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Chapter 6: School and Work
Multiple Choice Questions
1) The social institution that has the most direct impact on the daily lives of adolescents is
A) local government.
B) the workplace.
C) school.
D) newspapers and television.
Answer: C
School is the primary social institution where adolescents spend a significant portion of their
time. It not only provides education but also influences their social interactions, emotional
development, and overall worldview. Local government, the workplace, and media also play
important roles in society, but they do not have the same constant and direct influence on
adolescents' daily lives as school does.
2) In comprehensive high schools, students followed
A) college preparatory programs.
B) vocational programs.
C) general education programs.
D) Any of the above, depending on what their abilities were thought to be.
Answer: D
Comprehensive high schools offer a range of programs to cater to students' diverse abilities
and interests. They provide college preparatory, vocational, and general education programs,
allowing students to choose based on their abilities and career goals. This flexibility is a key
characteristic of comprehensive high schools.
3) John Dewey's belief that high schools should promote democratic equality and citizenship
was a core principle of _____ education.

A) progressive
B) civic
C) humanitarian
D) comprehensive
Answer: A
John Dewey was a leading figure in the progressive education movement, which emphasized
learning through experience and the development of democratic values. Progressive
education focuses on active learning, critical thinking, and democratic citizenship, aligning
with Dewey's belief in promoting democratic equality and citizenship in high schools.
4) Faced with a choice of expanding or creating a new high school that lacks its history and
school spirit, parents and community leaders often opt for
A) downsizing.
B) supersizing.
C) cost efficiencies.
D) None of the above.
Answer: B
When faced with the choice of expanding an existing high school or creating a new one,
parents and community leaders often choose to "supersize" the existing school. This decision
is often driven by a desire to preserve the school's history, traditions, and sense of community,
which may be lost if a new school is created.
5) A large high school may have many more clubs, interest groups, sports teams, and student
publications; however, students in small high schools are ___________ likely to take part in
extracurricular activities.
A) much more
B) much less

C) generally shy, therefore, not
D) prefer to be observers from the sidelines and definitely not
Answer: A
While large high schools may offer a greater variety of extracurricular activities, students in
small high schools are more likely to participate in these activities. In smaller schools, there
is often less competition for spots, more opportunities for leadership roles, and a greater sense
of community, which can encourage greater participation in extracurriculars.
6) Smaller schools are safer schools for the following reasons, except
A) are less likely to impose invasive security measures such as metal detectors and drug
B) students are much less likely to be victims of violence.
C) students are much more likely to be victims of theft.
D) create an especially positive effect on achievement for ethno-cultural minority students.
Answer: C
Smaller schools are generally considered safer than larger schools due to factors such as
closer relationships between students and teachers, a stronger sense of community, and less
anonymity. While smaller schools may have fewer security measures in place, they are not
necessarily more susceptible to theft.
7) _______ high schools have academic advantages, such as higher attendance and passing
rates, higher grades and achievement test scores, even after individual and family
backgrounds are taken into account.
A) Bigger
B) Smaller
C) Comprehensive
D) Downsized

Answer: B
Research has shown that students in smaller high schools tend to have higher academic
achievement compared to students in larger schools. This is attributed to factors such as
increased teacher-student interaction, a greater sense of belonging, and more personalized
learning experiences.
8) Those who favor smaller high schools argue that
A) science labs, libraries, and sports facilities are unnecessary luxuries.
B) smaller schools are more energy efficient.
C) breaking up big high schools reduces problems with gangs.
D) students in smaller schools feel less alienated and more attached to their schools.
Answer: D
Advocates for smaller high schools argue that students in smaller schools feel a greater sense
of belonging and connection to their school community. This can lead to higher levels of
engagement, lower dropout rates, and improved academic performance.
9) High school students who are academically below average are more likely to take part in
extracurricular activities
A) when they are required to improve their grades in order to participate.
B) in large schools with a wide array of clubs, teams, and interest groups.
C) in smaller schools where their participation carries more weight.
D) that force them to use the academic skills they need to work on.
Answer: C
In smaller schools, extracurricular activities may be more accessible to academically belowaverage students, as there may be fewer students competing for spots. Additionally,

