter 11: Challenges
Multiple Choice Questions
1) Teens with _____ problems tend to have weak impulse control and are more likely to be
boys than girls.
A) somatizing
B) internalizing
C) externalizing
D) psychologizing
Answer: C
Externalizing problems are characterized by outward behaviors, such as aggression and
impulsivity. These behaviors are more commonly seen in boys than girls during adolescence.
2) Xaviar was caught vandalizing a local cemetery. He also gets into fights at school. It is
likely that
A) his problems are the result of a difficult transition into adolescence.
B) he also had conduct problems as a child.
C) he will go on to become a career criminal as an adult.
D) he suffers from a hormonal imbalance.
Answer: B
Xaviar's behavior suggests conduct problems, which often manifest in childhood and
continue into adolescence. This pattern indicates a long-standing issue rather than a transient
difficulty related to adolescence.
3) Actions such as buying cigarettes or alcohol that are against the law for minors but not for
adults are known as
A) status offences.

B) delinquency.
C) juvenile infractions.
D) minor violations.
Answer: A
Status offences are actions that are only considered offenses because of the individual's status
as a minor, such as purchasing cigarettes or alcohol.
4) Teens with _____ problems tend to repress their impulses and are more likely to be girls
than boys.
A) externalizing
B) psychologizing
C) internalizing
D) somatizing
Answer: C
Internalizing problems involve inward-focused behaviors, such as anxiety and depression,
which are more commonly seen in girls than boys during adolescence.
5) Researchers find that many teens with conduct problems are also depressed; this is an
example of
A) disinhibition.
B) overlapping disorders.
C) amplification.
D) comorbidity.
Answer: D

Comorbidity refers to the presence of two or more disorders in the same individual. In this
case, conduct problems and depression co-occur in many teens.
6) Depression, anxiety, and eating disorders are among the more common _____ problems
during adolescence.
A) externalizing
B) psychosomatic
C) internalizing
D) incurable
Answer: C
Internalizing problems, such as depression, anxiety, and eating disorders, are common during
adolescence and often manifest as inward-focused behaviors.
7) Slobadan skips school, gets into a lot of fights, and commits vandalism. He is exhibiting
_____ problems.
A) internalizing
B) externalizing
C) personality
D) somatizing
Answer: B
Slobadan's behaviors, such as skipping school, fighting, and vandalism, are characteristic of
externalizing problems, which involve outward-directed behaviors.
8) The offenses known as index crimes include
A) violent crimes.
B) status offenses.
C) property crimes.

D) Both A and C.
Answer: D
Index crimes are serious offenses that are commonly used to gauge the overall crime rate.
They include violent crimes (e.g., murder, robbery) and property crimes (e.g., burglary, theft).
9) The most common offence committed by Canadian youth is
A) mischief.
B) drug violation.
C) theft under $5000.
D) homicide.
Answer: C
Theft under $5000 is the most common offence committed by Canadian youth, according to
10) __________ is a legal term for behaviours such as truancy and running away, misconduct
like being disruptive in school, and minor offences such as gambling.
A) Delinquency
B) Antisocial behaviour
C) Conduct disorder
D) Young offender
Answer: A
Delinquency refers to a range of behaviors that are considered illegal when committed by
minors, including truancy, running away, disruptive behavior, and minor offenses.
11) Between 2001-2010, the rate of violent crimes in Canada by those under 18 has

A) stayed level.
B) climbed sharply.
C) declined.
D) fluctuated randomly.
Answer: C
The rate of violent crimes committed by individuals under 18 in Canada declined between
2001 and 2010, indicating a decrease in such offenses during that period.
12) Studies that have evaluated the effects of punishing adolescents as adults suggest that
A) those sent to adult prisons are more likely to give up their criminal activities to avoid
further punishment.
B) those sent to adult prisons are more likely to be arrested again once they are out.
C) the harsh punishment given to offenders scares other teens into avoiding delinquent
D) None of the above; the results are inconclusive.
Answer: B
Studies suggest that adolescents sent to adult prisons are more likely to be arrested again once
released, indicating that this form of punishment may not effectively deter future criminal
13) Bias, long-term inequities, marginalization and severe family dysfunction are among the
reasons why ______________youth are overrepresented in the youth justice system.
A) foreign-born (immigrant)
B) Canadian-born (immigrant)
C) black
D) Aboriginal