participation in extracurricular activities in smaller schools may be seen as more meaningful
and impactful, leading to greater involvement.
10) Canadian researchers who studied the data collected from the Tennessee Project STAR
(Student-Teacher Achievement Ratio) found
A) smaller classes increased the grades of the already achieving students more than those of
the ‘other’ students.
B) the advantages that seemed to be gained by minority students were not found upon closer
examination of the results.
C) A and B
D) None of the above
Answer: C
The Tennessee Project STAR study found that smaller class sizes had a positive impact on the
academic achievement of all students, including both high-achieving students and those from
minority backgrounds. This suggests that smaller class sizes can benefit students across the
academic spectrum.
11) In their analysis of schools in Alberta and New Brunswick, Corak and Lauzon (2009)
found that decreasing class size
A) helped some of the student populations, but may have led to even lower achievement in
other students.
B) greatly improved academic achievement in the early grades.
C) greatly improved academic achievement in the high school years.
D) worked best when classes are reduced from 35 to 25 students.
Answer: A
Corak and Lauzon's (2009) analysis suggested that while decreasing class size may have
benefits for some student populations, it could potentially lead to lower achievement in other

students. This indicates that the impact of class size reduction is complex and may vary
depending on the context and student population.
12) From a handful of schools in the 1960s, middle schools, and the ________ system they
are part of, spread dramatically and are now the most common form of early secondary
education in Canada.
A) 8-4
B) 6-3-3
C) 5-3-4
D) progressive
Answer: C
The 5-3-4 system, which includes middle schools, became the most common form of early
secondary education in Canada after spreading dramatically from a few schools in the 1960s.
This system is characterized by five years of elementary school, three years of middle school,
and four years of high school.
13) Which of the following experience is more characteristic of Canadian teens in the period
from the last year of elementary school to the first year of middle or junior high school?
A) achievement scores go down
B) interest in school goes down
C) school-related anxiety goes up
D) there did not seem to be any general impact on grades nor social or behavioural
Answer: D
Research suggests that there is generally no significant impact on grades, social functioning,
or behavioral functioning for Canadian teens transitioning from elementary school to middle

or junior high school. While there may be individual variations, the overall impact appears to
be minimal.
14) Moving from elementary to junior high school may be difficult because
A) most students in the new school already know their reputation from before.
B) it coincides with other stressful transitions such as puberty.
C) the looser classroom atmosphere makes it hard to know how to act.
D) the greater interest teachers take in their students feels like prying.
Answer: B
Transitioning from elementary to junior high school can be difficult for students because it
coincides with other stressful transitions such as puberty. These simultaneous changes can
lead to increased stress and anxiety for students as they navigate the academic and social
challenges of a new school environment.
15) American research suggests that students have better feelings about themselves and their
connection to school in which one of the following systems that Canadian research suggests
may not be the best plan?
A) 6-3-3
B) 5-3-4
C) 8-4
D) comprehensive.
Answer: C
Canadian research suggests that the 8-4 system may not be the best plan for promoting
positive feelings about oneself and connection to school. This system, which includes eight
years of elementary school followed by four years of high school, may not provide the same
level of support and continuity as other systems, leading to potential challenges for students.

16) A school environment that stresses competition and outstanding academic successes leads
to a(n) _____ orientation among students.
A) mastery
B) performance
C) superiority
D) defeatist
Answer: B
A school environment that emphasizes competition and the importance of achieving
outstanding academic success can lead students to develop a performance orientation. In this
orientation, students are motivated by the desire to outperform others and achieve success
based on external standards.
17) A system that assigns students to different sequences of courses on the basis of some
measure of ability is called
A) tracking.
B) preprogramming.
C) slipstreaming.
D) merit grouping.
Answer: A
Tracking is a system that assigns students to different sequences of courses based on their
perceived abilities. This system is used to group students together based on their academic
strengths and weaknesses, with the goal of providing more tailored instruction and support.
18) An effect of ability grouping is that
A) students in honors courses are more motivated to learn.
B) students in low-ability courses have lower achievement and involvement.

C) honors courses attract more experienced teachers.
D) All of the above.
Answer: D
Ability grouping can have several effects, including increased motivation among students in
honors courses, lower achievement and involvement among students in low-ability courses,
and the attraction of more experienced teachers to honors courses. These effects highlight the
potential advantages and disadvantages of ability grouping in schools.
19) A school climate that is high in both responsiveness and demandingness is similar in its
effects to _____ parenting.
A) indulgent
B) indifferent
C) authoritative
D) authoritarian
Answer: C
A school climate that is high in both responsiveness (supportive and nurturing) and
demandingness (setting high expectations and standards) is similar to authoritative parenting.
Authoritative parenting is characterized by high levels of warmth and support combined with
clear and consistent discipline, which is associated with positive outcomes for children.
20) Schools in which the curriculum and teaching style respond to the evolving needs and
capabilities of students are said to have
A) a temperate climate.
B) a good stage-environment fit.
C) constructive tracking.
D) self-righting tendencies.
Answer: B

Schools that have a curriculum and teaching style that respond to the evolving needs and
capabilities of students are said to have a good stage-environment fit. This means that the
school environment is well-suited to the developmental stage of the students, allowing for
optimal learning and growth.
21) Students who believe their teachers care about them and who feel a connection to their
fellow students develop a sense of _____ that is linked to better grades and lower rates of
dropping out.
A) school membership
B) self-efficacy
C) zero tolerance
D) positive self-regard
Answer: A
School membership refers to the sense of belonging and connection that students feel towards
their school and peers. When students feel that their teachers care about them and have
positive relationships with their peers, they are more likely to feel a sense of school
membership, which is associated with better academic outcomes and lower dropout rates.
22) Paulo attends a school with a lot of students who are unmotivated and disruptive. It is
likely that Paulo
A) will put more effort into schoolwork to make up for the others.
B) thinks of students who act up and get away with it as cool.
C) has mostly skilled and experienced teachers.
D) has a strong sense of school membership.
Answer: B

In a school where many students are unmotivated and disruptive, Paulo may be influenced by
the behavior of his peers and perceive those who act up and get away with it as cool. This
perception could affect Paulo's own behavior and attitude towards school.
23) Statistics on school safety indicate that
A) the number of violent crimes against students has climbed steadily.
B) males and females are equally likely to bring a weapon to school.
C) teens are much safer at school than out of school.
D) half of all high school students have been threatened or injured with a weapon at school.
Answer: C
Despite occasional high-profile incidents, statistics generally show that teens are safer at
school than outside of school. Schools typically have safety measures in place and are
supervised, which can contribute to a safer environment compared to unsupervised settings
outside of school.
24) According to the textbook, the inclusion of _________may increase the achievement
scores of Aboriginal students studying among their Aboriginal peers, and also help with the
retention and graduation rates of black youth in Toronto’s black focused schools.
A) zero tolerance for discrimination
B) culturally relevant curricula/materials
C) less stereotyping
D) safety zoning
Answer: B
Including culturally relevant curricula and materials can help increase the achievement scores
of Aboriginal students studying among their peers and improve retention and graduation rates
of black youth in schools focused on their communities. This approach acknowledges and

respects the cultural backgrounds of students, which can positively impact their academic
25) Teachers who have a _____ put more effort into trying to reach students and
communicate high expectations.
A) self-fulfilling prophecy
B) sense of personal efficacy
C) conflict with school officials
D) master's degree in education
Answer: B
Teachers who have a strong sense of personal efficacy believe in their ability to positively
influence student learning and outcomes. This belief motivates them to put more effort into
reaching students and setting high expectations, which can lead to improved student
26) Junior high and middle school teachers, compared to elementary school teachers,
A) are more likely to get involved with students' social and emotional problems.
B) put more effort into helping students overcome academic difficulties.
C) have less confidence in their own teaching efficacy.
D) have a stronger belief in their students' teachability.
Answer: C
Junior high and middle school teachers may have less confidence in their own teaching
efficacy compared to elementary school teachers. This could be due to the challenges and
complexities of teaching adolescents, including addressing social and emotional issues, and
helping students navigate academic difficulties during a critical period of development.
27) The expectations that teachers hold for different students
A) have no impact on academic performance.