Answer: D
Aboriginal youth in Canada are overrepresented in the youth justice system due to various
factors, including bias, historical inequities, marginalization, and severe family dysfunction
within their communities.
14) A contributor to the gap between self-reported delinquency and crime statistics is that a
good deal of delinquency by _________ adolescents never makes it into official records.
A) low-income
B) middle-class
C) South Asian
D) illegal-immigrant
Answer: B
Middle-class adolescents may engage in delinquent behaviors that go unreported or do not
result in official records, leading to a gap between self-reported delinquency rates and official
crime statistics.
15) Important risk factor(s) for delinquency that continues into adulthood is/are
A) hostile or neglecting parents.
B) high levels of impulsiveness.
C) low IQ scores.
D) All of the above.
Answer: D
Hostile or neglectful parenting, high levels of impulsiveness, and low IQ scores are all
significant risk factors for delinquency that persists into adulthood.

16) John was an aggressive and defiant kid in grade school, and as a teen he is involved in
serious delinquency. His mother, a single parent, has given up on him. John is at high risk for
becoming a(n) _____ offender.
A) status
B) life-course-persistent
C) adolescence-limited
D) transitory
Answer: B
John's history of aggressive behavior and defiance, combined with family factors such as
single-parenting and maternal detachment, puts him at high risk for becoming a life-coursepersistent offender who continues delinquent behavior into adulthood.
17) Charlie is unpopular with most classmates because he picks fights. The chances are that
he will
A) hang out with other aggressive guys, overestimate how antisocial they are, and try to live
up to them by becoming even more aggressive.
B) realize he has a problem and try to learn how to make friends.
C) settle down once he gets a girlfriend.
D) pick a fight with someone tougher than him, get beaten, and become timid and withdrawn.
Answer: A
Charlie's behavior suggests he may engage in a process known as deviancy training, where he
associates with other aggressive peers and adopts more aggressive behaviors to fit in with that
18) Another student brushes by Mariano's desk and knocks his book to the floor. Mariano
jumps up and threatens him. It is likely that Mariano has a(n)
A) oppositional defiance disorder.

B) attention deficit disorder.
C) hostile attributional bias.
D) adolescence-limited syndrome.
Answer: C
Mariano's reaction to the situation, where he immediately interprets the action as a threat and
responds aggressively, suggests he may have a hostile attributional bias, a tendency to
perceive ambiguous or neutral actions as hostile.
19) In Canada, youth gangs are found in almost every major city and are engaged in the
following, except
A) prostitution.
B) drug trafficking.
C) trying to eliminate rival gangs.
D) pro-social homelessness prevention.
Answer: D
Youth gangs in Canada are involved in various illegal activities, including prostitution, drug
trafficking, and intergang violence, but they are not typically engaged in pro-social activities
such as homelessness prevention.
20) In a study comparing Montreal and Toronto, over _______ of students in the schools in
Toronto, and 7% in Montreal, knew someone who had brought a gun to school, and many
students reported that they felt guns were a very or somewhat serious problem in school.
A) one-tenth
B) one-third
C) one-fifth
D) one-quarter

Answer: C
The study revealed that a significant percentage of students in Toronto schools knew someone
who had brought a gun to school, indicating a perceived seriousness of the issue of guns in
schools in both cities.
21) The presence of guns in schools in Canada is much lower than in the United States due to
the ______ legislation we do have in place.
A) zero tolerance
B) neighbourhood watch
C) violent student expulsion
D) gun control
Answer: D
The lower presence of guns in Canadian schools compared to the United States is largely
attributed to the country's stricter gun control legislation.
22) While studying for an important exam, Julie asks a friend for a dose of a prescription
drug that is rumored to focus attention. Julie's substance use in this case is _____ and _____.
A) recreational; licit
B) instrumental; illicit
C) instrumental; licit
D) recreational; illicit
Answer: B
Julie's use of the prescription drug for its perceived cognitive-enhancing effects during
studying is instrumental (using a substance for a specific purpose) and illicit (using a
prescription drug without a prescription).

23) Gus and a couple of friends meet in the parking lot every morning before school to share
a hit of marijuana. This substance use is _____ and _____.
A) instrumental; licit
B) recreational; licit
C) recreational; illicit
D) instrumental; illicit
Answer: C
Gus and his friends' use of marijuana before school for enjoyment and social bonding
purposes is recreational and illicit, as marijuana is illegal for recreational use in most places.
24) Psychoactive substances that can lead to drug dependence include
A) alcohol.
B) nicotine.
C) opiates.
D) All of the above.
Answer: D
Alcohol, nicotine, and opiates are all psychoactive substances that have the potential to lead
to drug dependence with regular use.
25) When Philippe tried to stop smoking, he got twitchy and very uncomfortable. The only
way he found to relieve these symptoms was to light a cigarette. Philippe is experiencing the
effects of
A) drug dependence.
B) lack of character strength.
C) drug withdrawal.
D) both A and C.