B) are generally fair and impartial.
C) are not likely to be noticed by the students.
D) are often linked to gender, race, and social class.
Answer: D
Teachers' expectations for students can significantly impact academic performance. Research
has shown that teachers' expectations are often influenced by factors such as gender, race, and
social class, which can lead to differential treatment and outcomes for students.
28) In English class, the teacher calls on Jasdeep Singh. When he hesitates, trying to find the
right words, the teacher quickly calls on Wendy instead. It is likely that
A) the teacher thinks Wendy is bright.
B) the teacher doesn't think much of Jasdeep’s ability.
C) Jasdeep's achievement in English will go down over the year.
D) All of the above.
Answer: D
The scenario described suggests that the teacher may have lower expectations for Jasdeep's
ability to respond in class compared to Wendy. This can impact Jasdeep's confidence and
achievement in English over time if he perceives that the teacher does not think highly of his
29) Ms. Gomez, who teaches 10th-grade history, is warm and supportive but makes it clear
that she expects her students both to follow the rules and to do well in the class. Ms. Gomez
would be considered a(n) _____ teacher.
A) authoritative
B) permissive
C) authoritarian
D) comprehensive

Answer: A
An authoritative teacher is warm and supportive but also sets clear expectations and
boundaries for students. They encourage independence and responsibility while maintaining a
positive and respectful classroom environment.
30) According to Bernard Weiner’s (1985, 1992) attribution theory, one influential approach
to achievement focuses on what happens ________ an activity.
A) prior to
B) during
C) after
D) researching
Answer: C
Weiner's attribution theory focuses on how individuals explain the causes of their own and
others' behavior, including achievement outcomes. The "after" component refers to the
attributions individuals make after an activity or event has occurred, which can influence
their future behavior and motivation.
31) Which of the following is NOT one of the four (4) causal factors that are particularly
central to achievement attributions?
A) ability
B) effort
C) ease/difficulty
D) outcome
Answer: D
The four central causal factors in achievement attributions are ability, effort, task difficulty,
and luck. These factors help individuals explain the causes of their achievement outcomes.

32) The four (4) causal factors that are particularly central to achievement attributions can be
arranged according to two causal dimensions
A) locus of causality and causal stability
B) locus of stability and causal stability
C) outcome and locus of causality
D) outcome and locus of stability
Answer: A
Achievement attributions can be classified along two dimensions: locus of causality (internal
vs. external) and causal stability (stable vs. unstable). Ability and effort are internal factors,
while task difficulty and luck are external factors. Ability and task difficulty are stable
factors, while effort and luck are unstable factors.
33) According to the textbook, who are more likely to choose schools for their children?
A) labourers who want a better future for their children.
B) immigrants who place a major emphasis on education.
C) parents with more income and more education.
D) Aboriginal parents.
Answer: C
Parents with higher income and education levels are more likely to actively choose schools
for their children. They may have the resources and knowledge to seek out schools that align
with their educational values and provide opportunities for their children's academic success.
34) Aisha's parents have transferred her to a private school. It is likely that she will
A) not have access to as many advanced courses as her friends in public school.
B) do no better on achievement tests than she would have if she hadn't transferred.
C) receive more support and help from her parents and teachers.

D) have just as many classmates whose parents are poor.
Answer: C
Private schools often offer smaller class sizes and more resources, which can result in more
support and attention from both parents and teachers. This can potentially lead to improved
academic outcomes for students like Aisha.
35) The practice of _____ involves including students with physical, cognitive, or
developmental problems in regular classrooms.
A) regularizing
B) mainstreaming
C) slipstreaming
D) classification
Answer: B
Mainstreaming involves integrating students with special needs into regular classrooms to the
extent possible, rather than segregating them into special education settings.
36) About _____ of 100 students receive IQ scores high enough to meet the usual criterion
for "gifted" programs.
A) 2 or 3
B) 10
C) 20
D) 35
Answer: A
Gifted programs typically have strict criteria for admission based on IQ scores, with only a
small percentage of students meeting the threshold for entry.

37) The advantages of private school may be more about getting into university than staying
there. Recent research in British Columbia indicates that public school students _________ at
university, where, unlike in private schools, there is very little individual attention.
A) are disadvantaged
B) may have an advantage
C) do just as well as private school students
D) None of the above
Answer: B
Private school students may have an advantage in getting into university due to factors such
as smaller class sizes and more individual attention, which can lead to better academic
preparation. However, once in university, public school students may perform just as well as
private school students.
38) Francesca is active in a school club and on a sports team. It is likely that, compared to
those who are less active in extracurricular activities, Francesca
A) spends less time on homework and earns lower grades.
B) is too busy with her activities to talk to her parents and teachers about school concerns.
C) is less likely to drop out of high school and more likely to go on to college.
D) is more involved in problem behaviors and substance use.
Answer: C
Research suggests that students who are active in extracurricular activities are less likely to
drop out of high school and more likely to pursue higher education. These activities can
provide a sense of belonging and motivation, which can positively impact academic

39) Researchers have determined that early school leavers have much less success in finding
steady employment, and have lower wages. What percentage of these students return to
school in some form for upgrading and possible university admission?
A) 10%
B) 20%
C) 30%
D) 35%
Answer: B
Despite leaving school early, a significant percentage of early school leavers eventually
return to school for further education or training, indicating a desire to improve their
prospects for employment and advancement.
40) Students who had poor grades and test scores in _______ were more likely to leave
school before graduation.
A) grade 11
B) grade 10
C) grade 9
D) grade 8
Answer: D
Students who struggle academically in earlier grades, such as grade 8, are more likely to
become disengaged and eventually drop out of school before graduation. Early identification
and intervention can help support these students and improve their chances of success.
41) About ____% of Canadian teens report being involved in at least one organized
extracurricular activity.
A) 46
B) 66

C) 86
D) 96
Answer: C
The involvement in organized extracurricular activities is associated with numerous benefits
for adolescents, including improved academic performance, social skills, and self-esteem. A
high percentage of Canadian teens, approximately 86%, participate in at least one organized
extracurricular activity, highlighting the popularity and importance of such activities in their
42) The children who lived in less safe neighborhoods, spent more unsupervised time with
peers after school, and had parents who did not pay as much attention to where they were and
what they were doing were _____________ for problem behaviors compared to children in
safer neighborhoods.
A) at similar levels of risk
B) more at risk
C) occasionally at risk
D) never at real risk
Answer: B
Children who live in less safe neighborhoods and have less supervision after school are more
at risk for engaging in problem behaviors compared to children in safer neighborhoods.
Environmental factors, such as neighborhood safety and parental supervision, play a
significant role in shaping children's behavior and risk of involvement in problem behaviors.
43) Nancy Deutsch spent 4 years observing the children and staff members in an after-school
program at a Boys & Girls Club. In her view, the fairly ____ structure is one of the features
that make the program work.
A) organized
B) formal

C) loose
D) rigid
Answer: C
Nancy Deutsch observed that the after-school program at the Boys & Girls Club was
successful, in part, due to its fairly loose structure. This flexible approach allowed children to
engage in activities of their choice, fostering a sense of autonomy and enjoyment in the
44) Nearly ______ of Canadian teens go on to post-secondary education after finishing high
school, generally at a college or university while only _____ for Aboriginal students.
A) 50; 40
B) 65; 45
C) 75; 51
D) 82; 56
Answer: C
A significant percentage of Canadian teens, approximately 75%, pursue post-secondary
education after finishing high school. However, the rate is lower for Aboriginal students,
highlighting disparities in access to higher education for different groups.
45) A lot of teens think that getting into college or a university is the hardest part; however,
this is not necessarily so. About ________ drop out, for reasons such as inadequate study
habits and not-so-good marks, but many eventually return.
A) 15%
B) 25%
C) 30%
D) 35%
Answer: B