Answer: D
Philippe's symptoms of twitchiness and discomfort when trying to stop smoking, which are
relieved by smoking again, indicate he is experiencing drug withdrawal, a common sign of
drug dependence.
26) Health Canada (2012) reported the use of marijuana decreased from ____% of youth aged
15 to 24 in 2004 to just _____ % in 2011.
A) 18; 15
B) 25; 18.1
C) 37; 21.6
D) 42; 23.5
Answer: C
The decrease in marijuana use among youth aged 15 to 24 from 37% in 2004 to 21.6% in
2011, as reported by Health Canada, indicates a decline in marijuana consumption during that
27) The rate of alcohol consumption among Canadian students went from 3.4% of Grade 7
students to nearly _____% of Grade 12 students.
A) 22
B) 35
C) 43
D) 51
Answer: D
The increase in alcohol consumption from 3.4% of Grade 7 students to nearly 51% of Grade
12 students indicates a significant rise in alcohol use as students progress through school.

28) In low doses, the first effect of alcohol is to depress the cerebral cortex. This weakens the
ability of the cortex to control and inhibit behaviour, so people feel stimulated. However,
alcohol is a
A) stimulant.
B) depressant.
C) booster.
D) enabler.
Answer: B
Alcohol is a depressant that initially suppresses the cerebral cortex, leading to reduced
inhibitions and a feeling of stimulation, but ultimately depresses the central nervous system.
29) Health Canada (2012) reported a finding that nearly ______% of youth aged 15 to 24 had
used alcohol in the past year.
A) 41
B) 51
C) 61
D) 71
Answer: D
The report from Health Canada indicating that nearly 71% of youth aged 15 to 24 had used
alcohol in the past year highlights the widespread use of alcohol among Canadian youth.
30) Although 16- to 25-year-olds made up only 13.2% of Canada’s population in 2006, in that
year they made up _____% of alcohol-related crash fatalities (MADD, 2012).
A) 15.5
B) 21.6
C) 33.4

D) 40
Answer: C
The statistic from MADD indicating that 16- to 25-year-olds, who made up only 13.2% of
Canada's population in 2006, accounted for 33.4% of alcohol-related crash fatalities
highlights the disproportionate impact of alcohol-related crashes on this age group.
31) The percentage of students who had ridden with a driver who had been drinking ranged
from 24% to _____% for Grade 12 students.
A) 32
B) 47
C) 51
D) 63
Answer: B
The percentage of Grade 12 students who had ridden with a driver who had been drinking
ranged up to 47%, indicating a significant proportion of students engaging in this risky
32) _______is the single biggest preventable cause of death in Canada (Statistics Canada,
A) Car crashes
B) Suicide
C) Cigarette smoking
D) Alcoholism
Answer: C

Cigarette smoking is identified as the single biggest preventable cause of death in Canada,
highlighting the significant health impact of smoking.
33) In one study, ______smokers who were in treatment programs for drug abuse said it was
much harder to quit smoking than to kick a drug habit (Koslowski et al., 1989).
A) 1 in 5
B) 1 in 4
C) 1 in 3
D) 2 in 3
Answer: C
The study found that 1 in 3 smokers in treatment programs for drug abuse reported that
quitting smoking was much harder than kicking a drug habit, indicating the challenges of
smoking cessation.
34) Tiffany's health education teacher says that someone who smokes marijuana is more
likely to go on more dangerous drugs such as heroin or cocaine. This is known as the _____
A) gateway
B) get-away
C) high-way
D) sure-way
Answer: A
The idea that using marijuana can lead to the use of more dangerous drugs is known as the
gateway hypothesis.
35) _____, the major psychoactive substance in marijuana lingers in the body for several days
A) Nicotine

C) Hemp resin
D) Hash
Answer: B
THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), the major psychoactive substance in marijuana, can linger in the
body for several days after use, leading to potential detection in drug tests.
36) Up to ______of Grade 12 students have been in a car driven by someone under the
influence of marijuana.
A) 30
B) 40
C) 50
D) 60
Answer: C
Up to 50% of Grade 12 students have reported being in a car driven by someone under the
influence of marijuana, indicating a concerning prevalence of marijuana-impaired driving
among youth.
37) In an eastern Canadian study 40% of Grade 8 girls reported
A) they are happy with their body proportions and weight.
B) they are overweight or obese.
C) they add more muscle than body fat during puberty.
D) they want to lose weight even though many were not overweight.
Answer: D