While many teens perceive getting into college or university as the most challenging aspect, a
significant percentage, approximately 25%, drop out due to various reasons. These reasons
may include academic challenges, inadequate study habits, or other personal factors.
However, many of these students eventually return to pursue their education.
46) When Saleem has a problem in school or wonders where to go with his life, he finds it
easier to talk to a family friend, Mr. Mohamed, than to his parents. Mr. Mohamed encourages
him, gives him sound advice, and even helped him find a job last summer. Mr. Mohamed is
serving as Saleem’s
A) tutor.
B) mentor.
C) protege.
D) guardian.
Answer: B
Mr. Mohamed serves as Saleem's mentor, providing him with guidance, advice, and support
in various aspects of his life, including school and career decisions. Mentors play a crucial
role in adolescents' development by offering guidance and support outside of their immediate
47) The 25% of high school graduates who do not proceed to post-secondary educations are
referred to as the
A) proletariat.
B) dropouts.
C) forgotten half.
D) alienated.
Answer: C

The term "forgotten half" refers to the 25% of high school graduates who do not immediately
pursue post-secondary education. This group often faces challenges in accessing higher
education and may require additional support to transition to further education or training.
48) _______ is the web of social and professional relationships that make it easier to be
productive or accomplish one’s goals.
A) Network
B) Website
C) References
D) Social capital
Answer: D
Social capital refers to the networks of social and professional relationships that individuals
have, which can help them be more productive and achieve their goals. These networks
provide access to resources, support, and opportunities that can enhance individuals' success.
49) For adolescents, working has been linked to
A) higher self-esteem.
B) school misconduct and delinquency.
C) higher school grades.
D) less substance use.
Answer: B
Research suggests that adolescent employment is associated with an increased risk of school
misconduct and delinquency. While some studies have found a positive association between
working and self-esteem, there are also concerns about the potential negative effects of
employment on academic performance and behavior.
50) As for school achievement, the number of hours worked is more influential than the
simple fact of having a job. Those who spend more than __________ hours a week at work

tend to get lower grades, score lower on standardized tests, be less involved in school, and
have higher dropout rates.
A) 7 - 10
B) 11 - 14
C) 15 - 20
D) 21 - 30
Answer: C
The number of hours worked per week has a significant impact on school achievement
among adolescents. Those who work more than 15-20 hours per week tend to experience
lower academic performance, higher dropout rates, and lower levels of school involvement.
Essay Questions
1) Compared with many other industrialized countries, Canada has a much more open system
of higher education. What are some pros and cons of the Canadian approach?
Answer: In some European countries, a central authority looks at students’ goals and
qualifications and matches them to a particular institution, or students are forced to attend
institutions within a certain geographic area. In Canadian schools the role of the counsellor is
to steer students toward an appropriate university or college and perhaps even guide them
through the application process, but not all high school counsellors have the time for
individual attention. In Canada, high school students can apply anywhere they like and go
anywhere they are admitted if they can afford the tuition or get enough financial aid. This
openness creates wider possibilities for students. However, the lack of coordination between
high schools and colleges or universities can create problems for them. Many students
believe, wrongly, that simply meeting the requirements for high school graduation will
prepare them for post-secondary study.
2) An important characteristic of schools is the goodness of fit between the student's stage of
development and the school's approach. Discuss this in terms of adolescents and the typical
middle school and high school environment.

Answer: Secondary schools tend to be more impersonal and to place greater emphasis on
maintaining order, at a time when adolescents are looking for adult models and seeking
greater autonomy. Students in smaller schools feel a greater sense of school membership,
linked to better mental health and academic performance.
3) What is meant by teacher expectancy effects, what is the evidence for and against them,
and which adolescents are most likely to be affected by them?
Answer: Teachers may treat students differently as a result of holding different expectations
for them. These differences are most likely to affect those whose race, gender, or social class
are often linked to lower expectations and performance.
4) What are extracurricular activities and what effects do they have on those who take part in
Answer: Taking part in a school based club, activity, or team sport is linked to a long list of
benefits. These include increased motivation and involvement, a stronger sense of school
membership, better grades, higher educational aspirations, better self-esteem, and fewer
problem behaviours.
5) What proportion of Canadian teens work part-time, how much do they earn, and what do
they do with the money? What effects does this have?
Answer: A majority of Canadian adolescents work, mostly for about the minimum wage, and
they spend much of what they earn on clothing and entertainment. This premature affluence
may lead to unrealistic and harmful attitudes about money.

Test Bank for Adolescence
Ian McMahan, Susan Thompson
9780205990559, 9780133957341, 9780205482320, 9780205843718

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