The study found that 40% of Grade 8 girls reported wanting to lose weight, even though
many were not overweight, indicating a significant concern about body image and weight
among young girls.
38) Kate is very thin, intensely afraid of gaining weight, and convinced that any bite of food
she takes will make her swell up like a balloon. She is probably suffering from
A) bulimia.
B) an oral fixation.
C) Barbie syndrome.
D) anorexia nervosa.
Answer: D
Kate's symptoms, including intense fear of weight gain and distorted body image, are
characteristic of anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder characterized by restrictive eating habits
and excessive weight loss.
39) Victoria is sometimes overwhelmed by an urge to overeat. The only way she knows to
stay at a normal weight is to make herself throw up after an eating binge. Victoria is probably
suffering from
A) anorexia nervosa.
B) a weight fixation.
C) bulimia.
D) depression.
Answer: C
Victoria's behavior, including binge eating followed by purging, is indicative of bulimia
nervosa, an eating disorder characterized by cycles of binge eating and purging.
40) While relatively few young women are diagnosed with clinical cases of bulimia, about
_____ show some bulimic symptoms.

A) 1 in 10
B) 1 in 5
C) 1 in 3
D) half
Answer: B
While clinical cases of bulimia nervosa are relatively few among young women,
approximately 1 in 5 exhibit some bulimic symptoms, indicating a significant prevalence of
disordered eating behaviors.
41) Which of the following girls is at greatest risk for developing anorexia?
A) Tanya, whose family is Black and working class.
B) Felicity, whose family is White and upper middle class.
C) Maria, whose family is Hispanic and working class.
D) Alicia, whose family is Black and middle class.
Answer: B
Research suggests that anorexia nervosa is more common among individuals from higher
socioeconomic backgrounds, such as White and upper middle-class families. These groups
often face greater pressure to conform to cultural ideals of thinness, which can contribute to
the development of eating disorders.
42) The most common psychological disturbance among adolescents is
A) anorexia nervosa.
B) conduct disorder.
C) gender identity disorder.
D) depression.
Answer: D

Depression is the most common psychological disturbance among adolescents, affecting a
significant number of individuals during this developmental period. Factors such as hormonal
changes, academic stress, and social pressures contribute to its prevalence.
43) During childhood, boys and girls are equally likely to experience _____, but in
adolescence, this becomes much more common among girls than among boys.
A) depression
B) aggressive impulses
C) body satisfaction
D) sexual feelings
Answer: A
While boys and girls are equally likely to experience depression during childhood, the rates
diverge in adolescence, with girls becoming more susceptible. This difference may be due to
hormonal changes, societal expectations, and psychosocial factors.
44) Corey complains that nothing is worth the effort of doing it. He spends a lot of time in
bed, has no appetite for meals, and says he's sure it'll be this way forever. Corey fits the
description of someone suffering from
A) stress syndrome.
B) adolescent growth complex.
C) depression.
D) hedonic boredom.
Answer: C
Corey's symptoms, including feeling hopeless, loss of interest in activities, changes in
appetite, and low energy, are consistent with a diagnosis of depression. These symptoms
suggest a significant disturbance in mood and functioning.

45) Children of depressed parents are more likely to become depressed themselves. This
indicates that depression is caused by _____ factors.
A) genetic
B) biological
C) familial and experiential
D) Any or all of the above.
Answer: D
Depression is influenced by a combination of genetic, biological, familial, and experiential
factors. The increased risk of depression among children of depressed parents suggests a
genetic or familial component, as well as potential environmental influences.
46) One account of the development of depression is that it involves both an individual
vulnerability or _____ and some circumstance or event that creates _____.
A) complex; sadness
B) weakness; strain
C) diathesis; stress
D) bias; pessimism
Answer: C
According to the diathesis-stress model, depression results from a combination of individual
vulnerability (diathesis) and stressful life events. This model suggests that individuals with a
predisposition to depression are more likely to develop the disorder when exposed to
significant stressors.
47) When Jerry found out that Cyndi was breaking up with him, he thought, "I knew I didn't
have what it takes. I'll never find another girl like her. Who'd want somebody like me?" This
sort of explanation is likely to lead to
A) learned helplessness

B) optimistic bias.
C) projection.
D) diathesis.
Answer: A
Jerry's thoughts reflect a pessimistic and self-blaming attributional style, which is associated
with learned helplessness. This cognitive pattern can contribute to feelings of hopelessness
and helplessness, which are common in depression.
48) The suicide rate for Aboriginal boys is about _____ times higher than in the general
Canadian population, and the rate for Aboriginal girls is _______ times as high (Health
Canada, 2012).
A) 2; 4
B) 5; 7
C) 6; 8
D) 7; 9
Answer: B
Aboriginal youth in Canada face numerous social, economic, and cultural challenges,
including historical trauma and discrimination, which contribute to higher rates of suicide.
These disparities underscore the importance of addressing the underlying social determinants
of health.
49) Girls are _____ likely to attempt suicide than boys, and boys are _____ likely to die from
suicide than girls.
A) less; more
B) more; less
C) less; less
D) much more; much more

Answer: D
While girls are more likely to attempt suicide, boys are more likely to die from suicide. This
gender difference is attributed to variations in the methods used and the likelihood of
receiving timely intervention and medical care.
50) The rates of suicide for Inuit youth are at ______ times the national average and are
among the highest in the world (Health Canada, 2012).
A) 6
B) 9
C) 11
D) 13
Answer: C
Inuit youth in Canada face unique challenges, including intergenerational trauma,
acculturation stress, and limited access to mental health services, which contribute to
significantly higher rates of suicide compared to the national average and other populations.
Essay Questions
1) Explain the distinction between externalizing and internalizing problems. How are these
linked to emotional controls? Are there gender differences in the rate of these problems? If
so, why might that be?
Answer: Those with externalizing problems, such as aggression and delinquency, tend to be
undercontrolled, that is, to have difficulty controlling their impulses. Boys are more likely
than girls to develop externalizing problems. Those with internalizing problems, such as
eating disorders and depression, tend to be overcontrolled, that is, to repress their impulses.
Girls are more likely than boys to develop internalizing problems.
2) What are the main risk factors for becoming involved in delinquency?
Answer: Risk factors for delinquency include gender (males), impulsiveness, a hostile
attributional bias, association with deviant peers, living in high poverty, high crime

neighbourhoods, and conflict within the family. Delinquent youth gangs have become more
widespread and more violent, supported by drug trafficking.
3) How widespread is substance use among Canadian teens? What substances are most
widely used? What are the risk factors for substance use?
Answer: In the National Canadian Youth Smoking Survey during the years 2008 and 2009,
over 45 000 students were surveyed in Grades 7 to 12, in the 10 provinces. Use of all
substances rose over the high school years, with alcohol and marijuana having the sharpest
increases. For alcohol, the rate went from 3.4% of Grade 7 students to nearly 51% of Grade
12 students. For marijuana, the rate went from 3.3% to 29.1%. Males were more likely to
report use of all substances than females, except for illicit drugs in some grades. In a sense, a
major risk factor for adolescent substance use is simply being an adolescent! Generally, males
tend to use alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs more than females, but not by much
Some ethnocultural differences have been found; for example, in one study, Caucasian and
Aboriginal teens in Vancouver reported more use than did Chinese youth in that city. Other
personal factors are aggression, disruptive behaviour, and conduct problems. School
misbehaviour, especially if it gets encouragement from peers, is linked both to substance use
and to increased use over time.
4) Describe two major eating problems and discuss risk factors for them.
Answer: Two serious eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Those with anorexia
feel intense fear of getting fat and starve themselves to become or stay thin. Those with
bulimia engage in binge eating, then purge themselves through vomiting or taking laxatives.
Risk factors for eating disorders include body dissatisfaction, a perfectionist attitude, and
exposure to very thin models in television shows, music videos, and appearance-related
magazines. Distorted body image and body dissatisfaction are common among adolescent
girls. Two girls in five believe they are overweight, and three in five actively try to lose
5) What is the diathesis-stress model and what is it used to explain? Elaborate.
Answer: The diathesis-stress model proposes that depression is produced by the interaction of
a predisposition or diathesis, and the stress of negative events or circumstances. Children of
depressed parents are more likely to develop depression, probably because of a combination
of inherited vulnerability and the stress of dealing with depressed parents. Other risk factors

include changing schools, moving to a new home, living in an impoverished, unsafe
neighbourhood, and experiencing a parental divorce. Poor relationships with peers and
difficulties with romantic partners are a major source of stress that leads to depression. Teens
who interpret negative events as caused by permanent aspects of themselves may develop
learned helplessness, which in turn may lead to depression.

Test Bank for Adolescence
Ian McMahan, Susan Thompson
9780205990559, 9780133957341, 9780205482320, 9780205843718

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